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# MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

Physics Department
Physics 8.07: Electromagnetism II December 18, 2012
Prof. Alan Guth
FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM
Exam Date: December 19, 2012
∗∗∗
Some sections below are marked with asterisks, as this section is. The asterisks
indicate that you won’t need this material for the quiz, and need not understand it. It is
included, however, for completeness, and because some people might want to make use
of it to solve problems by methods other than the intended ones.

Index Notation:
·B
A  = Ai Bi , ×B
A  i = "ijk Aj Bk , "ijk "pqk = δip δjq − δiq δjp
det A = "i1 i2 ···in A1,i1 A2,i2 · · · An,in
Rotation of a Vector:
Ai = Rij Aj , Orthogonality: Rij Rik = δjk (RT T = I)
j=1 j=2 j=3
 
i=1  cos φ − sin φ 0 
 
Rotation about z-axis by φ: Rz (φ)ij = i=2 

 sin φ cos φ 0 

i=3 0 0 1
Rotation about axis n̂ by φ:∗∗∗
R(n̂, φ)ij = δij cos φ + n̂i n̂j (1 − cos φ) − "ijk n
ˆ k sin φ .
Vector Calculus:

Gradient:  ϕ)i = ∂i ϕ ,
(∇ ∂i ≡
∂xi
Divergence: ∇
 ·A
 ≡ ∂i A i

Curl:  × A)
(∇  i = "ijk ∂j Ak
 · (∇
 ϕ) = ∂ 2ϕ
Laplacian: ∇2 ϕ = ∇
∂xi ∂xi
Fundamental Theorems of Vector Calculus:
 b
Gradient:  ϕ · d, = ϕ(b) − ϕ(a)


a

Divergence: ∇
 ·A
 d3 x =  · da
A
V S
where S is the boundary of V

Curl: (∇ × A) · da =
   · d,
A
S P
where P is the boundary of S
8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 2

Delta Functions:
 
 
ϕ(x)δ(x − x ) dx = ϕ(x ) , ϕ(r )δ 3 (r − r  ) d3 x = ϕ(r  )
 
d  dϕ 
ϕ(x) δ(x − x ) dx = −
dx dx x=x

δ(x − xi )
δ(g(x)) = , g(xi ) = 0
i
|g  (xi )|
 


r − 
r 1

 ·

= −∇2 = 4πδ 3 (r − r  )
|r − r | 3 |r − r  |
  x   
r̂j j 1 δij − 3r̂i r̂j 4π
∂i 2
≡ ∂i 3 = −∂i ∂j = 3
+ δij δ 3 (r)
r r r r 3
 
 · 3(d · r̂)r̂ − d = − 8π (d · ∇
∇  )δ 3 (r )
r3 3
 
 × 3(d · r̂)r̂ − d = − 4π d × ∇
∇  δ 3 (r )
r 3 3
Electrostatics:
F = qE , where

1
(r − r  ) qi 1 (r − r  )

E(r ) = = r  ) d3 x
3 ρ(
4π"0 i |r − r  |3 4π"0 
|r − r |
"0 =permittivity of free space = 8.854 × 10−12 C2 /(N·m2 )
1
= 8.988 × 109 N·m2 /C2
4π"0
 r 
  1 ρ(r  ) 3 
V (r ) = V (r 0 ) − E(r ) · d, =
 d x

r0 4π"0 |r − r  |

 ·E  = ρ , ∇
 ×E  = 0,  = −∇V
E 
"0
ρ
∇2 V = − (Poisson’s Eq.) , ρ = 0 =⇒ ∇2 V = 0 (Laplace’s Eq.)
"0
Laplacian Mean Value Theorem (no generally accepted name): If ∇2 V = 0, then
the average value of V on a spherical surface equals its value at the center.
Energy:

1 1
qi qj 1 1 ρ(r )ρ(r  )
W = = d3 x d3 x
2 4π"0 rij 2 4π"0 |r − r  |
ij
 i=j


1 1  2 3
W = 3
d xρ(r )V (r ) = "0 E
 d x
2 2
8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 3

Conductors:
 = σ n̂
Just outside, E
"0

2 σ |E|outside
1
Pressure on surface:
Two-conductor system with charges Q and −Q: Q = CV , W = 12 CV 2
N isolated conductors:

j

## Qi = Cij Vj , Cij = capacitance matrix

j

a a2
Image charge in sphere of radius a: Image of Q at R is q = − Q, r =
R R

## Separation of Variables for Laplace’s Equation in Cartesian Coordinates:

   
cos αx cos βy cosh γz
V = where γ 2 = α2 + β 2
sin αx sin βy sinh γz

## Separation of Variables for Laplace’s Equation in Spherical Coordinates:

Traceless Symmetric Tensor expansion:
 
1 ∂ 2 ∂ϕ 1
∇ ϕ(r, θ, φ) = 2
2
r + 2 ∇2θ ϕ = 0 ,
r ∂r ∂r r
where the angular part is given by
 
1 ∂ ∂ϕ 1 ∂ 2ϕ
∇θ ϕ ≡
2
sin θ +
sin θ ∂θ ∂θ sin2 θ ∂φ2
() ()
∇2θ Ci1 i2 ...i n ˆ i2 . . . n̂i = −,(, + 1)Ci1 i2 ...i n̂i1 n̂i2 . . . n̂i ,
ˆ i1 n
()
where Ci1 i2 ...i is a symmetric traceless tensor and
n̂ = sin θ cos φ ê1 + sin θ sin φ ê2 + cos θ ê3 .

## General solution to Laplace’s equation:

 ()


() C
V (r ) = Ci1 i2 ...i r  + i1+1
i2 ...i
rˆi1 r̂i2 . . . r̂i , where r = rr̂
r
=0
8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 4

Azimuthal Symmetry:

∞  
B
V (r ) = A r + +1 { ẑi1 . . . ẑi } r̂i1 . . . r̂i

r
=0
where { . . . } denotes the traceless symmetric part of . . . .
Special cases:
{1} = 1
{ ẑi } = ẑi
{ ẑi ẑj } = ẑi ẑj − 13 δij
 
{ ẑi ẑj ẑk } = ẑi ẑj ẑk − 1
ẑi δjk + ẑj δik + ẑk δij
5

{ ẑi ẑj ẑk ẑm } = zˆi ẑj ẑk ẑm − 71 ẑi ẑj δkm + ẑi ẑk δmj + ẑi ẑm δjk + ẑj zˆk δim
 1
 
+ ẑj ẑm δik + ẑk ẑm δij + 35 δij δkm + δik δjm + δim δjk

## General solution to Laplace’s equation:

  
 Bm
V (r ) = Am r + +1 Ym (θ, φ)
r
=0 m=−

 2π  π
Orthonormality: dφ sin θ dθ Y∗ m (θ, φ) Ym (θ, φ) = δ  δm m
0 0
Azimuthal Symmetry:
∞ 


 B
V (r ) = A r + +1 P (cos θ)
r
=0

## First several terms:

1  Q p  · rˆ 1 r̂i r̂j 
V (r ) = + 2 + Q ij + · · · , where
4π"0 r r 2 r3
  
Q = d x ρ(r ) , pi = d x ρ(r ) xi Qij = d3 x ρ(r )(3xi xj −δij |r |2 ) ,
3 3

 
 dip (r ) = − 1 ∇  p · r̂ 1 3(p · r̂)r̂ − p 1
E = − pi δ 3 (r )
4π"0 r2 4π"0 r 3 3"0
 ×E
∇  dip (r ) = 0 ,  dip (r ) = 1 ρdip (r ) = − 1 p · ∇δ
 ·E
∇  3 (r )
"0 "0
8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 5

## Traceless Symmetric Tensor version:

1
1 ()
V (r ) = +1
Ci1 ...i rˆi1 . . . r̂i ,
4π"0 r
=0

where

() (2, − 1)!!
Ci1 ...i = ρ(r ) { xi1 . . . xi } d3 x (r ≡ rr̂ ≡ xi eˆi )
,!

(2, − 1)!! r 
1
= { r̂i1 . . . r̂i } r̂i1 . . . r̂i , for r  < r
|r − r  | ,! r +1
=0

(2,)!
(2, − 1)!! ≡ (2, − 1)(2, − 3)(2, − 5) . . . 1 = , with (−1)!! ≡ 1 .
2 ,!
Reminder: { . . . } denotes the traceless symmetric part of . . . .

Griﬃths version:
∞ 
1
1
r  ρ(r  )P (cos θ  ) d3 x

V (r ) = +1
4π"0 r
=0
where θ = angle between r and r  .


r

1 1
= <
P (cos θ  ) ,
+1 
√ = λ P (x)
|r − r  | r> 1 − 2λx + λ2
=0 =0
 
1 d
P (x) =  (x2 − 1) , (Rodrigues’ formula)
2 ,! dx
 1
 2
P (1) = 1 P (−x) = (−1) P (x) dx P (x)P (x) = δ 
−1 2, + 1

## Spherical Harmonic version:∗∗∗

1

4π qm

V (r ) = Ym (θ, φ)
4π"0 2, + 1 r +1
=0 m=−

∗ 
where qm = Ym r ρ(r  ) d3 x


1 4π r  ∗  
= Y (θ , φ )Ym (θ, φ) , for r  < r
|r − r  | 2, + 1 r +1 m
=0 m=−
8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 6

## Electric Fields in Matter:

Electric Dipoles:

p = d3 x ρ(r ) r
 r δ 3 (r − r d ) , where r d = position of dipole
ρdip (r ) = −p · ∇
 = (p · ∇
F  )E
 =∇  (p · E) (force on a dipole)
 = p × E  (torque on a dipole)
U = −p · E


## Electrically Polarizable Materials:

P (r ) = polarization = electric dipole moment per unit volume
ρbound = −∇ · P , σbound = P  · n̂
 ≡ "0 E
D  +P
 ,  ·D
∇  = ρfree ,  ×E
∇  = 0 (for statics)
Boundary conditions:
⊥ ⊥ σ ⊥ ⊥
Eab ove − Ebelow = Dab ove − Dbelow = σfree
"0
     
E above − Ebelow = 0 Dabove − Dbelow = Pabove − Pbelow
Linear Dielectrics:
 = "0 χe E,
P  χe = electric susceptibility
" ≡ "0 (1 + χe ) = permittivity,  = "E
D 
"
"r = = 1 + χe = relative permittivity, or dielectric constant
"0
N α/"0
Clausius-Mossotti equation: χe = , where N = number density of atoms
1 − Nα
30
or (nonpolar) molecules, α = atomic/molecular polarizability (P = αE) 

1  ·E  d3 x
Energy: W = D (linear materials only)
2
Force on a dielectric: F = −∇  W (Even if one or more potential diﬀerences are
held ﬁxed, the force can be found by computing the gradient with the total
charge on each conductor ﬁxed.)

Magnetostatics:
Magnetic Force:
F  = dp ,
 + v × B)
 = q (E where p = γm0v , γ= 
1
dt 1− v2
c2
8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 7
 
 =
F Id, × B
 = J × B
 d3 x

Current Density:

Current through a surface S: IS = J · da
S

∂ρ
Charge conservation: = −∇
 · J
∂t
Moving density of charge: J = ρv

Biot-Savart Law:
    
 µ0 d, × (r − r  ) µ0 K(r ) × (r − r  ) 
B (r ) = I = da
4π |r − r  |3 4π |r − r  |3
  
µ0 J(r ) × (r − r  ) 3
= d x
4π |r − r  |3
where µ0 = permeability of free space ≡ 4π × 10−7 N/A2

Examples:
 = µ0 I φ̂
Inﬁnitely long straight wire: B
2πr
Inﬁnitely long tightly wound solenoid: B  = µ0 nI0 ẑ , where n = turns per
unit length
 0, z) = µ0 IR2
Loop of current on axis: B(0, ẑ
2(z 2 + R2 )3/2
 r ) = 1 µ0 K
Inﬁnite current sheet: B(  × n̂ , n̂ = unit normal toward r
2
Vector Potential:

  )coul = µ0 J(r  ) 3   =∇
 ×A
A(r d x , B , ∇
 ·A
 coul = 0
4π |r − r  |

 ·B
 = 0 (Subject to modiﬁcation if magnetic monopoles are discovered)

  (r ) = A(
Gauge Transformations: A  r ) + ∇Λ(
 r ) for any Λ(r ). B
 =∇
 ×A
 is
unchanged.

Ampère’s Law:


 ×B
 = µ0 J , or equivalently  · d, = µ0 Ienc
B
P
8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 8

## Traceless Symmetric Tensor version:

µ0
() { r̂i1 . . . r̂i }
Aj (r ) = Mj;i1 i2 ...i
4π r +1
=0

() (2, − 1)!!
where Mj ;i1 i2 ...i = d3 xJj (r ){ xi1 . . . xi }
,!

Current conservation restriction: d3 x Sym(xi1 . . . xi−1 Ji ) = 0
i1 ...i

## where Sym means to symmetrize — i.e. average over all

i1 ...i
orderings — in the indices i1 . . . i
Special cases: 
, = 1: d3 x Ji = 0

, = 2: d3 x (Ji xj + Jj xi ) = 0

 r ) = µ0 m  × r̂
4π r 2
where
1 (1)
mi = − "ijk Mj;k
2
 
1  1
m
 = I r × d, = d3 x r × J = Ia ,
2 P 2

where a = da for any surface S spanning P
S

##  dip (r ) = µ0 ∇  ×m × r̂ µ0 3(m  · r̂)r̂ − m

 2µ0
B 2
= 3
+  δ 3 (r )
m
4π r 4π r 3

 ·B  dip (r ) = 0 , ∇
 ×B  dip (r ) = µ0 Jdip (r ) = −µ0 m
 ×∇  δ 3 (r )
Griﬃths version:

µ0 I
1

A(r ) = (r  ) P (cos θ  )d,
4π r +1
=0

## Magnetic Fields in Matter:

Magnetic Dipoles:
 
1  1
m
 = I r × d, = d3 x r × J = Ia
2 P 2
8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 9

## Jdip (r ) = −m  r δ 3 (r − r d ), where r d = position of dipole

 ×∇
F =∇  (m · B)
 (force on a dipole)
 =m ×B (torque on a dipole)
U = −m
 ·B

## Magnetically Polarizable Materials:

M (r ) = magnetization = magnetic dipole moment per unit volume
Jbound = ∇ ×M  ,  × n̂
 bound = M
K
 ≡ 1B
H  −M  , ∇
 ×H  = Jfree , ∇
 ·B  =0
µ0
Boundary conditions:
⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥
Bab ove − Bbelow = 0 Hab ove − Hbelow = −(Mabove − Mbelow )
   
above − Bbelow = µ0 (K × n̂) above − Hbelow = Kfree × n̂
B  H 
Linear Magnetic Materials:
M = χm H,
 χm = magnetic susceptibility
µ = µ0 (1 + χm ) = permeability,  = µH
B 

Magnetic Monopoles:
 r ) = µ0 qm r̂ ;
B( Force on a static monopole: F = qm B

4π r 2
Angular momentum of monopole/charge system: L  = µ0 qe qm r̂ , where r̂ points

from qe to qm
µ0 qe qm 1
Dirac quantization condition: = h̄ × integer
4π 2
Connection Between Traceless Symmetric Tensors and Legendre Polynomials
or Spherical Harmonics:
(2,)!
P (cos θ) =  { ẑi1 . . . ẑi } n̂i1 . . . n̂i
2 (,!)2
For m ≥ 0,
(,m)
Ym (θ, φ) = Ci1 ...i n̂i1 . . . n̂i ,
(,m)
where Ci1 i2 ...i = dm { û+ ˆ+
i1 . . . u ˆim+1 . . . ẑi } ,
im z

(−1)m (2,)! 2m (2, + 1)
with dm = ,
2 ,! 4π (, + m)! (, − m)!
1
and û+ = √ (êx + iêy )
2

Form m < 0, Y,−m (θ, φ) = (−1)m Ym (θ, φ)
8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 10


2 + 1 ( − m)! m
Y£m (θ, φ) = P (cos θ)eimφ
4π ( + m)! £
where P£
m (cos θ) is the associated Legendre function, which can be deﬁned by
(−1)m 2 m/2 d
£+m

P£m (x) = £
(1 − x ) £+m
(x2 − 1)£

2 ! dx

Legendre Polynomials:

## SPHERICAL HARMONICS Ylm(θ , φ)

1
l=0 Y00 =

3
Y11 = - sin θeiφ

l=1
3
Y10 = cos θ

1 15
Y22 = sin2 θe2iφ
4 2π

15
l=2 Y21 = - sin θ cosθeiφ

5
Y20 = ( 32 cos2θ 1
2
)

1 35
Y33 = - sin3 θe3iφ
4 4π

1 105
Y32 = sin2 θ cos θe2iφ
4 2π
l=3
1 21
Y31 = - sinθ (5cos2θ -1)eiφ
4 4π

Y30 = 7
( 5 cos3θ 3
cos θ)
4π 2 2

## Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 11

Maxwell’s Equations:

(i) ∇  = 1ρ
 ·E (iii)∇  = − ∂B ,
 ×E
"0 ∂t

(ii) ∇
 ·B
 =0  = µ0 J + 1 ∂E
 ×B
(iv)∇
c2 ∂t
1
where µ0 "0 =
c2
 + v × B)
Lorentz force law: F = q(E 
∂ρ
Charge conservation: = −∇
 · J
∂t
Maxwell’s Equations in Matter:
Polarization P and magnetization M
:

ρb = −∇
 · P , Jb = ∇
 ×M
 , ρ = ρf + ρb , J = Jf + Jb
Auxiliary Fields:

 ≡ B −M
H  ,  ≡ "0 E
D  + P
µ0
Maxwell’s Equations:

(i) ∇
 ·D
 = ρf  = − ∂B ,
 ×E
(iii)∇
∂t

(ii) ∇
 ·B
 =0 (iv)∇  = Jf + ∂D
 ×H
∂t
For linear media:
 = "E
D  ,  = 1B
H 
µ
where " = dielectric constant, µ = relative permeability

∂D
Jd ≡ = displacement current
∂t
Maxwell’s Equations with Magnetic Charge:

(i) ∇  = 1 ρe
 ·E  ×E
(iii)∇  = −µ0 Jm − ∂B ,
"0 ∂t

 ·B
(ii) ∇  = µ0 ρm (iv)∇ ×B = µ0 Je + 1 ∂E
c2 ∂t
 
1
Magnetic Lorentz force law: F = qm B − 2 v × E
  
c
8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 12

## Current, Resistance, and Ohm’s Law:

J = σ(E
 + v × B)
 , where σ = conductivity. ρ = 1/σ = resistivity

Resistors: V = IR , P = IV = I 2 R = V 2 /R
,
Resistance in a wire: R = ρ , where , = length, A = cross-sectional area, and ρ =
A
resistivity
V0 −t/RC  
Charging an RC circuit: I = e , Q = CV0 1 − e−t/RC
R

EMF (Electromotive force): E ≡ (E  · d, , where v is either the velocity
 + v × B)
of the wire or the velocity of the charge carriers (the diﬀerence points along the
wire, and gives no contribution)

Inductance:

Universal ﬂux rule: Whenever the ﬂux through a loop changes, whether due to a
changing B or motion of the loop, E = − dΦB , where ΦB is the magnetic ﬂux
dt
through the loop

## Mutual inductance: Φ2 = M21 I1 , M21 = mutual inductance

µ0 d,1 · d,2
(Franz) Neumann’s formula: M21 = M12 =
4π P1 P2 |r 1 − r 2 |
dI
Self inductance: Φ = LI , E = −L ; L = inductance
dt
Self inductance of a solenoid: L = n2 µ0 V , where n = number of turns per length,
V = volume
V0  R

Rising current in an RL circuit: I = 1−e L t
R
Boundary Conditions:

D1⊥ − D2⊥ = σf  − E
E  = 0
1 2
1  = P − P

E1⊥ − E2⊥ = σ  −D
D 1 2 1 2
"0

B1⊥ − B2⊥ = 0  −H
H  = −n̂ × K
f
1 2

H1⊥ − H2⊥ = M2⊥ − M1⊥  −B
B 1
 = −µ0 n̂ × K
2

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 13

Conservation Laws:

1 1  2
Energy density: uEM = "0 |E | +
 2
|B|
2 µ0

## Poynting vector (ﬂow of energy): S = 1 E  ×B 

µ0
Conservation of energy:

d
Integral form: [UEM + Umech ] = − S  · da
dt
∂u
Diﬀerential form: = −∇  ·S , where u = uEM + umech
∂t
1  1
Momentum density: ℘EM = 2 S ; 2 Si is the density of momentum in the i’th
c c
direction
   
1 1 1
Maxwell stress tensor: Tij = "0 Ei Ej − δij |E| +  2
Bi Bj − δij |B|
 2
2 µ0 2
where −Tij = −Tji = ﬂow in j’th direction of momentum in the i’th direction
Conservation of momentum:
  
d 1
Integral form: Pmech,i + 2 3
Si d x = Tij daj , for a volume V
dt c V S
bounded by a surface S

Diﬀerential form: (℘mech,i + ℘EM,i ) = ∂j Tji
∂t
Angular momentum:
Angular momentum density (about the origin): ,EM = r ×℘EM = "0 [r ×(E × B)]

Wave Equation in 1 Dimension:
∂2f 1 ∂ 2f
− = 0 , where v is the wave velocity
∂z 2 v 2 ∂t2
Sinusoidal waves:
f (z, t) = A cos [k(z − vt) + δ] = A cos [kz − ωt + δ]
where
ω = angular frequency = 2πν ν = frequency
ω
v = = phase velocity δ = phase (or phase constant)
k
k = wave number λ = 2π/k = wavelength
T = 2π/ω = period A = amplitude
Euler identity: eiθ = cos θ + i sin θ
Complex notation: f (z, t) = Re[Ae ˜ i(kz−ωt) ] , where Ã = Aeiδ ; “Re” is usually
dropped.
ω dω
Wave velocities: v = = phase velocity; vgroup = = group velocity
k dk
8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 14

Electromagnetic Waves:

1 ∂ 2E 
1 ∂ 2B
Wave Equations: ∇2 E
− =0, −
∇2 B =0
c2 ∂t2 c2 ∂t2
Linearly Polarized Plane Waves:
 (r , t) = E  r −ωt)
˜0 ei(k·
E n
ˆ , where Ẽ0 is a complex amplitude, n̂ is a unit vector,
and ω/|k| = vphase = c.
n̂ · k = 0 (transverse wave)
 = 1 k̂ × E
B 
c
Energy and Momentum:
u = "0 E02 cos2 (kz − ωt + δ) , (k = k ẑ)

averages to 1/2
! " 1
= 1E
S  ×B  = uc zˆ , I (intensity) = |S|
 = "0 E02
µ0 2
1  u
℘EM = 2 S = ẑ
c c
Electromagnetic Waves in Matter:
#
µ"
n≡ = index of refraction
µ0 "0
c
v = phase velocity =
n

1  |2 + 1 |B|
 2
u= "|E
2 µ
 = n k̂ × E
B 
c
 = 1E
S  ×B  = uc ẑ
µ n
Reﬂection and Transmission at Normal Incidence:
Boundary conditions:
X
"1 E1⊥ = "2 E2⊥  = E
E  ,
1 2 El ET
1  1 
B1⊥ = B2⊥ B1 = B .
µ1 µ2 2 V1 V2

Bl BT
Incident wave (z < 0): Z

 I (z, t) = Ẽ0,I e
E i(k1 z−ωt)
êx ER
BR

B
V1 Interface

v1
Y

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8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 15

## Transmitted wave (z > 0):

 T (z, t) = Ẽ0,T ei(k2 z−ωt) êx
E

##  T (z, t) = 1 Ẽ0,T ei(k2 z−ωt) êy .

B
v2
Reﬂected wave (z < 0):
 R (z, t) = Ẽ0,R ei(−k1 z−ωt) êx
E

 R (z, t) = − 1 E
B ˜0,R ei(−k1 z−ωt) êy .
v1
ω must be the same on both sides, so
ω c ω c
= v1 = , = v2 =
k1 n1 k2 n2
Applying boundary conditions and solving, approximating µ1 = µ2 = µ0 ,
 
˜ n1 − n2 ˜ 2n1 ˜0,I
E0,R = E0,I E0,T = E
n1 + n2 n1 + n2

Electromagnetic Potentials:

 =∇
The ﬁelds: B  ×A
,  V − ∂A
 = −∇
E
∂t
 = A ∂Λ
Gauge transformations: A +∇
Λ , V =V −
∂t
1
Coulomb gauge: ∇
 ·A
=0 =⇒ ∇2 V = − ρ  is complicated)
(but A
"0

Lorentz gauge: ∇  = − 1 ∂V
 ·A =⇒
c2 ∂t
1  = −µ0 J , 1 ∂2
2
V =− ρ, 2
A where 2
≡ ∇2 −
"0 c2 ∂t2
2
= D’Alembertian

## Retarded time solutions (Lorentz gauge):

 
1 3  ρ(r  , tr )  1  r  , tr )
3  J(
V (r , t) = d x , A(
r , t) = d x
4π"0 |r − r  | 4π"0 |r − r  |
where
|r − r  |
tr = t −
c
8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 16

## Liénard-Wiechert Potentials (potentials of a point charge):

1 q
V (r , t) =  
vp 
4π"0 |r − r p | 1 − ·ˆ
c

 (r , t) = µ0
A
qvp
 =
vp
V (r , t)
4π |r − r p | 1 − 
vp c2
c ·ˆ
where r p and vp are the position and velocity of the particle at the retarded
time tr , and
r − r p
 = r − r p , = |r − r p | , ˆ =
|r − r p |
Fields of a point charge (from the Liénard-Wiechert potentials):
q |r − r p | 2
 r , t) =
E( ( c − v 2
)u + (r − 
r p ) × (u × 
a p )
p
4π"0 (u · (r − r p ))3

 r , t) = 1 ˆ × E(
B(  r , t)
c
where u = c ˆ − vp

Radiation from an oscillating electric dipole along the z axis:
p(t) = p0 cos(ωt) , p0 = q0 d
Approximations: d  λ  r,
 
p0 ω cos θ
V (r, θ, t) = − sin[ω(t − r/c)]
4π"0 c r
 r , t) = − µ0 p0 ω sin[ω(t − r/c)] ẑ
A(
4πr
2
 
µ 0 p0 ω sin θ  r , t) = 1 r̂ × E(
 =−
E cos[ω (t − r/c)] θˆ , B(  r , t)
4π r c
   2
 1  µ0 p0 ω 2 sin θ
Poynting vector: S = (E × B ) =
 cos[ω(t − r/c)] r̂
µ0 c 4π r
! "  µ p2 ω 4  sin2 θ \$ 2% 1
 = 0 0
Intensity: I = S r
ˆ , using cos =
32π 2 c r2 2
 ! " 2 4
Total power: P  =  · da = µ0 p0 ω
S
12πc
8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 17

Dipole moment: m  (t) = m0 cos(ωt) ẑ , at the origin
 
µ0 m0 ω 2 sin θ  r , t) = 1 r̂ × E(

E=− cos[ω(t − r/c)] φˆ , B(  r , t)
4πc r c
m0
Compared to the electric dipole radiation, p0 → , θ̂ → −φ̂
c
 (r , t) = µ0 [(ˆ
E r · p¨ )ˆ
r − p¨ ] ,  r , t) = 1 r̂ × E(
B(  r , t) = − µ0 [r̂ ×p] ¨
4πr c 4πrc
The electric dipole radiation formula is really the ﬁrst term in a doubly inﬁnite
series. There is electric dipole, quadrupole, . . . radiation, and also magnetic
When the particle is at rest at the retarded time,
E [ ˆ × ( ˆ × ap )]
4π"0 c |r − r  |
2
 
2 2
 rad |2 ˆ = µ0 q a sin2 θ
Poynting vector: S ˆ
µ0 c 16π 2 c 2

## where θ is the angle between ap and ˆ .

µ0 q 2 a 2
Total power (Larmor formula): P =
6πc
(valid for vp = 0 or |vp |  c)
Liénard’s Generalization if vp = 0:
  2 
µ0 q 2 γ 6  
v × 
a  µ0 q 2 dpµ dpµ
P = a2 −   =
6πc c  6πm20 c dτ dτ

For relativists only
Abraham-Lorentz formula:
2
F
6πc
The Abraham-Lorentz formula is guaranteed to give the correct average energy
loss for periodic or nearly periodic motion, but one would like a formula
that works under general circumstances. The Abraham-Lorentz formula
leads to runaway solutions which are clearly unphysical. The problem of
radiation reaction for point particles in classical electrodynamics apparently
remains unsolved.
8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM, FALL 2012 p. 18

Vector Identities:

Triple Products

A . (B x C) = B . (C x A) = C . (A x B)

A x (B x C) = B(A . C) - C(A . B)

Products Rules

(f g) = f ( g) + g ( f)
∆ ∆ ∆

(A . B) = A x ( x B) + B x ( x A) + (A . )B + (B . )A
∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆

(f A) = f ( . A) + A . ( f)
∆ ∆ ∆

(A x B) = B . ( x A) - A . ( x B)
∆ ∆ ∆

x (f A) = f ( x A) - A x ( f)
∆ ∆ ∆

(A x B) = (B . )A - (A . )B + A ( . B) - B( . A)
∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆

Second Derivatives
∆ . ( x A) = 0

x ( f) = 0
∆ ∆

x ( x A) = ( . A) - 2A
∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆

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8.07 Electromagnetism II
)DOO