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Ch 46: Animal Reproduction Lecture notes Some of the goals for this chapter include: 1) Distinguish between asexual and sexual reproduction 2) list and describe the 4 forms of asexual reproduction 3) What are the advantages of asexual and sexual reproduction 4) list and describe 3 methods which increase the probability of successful fertilization 5) diagram and identity the components of the male and female reproductive system 6) outline the hormonal control of the male and female reproductive systems 7) compare and contrast oogenesis and spermatogenesis
An individual only exists for it's lifespan. For a species to remain viable its members must reproduce 1 Animals produce offspring by asexual or sexual reproduction A. Asexual Reproduction 1. Invertebrates: a. Fission: separation of adult into two equal sized offspring b. budding: smaller offspring split off from parent c. release of specialized groups of cells with protective coating d. Fragmentation: breaking of body into several pieces which regenerates into adult. (will allow replacement of missing body parts) 2. Advantages to asexual reproduction a. sessile animals or low population can make individuals b. man offspring in a short time c. successful in stable environments, maintains successful genotypes B. Sexual reproduction 1. two individuals produce offspring with a combination of genes a. Female gamete (ovum) b. Male gamete (spermatozoon) 2. Increased genetic variability, which is advantageous in a fluctuating environment C. Reproductive Cycles and Patterns 1. cycles are set towards seasons, that favor offspring survival 2. Parthenogenesis = development of an egg without fertilization, a form of asexual reproduction, with haploid offspring 3. Hermaphroditism: each individual has both sexes, is beneficial when mates are difficult to find. 4. Sequential hermaphroditism: individual reverses sex during lifetime (blue-head wrasse largest and oldest in harem becomes male (a type of fish) 2 Union of gametes in sexual reproduction 1. Fertilization union of sperm and egg A. External fertilization: eggs are shed by a female and fertilized by a male in the environment 1. mainly moist habitats 2. does not need contact between adults 3. Pheromones trigger release 4. Fertilized egg has various protection a. gelatinous coat b. prevents drying c. lots of zygotes produced few survive B. Internal fertilization: sperm deposited in or near the reproductive tract and fertilization occurs inside the body 1. insures mating 2. allows for choice of mates
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uterus: thick muscular organ shaped like and inverted pear (*) inner uterine lining endometrium rich with blood vessels 4. enclosed in a protective capsule a. Vertebrate Reproductive Systems 1. Vas deference forms from epididymis to the ejaculatory duct.testes hand outside the abdominal cavity in the scrotum. Reproductive anatomy of the Human Female: 1. Ovulation: or expelling of egg from follicle results in the remaining follicular tissue forming the corpus luteum. External Male genitalia (Scrotum and Penis) a. eggs with hard shell. which secretes progesterone and additional estrogen a. Similar to one another. Ovaries: in abdominal cavity. Invertebrate Reproductive Systems 1.8) a. Flatworms are hermaphroditic have very complex reproductive systems. internal male reproductive organs (fig 42. nonmammals have the cloaca b. each ovary contains many follicles (egg and support cells b.Bio 215 Chapter 46 Animal Reproduction 3. copulation occurs in a variety of ways in different groups B. fluid contains (a) amino acids. embryo develops within the parent c. Birds and snakes have one uterus. 3 sets of accessory glands are associated with the male system (*) seminal vesicles: empty into ejaculatory duct. Movement of semen through the urethra in the penis results in the sperm being deposited in the female system 2. Cervix: neck of uterus opens into the vagina Ch 46 p. that is stored in seminal vesicles (*) at copulation sperm are ejaculated into female's system b. 60% of volume. others are paired c. which opens into the urethra c. Testes: highly coiled tubes surrounded by connective tissue (*) Sperm pass form seminiferous tubules into the tubules of epididymis.Mammals have separate openings for digestive. possibly to neutralize acidity B. gametes develop from undifferentiated cells lining the coelom and fill this structure b. all eggs are formed in a female at birth 3. females have structure for production of gametes but also to house the embryo and fetus 2. Insects have separate sexes and complex reproductive structures a. Female have ovaries and vagina where eggs are fertilized (*) females can often store the sperm form a previous copulation 3. excretory and reproduction. offspring can exit through an opening or split the parent open 2. Polychaetes have separate sexes without distinct gonads a. Reproductive Anatomy of the Human Male 1.(2 . Protection of embryo a. but major differences are a. Nonmammalin vertebrates do not have a well developed penis and use other mechanisms 4 Human reproduction has intricate anatomy and complex behavior A. where the temp is 2'C lower and sperm production occurs b. where sperm are stored and mature b. mucus (coagulate after deposited) (b) fructose (energy for sperm) (c) prostaglandins (contractions to move sperm to uterus) (*) prostrate gland: activates sperm alkaline fluid that neutralizes acidity of female and urine (*) Bulbourethral glands: viscous secretion before ejaculation. prevents desiccation b. few zygotes but higher chance of survival 3 The diversity of reproductive systems A. Male has testes that produce sperm.
penis. see fig 42. Female have a cyclic nature of reproduction 1. each diploid oocyte enlarges and stops in prophase I 4. Spermatogenesis is production of mature sperm cells in adult males (42. in oogenesis only one becomes an egg 2. oogenesis has long resting periods 6 A complex interplay of hormones regulates reproduction A. Female pattern a. each oogonium develops into a primary oocyte by birth (a limited number are present at birth) 3. After puberty. each spermatid becomes associated with a large sertoli cells and receives nutrients. Ovulation occurs after the endometrium thickens and vascularizes b. if a sperm cell penetrates the secondary oocytes membrane. Spermatogenesis is continual. Human Sexual Response: 1. in spermatogenesis all 4 products of meiosis become sperm. Male pattern 1. muscle growth a. testosterone is the most important androgen b. spermatogenesis occurs throughout the life of a male. clitoris) due to an increase in blood flow through the arteries of that tissue 2. Vasocongsetion filling of tissue with blood (i. develop into primary spermatocyte during maturity 4. if pregnancy does not occur the endometrium is shed form the uterus during menstruation c.12) 1. Important differences: 1. Term refers to the changes that occur in the uterus during the reproductive cycle (*) 20-40 days depending on the woman. Ovulation occurs after endometrium thickens and vascularizes. Menstrual cycles: humans and other primates a. all become mature 6. androgens are responsible for formation of primary sex characteristic (reproductive organs) and secondary sex characteristics (depending of voice. Myotonia: increase in muscle tension and both skeletal and smooth muscles may show sustained or rhythmic contractions 5 Spermatogenesis and oogenesis A. Vestibule: chamberlike are formed by the two pairs of skin folds covering the vaginal orifice and urethral opening 7.11 for sperm structure B. Estrus: period of sexual activity surrounding ovulation and is the only time most mammals will copulate 2. determine sexual and aggressive behaviors B.(3 . LH triggers ovulation and the secondary oocyte is released form the follicle 6. average is 28 Ch 46 p. Oogenesis: development of ova (fig 42. females are borne with the total number of eggs they will produce 3. meiosis IIK will occur and the second polar body will separate from the ovum C. FSH stimulates a follicle to enlarge and oocyte completes meiosis I to produce haploid secondary oocyte and first polar body (meiosis stops) 5. diploid oogonia are produced in a zygote 2.13) 1. spermatogonia in outer wall of seminiferous tubules 3. 250-400 million sperm per ejaculate 2.Bio 215 Chapter 46 Animal Reproduction 5. if pregnancy does not occur endometrium is reabsorbed by the uterus b. Vagina: thin walled chamber that is the repository for semen during copulation and forms the birth canal 6. bartholin's glands: small glands located near the vaginal opening that secret mucus into the vestibule dung sexual arousal C. each primary spermatocyte forms four haploid spermatids through meiotic division 5.e. hair growth pattern. Estrous cycles: non-primate mammals a.
ovulatory phase occurs when ovulation occurs 3.15 GnRH from hypothalamus stimulates ant pituitary to secrete FSh and LH 2. Pregnancy (gestation): condition of carrying one or more developing embryos 3. regeneration and thickening of the endometrium 3.(4 . Conception: fertilization of an egg by spermatozoon 2. These trigger maturation of the reproductive system and development of the secondary sex characteristics.Bio 215 Chapter 46 Animal Reproduction (*) regularity depends on the individual C. Secretory phase: 2 weeks endometrium continues to develop a. ovarian cycle parallels the menstrual cycle 1. Human pregnancy is divided into 3 trimesters a.15) 1. From conception to birth 1. Proliferative phase: one to two weeks. one becomes dominant and continues others degenerate. forms bulge on ovary surface 2. menstrual flow phase: menstruation is occurring a. onset of reproductive ability is puberty b. Hormones and sexual maturation 1. last a few days b.Estrogen stimulates hypothalamus to increase GnRH which increases FSH and LH 5. Mammals can not reproduce until they reach sexual maturity a. see fig 42. FSH stimulate follicles to grow and secrete estrogen 3. GnRH is made again and a new follicular phase begins. loss of FSH and LH results in a drop of estrogen and progesterone 9. for humans is in-between 8 and 14 years of age c.first day of this phase is usually designated by day 1 of the cycle 2. High LH causes follicles to ovulate and ruptured follicular tissue to become corpus luteum 6. 7 Embryonic and fetal development A. corpus luteum continues to secrete estrogen and increasing amount of progesterone 7. follicular phase: several follicles in ovaries begin to grow a. humans have 266 days 4. first trimester (*)Fertilization in oviduct. when hypothalamus secretes increasing amounts of GnRH. Luteal phase occurs after ovulation occurs a. estrogen and progesterone inhibit GnRH secretion with concurrent loss of FSH and LH 8. five hormones work to coordinate menstrual and ovarian cycles] 1. first cell division in 24 hours (*)developing zygote travels to uterus and implants (*)up to 4 weeks nutrients are obtained form endometrium (*) placenta forms and functions in exchange (*) main period of organogenesis (*) at 8 weeks is an adult in rudimentary form (*) secretes human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) (a) maintains progesterone and estrogen secretin (b) progesterone prevents pregnancy form being terminated b. if embryo does not implant in the uterine lining by the end mistral flow begins D. second trimester (*) rapid growth fetus is very active (*) fetus secrete its own progesterone to maintain the pregnancy Ch 46 p. The 3 phases of the menstrual cycle (fig 42. remaining tissue becomes corpus luteum and secretes hormones E.mature follicles secrete lots of estrogen 4. leading to higher FSH and LH levels. F.
Which of the following are typical protections afforded internally fertilized oocytes a) A gelatinous shell that prevents desiccation b) Eggs with a resistant hard shell that prevents desiccation c) Thousands of offspring can be produced ensuring that a few will survive d) Fewer offspring are produced but they each have a higher chance of survival e) The embryo may develop within the parent. 3. Each oocyte produce only one egg and 3 polar bodies d) Males will produce many gametes throughout their lifetime. Internal fertilization allows for the protection of the embryo that could not occur with external fertilization. Reproductive Immunology 1. making it better adapted for survival. Which of the following are differences between Spermatogenesis and oogenesis a) Each copulation results in the union of 400 million sperm and 400 million eggs b) Each primary oocyte and spermatocyte forms four haploid spermatids through meiotic division c) A primary spermatocyte forms four haploid spermatids. e) Clones are best able to adapt to diverse conditions. The resultant offspring are genetic clones of one another. Parturition (birth) a.d 2)a.(5 . What are the advantages of producing clones rather than genetically diverse offspring? a) an organism is able to reproduce when a mate is not available b) the clones are better able to resist pathogens c) many offspring can be produced in a short time to take advantage of resources d) if a genotype works. Third Trimester (*) rapid growth and fetal activity decreases 5. The clones are best suited to a stable environment. Vertebrates have a well defined immune system. stay with it. B. Which of the following are correctly matched? a) FSH stimulate follicles to grow and secrete estrogen b) Estrogen stimulates the hypothalamus to decrease GnRH which increases FSH and LH c) GnRH from the hypothalamus stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete FSH and LH 5.e 3)c. second is expulsion of baby form the uterus c.Bio 215 Chapter 46 Animal Reproduction c.d 4) a. Mammals are unique in the lactation component of postnatal care a.c 5) b. men are born with a fixed number of gametes 4. stop inhibition of prolactin that stimulates milk production for 2-3 days then oxytocin controls the release of milk form the mammary glands.c. Even though the developing embryo contains foreign markers from the father. under hormonal control (*) decreasing levels of progesterone. Trophoblast: protective layer that forms a physical barrier and prevents the embryo from actually contacting maternal tissues. last stage is expulsion of placenta form the uterus 6.c Ch 46 p. If the growing embryo is genetically different from the mother then why doesn’t the mothers immune system destroy the growing fetus? a) during pregnancy the immune system is repressed b) the true reason has not been discovered yet c) The trophoblast forms a protective layer that physically separates the embryo and the maternal tissues d) All miscarriages are due to rejection of the embryo e) The fetus produces antibodies that neutralize the maternal antibodies Answers 1) a. the real reason it is not destroyed by the mother is unknown 2.d. 3. five hormones work to coordinate human menstrual and ovarian cycles. multiple miscarriages may be due to rejection of the embryo Multiple choice Questions 1) Sexual reproduction results in offspring that have not gone through the process of meiosis and the mixing of chromosomes. women are born with a fixed number of gametes e) Females will produce many gametes throughout their lifetime. 2. first stage of labor involves the opening and thinning of the cervix until it is completely dilated b.
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