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Submittal No.

3: Comparative Analysis of Architectural Elements & Features

Temple of Horus at Edfu, Egypt

This Ptolemaic temple, built between 237 and 57 BC, is one of
the best-preserved ancient monuments in Egypt. It was the
'home' and cult centre of the falcon god Horus of Behdet (the
ancient name for Edfu), although the Temple of Horus as it
exists today is Ptolemaic.

Features Architectural Period: Egyptian Architecture

Columns The columns are richly
decorated with floral and
palm capitals.
32 towering capitals
surrounding the Forecourt
of the Temple.
Mouldings Concave And Roll Moldings
High stone walls with concave and roll moldings on the
outside abut against the backs of the temple structure on
the other three sides

Roofing Flat roof

Although the use of flat roof was practiced,
not all are on the same plane, not all are of
the same level.
Façade Entrance pylons
The massive pylons and main gate of the
pylons, form the side walls of the great
court, and enclose the temple face south.

Construction Material Sandstone- sandstone, which are common in Egypt

Construction Methods The use of stone was a major method they

used. They also practiced Post and lintel
Temple of Artemis, Greece
A Greek temple dedicated to an ancient, local form of the goddess Artemis. The original temple (upper
left photo) is already in ruins. However, replicas of the temple (upper right photo) had been built.
Features Architectural Period: Greek Architecture
Columns Ionic Capital and Fluted Column
The temple was decorated with 127 Ionic columns
that stood 60 feet high. Photo on the left shows
retrieved column from the actual temple.

Mouldings Marble Honeysuckle And Leaf Moulding

Somehow, only fragments of the moulding are found and are
subject for restoration.

Roofing Gable Roof

The temple had a a roof with two
slopes with a slight inclination.

Façade Golden Ratio

The golden ratioappears in several constructions
and layouts of Greek Architecture

Construction Material Marble and Wood

The marble was an innovative material, it was little
used because of its weight. Wood, on the other hand,
was used for the framework.

Construction Methods Columnar and trabeated

Use of Roof truss appeared,
Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome
Santa Maria Maggiore, sometimes referred to as Our Lady of
the Snows, is one of the first churches built in honour of the
Virgin Mary, was erected in the immediate aftermath of the
Council of Ephesus of 431, which proclaimed Mary Mother of

Features Architectural Period: Early Christian Architecture

Columns Ionic Capital
The wide nave is marked off from the side aisles
by two rows of twenty columns.

Mouldings Ceiling and stucco molding

Roofing Gable Roof

The temple had a a roof with two slopes with a slight

Façade Portico, Emphasis

The façade of the Basilica has a portico which has
five rectangular portals, separated by six
rectangular piers. The belltower breaks the
symmetry of the structure but gives it emphasis.

Construction Material Travertine Limestone, Brick, Wood

central part of the façade, which is entirely clad in
limestone, Brick used in façade
Flat coffered wooden ceiling on the central nave
Construction Methods Truss Construction using King and
Queen Post
Hagia Sophia, Turkish Ayasofya, Latin Sancta Sophia,
also called Church of the Holy Wisdom or Church of
the Divine Wisdom, cathedral built at Constantinople
(now Istanbul, Turkey) in the 6th century CE (532–
537). By general consensus, it is the most important
Byzantine structure and one of the world’s great
Features Architectural Period: Byzantine Architecture
Columns Ionic Capital
The capital is a derivative of the Classical Ionic order via the variations of the
Roman composite capital and Byzantine invention. Shrunken volutes appear
at the corners decorative detailing runs the circuit of lower regions of the
-There are 140 monolithic columns from different places of the world.
--8 porphyry columns – from Egypt.
-8 green columns- Artemis Temple in
-carved with acanthus and palm tree leaves
and the monograms of the emperors
(Justinian & Theodora) appear on them.
None of the bowl capitals are identical.

Mouldings double billet moulding

Roofing Domed
The temple had a a roof with two slopes with a slight

Façade Minaret
The minaret is similarly Ottomans in form with a
cylindrical, faceted and a shaft

Construction Material Marble Slabs, Bricks, Stones

Construction Methods Domical Construction and classical columnar style

Peterborough Cathedral, England
Peterborough Cathedral is one of the finest Norman
cathedrals in England. Founded as a monastic
community in 654 AD, it became one of the most
significant medieval abbeys in the country, the burial
place of two queens and the scene of Civil War

Features Architectural Period: Romanesque Architecture

Columns Columns with capitals enriched with Early English
These columns are located along the nave.

Mouldings Early English Moulding- Found on the arches (below left)

Norman-string moulding- forms a cornice at the vaulting-shafts (right)
Billet moulding- windows
Chevron moulding -

Roofing Vaulted roof

The temple had a a roof with two slopes with a
slight inclination.

Façade Early English Gothic West Front Facade

Construction Material Barnack Stone- a close-grained and most durable

Wood- doors

Construction Methods Vaulting, masonry, timber construction

Notre Dame, Paris
Considered to be one of the greatest examples of French
Gothic architecture, Notre-Dame Cathedral - along with the
Eiffel Tower - is one of Paris's most famous landmarks.

Features Architectural Period: Gothic Architecture

Columns Romanesque Columns-
Corinthian Capital
The Cathedral has 75 pillars
and columns

Mouldings Moulding in the Arcade

Roofing Vaulted roof
The temple had a a roof with two
eslopes with a slight inclination.


tiers of niches with statues

Construction Material Stone

Construction Methods

Arch and Vault construction