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Most nouns make their plural by simply adding –s to the end

dog - dogs

Some do change their endings, though. The main types of nouns that do this are:
Nouns ending with a consonant and –y make the plural changing –y to –ies
berry – berries 
This rule does not apply to proper nouns: the Kennedys
 -x,
Nouns ending in - ch, -s, -sh, orthan
–z aone Kennedy
add = Kennedys
–es tu the plural
church – churches
bus - buses There’s one exception to this rule. If the -ch ending is

fox - foxes pronounced with a ‘k’ sound, you add -s rather than -es:

wish - wishes
stomach - stomachs
quiz -quizzes
Nouns ending in -f or -fe change the -f or -fe to -ves:
kinfe - knives
Nouns ending in -o can add either -s or -es in the plural, and some can be
spelled either way.

Most nouns ending in -o add -s to make the plural:

avocado – avocados but potato - potatoes

The most common nouns Some of the common nouns ending Some nouns have a Some nouns are the
ending in –o that are in -o that can be spelled with either - complete different same in singular and
always spelled with –es in s or -es in the plural: plural: plural:
the plural:
singular plural singular plural
singular plural
singular plural child children fish fish
buffalo buffaloes banjo banjos / banjoes
die dice sheep sheep
domino dominoes
cargo cargos /cargoes
echo echoes foot feet luggage luggage
embargo embargoes flamingo flamingos/ flamingoes
goose geese deer deer
hero heroes
fresco frescos/ frescoes
mosquito mosquitoes louse lice
potato potatoes ghetto ghettos/ ghettoes
man men
tomato tomatoes
mango mangos/ mangoes
torpedo torpedoes mouse mice
veto vetoes motto mottos/mottoes
ox oxen Some nouns are
tornado tornados/tornadoes used only in plural:
person people
volcano volcanos o/ volcanoes plural
Some nouns maintain woman women
their Latin or Greek form: shorts
singular plural
fungus fungi
cactus cacti jeans
crisis crises
thesis theses