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Major Project Report

Automatic Solar Tracking System

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Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 1


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Automatic Solar Tracking System

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 2


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ABSTRACT

Solar energy is rapidly gaining notoriety as an important means of expanding renewable


energy resources. As such, it is vital that those in engineering fields understand the technologies
associated with this area. This project includes the design and construction of a microcontroller-
based solar panel tracking system. Solar tracking allows more energy to be produced because the
solar array is able to remain aligned to the sun. This system builds upon topics learned in this
course.

To make solar energy more viable, the efficiency of solar array systems must be
maximized. A feasible approach for maximizing the efficiency of solar array systems is sun
tracking. This is a system that controls the movement of a solar array so that it is constantly
aligned towards the direction of the sun. Solar modules are devices that cleanly convert sunlight
into electricity and offer a practical solution to the problem of power generation in remote areas.
The solar tracker designed and constructed in this project offers a reliable and affordable method
of aligning a solar module with the sun in order to maximize its energy output.

Automatic Sun Tracking System is a hybrid hardware/software prototype, which


automatically provides best alignment of solar panel with the sun, to get maximum output
(electricity) ideate the design. Problems and possible improvements will also be presented.

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 3


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page No.

Certificate……………………………………………………………………...…02
Acknowledgement………………………………………………….………….…03
Abstract…………………………………………………………………………..05

1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………...08

2. Introduction To Solar Tracking……………………………………………09

1.1 Background..................................................................................................09
1.2 Need Of Sun Tracking..................................................................................09
1.3 Objective Of The Work...............................................................................10
1.4 Solar Energy……………………………………………………….……....10
1.5 Tracking Techniques………………..………………………..……….…...11
1.6 Relevance Of Solar Trackers……………………………………………..12
1.7 Equivalent Circuit Of Solar Cell………………………………………… 12
1.8 Active Solar Tracker………………………………………………………13
1.9 Major Components :……………………………………………………….13
2.9.1 Single Axis Solar Tracker………………….……………………..….13
2.9.2 Dual Axis Solar Tracker…………………………………………….. 14

3. Project Description…………………………………………………………....15

3.1 General Block Diagram................................................................................15


Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 4
3.2 Charge Controller Circuit.............................................................................16
3.2.1 Power Supply Section……………………………………………… 18
3.2.2 Microcontroller Section……………………………………………. 18
3.2.3 LCD Section………………………………………………………... 19
3.2.4 LED Circuit………………………………………………………… 19
3.2.5 Circuit Diagram…………………………………………………….. 20
3.3 Solar Alignment Circuit…………………………………………………...21
3.3.1 Power Supply Section… ……………………………………………22
3.3.2 Solar Sensor Section……………………………………………….. 22
3.3.3 Microcontroller Section……………………………………………. 22
3.3.4 Circuit Diagram ……………………………………………………. 23
3.4 Diptrace…. ………………………………………………………………..24
3.4.1 Modules Used… ……………………………………………………24
3.4.2 Features…………………………………………………………….. 25

4. Advantages…………………………………………………………………….26

5. Application…………………………………………………………………… 27

6. Conclusion & Future Scope…………………………………………………..31

References………………………………..……………………………32

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 5


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1. INTRODUCTION

Energy is the primary and most universal measure of all kinds of work by human beings and
nature. Primarily, it is the gift of the nature to the mankind in various forms. The consumption of
the energy is directly proportional to the progress of the mankind. With ever growing population,
improvement in the living standard of the humanity, industrialization of the developing
countries, the global demand for energy increases day by day.

The primary source of energy is fossil fuel, however the finiteness of fossil fuel resources and
large scale environmental degradation caused by their widespread use, particularly global
warming, urban air pollution and acid rain, strongly suggests that harnessing of non-
conventional, renewal and environmental friendly

As the sources of conventional energy deplete day by day, resorting to alternative sources of
energy like solar and wind energy has become need of the hour.

Solar powered lighting systems are already available in rural as well as urban areas. These
include solar lanterns, solar home lightning system, solar street lights, solar garden lights and
solar power packs. All of them consist of four components; solar photovoltaic module,
rechargeable battery, solar charge controller and load.

In the solar powered lightning systems, the solar charge controller plays an important role as the
system’s overall success depends mainly on it. It is considered as an indispensible link between
the solar panel, battery and load.

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 6


2. INTRODUCTION TO SUN TRACKING

2.1 BACKGROUND:

As the range of applications for solar energy increases, so does the need for improved
materials and methods used to harness this power source. There are several factors that affect the
efficiency of the collection process. Major influences on overall efficiency include solar cell
efficiency, intensity of source radiation and storage techniques. The materials used in solar cell
manufacturing limit the efficiency of a solar cell. This makes it particularly difficult to make
considerable improvements in the performance of the cell, and hence restricts the efficiency of
the overall collection process. Therefore, the most attainable method of improving the
performance of solar power collection is to increase the mean intensity of radiation received
from the source.

2.2 NEED OF SUN TRACKING:

Each day, the sun rises in the east, moves across the sky, and sets in the west. Whenever
the sun is shining on us, it is sending energy in our direction. If there is a solar cell to turn and
look at the sun all day, then it would be receiving the maximum amount of sunlight possible and
converting it into the more useful energy form electricity. It is seen that the sun appears to follow
a path that is nearly directly overhead. However, for locations north or south of the tropics (e.g.,
latitudes greater than 23.5 degrees), the sun never reaches a position that is directly overhead.
Instead, it follows a path across the southern or the northern part of the sky.

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 7


2.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE WORK :

If a solar cell is configured so that it faces the sun continually as it moves across the sky
from east to west, the most electrical energy possible can be obtained. One way to do this, of
course, is by hand. However, keeping a solar cell facing the sun throughout the day is not a very
efficient use of a person’s time. Going outside to a solar cell every hour to turn it toward the sun
might be possible, but this would still not be an efficient method. A photo sensor is employed to
control the solar cell tracking system.

For example, if the photo sensor is not aligned with sun rays, then it could turn on the motor until
it is once again aligned. If the motor is attached to the frame holding the solar cell, then the solar
cell could be moved to face the sun. As long as the photo sensor is in alignment with the sun,
nothing happens. However, when the sun moves across the sky and is not in proper alignment
with the photo sensor, then a motor moves the frame until the photo sensor is in the sun once
more. This could have the effect of keeping the solar cell facing the sun as it moves across the
required human attention. The solar tracker system includes a frame on which a solar cell could
be mounted. The frame is to move so that it faces the sun as it travels across the sky during the
day. The frame could be driven by an electric motor that turns on and off in response to the
movement of the sky.

2.4 SOLAR ENERGY:

One of the most important problems facing the world today is the energy problem. This
problem is resulted from the increase of demand for electrical energy and high cost of fuel. The
solution was in finding another renewable energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy,
potential energy...etc. Nowadays, solar energy has been widely used in our life, and it's expected
to grow up in the next years.

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 8


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Solar energy has many advantages:

1. Need no fuel

2. Has no moving parts to wear out

3. Non-polluting & quick responding

4. Adaptable for on-site installation

5. Easy maintenance

6. Can be integrated with other renewable energy sources

7. Simple & efficient

Tracking systems try to collect the largest amount of solar radiation and convert it into usable
form of electrical energy (DC voltage) and store this energy into batteries for different types of
applications. The sun tracking systems can collect more energy than what a fixed panel system
collects.

2.5 TRACKING TECHNIQUES:

There are several forms of tracking currently available; these vary mainly in the method
of implementing the designs. The two general forms of tracking used are fixed control
algorithms and dynamic tracking. The inherent difference between the two methods is the
manner in which the path of the sun is determined. In the fixed control algorithm systems, the
path of the sun is determined by referencing an algorithm that calculates the position of the sun
for each time period. That is, the control system does not actively find the sun's position but
works it out given the current time, day, month, and year. The dynamic tracking system, on the
other hand, actively searches for the sun's position at any time of day (or night). Common to both

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 9


forms of tracking is the control system. This system consists of some method of direction
control, such as DC motors, stepper motors, and servo motors, which are directed by a control
circuit, either digital or analog.

2.6 RELEVANCE OF SOLAR TRACKERS:

For people living in remote communities, often in third world countries, access to grid-connected
electricity is not always possible. Often the nearest utility is a long distance from homes and the
cost of developing the infrastructure that would allow for access to the grid is prohibitive.
Remote communities in third world countries are of course not the only ones that suffer this
dilemma. Australia is a large country with many farmers and communities that are remote from
the local grid and in these cases alternative sources of electrical power must be obtained.

2.7 EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF SOLAR CELL:

Equivalent Circuit of Solar Cell

To understand the electronic behaviour of a solar cell, it is useful to create a model which is
electrically equivalent, and is based on discrete electrical components whose behavior is well
known. An ideal solar cell may be modelled by a current source in parallel with a diode. In
practice no solar cell is ideal, so a shunt resistance and a series resistance component are added
to the model. The result is the "equivalent circuit of a solar cell" as shown above.

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 10


2.8 ACTIVE SOLAR TRACKERS:

Active trackers measure the light intensity from the sun to determine where the solar modules
should be pointing. Light sensors are positioned on the tracker at various locations or in specially
shaped holders. If the sun is not facing the tracker directly there will be a difference in light
intensity on one light sensor compared to another and this difference can be used to determine in
which direction the tracker has to tilt in order to be facing the sun.

2.9 TYPES OF SOLAR TRACKERS:

There are many different types of solar tracker which can be grouped into single axis and double
axis models.

2.9.1 SINGLE AXIS SOLAR TRACKERS:

Single axis solar trackers can either have a horizontal or a vertical axle. The horizontal type is
used in tropical regions where the sun gets very high at noon, but the days are short. The vertical
type is used in high latitudes (such as in UK) where the sun does not get very high, but summer
days can be very long. These have a manually adjustable tilt angle of 0 - 45 °and automatic
tracking of the sun from East to West. They use the PV modules themselves as light sensor to
avoid unnecessary tracking movement and for reliability. At night the trackers take up a
horizontal position.

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 11


Single Axis Solar Tracker

2.9.2 DUAL AXIS TRACKERS:

Double Axis Tracker

Double axis solar trackers have both a horizontal and a vertical axle and so can track the Sun's
apparent motion exactly anywhere in the world. This type of system is used to control
astronomical telescopes, and so there is plenty of software available to automatically predict and
track the motion of the sun across the sky. Dual axis trackers track the sun both East to West and
North to South for added power output (approx 40% gain) and convenience.

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 12


3. PROJECT DESCRIPTION

3.1 GENERAL BLOCK DIAGRAM:

The light sensors, comparator and microcontroller are the major components for the electronic
design.

General Block Diagram

The figure shows the general block diagram of the device. The first component in the diagram is
the transducer. Transducer detects the varying intensity of Sun light. The outputs of the
transducer are fed to comparator which gives certain logic to the microcontroller.

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 13


Microcontroller then, processes the logic from the comparator, as per the programs installed to it.
Finally, the processed logic from the microcontroller is used to rotate the motors which in turn
rotate the Solar Panel.

There are mainly two circuits as described below:

3.2 CHARGE CONTROLLER CIRCUIT:

The main objective of the microcontroller based Solar Charge Controller (SCC) is to manage the
power wisely to ensure longer life of battery and eliminating the need of turning on /off the load
during the day/night conditions. The microcontroller serves the purpose of measuring accurate
battery voltage as well as sunlight level and therefore does very accurate control of the various
components.

When the SCC is powered, the microcontroller measures the battery voltage as well as solar
panel voltage. If the solar panel voltage is less than 5 volts, the microcontroller assumes this as
dawn (night condition). It then checks for the battery voltage. If the battery voltage is greater
than 11 volts, it turns on the load and the above process is again repeated until dusk (morning) is
detected or the battery is discharged below 11 volts. If the battery voltage at the startup is already
below 11 volts, the microcontroller turns off the load and waits till dusk. This automatic
shutdown is incorporated to ensure the deep discharge of the battery during low charging
conditions such as rainy season or winter season.

If the solar panel voltage is above 5 volts, the microcontroller assumes this as dusk or daylight
condition and connects the solar panel to the battery through a P-Channel MOSFETs and thereby
charging the battery. The microcontroller also continuously monitors the battery voltage during
this period and as soon as the battery voltage reaches 14 volts, the charging is cut off.

The switching devices used in this project are MOSFETs and are chosen due to their very low
turn on resistance. This in turn dissipates less heat during conduction and thereby increasing the
overall efficiency of the circuit. The MOSFETs used are sufficient to switch a maximum 2 Amp.
Of current without any substantial heating and up to 10 amperes if suitable heat sinks is
provided.

The SCC also has a LCD display which constantly shows the current system status as well as the
current battery voltage.

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 14


The following flow chart shows the working of the charge controller circuit:

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 15


This circuit essentially consists of the following main sections:

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 16


3.2.1 POWER SUPPLY SECTION:

This contains a 5 volt Regulator IC LM78L05 and two 10uF electrolytic capacitors connected at
output/input of the IC for smoothening of the DC voltages as well as to minimize the external
noise and interference. The value of the capacitors is chosen arbitrarily and is not of much
importance. Therefore any value can be taken. The LM78L05 takes 12v DC as input directly
from the battery and converts it to 5V DC suitable for operating the microcontroller/LCD and
other circuitry.

3.2.2 MICROCONTROLLER SECTION:

This includes one microcontroller ATMEGA 8 from Atmel, one crystal oscillator of 4 MHz, and
two ceramic non polar capacitors of 22pF. The crystal connected provides the clock pulses to the
microcontroller. The microcontroller executes the code burned in its flash memory and manages
the various inputs and outputs of the circuit. In this circuit, Port PD.0 to PD.2 are configured as
output port for giving the status of the systems and to control the MOSFET’s. There may be
other choice also for selecting the output ports as required. The PORT c is a 6 channel 10 bit
ADC input which takes analog signals from the battery and solar panel and converts them into
digital values. The 10K multi turn presets at the input of these ports forms the voltage divider
circuit and adjusts the input level of the ADC channels. The microcontroller is reset when the pin
1 of it is pulled low. Therefore the 10K resistor connected at this pin pulls it to high level for
normal operation and the switch resets the microcontroller when pressed. The crystal used to
supply/generate the clock pulses for the microcontroller while the capacitors (22pF) connected
stabilizes the frequency of the crystal.

The output port D.2 is configured as low battery indicator and a LED is connected to it through a
current limiting resistor of 1K. This resistor controls the current to about 2mA. Similarly other
outputs are also fed to a LED circuit to indicate the charging status as well as load status. The
outputs D.0 is also fed to a N Channel MOSFET which turns on or off the load according the
day/night condition or battery charge condition. The output from the port D.1 is connected to a
NPN transistor which in turn controls the P Channel MOSFET. This MOSFET turns on or off
the charging of the battery as per the light conditions. The reason for selecting the P Channel
MOSFET for charging is to simplify the design of the circuit. A normal N channel MOSFET
could also be employed in this case.

3.2.3 LCD SECTION:

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 17


This includes one LCD JHD162 which has two rows of 16 characters. The LCD is connected to
Port PB.0-PB.5 is used to visually indicate the status of the system as well as current battery
voltage. The 10K variable resistor connected with the LCD pin3 controls the contrast level of the
LCD.

3.2.4 LED CIRCUIT:

As clear from the circuit, the LED’s are driven directly from the battery and are controlled by the
microcontroller as per the battery condition as well as light conditions.

Further, the total consumption of the LED is around 3.6 Watts and delivering about 3 watts of
light output.

Therefore only 16.6 % of supplied energy is dissipated in form of heat. As compared to other
common light sources, like CFL, Tube of incandescent bulbs the efficiency of the same lies
between 50-70%.. Therefore the LED’s are nowadays becoming more and more efficient sources
of light.

The circuit is configured as two parallel strings of three LED’s each in series. The working
voltage of a white LED is around 3.3V to 3.6V. In this project, all the LED’s used are of 0.5W
each rating. The average consumption of each LED string is around 150 mA. Thus the total
consumption of the circuit is about 300mA @ 12v equals 3.6 watts. The rest 0.6 watt is
dissipated as heat.

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 18


3.2.5 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF CHARGE CONTROLLER CIRCUIT:

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 19


3.3 SOLAR ALIGNMENT CIRCUIT:

The basic functional blocks of this system are sensors and their operation depends upon the
intensity of light falling on solar panel. All sensors (each with different functionality) send their
output to microcontroller. Then the microcontroller executes predefined task in its software

These sensors are being used with following names

• Sun Tracking Sensors (STS)

•.Heat Sensors(HS)

This circuit is an independent unit which monitors the direction of the sun and constantly aligns
the complete assembly towards the sun so that the efficiency of the panel is at maximum. The
solar panel has the property of changing the current which depends on the angle of incident light.
Therefore in course of time, when the sun moves away from the set direction, the maximum
current of the panel reduces which thereby decreases the charging current.

The circuit compromises of two Light Dependent Resistors (LDR’s), which are separated by a
partition. These LDR’s are mounted perpendicular to the solar panel surface such that when the
panel faces the sun, the sunlight falls on both LDR’s. Now when the sun moves past the panel,
the partition between the LDR’s casts a shadow on the opposite LDR, which in turn increases the
resistance of that LDR. This triggers the comparator circuit (LM339) and sends a logical signal
to the microcontroller. The microcontroller then enables its certain outputs to turn on the
appropriate relay. These relays then drive the motor in suitable direction. The process is repeated
until both the LDR’s sees the sun back.

The motor is operated in a particular direction from the two relays driven from the
microcontroller. The microcontroller also checks the night conditions, when the both LDR’s
have greater resistance. In such situation, the microcontroller turns off both the relay otherwise if
both relays are turned on, the supply will get shorted.

The motor used in the project is a geared type and of 3.5 RPM to maintain a close tolerance in
panel alignment. The panel is pivoted from the center with the help of two sheet metal screws
and two hinges. Such that, the panel is free to move on its center axis. One end of the panel is
spring loaded while the other end is tied to the motor shaft using a stainless steel wire of 0.25mm
diameter. When the motor rotates, the wire gets wound or unwound on the shaft and thereby
pulling or pushing the panel from the axis of rotation

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 20


This circuit essentially consists of the following main sections:

3.3.1 POWER SUPPLY SECTION:

This contains a 5 volt Regulator IC LM78L05 and two 10uF & 1000uF electrolytic capacitors
connected at output/input of the IC for smoothening of the DC voltages as well as to minimize
the external noise and interference. The value of the capacitors is chosen arbitrarily and is not of
much importance. Therefore any value can be taken. The LM78L05 takes 12v DC as input
directly from the battery and converts it to 5V DC suitable for operating the
microcontroller/LCD and other circuitry. The bridge rectifier circuit is optionally added for
powering the circuit externally with an AC transformer in case where the battery management is
of more importance.

3.3.2 SOLAR SENSOR SECTION:

This is an auxiliary circuit which is compromised of two LDR’s separated by a wooden strip.
The main purpose of the wooden strip is to cast a shadow on one of the LRD when the direction
of the sun changes. This causes the resistance of one LRD to increase due to the shadow. The
difference between the resistances of the LRS is compared by the comparator IC LM339 and
accordingly logic HIGH or LOW signal is generated at its output. These logic signals are sensed
by the microcontroller and then relevant signals are given to the base of the transistors BC547
through the 4K7 resistors. When the base of the transistors is pulled high, the transistor conducts
and in turn switches on the corresponding relay. This relay decides the direction of the motor and
hence turns the motor either clockwise or anticlockwise. The microcontroller ensures that both
the relays are never turned on. In such case the power supply is shorted. The 100K feedback
resistors connected from the output of the comparator and the non-inverting input is for allowing
slight hysteresis during the tripping point of the comparators. The variable resistor of 10K sets
the tripping point of the comparator. These may be required to adjust as per the available light
conditions. The two LED’s connected at the output of the comparator IC are for setting the
tripping point of the comparators. The relay section is powered directly from the 12 V battery
supply, whereas the rest section is driven from the 5 V regulator IC.

3.3.3 MICROCONTROLLER SECTION:

This section is much similar to the solar charge controller circuit except there are only two inputs
and two outputs are configured. The outputs are also connected to the two LED’s in series of a
resistor for visually indication of the switching of the relays.

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 21


3.3.4 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF SOLAR ALIGNMENT CIRCUIT:

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 22


3.4 DIPTRACE:

Diptrace is EDA software for creating schematic diagrams and printed circuit boards.

3.4.1 MODULES USED:

 Component Editor
 Pattern Editor
 Schematic Design Editor
 PCB Layout Editor

Component Editor — allows you to make new parts and libraries.

Pattern Editor — allows you to make new patterns.

Schematic — Schematic Capture with multi-level hierarchy and export to PCB

layout.

PCB Layout — PCB design with an easy-to-use manual routing tools, shape-based

auto router and auto-placer .

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 23


3.4.2 DIPTRACE PROVIDES THE FOLLOWING FEATURES:

Easy to learn user interface:


To design a schematic, simply select and place components onto your document and connect
them together using the wire and bus tools..

Smart placement and auto-placement features:


After converting Schematic to PCB layout, place board outline and arrange components.

Easy to use manual and powerful automatic routine:


DipTrace PCB software includes 2 automatic routers i.e. Shape-based and Grid-based. Here we
are using Grid-based software. Grid Router can also make single-layer boards with jumper wires.

Advanced Verification Features:


Schematic and PCB design modules have number of verification features that help control
project accuracy on different design stages.

3D PCB Preview:
DipTrace PCB Layout module includes 3D preview feature which shows you how your
completed project will look like. This feature uses hardware graphics acceleration, so you can
change colors and rotate/zoom/pan board in real-time. 2500+ package 3D models are available
for free and you can use any models in VRML 2.0 or 3DS formats.

Import/Export Features:
Package modules allow you to exchange schematics, layouts and libraries with other EDA and
CAD packages like DXF, Eagle, P-CAD, PADS, OrCAD. DipTrace Schematic Capture and PCB
Layout also support Accel, Allegro, Mentor, PADS, P-CAD, Protel and Tango netlist formats.

Manufacturing output formats:


DipTrace provides support for a number of different manufacturing output formats.

Standard component libraries:


DipTrace package includes component and pattern libraries which contain 100,000+ components
from different manufacturers.

Creation of your own libraries:


Component and Pattern Editors allow to design your own symbols and patterns. To create
complete components simply connect them together using Component Editor.

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 24


4. ADVANTAGES OF SOLAR PANEL

The benefits of commercial-scale solar energy extend far beyond fiscal savings. Solar benefits
the world economically, environmentally and socially.

Economic Solar Energy Advantages:

 Can be permitted and installed faster than other traditional or renewable power plants.
 Has a predictable energy curve and is most efficient when utility rates are at their highest.
 Produces local, on-site energy, which reduces the need for extensive high-voltage
transmission lines or a complex infrastructure.
 Reliable over the long term. With no moving parts, fixed photovoltaic systems last longer
than other energy sources.
 Predictable pricing that is equal to or below retail energy rates.

Environmental Solar Energy Advantages:


 Clean, quiet and visually unobtrusive in nature. Solar energy plants do not have any
polluting emissions, do not make any sound, and are not considered to be an "eyesore."
 Uses little to no water in the production of zero-emission electricity.
 Can be placed in virtually every geographical region because the sun is available
everywhere.
 Offsets the need for polluting, expensive and inefficient "peaker" power plants.

Social Solar Energy Advantages:

 Creates clean, renewable energy that will sustain and support the health of future
generations.
 Is a distributed generation ("DG") energy source that can mitigate national security
concerns about energy disruption.
 Supports national energy independence because solar electricity is used where it is
generated.
 Creates good, local jobs for the new energy economy. In fact, solar energy creates more
jobs per megawatt hour than any other energy type.

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 25


APPLICATIONS

Solar Home Lightening System:


Provided by "Easy Solar" are high performance, complete & easy to install. Incorporating years
of experience & with latest solar technology, Easy Group harness the power of the sun to provide
reliable, cost effective electricity wherever it is needed. These systems supply electricity for
lighting, entertainment and information to homes that are not connected to grids or it is quite
erratic. It is an excellent solution for household level electrification in rural areas.

Features:

 Safe & easy to install


 Free from noise, smoke and pollution
 Requires very little attention
 Possible to expand the system in future
 Available in different configurations
 Elegant and efficient luminaries
 Provisions for operating extra loads
 Highly advanced Microcontroller based charge controller
 Longer battery life ensured
 Adequate protections and indication

Configuration:

A typical stand alone Solar Photo Voltaic Home system comprises PV module for charging the
battery, solar deep cycle battery for storage, a charge controller for the proper charging and

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 26


discharging of the battery, light sources and provision for connecting other loads (radio, tape
recorder, portable TV etc depending upon the configuration) as well as a complete set of
installation hardware.

Solar Street Lighting System:

Solar Street Lighting System CFL Based CFL 11W is an ideal lighting system for illumination of
streets, squares and cross roads located in areas that are not connected to the power grid. The fully
integrated system combines the latest and most innovative technologies available, providing years of
convenient and trouble free lighting. Fully assembled and factory tested kits are available. Easy Solar
has a wide range of Solar Street lights, for different lighting. Fully assembled and factory tested kits
are available. Easy Solar has a wide range of solar streetlights, for different lighting requirements.

Features:

 Automatic dusk to dawn controller (DTDC) / Timer operation


 Highly efficient charge controller and inverter
 Two step charging algorithm
 Temperature compensated battery set points
 Weather proof luminaries
 Adequate protections an indications
 UV stabilized bowl and canopy
 Anodised aluminum reflector

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 27


Solar Charge Controller:

Easy Solar Charge controller uses PWM charging Technology, so that as the battery reaches full
charge, the PWM pulses slower, gradually tapering off the charge. Pulsing is good for the
batteries since it gently mixes the electrolyte, preventing stratification. Low voltage disconnect
protects the batteries from severe discharge by shutting off loads before the battery voltage drops
to damaging levels Temperature compensation adjusts the set point voltages according to the
ambient temperature.

 A energy efficient controller for rural/urban solar charging system


 Low Power Load Controller and PWM solar charger in a single unit
 Perfect solution for urban and rural requirements
 Keeps battery healthy for longer period
 Optimum Dawn/Dusk Operation with Timer
 Provision for Temperature Compensation
 Low PV to Battery Drop
 Easy Installation
 Simple Handling

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 28


Solar Water Heating:
Solar energy can be used to heat water. Heating water for bathing, dishwashing, and clothes
washing is the third largest home energy cost.
A solar water heater works a lot like solar space heating. In our hemisphere, a solar collector is
mounted on the south side of a roof where it can capture sunlight. Sunlight heats water in a
tank. The hot water is piped to faucets throughout a house, just as it would be with an ordinary
water heater. Today, more than 1.5 million homes and businesses in the U.S. use solar water
heaters

Solar Thermal Electricity:


Also called concentrated solar power (CSP), use solar energy to produce electricity, but in a
different way. Most solar thermal systems use a solar collector with a mirrored surface to focus
sunlight onto a receiver that heats a liquid. The super-heated liquid is used to make steam to
produce electricity in the same way that coal plants do.
There are nine solar thermal power plants in the Mojave Desert that together produce 360 MW of
electricity.

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 29


5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE

CONCLUSION:

In this thesis, the sun tracking system was implemented which is based on PIC microcontroller.
After examining the information obtained in the data analysis section, it can be said that the
proposed sun tracking solar array system is a feasible method of maximizing the energy received
from solar radiation. The controller circuit used to implement this system has been designed with
a minimal number of components and has been integrated onto a single PCB for simple
assembly. The use of stepper motors enables accurate tracking of the sun while keeping track of
the array's current position in relation to its initial position. The automatic solar radiation tracker
is an efficient system for solar energy collection. It has been shown that the sun tracking systems
can collect about 8% more energy than what a fixed panel system collects and thus high
efficiency is achieved through this tracker. 8% increase in efficiency is not the most significant
figure; it can be more prominent in concentrating type reflectors.

SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK:

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 30


To improve the sun tracking, a standalone sun tracker can be designed using 18 series PIC
microcontroller. In 18 series PIC microcontroller, data can be stored periodically in MMC card
.We need not to do it manually (no need of rotation).Alignment can be varied changing with
season. Moreover, concentrating type collectors are more efficient than flat plate collectors. It
can be used to increase efficiency.

REFERENCES

 [http: PIC] “PIC 16F8XA Datasheet” available


www.microchip.com/downloads /en/DeviceDoc/39582b.pdf

 [http: Sun tracking] “Sun tracking Solar Array system” available at


innovexpo.itee.uq.edu.au/1998 /thesis/larardei/s334936.pdf

 [http: PIC] “Guide to use the PIC” available at http://hobby_elec.piclist.com/

END

Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Page 31


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