Formulas in Mechanical Vibration page 1
Mechanical Vibrations
This is a compilation of useful definitions and formulas for mechanical
vibrations. It is under continuous development.
Luleå 20020904
LarsErik Lindgren (lel@cad.luth.se) &
JanOlov Aidanpää (joa@cad.luth.se)
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration page 3
Content
1. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................... 5
2. NOTATIONS AND DEFINITIONS ......................................................................................................................... 5
3. BASIC PRINCIPLES FOR SOLUTION OF EQUATION OF MOTION............................................................................ 7
4. SINGLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEM........................................................................................................... 9
4. 1 .1 Free Vibration .................................................................................................................................................9
4. 1 .2 Free vibrations of underdamped system, ζ<1. .................................................................................................9
4. 1 .3 Free vibrations of critical damped system, ζ=1. ..............................................................................................9
4. 1 .4 Free vibrations of critical damped system, ζ>1. ..............................................................................................9
4. 2 Forced Vibration................................................................................................................................... 10
4. 2 .1 Harmonic force applied on underdamped SDOF system...............................................................................10
4. 2 .2 Rotating unbalance in underdamped system .................................................................................................11
4. 2 .3 Harmonic base motion of underdamped system............................................................................................11
4. 2 .4 Transmissibility for base motion and force excitation...................................................................................12
4. 2 .5 Shock loading and arbitrary loading applied to a damped SDOF system, Impulse.......................................12
4. 2 .6 Arbitrary periodic loading applied to a damped SDOF system, Fourier series..............................................13
4. 2 .7 Arbitrary loading applied to an damped SDOF system, Laplace Transform.................................................14
4. 2 .8 Random loading applied to an damped SDOF system, Fourier Transform...................................................15
5. MULTIPLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEM .................................................................................................... 16
5. 1 Free Vibration....................................................................................................................................... 16
5. 2 Forced Vibration................................................................................................................................... 18
5. 3 Modal Analysis..................................................................................................................................... 19
6. LAGRANGE’S EQUATIONS.............................................................................................................................. 19
7. CONTINUOUS SYSTEM................................................................................................................................... 20
7. 1 Wave Equation ..................................................................................................................................... 20
7. 2 Bending vibration of beam................................................................................................................... 21
8. DAMPING ...................................................................................................................................................... 22
9. APPENDIX A. LAPLACE TRANSFORMS ........................................................................................................... 19
10. APPENDIX B. MOMENTS OF INERTIA ........................................................................................................... 21
11. APPENDIX C. MATHEMATICAL FORMULAS.................................................................................................. 23
12. APPENDIX D. BENDING VIBRATION OF FOR BEAM......................................................................... .............. 24
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration page 5
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1. Introduction
Basic assumptions if not stated otherwise are those of linear systems. Thus we assume
small displacements and rotations, linear spring and viscous damping.
It is important to use consistent units. Note that units must be consistent with Newton’s
second law, F=ma. See the Table below for two common choices. Note that radian is
always used for angles. This is a nondimensional quantity.
Table 2.1 Consistent units for mechanical vibration
force N MPa=N/mm
2
mass kg tonne=1000kg
length m mm
time s s
density kg/m
3
tonne/mm
3
Whether inertia forces are important or not for a design depends on the relation between
the frequencies of the loading and the natural frequencies of the structure. If the time of
load application is greater than about three times the natural period of a structure, then the
loading can be specified as being static. Then inertia can be ignored. This is called a
quasistatic problem. If the time of load application is less than about half the natural period
of vibration, then it is an impact or shock, i.e. the loading is dynamic.
2. Notations and definitions
The following notations are used if not otherwise stated.
Boldface is used to denote a vector or a matrix. Thus k is a stiffness matrix and F is a force
vector. Subscripts denote components of matrices or vectors. A prime (‘) denotes
derivative w.r.t. to coordinate and a dot (
.
) means derivative w.r.t .time.
m mass
J moment of inertia
k stiffness
c damping
ω
n
natural angular frequency
F force
M moment or mass
t time
ω angular frequency
φ angle
f frequency
T period
A amplitude
x displacement
x
0
initial displacement
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration page 6
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v velocity
v
0
initial velocity
a acceleration
u
i
eigenvector
v
i
orthonormal eigenvector
The following abbreviations are used
SDOF  Single Degree Of Freedom
MDOF  Multiple Degree Of Freedoms
FEM  Finite Element Method
Definitions
Resonance  when loading frequency equals the natural frequency
x =
lim
T → ∞
1
T
x(τ )dτ
0
T
∫
average or mean value
x
2
=
lim
T → ∞
1
T
x
2
(τ)dτ
0
T
∫
mean square value
x
rms
= x
2
root mean square value (rmsvalue)
dB = 10 log
10
x
x
ref

\

.

2
= 20log
10
x
x
ref

\

.

decibel
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration page 7
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3. Basic principles for solution of equation of motion
Analytical solution of Newton’s second law, F=ma, can be performed in several ways.
There is no method that is the best for all cases. They are illustrated below for the simple
case of one particle given a constant net force in xdirection. However, quite often energy
methods are simple as they reduce vector field problems to scalar problems. This is not
obvious for this simple case. They can also form the basis for numerical procedures.
F
m
Figure 2.1 Mass accelerated by a constant force F in xdirection.
1. Newtons’ second law solved as an Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE)
2
0 0
0 0
2 1
2
2
= ) 0 ( and 0 conditions initial
2
t
m
F
t v x x
v x x x
c t c t
m
F
x
F t x m
+ + =
⇒ =
+ + =
=
&
& &
) (
) (
A Free Body Diagram is drawn in order to find all forces acting on the body. A
corresponding kinetic diagram can be drawn that corresponds to the left hand side of
Newton’s second law. Note that this is a vector equation in the general case.
2. Change of momentum
0
0
0
0
0 0
= Ft
momentum in change the equals impuls the
v t
m
F
v
mv t mv
mv t mv Fdt
d x m Fdt
t
t t
+ =
−
− =
=
∫
∫ ∫
) (
) (
) ( τ τ & &
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration page 8
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The velocity is obtained. It must be integrated in order to get displacement. Note that this is
a vector equation in the general case.
3. Energy method
[ ]
( )
2
0
0
2
0
2
0
0
2
0 0 0
0 0
2
2
energy kinetic the changes work the
2
v
m
x x F
t v
v t v
m
x x F
v
m
vd
dt
dv
m
d vd
substitute
d v m Fd
d x m Fd
t
t x x
x x
+
−
=
− = −
= =
=
= =
=
∫ ∫ ∫
∫ ∫
) (
) (
) ( ) (
τ
κ τ
κ κ
κ κ
&
& &
The velocity is obtained as function of coordinate. Note that this is a scalar equation also in
the general case. Lagrange’s equations in chapter is an energy formulation that can generate
equations from a scalar equation, the Lagrangian, see chapter 6.
Energy methods are usually used for creating approximate solutions or formulating
approximate computational methods like FEM.
Numerical procedures are often required for more complex problems, for eg several
unknowns or nonlinearity. Simple analytic models can serve as a first rough estimate
giving the basic properties of the design. It may be advantageous to use numerical packages
like Matlab for models that can be limited to some, 3≈100, unknowns. Special packages,
often Finite Element or Rigid Body Dynamics codes, are used for larger problems.
Sometimes a more complex analytical model can be useful and a symbolic manipulation
package like Maple can be applied.
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration page 9
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4. Single Degree Of Freedom system
4. 1 .1 Free Vibration
The typical model for SDOF is shown to
the right. There is a large variety of
physical problems that also can be
modelled as SDOF, for eg torsion of
shaft.
The gravity can be accounted for
seperately and vibration can be solved as
the displacement x(t) from the static
equilibrium position.
k
c
m
x(t)
m
k
n
= ω is the natural frequency of the system. It is the frequency of free
vibration for an undamped system.
n cr
m km c ω 2 2 = = is called the critical damping.
cr
c
c
= ζ is the damping factor.
4. 1 .2 Free vibrations of underdamped system, ζ<1.
2
1 ζ ω ω − =
n d
is the damped frequency of free vibration.
The homogenous solutions is of the form x
h
= e
−ζω
n
t
A sin ω
d
t + φ ( )and with initial
conditions
( ) ( )
( ) φ ω
ω
ω ζω
ζω
+
+ +
=
−
t
x x v
e x
d
d
d n
t
f
n
sin
2
2
0
2
0 0
,
φ = tan
−1
ω
d
x
0
v
0
+ζω
n
x
0

\

.

.
4. 1 .3 Free vibrations of critical damped system, ζ=1.
The homogenous solutions is of the form x
h
= a
1
+a
2
t ( )e
−ω
n
t
and with initial conditions
( ) ( )
t
n f
n
e t x v x x
ω
ω
−
+ + =
0 0 0
.
4. 1 .4 Free vibrations of over damped system, ζ>1.
The homogenous solutions is of the form
t t t
h
n n n
e e a e a x
ω ζ ω ζ ω − − − −

.

\

+ =
1
2
1
1
2 2
and
initial conditions give
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration page 10
version 20020906
t t
n
n
t
n
n
f
n n n
e e
x v
e
x v
x
ζω ζ ω ζ ω
ζ ω
ω ζ ζ
ζ ω
ω ζ ζ
− − − −




.

\

−

.

\

− + +
+
−

.

\

− + − + −
=
1
2
0
2
0
1
2
0
2
0
2 2
1 2
1
1 2
1
.
4. 2 Forced Vibration
The loading cases below ranges from
single harmonics, arbitrary periodic,
arbitrary to random loading.
Loading via base motion is also included.
m
t F
t f
) (
) ( = is the loading per unit
mass.
k
c
m
F(t)
x(t)
4. 2 .1 Harmonic force applied on underdamped SDOF system
The loading is assumed to be F
0
cos(ωt)
n
r
ω
ω
= is ratio of loading frequency and natural frequency.
The steady state solution is x
s
= X cos(ωt − φ)which gives
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) φ ω
ζ
δ
φ ω
ζ
−
+ −
= −
+ −
= t
r r
t
r r
k
F
x
static
s
cos cos
2
2
2 2
2
2
0
2 1 2 1
and

.

\

−
=
−
2
1
1
2
r
r ζ
φ tan , which is the phase shift between displacement and load.
It is often convenient to plot the nondimensional amplitude
( ) ( )
2
2
2 0
2
0
2 1
1
r r
f
X
F
Xk
n
ζ
ω
+ −
= =
The undamped case, ζ=0, can not be obtained from above.
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration page 11
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4. 2 .2 Rotating unbalance in underdamped system
The motion is restrained to occur only in
x direction. This is not shown in the
figure.
The mass M includes m as it is the total
mass.
This is the same as harmonic loading with
F
0
=meω
2
.
For eg the nondimensional amplitude is
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 1
2 1
1
r r
r
me
MX
or
r r
me
Xk
ζ
ζ
ω
+ −
=
+ −
=
k
c
M
y(t)
x(t)
m
e
ωt
The undamped case, ζ=0, can not be obtained from above.
The solution can be extended to synchronous whirl with M=m and the force above applied
both in the x and ydirections independently.
4. 2 .3 Harmonic base motion of underdamped system
The base motion is assumed to be
y = Y sin(ωt)
r =
ω
ω
n
is ratio of loading frequency and
natural frequency.
k
c
m
y(t)
x(t)
The steady state solution is x
p
= Xsin(ωt − φ)which gives
( )
( ) ( )
( ) φ ω
ζ
ζ
−
+ −
+
= t
r r
r
Y x
s
sin
2
2
2
2
2 1
2 1
and
( ) ( )


.

\

+ −
=
−
2 2
3
1
2 1
2
r r
r
ζ
ζ
φ tan , which is the phase shift.
It is often convenient to plot the nondimensional amplitude
( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
2 1
2 1
r r
r
Y
X
ζ
ζ
+ −
+
=
The relative motion between base and mass if sometimes important, like for eg in the case
of accelerometer or seismometer. Then we introduce z
p
= x
p
− y = Zsin(ωt − ϕ) that gives
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration page 12
version 20020906
( ) ( )
( ) ϕ ω
ζ
−
+ −
= t
r r
r
Y z
s
sin
2
2
2
2
2 1
and
( )


.

\

−
=
−
2
1
1
2
r
r ζ
ϕ tan , which is the phase shift.
It is often convenient to plot the nondimensional amplitude
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
2 1 r r
r
Y
Z
ζ + −
=
The undamped case, ζ=0, can not be obtained from above.
4. 2 .4 Transmissibility for base motion and force excitation
The transmissibility can be defined for the two cases above. One has to be careful and
notice the difference between them even if there are some similarities. Note the difference
between reduce forces or vibrations.
Transmissibility of force for harmonic load on mass is a measure of how much of the
loading on the mass that affects the base. The force on the base is F
T
. It is
( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
0
2 1
2 1
r r
r
F
F
TR
T
ζ
ζ
+ −
+
= = .
Transmissibility of vibrations of base is a measure on how much the base vibrations is
affecting the mass.
( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
2 1
2 1
r r
r
Y
X
TR
ζ
ζ
+ −
+
= = .
So in this respect the isolator will do the same job for the two cases. However, if the force
affecting the mass due to base motion is of interest, then the following should be used.
( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
2
2 1
2 1
r r
r
r
kY
F
TR
T
ζ
ζ
+ −
+
= =
4. 2 .5 Shock loading and arbitrary loading applied to a damped SDOF system, Impulse
The loading is assumed to be F
0
δ(t −τ ). The application of loading is assumed to be so
short that it gives the system a momentum due to an impulse. Thus the velocity is changed
instantaneously without any change in displacement. Assuming zero initial displacement
and zero initial velocity gives
¹
´
¦
≤
≤
=
t )  (
< t 0 0
τ τ
τ
t h F
t x
ˆ
) (
where
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration page 13
version 20020906
( ) t e
m
t h
d
t
d
n
ω
ω
ζω
sin )
−
=
1
( is the unit impulse response function of an underdamped
SDOF. It gives x(t) for the system when loaded with an initial unit impulse.
ˆ
F = mv
0
is the impulse. It is expressed in the velocity increase that can be observed.
The general defintion of impulse if
∫
= dt t F F ) (
ˆ
The solution above can, with superposition, be used to find the displacement to an arbitrary
loading. The superposition or convolution integral is
∫
− =
t
d t h F t x
0
ξ ξ ξ ) ( ) ( ) (
The unit impulse response function, h(t), for the system is required. In general, it is more
convenient to use the Laplace Transform to find the motion of the system as the integral
may be quite elaborate.
The solution of the convolution integral for a damped SDOF loaded by an initial step load
is


.

\

−
=


.

\

−
−
− =
−
−
2
1
2
0
1
1
1
1
ζ
ζ
φ
φ ω
ζ
ζω
tan
) cos( ) ( t e
k
F
t x
d
t
n
4. 2 .6 Arbitrary periodic loading applied to a damped SDOF system, Fourier series
Any periodic function, F(t), can be represented by an infinite series of the form
( )
T
t n b t n a
a
t F
n
T n T n
π
ω
ω ω
2
where
2
T
1
0
=
+ + =
∑
∞
=
) sin( ) cos( ) (
and the coefficents are computed by
1,2... = n
2
1,2... = n
2
2
0
0
0
0
∫
∫
∫
=
=
=
T
T n
T
T n
T
dt t nw t F
T
b
dt t nw t F
T
a
dt t F
T
a
) sin( ) (
) cos( ) (
) (
Note that
2
0
a
is the average force, F .
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration page 14
version 20020906
The solution of the equation of motion is then written as
x(t) = x
h
+ x
p
where the homogenous solution is given in the sections about free vibrations and the
particular solution is written as
x
p
(t) = x
1
+ x
cn
(t) + x
sn
(t) ( )
n =1
∞
∑
where the different parts are solutions to the equations below.
) sin(
) cos(
t n b kx x c x m
t n a kx x c x m
k
F
k
a
x
a
kx x c x m
T n sn sn sn
T n cn cn cn
ω
ω
= + +
= + +
= = ⇒ = + +
& & &
& & &
& & &
2 2
0
1
0
1 1 1
The solutions to the two latter equations can be constructed from the solution for a
harmonic loaded system.
Note that it is the sum of particular and homogenous solutions, i.e. the total solution, that
should fulfil initial conditions. Thus, first put together the general solution and finally
apply initial conditions to find unknown coefficients.
4. 2 .7 Arbitrary loading applied to an damped SDOF system, Laplace Transform
The definition of the Laplace Transform and its properties together with a table of
computed transformations are given in Appendix A.
Applying the transform to the equation of motion changes the problem of solving an
ordinary differential equation into an algebraic problem as shown below
( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
k cs ms
cx x sv m s F
X
s F t F L kX x c x sv X
t F kx x c x m
+ +
+ + +
=
⇓
= = − + − −
= + +
2
0 0 0
0 0 0
2
 sX s m
) (
) ( ) (
) ( & & &
Finding the Laplace Transform of the load and applying the formula above gives the
Laplace Transform of the motion. The inverse Laplace Transform (also from table) gives
[ ] ) ( ) ( s X L t x
1 −
= .
The special case of zero initial displacement and velocity gives
) ( ) ( ) ( s F s H s F
k cs ms
X =
+ +
=
2
1
The function H(s) is called the receptance transfer function (also called compliance or
admittance)
k cs ms
s F
s X
s H
+ +
= =
2
1
) (
) (
) ( .
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration page 15
version 20020906
Other transfer function that are used in vibration measuring are given in the table below.
Response
Measurement
Transfer Function Formula Inverse Transfer
Function
Acceleration Inertance s
2
H(s) Apparent mass
Velocity Mobility sH(s) Impedance
Displacement Receptance H(s) Dynamic stiffness
4. 2 .8 Random loading applied to an damped SDOF system, Fourier Transform
The Fourier Transform is defined in a way similar to the Laplace Transform. It is very
useful in measurements due to the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) that makes the calculation
very fast and possible to perform digitally with the Digital Fourier Transform (DFT). It is
not a tool for analysis like the Laplace Transform.
The purpose of the Fourier Transform is to study the amplitude, energy etc as a function of
frequency instead of time.
The mean value, x , is assumed to be zero for random vibration. It can be accounted for
separately as a static mean value added to the motion.
Autocorrelation contains the information of how fast a signal is changing. It is defined as
∫
+
∞ →
=
T
xx
dt t x t x
T T
R
0
1
) ( ) (
lim
) ( τ τ
It can be seen that R
xx
(0) = x
2
. It can be shown that the Fourier Transform gives the
distribution of energy, as it is related to the amplitude in square. This transform is called
the Power Spectral Density (PSD). It is written as
∫
∞
∞ −
−
= dt e R S
t i
xx xx
ω
τ
π
ω ) ( ) (
2
1
The same quantities can be defined for the loading. The relation between the PSD of the
load and the motion is
) ( ) ( ) ( ω ω ω
ff xx
S H S
2
= .
The mean square value can be computed as
ω ω d S x
xx
∫
∞
∞ −
= ) (
2
Measuring the input, force, and the output, motion, of the system makes it possible to
compute the transfer function. The system can be described as a ”black box” where the
determination of H(ω) is a way to find out what is inside.
The response computed from measurements will in the ideal case of a damped SDOF be as
in the figure below. The parameter identification can be performed on the response
spectrum.
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration page 16
version 20020906
10
1
10
0
10
1
10
4
10
3
10
2
10
1
10
0
10
1
Figure. Magnitude of compliance transfer function versus frequency.
The static displacement gives
k
H
1
0
→
→
) (
lim
ω
ω
The peak gives the following information
2
2
1 2
1 1
2 1
ζ ζ
ζ ω ω
−
=
− =
k
H
peak
n peak
These three equations determines the parameters of the system.
5. Multiple Degree Of Freedom system
5. 1 Free Vibration
The typical model for MDOF is shown below. Most equations are given for 2DOF
models. The general relations are also valid for any number of degrees of freedom (N).
k
1
c
1
m
1
x
1
(t)
k
2
c
2
m
2
x
2
(t)
Figure. 2DOF model without external load.
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration page 17
version 20020906
M is mass matrix, C is damping matrix, K is stiffness matrix, X is displacement vector and
F is load vector.
The equation of motion for the 2DOF model above with no load is
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
−
− +
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
−
− +
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
0
0
0
0
2
1
2 2
2 2 1
2
1
2 2
2 2 1
2
1
2
1
x
x
k k
k k k
x
x
c c
c c c
x
x
m
m
&
&
& &
& &
A more general notation valid for any 2DOF with lumped massmatrix is
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
0
0
2
1
22 21
22 11
2
1
22 21
12 11
2
1
22 21
12 11
x
x
k k
k k
x
x
c c
c c
x
x
m m
m m
&
&
& &
& &
This is a coupled system of second order ordinary differential equations.
Determination of eigenmodes and natural frequencies
Harmonic motion is assumed which gives X X
2
ω − =
& &
. This is applied to the equations of
motion for the undamped system
0 KX X M = +
& &
The requirement for a nontrivial solution, X≠0, requires det(K −ω
2
M) = 0 , which is
called the characteristic equation.
Solving by setting in a natural frequency gives the shape of the corresponding eigenmodes.
The scaling of this eigenvector is arbitrary.
For the 2DOF model above this gives the characteristic equation
( ) ( ) 0
2 1
2
2 1 2 2 1
4
2 1
= + + + − k k k k m k m m m ω ω
The solution gives the two natural frequencies



.

\

−


.

\

+
+
± +
+
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
2 1
2 1
2
2
2
1
2 1
2
2
1
2 1
2
2
2
1
4
2
1
m m
k k
m
k
m
k k
m
k
m
k k
ω
ω
This gives the ratio between the amplitudes of the corresponding eigenvectors by solving
the original system of equations with an eigenvalue inserted.
1,2 = i
1
2
2 2
2
2
1
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦


.

\

−
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
i
i
i
m k
k
X
X
ω
u
Determination of free vibrations for given initial conditions, undamped system
The initial conditions are
0
0
V X
X X
=
=
&
Writing the motion as a linear combination of modal vibrations gives a motion of the form
∑
+ =
i i i i
t A u ) sin( X φ ω
Matching this with the initial conditions gives the solution for the unknown coefficients.
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration page 18
version 20020906
5. 2 Forced Vibration
Undamped 2DOF problem with load on one mass, vibration absorber, is shown below.
x
1
(t)
F
1
(t)
k
2
k
1
c
1
m
1
c
2
m
2
x
2
(t)
Figure. Vibration absorber, m
2
, on a loaded primary mass m
1
.
The equation of motion for the 2DOF model above, but without damping, with is
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
−
− +
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
0 0
0
1
2
1
2 2
2 2 1
2
1
2
1
F
x
x
k k
k k k
x
x
m
m
& &
& &
The loading is assumed to be harmonic F=F
0
sin(ωt)
Assuming ) sin( t
X
X
x
x
ω
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
2
1
2
1
and inserting into equation of motion give
( )( )
( )
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
−
− − − +
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
2 0
2
2 2 0
2
2
2
2 2
2
1 2 1
2
1
1
k F
m k F
k m k m k k
X
X
ω
ω ω
We introduce the following variables
1
1 2
11
m
k
= ω and
2
2 2
22
m
k
= ω .
Then we can define the design variables
1
2
m
m
= µ and
11
22
ω
ω
β = .
The natural frequencies of the system can be written in these variables.
( ) ( ) ( )

.

\

+ + − − ± + + =
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹


.

\



.

\

2 4 2 2
2 2
22
2
2
22
1
1 1 2 1 1 1
2
1
µ β µ β µ β
β
ω
ω
ω
ω
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration page 19
version 20020906
5. 3 Modal Analysis
It is possible to uncouple the equation of motions by analysing the vibration in terms of the
participating natural modes. Representing the motion as a linear combination of the
eigenvectors, mode shapes, can decouple the undamped equations of motion. Proportional
damping must be assumed in the case of damping. See chapter ??? about damping.
The modal analysis is presented in nondimensional form but can be performed without this
normalization of the equations.
Nondimensional equations of motion is created by the transformation
X M Q Q M X
/ / 2 1 2 1
inverse the with = =
−
. Inserting into the equations of motion and
premultiplying with
2 1/
M
−
gives
F
~
Q K
~
Q I
F M Q KM M Q MM M
/ / / / /
=
=
− − − − −
+
+
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
& &
& &
I is the unity matrix and
˜
K is the spectral matrix.
The normalized eigenvectors, v, to the nondimensional form are set as columns in a matrix
[ ]
N
v . v v P
2 1
=
We apply one more transformation Q P R PR Q
T
= = inverse the with . Inserting this into
the nondimensional equations of motion and premultiplying with P
T
gives
F
~
R R I
F
~
P KPR P R P P
= Λ
=
+
+
& &
& &
T T T
The equations looks like below
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
=
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
+
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
N
N
N
N
f
f
f
r
r
r
r
r
r
~
.
~
~
.
.
. . . .
.
.
.
.
. . . .
.
.
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
0 0
0 0
0 0
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
ω
ω
ω
& &
& &
& &
The uncoupled equations, modal equations, can be solved as SDOF problems when given
transformed intial conditions. The modal coordinates, r, must be transformed back to X
using the inverse transformations given above,
Damping can be included to give damped SDOF equations. Then damping is assumed to be
proportional. Modal dampfactors may be obtained from measurements also.
6. Lagrange’s equations
Is an alternative to set up the equations of motion that can be easier than those methods
described in the introduction. It can generate the N equations based on scalar functions for
kinetic, T, and potential energy, U.
N independent generalized coordinates, q
i
, are required to define the motion uniquely for a
NDOF problem. More coordinates can be used if it is convenient for the problem but they
should then be followed by constraint equations. The same number of constraints are then
required as the number of superfluous coordinates.
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration page 20
version 20020906
Corresponding generalized forces, Q
i
, are defined. They are related to the coordinates via
the change in virtual work, W, that is produced for a virtual displacement.
i
i
q
W
Q
δ
δ
=
They are zero for a conservative system. System is defined as the structure including
applied forces.
The Lagrange formulation states that the equation of motion can be derived from
1,2....N = i
i
i i i
Q
q
U
q
T
q
T
dt
d
= + −


.

\

∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
&
7. Continuous system
7. 1 Wave Equation
The onedimensional wave equation is
2
2
2
2
2
t
w
x
w
c
∂
∂
∂
∂
=
It governs several physical systems as shown in the table below.
Table. Physical problems for onedimensional wave equation.
Problem type Variable w Other variables Wave speed c
Free lateral
vibrations of string
lateral displacement τ is tension in string
ρ is density (kg/m)
ρ
τ
= c
Free longitudinal
vibrations in bar
axial displacement E is Young’s modulus
ρ is density (kg/m
3
)
ρ
E
c =
Free torsional
vibrations in massive
shaft
angular rotation G is shear modulus
ρ is density (kg/m
3
)
ρ
G
c =
It is assumed that w(x,t)=X(x)T(t).
The solution of the spatial equation is outlined below.
0
2
2
2
= + ) (
) (
x X
x
x X
σ
∂
∂
The general solution is X=asin(σx)+bcos(σx). Applying boundary conditions at the ends
x=0 and x=L and looking for nontrivial solutions for the coefficients gives the
characteristic equation for the eigenvalue problem.
An infinite number of eigenmodes are then found.
X
n
(x) = a
n
cos(σ
n
x ) + b
n
sin(σ
n
x) n = 1, 2...∞
It can be seen from the temporal equation that the corresponding natural frequencies will be
ω
n
= σ
n
c
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration page 21
version 20020906
The solution of the temporal equation is outlined below.
0
2 2
2
2
= + ) (
) (
t T c
t
t T
σ
∂
∂
The general solution is T
n
=A
n
sin(σ
n
ct)+B
n
cos(σ
n
ct). This gives infinte number of
independent solutions and we will have
( )( )
∑
∞
=
+ + =
1 n
n n n n n n n n
x b x a ct B ct A t x w ) cos( ) sin( ) cos( ) sin( ) , ( σ σ σ σ
Applying initial conditions gives the remaining unknown coefficients.
7. 2 Bending vibration of beam
The equation of motion for a free vibrating Bernoulli beam is
A
EI
c
x
w
c
t
w
ρ
∂
∂
∂
∂
=
= + 0
4
4
2
2
2
Assuming separation of variables gives a temporal equation that together with the four
boundary conditions defines the eigenvalue problem. The general solution to this is
EI
A
c
x a x a x a x a x X
2
2
2
4
4 3 2 1
ω ρ ω
β
β β β β
= =
+ + + = ) cosh( ) sinh( ) cos( ) sin( ) (
Solution for some modes and different boundary conditions are given in Appendix C.
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration page 22
version 20020906
8. Damping
Damping are nonconservative forces that dissipates energy. Linear, viscous damping is
defined as usually assumed. Equivalent damping for other cases are defined as the damping
that should be used in the linear, viscous damping model in order to get the same energy
loss per cycle. Different sources of damping are given in the table below.
Table. Source of damping.
Name ) , ( x x F
d
&
c
eq
Source
Linear, viscous damping x c& c Slow fluid
Air damping
2
x x a & &) sgn(
π
ω
3
8 X a Fast fluid
Coulumb damping ) sgn(x& β
X πω
β 4 Sliding friction
Displacement squared damping
2
x x d ) sgn( &
πω 3
4dX Material
damping
Solid damping
x x b & &) sgn(
πω
b 2 Material
damping
Proportional damping is defined as being proportional to stiffness and mass. In matrix form
for a MDOF problem C = αM+ βK. The coefficients are not the same as in the table
above.
Damping can be measured several ways. One option is to compute the logaritmic
decrement which is the natural logaritm of the amplitude of any two successive amplitudes.
2
1
2
ζ
πζ
δ
−
=
+
=
) (
) (
ln
T t x
t x
Thus the dampfactor can be computed
2 2
4 δ π
δ
ζ
+
=
9. 9. Appendix A. Laplace transforms
Definition of Laplace transform of a function f(t)
[ ]
∫
∞
−
= =
0
dt e t f s F t f L
st
) ( ) ( ) (
This gives
[ ]
[ ]
.
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
etc
f sf s F s t f L
f s sF t f L
0 0
0
2
& & &
&
− − =
− =
The inverse transform is written as
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration page 23
version 20020906
[ ] ) ( ) ( t f s F L =
−1
The Table A.1 below can be used for computing transforms and inverse transforms.
Table A.1 Laplace transforms for functions with initial zero conditions and t>0.
Eq. #
F(s) f(t)
(1) δ(t)
(2)
s
1
H(t)
(3)
,...) , ( 2 1
1
= n
s
n
)! ( 1
1
−
−
n
t
n
(4)
) )( ( b s a s + +
1
( )
bt at
e e
a b
− −
−
−
1
(5)
) (
2 2
ω
ω
+ s
sin ωt
(6)
) (
2 2
ω + s
s
cos ωt
(7)
) (
2 2
1
ω + s s
( ) t ω
ω
cos − 1
1
2
(8)
) (
2 2
2
1
ω ζω + + s s
1 < 1
1
1
2
2
ζ ζ ω
ζ ω
ζω
, sin

.

\

−
−
−
t e
t
(9)
) (
2 2
2
2 ω ζω
ω
+ + s s s
1 < ,
, 1
1
1
1
1
2
2
ζ ζ φ
φ ζ ω
ζ
ζω
−
−
=

.

\

+ −
−
−
cos
sin t e
t
(10)
1 +
−
n
s
n
) (
!
ω
1,2... = n ,
t n
e t
ω
(11)
) ( ω + s s
1
( )
t
e
ω
ω
−
− 1
1
(12)
) ( ω + s s
2
1
( ) 1
1
2
− −
−
t e
t
ω
ω
ω
(13)
) (
2 2
ω
ω
− s
sinh ωt
(14)
) (
2 2
ω − s
s
cosh ωt
(15)
) (
2 2 2
1
ω + s s
( ) t t ω ω
ω
sin −
3
1
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration page 24
version 20020906
(16)
1
(s
2
+ ω
2
)
2
( ) t t t ω ω ω
ω
cos sin −
3
2
1
(17)
2 2 2
) ( ω + s
s
t
t
ω
ω
sin
2
(18)
2 2 2
2 2
) (
) (
ω
ω
+
−
s
s
t cos ωt
(19)
) )( (
) (
2
2
2 2
1
2
2
2
2
1
ω ω
ω ω
+ +
−
s s
t t
1
1
2
2
1 1
ω
ω
ω
ω
sin sin −
(20)
) )( (
) (
2
2
2 2
1
2
2
2
2
1
ω ω
ω ω
+ +
−
s s
s
t t
1 2
ω ω cos cos −
(21)
2 2
ω
ω
+ + ) ( a s
t e
at
ω sin
−
(22)
2 2
ω + +
+
) ( a s
a s
t e
at
ω cos
−
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration page 25
version 20020906
10. 10. Appendix B. Moments of inertia
Definition of mass moments of inertia
∫
= dV r I ρ
2
,
where r is the orthogonal distance from the axis of rotation. It is a measure of resistance to
rotational acceleration of a body.
Definition of radius of gyration
m
I
k =
Transfer of axes
The moment of inertia of a body about a centroidal axis can be found from that of a
parallell axis through the mass center
I = I + md
2
,
where I is the moment of inertia about a axis through the mass center and d is the distance
between the axes.
Appended excerpt at the end of this collection of formulas Table B.1 gives the mass
moment of inertia for some bodies. Note that these can be combined to form those of other
bodies.
Table B.1 Properties of homogeneous solids
Body Mass
center
Mass moments of inertia
1. Circular cylinder
x
z
L
r

2
2 2
2
1
3
1
4
1
mr I
mL mr I
zz
xx
=
+ =
Semicylinder
π 3
4r
x =
2
2 2
2
1
3
1
4
1
mr I
mL mr I
zz
xx
=
+ =
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration page 26
version 20020906
x
z
L
r
y
Cylindrical shell
z
x
L
r
m=ρ2πrh
h=thickness
r= mean radius
I
xx
=
1
2
mr
2
+
1
3
mL
2
I
zz
= mr
2
Half cylindrical shell
y
z
L
r
m=ρπrh
h=thickness
r=mean radius
x
π
r
x
2
=
2
2 2
4
1
3
1
2
1
mr I
mL mr I
zz
yy

.

\

− =
+ =
π
Sphere 
2
5
2
mr I
zz
=
Rectangular parallellepiped 
( )
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
2 2
3
1
3
1
3
1
H B m I
L B m I
L H m I
zz
yy
xx
+ =
+ =
+ =
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration page 27
version 20020906
x
y z
L
H
B
11. Appendix C. Mathematical formulas
Some formulas often used, but easily forgotten, in this context are given here.
Quadratic equations
ax
2
+ bx + c = 0 ⇒ x =
−b ± b
2
− 4ac
2a
Inverse of 2 by 2 matrix
a b
c d
−1
=
1
ad − bc
d −b
−c a
Trigonometrics
Dsin(x)=cos(x)
Dcos(x)=sin(x)
sin(a+b)=sin(a)cos(b)+cos(a)sin(b)
cos(a+b)=cos(a)cos(b)sin(a)sin(b)
cos(x)=sin(x90°)
sin(x)=cos(x90°)
acos(x ) + bsin(x) = rcos(x − ϕ)
asin(x) + bcos(x) = rsin(x + ϕ)
r = a
2
+ b
2
, ϕ = arctan
b
a

\

.
2Im(a) = B , 2 ) Re(
) cos( ) sin(
a A
t B t A e a ae
t i t i
=
+ = + ω ω
ω ω
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration page 28
version 20020906
The Heaviside function or step function is defined as
¹
´
¦
≤
= −
t 1
< t 0
τ
τ
τ ) (t H
The dirac function, δ(τ) is defined as the limit of the curve in the figure below when ε goes
to zero and the height goes to infinity with the area being unity.
t
τ
2ε
A
2Aε=1
Illustration for definition of δ(τ)
The dirac function has the property that
) ( ) ( ) ( τ τ δ f dt t f =
∫
∞
∞ −
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration page 29
version 20020906
12. 12. Appendix D. Bending vibration of beam
The solutions for the equation for beam bending vibration in Chapter 7.
Frequencies and mode shapes for some beam configurations. Beam length is L.
Configuration Weighted frequencies (β ββ βL)
and characteristic equation.
Mode shape σ σσ σ
x
freefree
0 (rigid body mode)
4.73004074
7.85320462
10.9956078
14.1371655
17.2787597
( )
2
1 2 π + n
n>5
( ) x x
x x
β β σ
β β
sin sinh
cos cosh
+
− +
0.9825
1.0008
0.9999
1.0000
0.9999
1 for n>5
x
clampedfree
1.87510407
4.69409113
7.85475744
10.99554073
14.13716839
( )
2
1 2 π − n n> 5
( ) x x
x x
β β σ
β β
sin sinh
cos cosh
−
− −
0.7341
1.0185
0.9992
1.0000
1.0000
1 for n>5
x
clampedpinned
L L L − = β β cosh cos
3.92660231
7.06858275
10.21017612
13.35176878
16.49336143
( )
4
1 4 π + n
n> 5
( ) x x
x x
β β σ
β β
sin sinh
cos cosh
−
− −
1.0008
1 for n>1
x
clampedsliding
L L β β tanh tan =
2.36502037
5.49780392
8.63937983
11.78097245
14.92256510
( )
4
1 4 π − n n> 5
( ) x x
x x
β β σ
β β
sin sinh
cos cosh
−
− −
0.9825
1 for n>1
x
clampedclamped
0 = + L L β β tanh tan
4.73004074
7.85320462
10.9956079
14.1371655
17.2787597
( )
2
1 2 π + n n> 5
( ) x x
x x
β β σ
β β
sin sinh
cos cosh
−
− −
0.9825
1.0008
1 for n>2
x
pinnedpinned
1 = L L β β cosh cos
nπ
0 =
L
x n π
sin

......................................................2 Free vibrations of underdamped system............................................................................................... Fourier series.............................................12 4.....................................................................................................................12 4.............. 2 .......... CONTINUOUS SYSTEM ... 9
4....................................................................................20 7...9 4......................................................................................................4 Free vibrations of critical damped system.............. 2 ................................. LAPLACE TRANSFORMS ........................................................................19 6.................... 16 5. APPENDIX D...................................... 1 ........23 12..............................................18 5.......................10 4................................................ .....................................................................................................................3 Harmonic base motion of underdamped system ..................... 21 11..... 1 ............................................................. APPENDIX B................. LAGRANGE’S EQUATIONS ....................... INTRODUCTION ..............6 Arbitrary periodic loading applied to a damped SDOF system.......... ζ>1....................... 2 Forced Vibration.................9
4.............................. Impulse .... APPENDIX A....................................... 5 3.........................20 7...............................................................................................................................................11 4............ 7 4.. ζ=1...... 2 ..... 2 Forced Vibration................... APPENDIX C........................................................ 1 Free Vibration......................... MULTIPLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEM ............................................................................................... MATHEMATICAL FORMULAS ...............................................15
5............. ζ<1......... 19 10................................................19 7......9 4.........................................................................................16 5..................................................................... 2 .....................1 Free Vibration ............................................................................................................................... 3 Modal Analysis............................................................. MOMENTS OF INERTIA ..........................................................8 Random loading applied to an damped SDOF system.......... 2 Bending vibration of beam ...................................... 1 Wave Equation ....................................22 9......................24
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration
page 3
............................................................ ..............21 8................................................ 2 ............... BASIC PRINCIPLES FOR SOLUTION OF EQUATION OF MOTION ........................................................... 2 ...................................................................13 4............................................................. 2 ............. ................. BENDING VIBRATION OF FOR BEAM....... 2 ..............................................................2 Rotating unbalance in underdamped system .................9 4.... Laplace Transform .......................7 Arbitrary loading applied to an damped SDOF system................11 4..... ........ 1 ......................................................................Content
1....... 5 2................................................................5 Shock loading and arbitrary loading applied to a damped SDOF system..........3 Free vibrations of critical damped system.. SINGLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEM ..................10
4..... 1 ...................................................... DAMPING ..................14 4................... Fourier Transform ...............................1 Harmonic force applied on underdamped SDOF system...........................4 Transmissibility for base motion and force excitation ........................................ NOTATIONS AND DEFINITIONS ........................................
.
the loading is dynamic. This is called a quasistatic problem. Subscripts denote components of matrices or vectors. Introduction Basic assumptions if not stated otherwise are those of linear systems.r. m J k c mass moment of inertia stiffness damping natural angular frequency force moment or mass time angular frequency angle frequency period amplitude displacement initial displacement Formulas in Mechanical Vibration version 20020906 page 5
ωn
F M t
ω φ
f T A x x0
. See the Table below for two common choices. Table 2. Thus we assume small displacements and rotations. Note that units must be consistent with Newton’s second law. Note that radian is always used for angles.e.t .t. derivative w.r. to coordinate and a dot ( ) means derivative w. Boldface is used to denote a vector or a matrix. then the loading can be specified as being static.time. Then inertia can be ignored. If the time of load application is greater than about three times the natural period of a structure. Thus k is a stiffness matrix and F is a force vector. It is important to use consistent units.1. If the time of load application is less than about half the natural period of vibration. F=ma. A prime (‘) denotes . i.1 Consistent units for mechanical vibration force N mass kg length m time s density kg/m3
MPa=N/mm2 tonne=1000kg mm s tonne/mm3
Whether inertia forces are important or not for a design depends on the relation between the frequencies of the loading and the natural frequencies of the structure. Notations and definitions The following notations are used if not otherwise stated. This is a nondimensional quantity. linear spring and viscous damping.
2. then it is an impact or shock.
when loading frequency equals the natural frequency lim 1 T x= x(τ )dτ average or mean value T → ∞T ∫ 0 lim 1 T 2 2 x = x (τ )dτ mean square value T → ∞T ∫ 0
x rms = x2
2
root mean square value (rmsvalue)
decibel
x = 20log10 x dB = 10 log10 x ref x ref
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration version 20020906
page 6
.Multiple Degree Of Freedoms FEM .Finite Element Method
Definitions Resonance .Single Degree Of Freedom MDOF .v v0 a ui vi
velocity initial velocity acceleration eigenvector orthonormal eigenvector
The following abbreviations are used SDOF .
They are illustrated below for the simple case of one particle given a constant net force in xdirection. 1. Note that this is a vector equation in the general case. 2. A corresponding kinetic diagram can be drawn that corresponds to the left hand side of Newton’s second law. Basic principles for solution of equation of motion
Analytical solution of Newton’s second law. They can also form the basis for numerical procedures. can be performed in several ways.1 Mass accelerated by a constant force F in xdirection.3. quite often energy methods are simple as they reduce vector field problems to scalar problems. Newtons’ second law solved as an Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE)
m&&(t ) = F x F 2 t + c1t + c2 2m & initial conditions x (0) = x0 and x (0) = v0 ⇒ x= x = x0 + v0 t + F 2 t 2m
A Free Body Diagram is drawn in order to find all forces acting on the body. This is not obvious for this simple case. There is no method that is the best for all cases.
m F
Figure 2. Change of momentum
& ∫ Fdt = ∫ mx&(τ )dτ
t t
∫ Fdt = mv(t ) − mv0
0
0 t
0
the impuls equals the change in momentum Ft = mv (t ) − mv0
v= F t + v0 m
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration version 20020906
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. However. F=ma.
Simple analytic models can serve as a first rough estimate giving the basic properties of the design.
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration version 20020906
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. It may be advantageous to use numerical packages like Matlab for models that can be limited to some. are used for larger problems. 3≈100. often Finite Element or Rigid Body Dynamics codes. 3. Note that this is a vector equation in the general case. for eg several unknowns or nonlinearity. Special packages. see chapter 6.The velocity is obtained. the Lagrangian. Sometimes a more complex analytical model can be useful and a symbolic manipulation package like Maple can be applied. Lagrange’s equations in chapter is an energy formulation that can generate equations from a scalar equation. Numerical procedures are often required for more complex problems. Energy methods are usually used for creating approximate solutions or formulating approximate computational methods like FEM. Energy method
∫ Fdκ = ∫ m&x&dκ ∫
0 x
x
x
substitute m 2 dv & Fdκ = mvdκ = = m dt vdτ = 2 v vdτ = dκ 0 0 0
∫
0 x
∫
t
[ ]
t 0
the work changes the kinetic energy F ( x − x0 ) = v(t ) = m 2 v ( t ) 2 − v0 2 2 F ( x − x0 ) 2 + v0 m
(
)
The velocity is obtained as function of coordinate. Note that this is a scalar equation also in the general case. unknowns. It must be integrated in order to get displacement.
ζ>1.
4.
φ = tan −1
ω dx0 .
ccr = 2 km = 2mω n c ζ = ccr
is the damping factor. v 0 + ζω n x 0
4. It is the frequency of free vibration for an undamped system. The homogenous solutions is of the form x h = (a1 + a 2 t )e −ωn t and with initial conditions
x f = (x0 + (v0 + ω n x0 )t )e −ω n t .2 Free vibrations of underdamped system.
is the damped frequency of free vibration. ζ=1. 1 . There is a large variety of physical problems that also can be modelled as SDOF. 1 .1 Free Vibration The typical model for SDOF is shown to the right. for eg torsion of shaft.4. 1 .4 Free vibrations of over damped system. The homogenous solutions is of the form x h = e −ζω n t A sin(ω d t + φ )and with initial conditions
x f = e −ζω n t
ωd = ωn 1 − ζ 2
(v0 + ζω n x0 )2 + (ω d x0 )2 sin(ω
2 ωd
dt
+ φ ).3 Free vibrations of critical damped system. Single Degree Of Freedom system
4.
4. ζ<1. is called the critical damping.
k m
x(t)
c
ωn =
k m
is the natural frequency of the system. The gravity can be accounted for seperately and vibration can be solved as the displacement x(t) from the static equilibrium position.
−ω t The homogenous solutions is of the form x h = a1e n initial conditions give
ζ 2 −1
+ a2 e
ω n t ζ 2 −1 − ω n t
e
and
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration version 20020906
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. 1 .
2 .1 Harmonic force applied on underdamped SDOF system The loading is assumed to be F0 cos(ωt )
ω is ratio of loading frequency and natural frequency. − v + − ζ + ζ 2 − 1 ω x n 0 0 −ω t xf = e n 2ω n ζ 2 − 1 . ζ=0. ωn The steady state solution is xs = X cos(ωt − φ ) which gives
r=
xs = and
(1 − r )
F0 k + (2ζr )
2
2 2
cos(ωt − φ ) =
(1 − r )
δ static
2 2
+ (2ζr )
cos(ωt − φ )
2
φ = tan −1
2ζr . arbitrary to random loading.
f (t ) = F (t ) is the loading per unit m
k m
x(t)
F(t) c
mass. can not be obtained from above.
ζ 2 −1
v0 + ζ + ζ 2 − 1 ω n x0 ω t + e n 2ω n ζ 2 − 1
ζ 2 −1
e −ζω n t
4. which is the phase shift between displacement and load.
4. 1− r2
It is often convenient to plot the nondimensional amplitude
2 Xk Xω n = = F0 f0
(1 − r )
1 + (2ζr )
2
2 2
The undamped case. arbitrary periodic. 2 Forced Vibration The loading cases below ranges from single harmonics.
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. Loading via base motion is also included.
For eg the nondimensional amplitude is
Xk meω 2 MX = me =
x(t) k M e
ωt m
c y(t)
(1 − r ) (1 − r )
r2
2 2
1 + (2ζr )
2
2 2
or
+ (2ζr )
2
The undamped case. 2 . ζ=0. Then we introduce z p = x p − y = Z sin(ωt − ϕ ) that gives
2 2
X = Y
(1 − r )
1 + (2ζr )2
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. The mass M includes m as it is the total mass.and ydirections independently. This is not shown in the figure. 2 1 − r 2 + (2ζr )
)
It is often convenient to plot the nondimensional amplitude + (2ζr )2 The relative motion between base and mass if sometimes important. like for eg in the case of accelerometer or seismometer.3 Harmonic base motion of underdamped system The base motion is assumed to be y = Y sin(ω t)
ω is ratio of loading frequency and r= ωn
k m
x(t)
natural frequency. 4. 2 . can not be obtained from above. This is the same as harmonic loading with F0=meω2.4.2 Rotating unbalance in underdamped system The motion is restrained to occur only in x direction. which is the phase shift.
c y(t)
The steady state solution is x p = X sin(ωt − φ ) which gives
xs = Y and
(1 − r )
(
1 + (2ζr )2
2 2
+ (2ζr )
2
sin(ωt − φ )
φ = tan −1
2ζr 3 . The solution can be extended to synchronous whirl with M=m and the force above applied both in the x.
However.zs = Y and
(1 − r )
(
r2 + (2ζr )
2
2 2
sin(ωt − ϕ )
ϕ = tan −1
2ζr . then the following should be used. 2 .
Transmissibility of vibrations of base is a measure on how much the base vibrations is affecting the mass. 4.4 Transmissibility for base motion and force excitation The transmissibility can be defined for the two cases above.τ ) where Formulas in Mechanical Vibration version 20020906 page 12
. + (2ζr )2 So in this respect the isolator will do the same job for the two cases.5 Shock loading and arbitrary loading applied to a damped SDOF system. Transmissibility of force for harmonic load on mass is a measure of how much of the loading on the mass that affects the base. Assuming zero initial displacement and zero initial velocity gives 0 ≤ t <τ 0 x(t ) = ˆ τ ≤t Fh(t . Impulse The loading is assumed to be F0 δ (t − τ ).
2 2
X TR = = Y
(1 − r )
1 + (2ζr )2
TR =
FT = r2 kY
(1 − r )
1 + (2ζr )2
2 2
+ (2ζr )2
4. It is TR = FT = F0
(1 − r )
1 + (2ζr )2
2 2
+ (2ζr )
2
. Note the difference between reduce forces or vibrations. 2 . if the force affecting the mass due to base motion is of interest. which is the phase shift. 2 1− r
)
It is often convenient to plot the nondimensional amplitude Z r2 = 2 Y 1 − r 2 + (2ζr )2
(
)
The undamped case. One has to be careful and notice the difference between them even if there are some similarities. The application of loading is assumed to be so short that it gives the system a momentum due to an impulse. ζ=0. The force on the base is FT. can not be obtained from above. Thus the velocity is changed instantaneously without any change in displacement. .
F(t).
n = 1.e −ζω n t sin(ω d t ) is the unit impulse response function of an underdamped mω d SDOF... can be represented by an infinite series of the form
F (t ) =
a0 ∞ (an cos( nωT t ) + bn sin(nωT t ) ) + 2 n =1
∑
where 2π ωT = T and the coefficents are computed by
2 a0 = T
T
∫ F (t )dt ∫ F (t ) cos( nwT t )dt n = 1. be used to find the displacement to an arbitrary loading. ˆ F = mv 0 is the impulse. it is more convenient to use the Laplace Transform to find the motion of the system as the integral may be quite elaborate. Fourier series Any periodic function. F . h(t). The superposition or convolution integral is
x ( t ) = F (ξ )h(t − ξ )dξ
0
∫
t
The unit impulse response function. The solution of the convolution integral for a damped SDOF loaded by an initial step load is F 1 x ( t ) = 0 1 − e −ζω n t cos(ω d t − φ ) k 1−ζ 2
φ = tan −1
2 1−ζ
ζ
4. 2
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.. The general defintion of impulse if ˆ F = F ( t )dt h(t ) =
1
∫
The solution above can. It is expressed in the velocity increase that can be observed..2.
an = bn =
2 T 2 T
0 T
0 T
∫ F (t ) sin(nwT t )dt
0
Note that
a0 is the average force. for the system is required. It gives x(t) for the system when loaded with an initial unit impulse.6 Arbitrary periodic loading applied to a damped SDOF system. with superposition.2. In general. 2 .
The inverse Laplace Transform (also from table) gives x ( t ) = L−1[X ( s )] .e.7 Arbitrary loading applied to an damped SDOF system. a a F & m&&1 + cx1 + kx1 = 0 x ⇒ x1 = 0 = 2 2k k & m&&cn + cxcn + kxcn = an cos( nωT t ) x & m&&sn + cx sn + kx sn = bn sin(nωT t ) x The solutions to the two latter equations can be constructed from the solution for a harmonic loaded system. Thus. that should fulfil initial conditions.The solution of the equation of motion is then written as x( t) = x h + xp where the homogenous solution is given in the sections about free vibrations and the particular solution is written as
x p (t) = x 1 + ∑ (x cn (t) + x sn (t))
n =1
∞
where the different parts are solutions to the equations below. The special case of zero initial displacement and velocity gives 1 X= 2 F ( s) = H ( s)F ( s) ms + cs + k The function H(s) is called the receptance transfer function (also called compliance or admittance) 1 X ( s) . i. the total solution. Note that it is the sum of particular and homogenous solutions. 4. Applying the transform to the equation of motion changes the problem of solving an ordinary differential equation into an algebraic problem as shown below & m&& + cx + kx = F ( t ) x
m s 2 X − sv0 − x0 + c (sX . 2 . H (s) = = F ( s ) ms 2 + cs + k
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. first put together the general solution and finally apply initial conditions to find unknown coefficients. Laplace Transform The definition of the Laplace Transform and its properties together with a table of computed transformations are given in Appendix A.x0 ) − kX = L[F ( t )] = F ( s ) X = F ( s ) + m(sv0 + x0 ) + cx0
(
)
⇓
ms 2 + cs + k Finding the Laplace Transform of the load and applying the formula above gives the Laplace Transform of the motion.
Fourier Transform The Fourier Transform is defined in a way similar to the Laplace Transform. as it is related to the amplitude in square. The parameter identification can be performed on the response spectrum. The purpose of the Fourier Transform is to study the amplitude. force. It is not a tool for analysis like the Laplace Transform. The response computed from measurements will in the ideal case of a damped SDOF be as in the figure below. energy etc as a function of frequency instead of time. It can be accounted for separately as a static mean value added to the motion.
The mean square value can be computed as
∞
x =
2
−∞
∫ S xx (ω )dω
Measuring the input. It is very useful in measurements due to the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) that makes the calculation very fast and possible to perform digitally with the Digital Fourier Transform (DFT). It is written as 1 S xx (ω ) = 2π
∞
−∞
∫ Rxx (τ )e
2
− iωt
dt
The same quantities can be defined for the loading.8 Random loading applied to an damped SDOF system. It is defined as
lim 1 R xx (τ ) = T →∞T
T
∫ x(t ) x(t + τ )dt
0
It can be seen that R xx (0) = x 2 . and the output. x . The system can be described as a ”black box” where the determination of H(ω) is a way to find out what is inside.Other transfer function that are used in vibration measuring are given in the table below. The relation between the PSD of the load and the motion is
S xx (ω ) = H (ω ) S ff (ω ) . It can be shown that the Fourier Transform gives the distribution of energy. Autocorrelation contains the information of how fast a signal is changing. This transform is called the Power Spectral Density (PSD). Response Transfer Function Formula Inverse Transfer Measurement Function 2 Acceleration Inertance s H(s) Apparent mass Velocity Mobility sH(s) Impedance Displacement Receptance H(s) Dynamic stiffness
4. 2 . The mean value. motion. of the system makes it possible to compute the transfer function.
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. is assumed to be zero for random vibration.
x1(t) x2(t)
k1 k2
m1 c1 c2
m2
Figure. Multiple Degree Of Freedom system 5. 2DOF model without external load.
H peak =
5. The general relations are also valid for any number of degrees of freedom (N).10 1 10 0 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 1 10
10 0
10 1
Figure. Magnitude of compliance transfer function versus frequency. 1 Free Vibration The typical model for MDOF is shown below. Most equations are given for 2DOF models.
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. The static displacement gives lim 1 H (ω ) → k ω →0 The peak gives the following information
ω peak = ω n 1 − 2ζ 2
1 1 k 2ζ 1 − ζ 2 These three equations determines the parameters of the system.
C is damping matrix. X≠0. The scaling of this eigenvector is arbitrary.2 k2 u i = = X 2 i k − m ω 2 2 i 2 Determination of free vibrations for given initial conditions. 1 X 1 i = 1. requires det( K − ω 2 M) = 0 . Determination of eigenmodes and natural frequencies && Harmonic motion is assumed which gives X = −ω 2 X . This is applied to the equations of motion for the undamped system && MX + KX = 0 The requirement for a nontrivial solution. For the 2DOF model above this gives the characteristic equation m1m2ω 4 − (m1k 2 + m2 (k1 + k 2 ))ω 2 + k1k 2 = 0 The solution gives the two natural frequencies 2 2 k1 + k 2 k 2 4k1k 2 ω1 1 k1 + k 2 k 2 − = + ± + 2 m2 m2 m1m2 ω 2 2 m1 m1 This gives the ratio between the amplitudes of the corresponding eigenvectors by solving the original system of equations with an eigenvalue inserted. undamped system The initial conditions are X = X0 & X=V
0
Writing the motion as a linear combination of modal vibrations gives a motion of the form
X=
∑ Ai sin(ωi t + φi )ui
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Matching this with the initial conditions gives the solution for the unknown coefficients. Solving by setting in a natural frequency gives the shape of the corresponding eigenmodes. X is displacement vector and F is load vector. K is stiffness matrix.
. which is called the characteristic equation.
The equation of motion for the 2DOF model above with no load is & x m1 0 &&1 c1 + c2 − c2 x1 k1 + k 2 − k 2 x1 0 = x + − k 0 m && + − c c2 & 2 k 2 x2 0 2 x2 2 2 A more general notation valid for any 2DOF with lumped massmatrix is && & m11 m12 x1 c11 c12 x1 k11 k 22 x1 0 = x + k m && + c 21 m22 x2 21 c22 & 2 21 k 22 x2 0 This is a coupled system of second order ordinary differential equations.M is mass matrix.
The equation of motion for the 2DOF model above. with is x m1 0 &&1 k1 + k 2 − k 2 x1 F1 = 0 m && + − k k 2 x2 0 2 x2 2 The loading is assumed to be harmonic F=F0sin(ωt) x X Assuming 1 = 1 sin(ωt ) and inserting into equation of motion give x2 X 2
F0 k 2 − m2ω 2 F0 k 2 k k 2 2 We introduce the following variables ω11 = 1 and ω 22 = 2 . m1 ω11 X1 1 = 2 2 2 X 2 k1 + k 2 − m1ω k 2 − m2ω − k 2
(
)(
)
(
)
The natural frequencies of the system can be written in these variables. 2 ω1 ω 22 = 1 1 + β 2 (1 + µ ) ± 1 − 2 β 2 (1 − µ ) + β 4 (µ + 1)2 2 2 ω2 2β ω 22
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. but without damping. Vibration absorber. x1(t) x2(t) F1(t) k1 k2
m1 c1 c2
m2
Figure. vibration absorber. is shown below. on a loaded primary mass m1. m2. m1 m2 ω m Then we can define the design variables µ = 2 and β = 22 .5. 2 Forced Vibration
Undamped 2DOF problem with load on one mass.
N independent generalized coordinates.
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.5. to the nondimensional form are set as columns in a matrix P = [v1 v 2 . v N ] We apply one more transformation Q = PR with the inverse R = P T Q . are required to define the motion uniquely for a NDOF problem. . T. . . ω N rN f N 0 0 . v. Then damping is assumed to be proportional. . Representing the motion as a linear combination of the eigenvectors. qi. ~ 2 0 . Lagrange’s equations Is an alternative to set up the equations of motion that can be easier than those methods described in the introduction. Modal dampfactors may be obtained from measurements also. Nondimensional equations of motion is created by the transformation X = M −1 / 2 Q with the inverse Q = M1 / 2 X . The modal coordinates. Inserting this into the nondimensional equations of motion and premultiplying with PT gives ~ && PT PR + PT KPR = PT F ~ && IR + ΛR = F The equations looks like below ~ 2 r1 1 0 . See chapter ??? about damping. Proportional damping must be assumed in the case of damping. r. Damping can be included to give damped SDOF equations. More coordinates can be used if it is convenient for the problem but they should then be followed by constraint equations. and potential energy. Inserting into the equations of motion and premultiplying with M −1 / 2 gives && M −1 / 2 MM −1 / 2 Q + M −1 / 2 KM −1 / 2 Q = M −1 / 2 F ~ && ~ IQ + K Q = F ˜ I is the unity matrix and K is the spectral matrix. 0 r2 f 2 + = . . 1 &&N 0 r The uncoupled equations. 3 Modal Analysis It is possible to uncouple the equation of motions by analysing the vibration in terms of the participating natural modes. 0 && 2 r2 0 ω 2 . 0 r1 f1 ~ 0 1 . It can generate the N equations based on scalar functions for kinetic.
6. . . mode shapes. modal equations. . The same number of constraints are then required as the number of superfluous coordinates. . 0 && ω1 0 . . can decouple the undamped equations of motion. U. The normalized eigenvectors. can be solved as SDOF problems when given transformed intial conditions.
The modal analysis is presented in nondimensional form but can be performed without this normalization of the equations. must be transformed back to X using the inverse transformations given above.
The solution of the spatial equation is outlined below.∞ It can be seen from the temporal equation that the corresponding natural frequencies will be ω n = σnc Formulas in Mechanical Vibration version 20020906 page 20
. Continuous system 7. An infinite number of eigenmodes are then found. δW Qi = δqi They are zero for a conservative system. The Lagrange formulation states that the equation of motion can be derived from d ∂T ∂T ∂U − + = Qi i = 1. Table. X n (x ) = an cos(σ n x ) + b n sin(σ n x ) n = 1. 1 Wave Equation
The onedimensional wave equation is ∂ 2w ∂ 2w = c2 ∂ x2 ∂ t2 It governs several physical systems as shown in the table below. Applying boundary conditions at the ends x=0 and x=L and looking for nontrivial solutions for the coefficients gives the characteristic equation for the eigenvalue problem. Problem type Variable w Other variables Free lateral lateral displacement τ is tension in string vibrations of string ρ is density (kg/m) Free longitudinal vibrations in bar Free torsional vibrations in massive shaft axial displacement angular rotation E is Young’s modulus ρ is density (kg/m3) G is shear modulus ρ is density (kg/m3)
Wave speed c
c= c= c=
τ ρ
E
ρ
G
ρ
It is assumed that w(x.N & dt ∂qi ∂qi ∂qi
7.. W.t)=X(x)T(t)..2. Physical problems for onedimensional wave equation. that is produced for a virtual displacement.. Qi. They are related to the coordinates via the change in virtual work.Corresponding generalized forces. ∂ 2 X ( x) + σ 2 X ( x) = 0 2 ∂x The general solution is X=asin(σx)+bcos(σx). System is defined as the structure including applied forces. 2.. are defined..
7.
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. The general solution to this is X ( x ) = a1 sin( β x ) + a2 cos( β x ) + a3 sinh( β x ) + a4 cosh( β x )
β4 =
ω2
c2
=
ρ Aω 2
EI
Solution for some modes and different boundary conditions are given in Appendix C. This gives infinte number of independent solutions and we will have
w( x .The solution of the temporal equation is outlined below. 2 Bending vibration of beam The equation of motion for a free vibrating Bernoulli beam is ∂ 2w 2 ∂ 4w +c =0 ∂ t2 ∂ x4
c= EI ρA
Assuming separation of variables gives a temporal equation that together with the four boundary conditions defines the eigenvalue problem. ∂ 2T ( t ) + σ 2 c 2T ( t ) = 0 2 ∂t The general solution is Tn=Ansin(σnct)+Bncos(σnct). t ) =
n =1
∑ (An sin(σ n ct ) + Bn cos(σ n ct ))(an sin(σ n x ) + bn cos(σ n x ))
∞
Applying initial conditions gives the remaining unknown coefficients.
viscous damping model in order to get the same energy loss per cycle. Equivalent damping for other cases are defined as the damping that should be used in the linear. x )
& cx
c eq
Source Slow fluid Fast fluid Sliding friction Material damping Material damping
& & a sgn( x ) x 2
& β sgn( x )
& d sgn( x ) x 2 & & b sgn( x ) x
c 8aωX 3π 4β πωX 4dX 3πω 2b
πω
Proportional damping is defined as being proportional to stiffness and mass. Linear.
Table. Laplace transforms
Definition of Laplace transform of a function f(t)
L[ f (t )] = F ( s ) =
∞
∫ f ( t )e
0
− st
dt
This gives & L f ( t ) = sF ( s ) − f (0) & L &&( t ) = s 2 F ( s ) − sf ( 0) − f ( 0) f etc. The coefficients are not the same as in the table above. The inverse transform is written as
[ ] [ ]
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. Different sources of damping are given in the table below. x(t ) 2πζ δ = ln = x( t + T ) 1−ζ 2 Thus the dampfactor can be computed
ζ =
δ
4π 2 + δ 2
9. In matrix form for a MDOF problem C = α M + β K . Appendix A.8. viscous damping is defined as usually assumed. Damping can be measured several ways. Damping Damping are nonconservative forces that dissipates energy. viscous damping Air damping Coulumb damping Displacement squared damping Solid damping
& Fd ( x . One option is to compute the logaritmic decrement which is the natural logaritm of the amplitude of any two successive amplitudes. Name Linear. 9. Source of damping.
L−1 [F ( s )] = f ( t )
The Table A..
1
( s + 2ζωs + ω )
2
ω 1−ζ
1− 1
2
(9)
ω2 s ( s 2 + 2ζωs + ω 2 )
1−ζ
2
φ = cos −1 ζ . n = 1.. F(s) f(t) Eq. # (1) δ(t) 1 H( t) (2) s 1 (3) ( n = 1..1 Laplace transforms for functions with initial zero conditions and t>0.) t n −1 n s ( n − 1)! (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) 1 ( s + a )( s + b)
1 e − at − e − bt b−a
(
)
ω
(s + ω )
2 2
sin ωt cos ωt 1
s
(s2 + ω 2 )
1
s( s + ω )
2 2
ω2
1
2
(1 − cos ωt )
e −ζωt sin ωt 1 − ζ 2 . Table A.1 below can be used for computing transforms and inverse transforms..
1
ω
1
(1 − e ω )
− t
s (s + ω )
2
ω
2
(e ω − ωt − 1)
− t
ω 2 (s − ω 2 )
s
sinh ωt cosh ωt
(s2 − ω 2 )
1 1
2
s (s + ω )
2 2
ω3
(ωt − sin ωt )
page 23
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration version 20020906
. ζ < 1 e −ζωt sin ωt 1 − ζ 2 + φ .. ζ < 1
(10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15)
n!
( s − ω ) n +1
1 s( s + ω ) 1
t n eωt .2.2.
(16) (17) (18)
1 (s + ω 2 )2
2
s
( s + ω 2 )2
2
(sin ωt − ωt cos ωt ) 2ω 3 t sin ωt 2ω
1 t cos ωt
(s2 − ω 2 ) ( s2 + ω 2 )2
2 2 (ω1 − ω 2 )
(19)
(s
2
1
2 + ω1 )( s 2
2 + ω2 )
ω2
sin ω 2 t −
1
ω1
sin ω1t
(20)
2 2 s(ω1 − ω 2 ) 2 2 ( s 2 + ω1 )( s 2 + ω 2 )
cos ω 2 t − cos ω1t
e − at sin ωt e − at cos ωt
(21) (22)
ω
(s + a)2 + ω 2
s+a
(s + a)2 + ω 2
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration version 20020906
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.
Table B. 10. Circular cylinder
z L r
∫
Mass center 
Mass moments of inertia
I xx = I zz 1 2 1 2 mr + mL 4 3 1 = mr 2 2
x
Semicylinder
x=
4r 3π
I xx = I zz
1 2 1 2 mr + mL 4 3 1 = mr 2 2
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration version 20020906
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.1 Properties of homogeneous solids Body 1. Moments of inertia Definition of mass moments of inertia
I = r 2 ρdV .
where r is the orthogonal distance from the axis of rotation. It is a measure of resistance to rotational acceleration of a body.1 gives the mass moment of inertia for some bodies. Note that these can be combined to form those of other bodies. Appendix B. Appended excerpt at the end of this collection of formulas Table B. where I is the moment of inertia about a axis through the mass center and d is the distance between the axes. Definition of radius of gyration I k= m Transfer of axes The moment of inertia of a body about a centroidal axis can be found from that of a parallell axis through the mass center I = I + md 2 .10.
r z L
x y
Cylindrical shell
1 1 I xx = mr 2 + mL 2 2 3 2 I zz = mr
z
m=ρ2πrh h=thickness r= mean radius x r L
Half cylindrical shell
m=ρπrh h=thickness r=mean radius L r z
x=
2r
π
I yy = I zz
1 2 1 2 mr + mL 2 3 4 = 1 − mr 2 π
x y
Sphere Rectangular parallellepiped

I zz =
I xx =
1 m H 2 + L2 3 1 I yy = m B 2 + L2 3 1 I zz = m B 2 + H 2 3
( ( (
2 2 mr 5
) ) )
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration version 20020906
page 26
.
B = 2Im(a)
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration version 20020906
page 27
.L z
B y H
x
11. in this context are given here. but easily forgotten. Mathematical formulas
Some formulas often used. Appendix C. ϕ = arctan a ae iωt + a e iωt = A sin(ωt ) + B cos(ωt ) A = 2 Re( a ) . Quadratic equations
ax 2 + bx + c = 0
⇒
x=
−b ± b2 − 4ac 2a
Inverse of 2 by 2 matrix −1 1 d − b a b = c d ad − bc −c a Trigonometrics Dsin(x)=cos(x) Dcos(x)=sin(x) sin(a+b)=sin(a)cos(b)+cos(a)sin(b) cos(a+b)=cos(a)cos(b)sin(a)sin(b) cos(x)=sin(x90°) sin(x)=cos(x90°) acos(x ) + bsin(x) = r cos(x − ϕ ) asin(x) + bcos(x) = rsin(x + ϕ ) b r = a 2 + b 2 .
The Heaviside function or step function is defined as t <τ 0 H (t − τ ) = τ ≤t 1 The dirac function.
2Aε=1 A 2ε
t τ Illustration for definition of δ(τ)
The dirac function has the property that
∞
−∞
∫ f (t )δ (τ )dt = f (τ )
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration version 20020906
page 28
. δ(τ) is defined as the limit of the curve in the figure below when ε goes to zero and the height goes to infinity with the area being unity.
9825 1.69409113 7. Frequencies and mode shapes for some beam configurations.0000 0.0008 1 for n>1
cos βL cosh βL = − L
x
cosh β x − cos β x − σ (sinh β x − sin β x )
clampedpinned
3.0000 1 for n>5 1.06858275 10.0008 1 for n>2
cos β L cosh β L = 1
sin
nπx = 0 L

x
nπ
pinnedpinned
Formulas in Mechanical Vibration version 20020906
page 29
.92660231 7.2787597 (2 n + 1 )π n>5
2
Mode shape
cosh
σ
)
x
σ
(sinh
β x + cos β x − β x + sin β x
freefree
0.13716839 (2 n − 1 )π n> 5
2
cosh β x − cos β x − σ (sinh β x − sin β x )
0.78097245 14.35176878 16. 0 (rigid body mode) 4.73004074 7.73004074 7. Beam length is L.21017612 13.49336143
(4
n + 1) π 4
n> 5
cosh β x − cos β x − σ (sinh β x − sin β x )
tan βL = tanh βL
x
clampedsliding
2.9825 1 for n>1
tanβL + tanhβL = 0
x
clampedclamped
4.9956078 14.1371655 17.36502037 5.9992 1.9999 1.49780392 8.1371655 17.2787597 (2 n + 1 )π n> 5
2
cosh β x − cos β x − σ (sinh β x − sin β x )
0. Appendix D.99554073 14. 12.9956079 14.85320462 10.63937983 11.7341 1.9999 1 for n>5
x
clampedfree
1.0185 0.92256510 (4 n − 1 )π n> 5
4
0.85475744 10.0008 0.
Configuration Weighted frequencies (βL) β and characteristic equation. Bending vibration of beam
The solutions for the equation for beam bending vibration in Chapter 7.9825 1.87510407 4.0000 1.85320462 10.12.