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Physics Department

Physics 8.07: Electromagnetism II December 18, 2012

Prof. Alan Guth

FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM

Exam Date: December 19, 2012

∗∗∗

Some sections below are marked with asterisks, as this section is. The asterisks

indicate that you won’t need this material for the quiz, and need not understand it. It is

included, however, for completeness, and because some people might want to make use

of it to solve problems by methods other than the intended ones.

Index Notation:

·B

A = Ai Bi , ×B

A i = "ijk Aj Bk , "ijk "pqk = δip δjq − δiq δjp

det A = "i1 i2 ···in A1,i1 A2,i2 · · · An,in

Rotation of a Vector:

Ai = Rij Aj , Orthogonality: Rij Rik = δjk (RT T = I)

j=1 j=2 j=3

i=1 cos φ − sin φ 0

Rotation about z-axis by φ: Rz (φ)ij = i=2

sin φ cos φ 0

i=3 0 0 1

Rotation about axis n̂ by φ:∗∗∗

R(n̂, φ)ij = δij cos φ + n̂i n̂j (1 − cos φ) − "ijk n

ˆ k sin φ .

Vector Calculus:

∂

Gradient: ϕ)i = ∂i ϕ ,

(∇ ∂i ≡

∂xi

Divergence: ∇

·A

≡ ∂i A i

Curl: × A)

(∇ i = "ijk ∂j Ak

· (∇

ϕ) = ∂ 2ϕ

Laplacian: ∇2 ϕ = ∇

∂xi ∂xi

Fundamental Theorems of Vector Calculus:

b

Gradient: ϕ · d, = ϕ(b) − ϕ(a)

∇

a

Divergence: ∇

·A

d3 x = · da

A

V S

where S is the boundary of V

Curl: (∇ × A) · da =

· d,

A

S P

where P is the boundary of S

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 2

Delta Functions:

ϕ(x)δ(x − x ) dx = ϕ(x ) , ϕ(r )δ 3 (r − r ) d3 x = ϕ(r )

d dϕ

ϕ(x) δ(x − x ) dx = −

dx dx x=x

δ(x − xi )

δ(g(x)) = , g(xi ) = 0

i

|g (xi )|

r −

r 1

∇

·

= −∇2 = 4πδ 3 (r − r )

|r − r | 3 |r − r |

x

r̂j j 1 δij − 3r̂i r̂j 4π

∂i 2

≡ ∂i 3 = −∂i ∂j = 3

+ δij δ 3 (r)

r r r r 3

· 3(d · r̂)r̂ − d = − 8π (d · ∇

∇ )δ 3 (r )

r3 3

× 3(d · r̂)r̂ − d = − 4π d × ∇

∇ δ 3 (r )

r 3 3

Electrostatics:

F = qE , where

1

(r − r ) qi 1 (r − r )

E(r ) = = r ) d3 x

3 ρ(

4π"0 i |r − r |3 4π"0

|r − r |

"0 =permittivity of free space = 8.854 × 10−12 C2 /(N·m2 )

1

= 8.988 × 109 N·m2 /C2

4π"0

r

1 ρ(r ) 3

V (r ) = V (r 0 ) − E(r ) · d, =

d x

r0 4π"0 |r − r |

∇

·E = ρ , ∇

×E = 0, = −∇V

E

"0

ρ

∇2 V = − (Poisson’s Eq.) , ρ = 0 =⇒ ∇2 V = 0 (Laplace’s Eq.)

"0

Laplacian Mean Value Theorem (no generally accepted name): If ∇2 V = 0, then

the average value of V on a spherical surface equals its value at the center.

Energy:

1 1

qi qj 1 1 ρ(r )ρ(r )

W = = d3 x d3 x

2 4π"0 rij 2 4π"0 |r − r |

ij

i=j

1 1 2 3

W = 3

d xρ(r )V (r ) = "0 E

d x

2 2

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 3

Conductors:

= σ n̂

Just outside, E

"0

2 σ |E|outside

1

Pressure on surface:

Two-conductor system with charges Q and −Q: Q = CV , W = 12 CV 2

N isolated conductors:

j

j

a a2

Image charge in sphere of radius a: Image of Q at R is q = − Q, r =

R R

cos αx cos βy cosh γz

V = where γ 2 = α2 + β 2

sin αx sin βy sinh γz

Traceless Symmetric Tensor expansion:

1 ∂ 2 ∂ϕ 1

∇ ϕ(r, θ, φ) = 2

2

r + 2 ∇2θ ϕ = 0 ,

r ∂r ∂r r

where the angular part is given by

1 ∂ ∂ϕ 1 ∂ 2ϕ

∇θ ϕ ≡

2

sin θ +

sin θ ∂θ ∂θ sin2 θ ∂φ2

() ()

∇2θ Ci1 i2 ...i n ˆ i2 . . . n̂i = −,(, + 1)Ci1 i2 ...i n̂i1 n̂i2 . . . n̂i ,

ˆ i1 n

()

where Ci1 i2 ...i is a symmetric traceless tensor and

n̂ = sin θ cos φ ê1 + sin θ sin φ ê2 + cos θ ê3 .

∞

()

() C

V (r ) = Ci1 i2 ...i r + i1+1

i2 ...i

rˆi1 r̂i2 . . . r̂i , where r = rr̂

r

=0

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 4

Azimuthal Symmetry:

∞

B

V (r ) = A r + +1 { ẑi1 . . . ẑi } r̂i1 . . . r̂i

r

=0

where { . . . } denotes the traceless symmetric part of . . . .

Special cases:

{1} = 1

{ ẑi } = ẑi

{ ẑi ẑj } = ẑi ẑj − 13 δij

{ ẑi ẑj ẑk } = ẑi ẑj ẑk − 1

ẑi δjk + ẑj δik + ẑk δij

5

{ ẑi ẑj ẑk ẑm } = zˆi ẑj ẑk ẑm − 71 ẑi ẑj δkm + ẑi ẑk δmj + ẑi ẑm δjk + ẑj zˆk δim

1

+ ẑj ẑm δik + ẑk ẑm δij + 35 δij δkm + δik δjm + δim δjk

∞

Bm

V (r ) = Am r + +1 Ym (θ, φ)

r

=0 m=−

2π π

Orthonormality: dφ sin θ dθ Y∗ m (θ, φ) Ym (θ, φ) = δ δm m

0 0

Azimuthal Symmetry:

∞

B

V (r ) = A r + +1 P (cos θ)

r

=0

1 Q p · rˆ 1 r̂i r̂j

V (r ) = + 2 + Q ij + · · · , where

4π"0 r r 2 r3

Q = d x ρ(r ) , pi = d x ρ(r ) xi Qij = d3 x ρ(r )(3xi xj −δij |r |2 ) ,

3 3

dip (r ) = − 1 ∇ p · r̂ 1 3(p · r̂)r̂ − p 1

E = − pi δ 3 (r )

4π"0 r2 4π"0 r 3 3"0

×E

∇ dip (r ) = 0 , dip (r ) = 1 ρdip (r ) = − 1 p · ∇δ

·E

∇ 3 (r )

"0 "0

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 5

∞

1

1 ()

V (r ) = +1

Ci1 ...i rˆi1 . . . r̂i ,

4π"0 r

=0

where

() (2, − 1)!!

Ci1 ...i = ρ(r ) { xi1 . . . xi } d3 x (r ≡ rr̂ ≡ xi eˆi )

,!

∞

(2, − 1)!! r

1

= { r̂i1 . . . r̂i } r̂i1 . . . r̂i , for r < r

|r − r | ,! r +1

=0

(2,)!

(2, − 1)!! ≡ (2, − 1)(2, − 3)(2, − 5) . . . 1 = , with (−1)!! ≡ 1 .

2 ,!

Reminder: { . . . } denotes the traceless symmetric part of . . . .

Griﬃths version:

∞

1

1

r ρ(r )P (cos θ ) d3 x

V (r ) = +1

4π"0 r

=0

where θ = angle between r and r .

∞

r

∞

1 1

= <

P (cos θ ) ,

+1

√ = λ P (x)

|r − r | r> 1 − 2λx + λ2

=0 =0

1 d

P (x) = (x2 − 1) , (Rodrigues’ formula)

2 ,! dx

1

2

P (1) = 1 P (−x) = (−1) P (x) dx P (x)P (x) = δ

−1 2, + 1

∞

1

4π qm

V (r ) = Ym (θ, φ)

4π"0 2, + 1 r +1

=0 m=−

∗

where qm = Ym r ρ(r ) d3 x

1 4π r ∗

= Y (θ , φ )Ym (θ, φ) , for r < r

|r − r | 2, + 1 r +1 m

=0 m=−

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 6

Electric Dipoles:

p = d3 x ρ(r ) r

r δ 3 (r − r d ) , where r d = position of dipole

ρdip (r ) = −p · ∇

= (p · ∇

F )E

=∇ (p · E) (force on a dipole)

= p × E (torque on a dipole)

U = −p · E

P (r ) = polarization = electric dipole moment per unit volume

ρbound = −∇ · P , σbound = P · n̂

≡ "0 E

D +P

, ·D

∇ = ρfree , ×E

∇ = 0 (for statics)

Boundary conditions:

⊥ ⊥ σ ⊥ ⊥

Eab ove − Ebelow = Dab ove − Dbelow = σfree

"0

E above − Ebelow = 0 Dabove − Dbelow = Pabove − Pbelow

Linear Dielectrics:

= "0 χe E,

P χe = electric susceptibility

" ≡ "0 (1 + χe ) = permittivity, = "E

D

"

"r = = 1 + χe = relative permittivity, or dielectric constant

"0

N α/"0

Clausius-Mossotti equation: χe = , where N = number density of atoms

1 − Nα

30

or (nonpolar) molecules, α = atomic/molecular polarizability (P = αE)

1 ·E d3 x

Energy: W = D (linear materials only)

2

Force on a dielectric: F = −∇ W (Even if one or more potential diﬀerences are

held ﬁxed, the force can be found by computing the gradient with the total

charge on each conductor ﬁxed.)

Magnetostatics:

Magnetic Force:

F = dp ,

+ v × B)

= q (E where p = γm0v , γ=

1

dt 1− v2

c2

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 7

=

F Id, × B

= J × B

d3 x

Current Density:

Current through a surface S: IS = J · da

S

∂ρ

Charge conservation: = −∇

· J

∂t

Moving density of charge: J = ρv

Biot-Savart Law:

µ0 d, × (r − r ) µ0 K(r ) × (r − r )

B (r ) = I = da

4π |r − r |3 4π |r − r |3

µ0 J(r ) × (r − r ) 3

= d x

4π |r − r |3

where µ0 = permeability of free space ≡ 4π × 10−7 N/A2

Examples:

= µ0 I φ̂

Inﬁnitely long straight wire: B

2πr

Inﬁnitely long tightly wound solenoid: B = µ0 nI0 ẑ , where n = turns per

unit length

0, z) = µ0 IR2

Loop of current on axis: B(0, ẑ

2(z 2 + R2 )3/2

r ) = 1 µ0 K

Inﬁnite current sheet: B( × n̂ , n̂ = unit normal toward r

2

Vector Potential:

)coul = µ0 J(r ) 3 =∇

×A

A(r d x , B , ∇

·A

coul = 0

4π |r − r |

∇

·B

= 0 (Subject to modiﬁcation if magnetic monopoles are discovered)

(r ) = A(

Gauge Transformations: A r ) + ∇Λ(

r ) for any Λ(r ). B

=∇

×A

is

unchanged.

Ampère’s Law:

∇

×B

= µ0 J , or equivalently · d, = µ0 Ienc

B

P

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 8

∞

µ0

() { r̂i1 . . . r̂i }

Aj (r ) = Mj;i1 i2 ...i

4π r +1

=0

() (2, − 1)!!

where Mj ;i1 i2 ...i = d3 xJj (r ){ xi1 . . . xi }

,!

Current conservation restriction: d3 x Sym(xi1 . . . xi−1 Ji ) = 0

i1 ...i

i1 ...i

orderings — in the indices i1 . . . i

Special cases:

, = 1: d3 x Ji = 0

, = 2: d3 x (Ji xj + Jj xi ) = 0

r ) = µ0 m × r̂

Leading term (dipole): A( ,

4π r 2

where

1 (1)

mi = − "ijk Mj;k

2

1 1

m

= I r × d, = d3 x r × J = Ia ,

2 P 2

where a = da for any surface S spanning P

S

2µ0

B 2

= 3

+ δ 3 (r )

m

4π r 4π r 3

∇

·B dip (r ) = 0 , ∇

×B dip (r ) = µ0 Jdip (r ) = −µ0 m

×∇ δ 3 (r )

Griﬃths version:

∞

µ0 I

1

A(r ) = (r ) P (cos θ )d,

4π r +1

=0

Magnetic Dipoles:

1 1

m

= I r × d, = d3 x r × J = Ia

2 P 2

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 9

×∇

F =∇ (m · B)

(force on a dipole)

=m ×B (torque on a dipole)

U = −m

·B

M (r ) = magnetization = magnetic dipole moment per unit volume

Jbound = ∇ ×M , × n̂

bound = M

K

≡ 1B

H −M , ∇

×H = Jfree , ∇

·B =0

µ0

Boundary conditions:

⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥

Bab ove − Bbelow = 0 Hab ove − Hbelow = −(Mabove − Mbelow )

above − Bbelow = µ0 (K × n̂) above − Hbelow = Kfree × n̂

B H

Linear Magnetic Materials:

M = χm H,

χm = magnetic susceptibility

µ = µ0 (1 + χm ) = permeability, = µH

B

Magnetic Monopoles:

r ) = µ0 qm r̂ ;

B( Force on a static monopole: F = qm B

4π r 2

Angular momentum of monopole/charge system: L = µ0 qe qm r̂ , where r̂ points

4π

from qe to qm

µ0 qe qm 1

Dirac quantization condition: = h̄ × integer

4π 2

Connection Between Traceless Symmetric Tensors and Legendre Polynomials

or Spherical Harmonics:

(2,)!

P (cos θ) = { ẑi1 . . . ẑi } n̂i1 . . . n̂i

2 (,!)2

For m ≥ 0,

(,m)

Ym (θ, φ) = Ci1 ...i n̂i1 . . . n̂i ,

(,m)

where Ci1 i2 ...i = dm { û+ ˆ+

i1 . . . u ˆim+1 . . . ẑi } ,

im z

(−1)m (2,)! 2m (2, + 1)

with dm = ,

2 ,! 4π (, + m)! (, − m)!

1

and û+ = √ (êx + iêy )

2

∗

Form m < 0, Y,−m (θ, φ) = (−1)m Ym (θ, φ)

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 10

2 + 1 ( − m)! m

Y£m (θ, φ) = P (cos θ)eimφ

4π ( + m)! £

where P£

m (cos θ) is the associated Legendre function, which can be deﬁned by

(−1)m 2 m/2 d

£+m

P£m (x) = £

(1 − x ) £+m

(x2 − 1)£

2 ! dx

Legendre Polynomials:

1

l=0 Y00 =

4π

3

Y11 = - sin θeiφ

8π

l=1

3

Y10 = cos θ

4π

1 15

Y22 = sin2 θe2iφ

4 2π

15

l=2 Y21 = - sin θ cosθeiφ

8π

5

Y20 = ( 32 cos2θ 1

2

)

4π

1 35

Y33 = - sin3 θe3iφ

4 4π

1 105

Y32 = sin2 θ cos θe2iφ

4 2π

l=3

1 21

Y31 = - sinθ (5cos2θ -1)eiφ

4 4π

Y30 = 7

( 5 cos3θ 3

cos θ)

4π 2 2

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 11

Maxwell’s Equations:

(i) ∇ = 1ρ

·E (iii)∇ = − ∂B ,

×E

"0 ∂t

(ii) ∇

·B

=0 = µ0 J + 1 ∂E

×B

(iv)∇

c2 ∂t

1

where µ0 "0 =

c2

+ v × B)

Lorentz force law: F = q(E

∂ρ

Charge conservation: = −∇

· J

∂t

Maxwell’s Equations in Matter:

Polarization P and magnetization M

:

ρb = −∇

· P , Jb = ∇

×M

, ρ = ρf + ρb , J = Jf + Jb

Auxiliary Fields:

≡ B −M

H , ≡ "0 E

D + P

µ0

Maxwell’s Equations:

(i) ∇

·D

= ρf = − ∂B ,

×E

(iii)∇

∂t

(ii) ∇

·B

=0 (iv)∇ = Jf + ∂D

×H

∂t

For linear media:

= "E

D , = 1B

H

µ

where " = dielectric constant, µ = relative permeability

∂D

Jd ≡ = displacement current

∂t

Maxwell’s Equations with Magnetic Charge:

(i) ∇ = 1 ρe

·E ×E

(iii)∇ = −µ0 Jm − ∂B ,

"0 ∂t

·B

(ii) ∇ = µ0 ρm (iv)∇ ×B = µ0 Je + 1 ∂E

c2 ∂t

1

Magnetic Lorentz force law: F = qm B − 2 v × E

c

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 12

J = σ(E

+ v × B)

, where σ = conductivity. ρ = 1/σ = resistivity

Resistors: V = IR , P = IV = I 2 R = V 2 /R

,

Resistance in a wire: R = ρ , where , = length, A = cross-sectional area, and ρ =

A

resistivity

V0 −t/RC

Charging an RC circuit: I = e , Q = CV0 1 − e−t/RC

R

EMF (Electromotive force): E ≡ (E · d, , where v is either the velocity

+ v × B)

of the wire or the velocity of the charge carriers (the diﬀerence points along the

wire, and gives no contribution)

Inductance:

Universal ﬂux rule: Whenever the ﬂux through a loop changes, whether due to a

changing B or motion of the loop, E = − dΦB , where ΦB is the magnetic ﬂux

dt

through the loop

µ0 d,1 · d,2

(Franz) Neumann’s formula: M21 = M12 =

4π P1 P2 |r 1 − r 2 |

dI

Self inductance: Φ = LI , E = −L ; L = inductance

dt

Self inductance of a solenoid: L = n2 µ0 V , where n = number of turns per length,

V = volume

V0 R

Rising current in an RL circuit: I = 1−e L t

R

Boundary Conditions:

D1⊥ − D2⊥ = σf − E

E = 0

1 2

1 = P − P

E1⊥ − E2⊥ = σ −D

D 1 2 1 2

"0

B1⊥ − B2⊥ = 0 −H

H = −n̂ × K

f

1 2

H1⊥ − H2⊥ = M2⊥ − M1⊥ −B

B 1

= −µ0 n̂ × K

2

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 13

Conservation Laws:

1 1 2

Energy density: uEM = "0 |E | +

2

|B|

2 µ0

µ0

Conservation of energy:

d

Integral form: [UEM + Umech ] = − S · da

dt

∂u

Diﬀerential form: = −∇ ·S , where u = uEM + umech

∂t

1 1

Momentum density: ℘EM = 2 S ; 2 Si is the density of momentum in the i’th

c c

direction

1 1 1

Maxwell stress tensor: Tij = "0 Ei Ej − δij |E| + 2

Bi Bj − δij |B|

2

2 µ0 2

where −Tij = −Tji = ﬂow in j’th direction of momentum in the i’th direction

Conservation of momentum:

d 1

Integral form: Pmech,i + 2 3

Si d x = Tij daj , for a volume V

dt c V S

bounded by a surface S

∂

Diﬀerential form: (℘mech,i + ℘EM,i ) = ∂j Tji

∂t

Angular momentum:

Angular momentum density (about the origin): ,EM = r ×℘EM = "0 [r ×(E × B)]

Wave Equation in 1 Dimension:

∂2f 1 ∂ 2f

− = 0 , where v is the wave velocity

∂z 2 v 2 ∂t2

Sinusoidal waves:

f (z, t) = A cos [k(z − vt) + δ] = A cos [kz − ωt + δ]

where

ω = angular frequency = 2πν ν = frequency

ω

v = = phase velocity δ = phase (or phase constant)

k

k = wave number λ = 2π/k = wavelength

T = 2π/ω = period A = amplitude

Euler identity: eiθ = cos θ + i sin θ

Complex notation: f (z, t) = Re[Ae ˜ i(kz−ωt) ] , where Ã = Aeiδ ; “Re” is usually

dropped.

ω dω

Wave velocities: v = = phase velocity; vgroup = = group velocity

k dk

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 14

Electromagnetic Waves:

1 ∂ 2E

1 ∂ 2B

Wave Equations: ∇2 E

− =0, −

∇2 B =0

c2 ∂t2 c2 ∂t2

Linearly Polarized Plane Waves:

(r , t) = E r −ωt)

˜0 ei(k·

E n

ˆ , where Ẽ0 is a complex amplitude, n̂ is a unit vector,

and ω/|k| = vphase = c.

n̂ · k = 0 (transverse wave)

= 1 k̂ × E

B

c

Energy and Momentum:

u = "0 E02 cos2 (kz − ωt + δ) , (k = k ẑ)

averages to 1/2

! " 1

= 1E

S ×B = uc zˆ , I (intensity) = |S|

= "0 E02

µ0 2

1 u

℘EM = 2 S = ẑ

c c

Electromagnetic Waves in Matter:

#

µ"

n≡ = index of refraction

µ0 "0

c

v = phase velocity =

n

1 |2 + 1 |B|

2

u= "|E

2 µ

= n k̂ × E

B

c

= 1E

S ×B = uc ẑ

µ n

Reﬂection and Transmission at Normal Incidence:

Boundary conditions:

X

"1 E1⊥ = "2 E2⊥ = E

E ,

1 2 El ET

1 1

B1⊥ = B2⊥ B1 = B .

µ1 µ2 2 V1 V2

Bl BT

Incident wave (z < 0): Z

I (z, t) = Ẽ0,I e

E i(k1 z−ωt)

êx ER

BR

B

V1 Interface

v1

Y

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 15

T (z, t) = Ẽ0,T ei(k2 z−ωt) êx

E

B

v2

Reﬂected wave (z < 0):

R (z, t) = Ẽ0,R ei(−k1 z−ωt) êx

E

R (z, t) = − 1 E

B ˜0,R ei(−k1 z−ωt) êy .

v1

ω must be the same on both sides, so

ω c ω c

= v1 = , = v2 =

k1 n1 k2 n2

Applying boundary conditions and solving, approximating µ1 = µ2 = µ0 ,

˜ n1 − n2 ˜ 2n1 ˜0,I

E0,R = E0,I E0,T = E

n1 + n2 n1 + n2

Electromagnetic Potentials:

=∇

The ﬁelds: B ×A

, V − ∂A

= −∇

E

∂t

= A ∂Λ

Gauge transformations: A +∇

Λ , V =V −

∂t

1

Coulomb gauge: ∇

·A

=0 =⇒ ∇2 V = − ρ is complicated)

(but A

"0

Lorentz gauge: ∇ = − 1 ∂V

·A =⇒

c2 ∂t

1 = −µ0 J , 1 ∂2

2

V =− ρ, 2

A where 2

≡ ∇2 −

"0 c2 ∂t2

2

= D’Alembertian

1 3 ρ(r , tr ) 1 r , tr )

3 J(

V (r , t) = d x , A(

r , t) = d x

4π"0 |r − r | 4π"0 |r − r |

where

|r − r |

tr = t −

c

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 16

1 q

V (r , t) =

vp

4π"0 |r − r p | 1 − ·ˆ

c

(r , t) = µ0

A

qvp

=

vp

V (r , t)

4π |r − r p | 1 −

vp c2

c ·ˆ

where r p and vp are the position and velocity of the particle at the retarded

time tr , and

r − r p

= r − r p , = |r − r p | , ˆ =

|r − r p |

Fields of a point charge (from the Liénard-Wiechert potentials):

q |r − r p | 2

r , t) =

E( ( c − v 2

)u + (r −

r p ) × (u ×

a p )

p

4π"0 (u · (r − r p ))3

r , t) = 1 ˆ × E(

B( r , t)

c

where u = c ˆ − vp

Radiation:

Radiation from an oscillating electric dipole along the z axis:

p(t) = p0 cos(ωt) , p0 = q0 d

Approximations: d λ r,

p0 ω cos θ

V (r, θ, t) = − sin[ω(t − r/c)]

4π"0 c r

r , t) = − µ0 p0 ω sin[ω(t − r/c)] ẑ

A(

4πr

2

µ 0 p0 ω sin θ r , t) = 1 r̂ × E(

=−

E cos[ω (t − r/c)] θˆ , B( r , t)

4π r c

2

1 µ0 p0 ω 2 sin θ

Poynting vector: S = (E × B ) =

cos[ω(t − r/c)] r̂

µ0 c 4π r

! " µ p2 ω 4 sin2 θ $ 2% 1

= 0 0

Intensity: I = S r

ˆ , using cos =

32π 2 c r2 2

! " 2 4

Total power: P = · da = µ0 p0 ω

S

12πc

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 17

Dipole moment: m (t) = m0 cos(ωt) ẑ , at the origin

µ0 m0 ω 2 sin θ r , t) = 1 r̂ × E(

E=− cos[ω(t − r/c)] φˆ , B( r , t)

4πc r c

m0

Compared to the electric dipole radiation, p0 → , θ̂ → −φ̂

c

General Electric Dipole Radiation:

(r , t) = µ0 [(ˆ

E r · p¨ )ˆ

r − p¨ ] , r , t) = 1 r̂ × E(

B( r , t) = − µ0 [r̂ ×p] ¨

4πr c 4πrc

Multipole Expansion for Radiation:

The electric dipole radiation formula is really the ﬁrst term in a doubly inﬁnite

series. There is electric dipole, quadrupole, . . . radiation, and also magnetic

dipole, quadrupole, . . . radiation.

Radiation from a Point Particle:

When the particle is at rest at the retarded time,

rad = q

E [ ˆ × ( ˆ × ap )]

4π"0 c |r − r |

2

rad = 1 |E

2 2

rad |2 ˆ = µ0 q a sin2 θ

Poynting vector: S ˆ

µ0 c 16π 2 c 2

µ0 q 2 a 2

Total power (Larmor formula): P =

6πc

(valid for vp = 0 or |vp | c)

Liénard’s Generalization if vp = 0:

2

µ0 q 2 γ 6

v ×

a µ0 q 2 dpµ dpµ

P = a2 − =

6πc c 6πm20 c dτ dτ

For relativists only

Radiation Reaction:

Abraham-Lorentz formula:

2

rad = µ0 q ȧ

F

6πc

The Abraham-Lorentz formula is guaranteed to give the correct average energy

loss for periodic or nearly periodic motion, but one would like a formula

that works under general circumstances. The Abraham-Lorentz formula

leads to runaway solutions which are clearly unphysical. The problem of

radiation reaction for point particles in classical electrodynamics apparently

remains unsolved.

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 18

Vector Identities:

Triple Products

A . (B x C) = B . (C x A) = C . (A x B)

A x (B x C) = B(A . C) - C(A . B)

Products Rules

(f g) = f ( g) + g ( f)

∆ ∆ ∆

(A . B) = A x ( x B) + B x ( x A) + (A . )B + (B . )A

∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆

(f A) = f ( . A) + A . ( f)

∆ ∆ ∆

(A x B) = B . ( x A) - A . ( x B)

∆ ∆ ∆

x (f A) = f ( x A) - A x ( f)

∆ ∆ ∆

(A x B) = (B . )A - (A . )B + A ( . B) - B( . A)

∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆

Second Derivatives

∆ . ( x A) = 0

∆

x ( f) = 0

∆ ∆

x ( x A) = ( . A) - 2A

∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆

MIT OpenCourseWare

http://ocw.mit.edu

8.07 Electromagnetism II

)DOO

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

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