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Reliability and EFL /ESL research design

Yesid Humberto Villa Aguilar


Presented to Mg. Martha Moreno
Corporation Universitaria del Caribe CECAR

Faculty of Humanities and Education


Bachelor's degree in English
Professional Practice Directed
SINCELEJO, 2018

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Contenido
Abstract ........................................................................................................................................3
1. Introduction ...........................................................................................................................4
2. Problem Description. .............................................................................................................4
3. Hypothesis .............................................................................................................................6
4. Research Question .................................................................................................................6
5. General Objective. .................................................................................................................6
6. Especific Objective .................................................................................................................6
7. Justification ............................................................................................................................7
8. Background ............................................................................................................................8
9. Impacts ................................................................................................................................10
10. Theoretical framework ........................................................................................................10
10.1. General principles and on the learning and teaching of languages ............................10
10.2. Language. ...................................................................................................................11
10.3. Teaching and learning. ...............................................................................................12
10.4. Native language, second language, foreign language .................................................12
10.5. Postulates of Krashen on learning and language acquisition. ....................................13
10.6. Hypothesis of the natural order. ................................................................................13
10.7. Theory of monitoring..................................................................................................14
10.8. Hypothesis of the Input. .............................................................................................14
10.9. Acquisition and Learning. ...........................................................................................15
10.10. Reflections on teaching-learning approaches and their influence in the teaching-
learning processes of vocabulary. ........................................................................................16
10.11. The Common Europea Framework of reference for languages: learning, teaching,
Assessments. .......................................................................................................................17
10.12. Development of the lexical competence. ...................................................................18
11. Research design (Method). ..................................................................................................20
11.1. ACTIVE – PARTICIPATORY METHODOLOGY ................................................................20
11.2. Characteristics ............................................................................................................21
12. Participants: Population and sample ...................................................................................21
13. Data colletion.......................................................................................................................21
13.1. Analysis of data. .........................................................................................................23
14. Points of reference ..............................................................................................................23
14.1. Diagnostic test ............................................................................................................25
14.2. Inquiry ........................................................................................................................29

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15. Findings and conclusions .....................................................................................................33
16. Bibliography .........................................................................................................................35

STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE THE KNOWLEDGE AND LEARNING OF


ENGLISH VOCABULARY IN SIXTH GRADERS FROM THE EDUCATIONAL
INSTITUTION SAN JOSE OF GUARE

Abstract
The present research is related to the lexical knowledge improvement in English through

vocabulary learning strategies. Developed by sixth grade students of the educational

institution San José of Guare; this arises from the interest to renew pedagogical practices

within this educational institution. Which led to the investigation was adjusted to the

schedule of the institution in order to maintain the thematic programming assigned to the

grade. This study was conducted with 14 students between the ages of 11 and 12 years

who reside in the population, which has the name of the educational institution (San José

of Guare).

Used vocabulary learning strategies that sought to increase the level after performing

interviews, a follow-up in a field diary and to receive the views of students in each class, it

was concluded that the strategies can be a good tool to improve the level of vocabulary of

the students, after comparing the results of the lexicon in English of the students. Different

tests, the vast majority of pupils presented an improvement in the acquisition of

vocabulary in English.

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1. Introduction
The research was conducted because it found shortcomings in the level of knowledge of a

foreign language (English) by students of the school San Jose of GUARE (6th) of basic

secondary education. The problem not only observed in an educational institution, there

are many schools in Colombia, where learners aren’t motivated to become familiar with a

new speech, and lose interest in learning it. This investigation was aimed to find out what

were the problems, failures or inadequacies that have learned.

The readers of this project will be able to find timely contributions on the importance of

learning vocabulary as a fundamental part in a foreign language (English), techniques, and

tools for its acquisition.

2. Problem Description.

The development of the communicative competence in another language is a process that

takes a long time to develop.

Learning a speech goes beyond the mere memorization of grammatical and syntactic

norm, there is a need for a large corpus of vocabulary and understanding of some

linguistic rules and of certain historical background of this language.

Learn English in Colombian and more specifically in the context of Guapi Cauca in the

educational institution San José of Guare is a great challenge. Still, there are flaws in the

approach of the program of national bilingualism, but who does not eliminate the need of

learning a second language. Although Colombia is a Spanish-speaking country this is a

nation in a globalized world.

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Where, by the trade and tourism, it is necessary that the inhabitants have a basic

knowledge of another speech. In addition, a large amount of information in the world

broadcast in English, and if students are not ready will continue to lose opportunities for

progress.

For this reason it is necessary to renew the strategies what have been used in the

institution that will promote the development of the basic competencies for the

management of the English language, because students present low performance in all his

skills.

Within the most significant difficulties in the students are: the lack of a corpus of

vocabulary, which makes the process of reading; the resistance to the use of the

dictionary; difficulty in learning new words, low memory, spelling; low retention of word

worked; problem in working the grammatical and formal aspects of the language; and the

creation of texts.

The students are in the process of completing sentences. Despite the efforts of the teachers

to establish positive ideas about learning English, pupil continue with copying tasks and

using translators.

In addition, we cannot ignore what the evidence To Know 11 are, more than a

requirement, a challenge that students must deal with the best tools and databases to have

a greater success each year.

This is why we must make a more structured work to be able to develop the

communicative competence and improve the four skills. Two are receptive: read and listen

to, and two are from production: write and speak; but all are complement of the language.

The speak are essentially terms, as stated by Scott Thornbury "all languages have an

expression; a language emerges first as words, both historically and in the way in which

each one of us learned their mother tongue and any another subsequent". (Thornbury,

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2002, p.1) Therefore, develop a good level of knowledge of vocabulary can help the learner

to read, write, and speak better.

If one considers the lack of vocabulary as initial problem, you can begin to work with

students to develop appropriate strategies for the development of their language ability,

as demonstrated in its lexical knowledge.

3. Hypothesis

The educational institution in San Jose by far has been teaching English in a

traditional way based on old methods that have made that the students to

present low level of knowledge of vocabulary in English, little memorization,

among other problems.

If it looking for new pedagogical strategies innovative and creative where

students lead their own learning, and regain the confidence; the results would

be best to those who today they show in English classes and state tests.

4. Research Question
A question that arises from this research is ¿ How to improve level the vocabulary in

English in the student of degree 6th of the Educational Institution San José of Guare?

5. General Objective.
Implement learning strategies to improve and expand the lexicon in English of the San José
of Guare school 6th grade students

6. Especific Objective
 Planning strategy for teaching and learning of vocabulary based on the

interests and needs of students

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 Systematize the pedagogical activities to follow-up the process of learning
of new words in English

 Make a bank of educational tools such as games, story, texts, images, poems,
rhymes, among others, to facilitate the learning of vocabulary.

7. Justification
The English is considered as the second more spoken language in the world, with a

population that ranges among 840-850 million native speakers and foreign. The growth

and use of this language is due in part to the phenomenon of globalization, which led to

convert the English in one of the most important languages and necessary to establish

relationships between countries.

As a result, the Colombian Ministry of Education saw the need to establish a national

program of bilingualism, in order to promote the learning of English as a Foreign Language

in the various educational institutions, with the objective to create new opportunities for

participation in the market.

In view of the above, learning a foreign language is of vital importance in Colombia, since it

not only allows the relationship between countries, but also the entrance to the world of

information and knowledge. However, the level of English in our country has not had the

results that have been expected from, a percentage of outstanding professors of English as

a foreign language does not have a mastery of the language necessary to be able to teach

the language. What is to say, most teachers do not have the level C1-C2 of the Common

European Framework of Reference (CEFR) for an English class.

In addition, the project of bilingualism at the national level will continue their way, in spite

of all the difficulties that have been presented up to the moment because.

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Colombia needs to improve the development of all the skills of pupils, and cannot be left

out of this group the linguistic competence. And although the results of the general level

students are within the lowest, particular progress has been made.

Equally, the area of English you need to improve the results. Although, the professors of

the discipline devote time and efforts are made to perform activities, they do not affect the

level of language of the students. This research can promote the processes that are carried

out by the teachers.

Taking into account these backgrounds have been selected, the research work titled:

STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE THE KNOWLEDGE AND LEARNING OF ENGLISH VOCABULARY IN

SIXTH GRADERS FROM THE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION SAN JOSE OF GUARE

8. Background
Much time has passed since it was decided to implement the teaching of a second language

in Colombia. At the end of the decade of the '70s and early 80s, there were two foreign

languages in the country's public schools: english and French. The first was taught from

sixth (high school in that era), up to the ninth (high school).

The second, during the past two years. At the beginning of the state exam that showed

students in eleventh grade did not evaluate any of the two languages, therefore there is no

information about the performance of pupils until the star of the new millennium.

With the establishment of the General Education Act in the year of 1994 remained a

pluralist lingo policy and agreed to keep in several languages such as English, French, and

German in the test taking into account the diversity of languages taught in private and

public schools in the country. The student simply had to choose one of your domains. A

few years later, it was established that the only language to evaluate was English.

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After several years of evaluation and registration, the government began to warn that the

results were very low and launched the National Plan of Bilingualism by the year 2004. It

was and still is an ambitious program "which aims to challenge students to develop

proficiency in English, informal education (primary, secondary and higher) and non-

formal education, establishing international standards for each of the levels ". (Ministerio

de Educacion Nacional y Deporte, 2005, p. 2)

Unlike other areas of knowledge, international standards are used to classify the results of

the students in these tests. To use the Common European Framework of Reference for

Languages, the national government ended with the ambiguity involving terms such as

"beginner" or "elements", referring to the level of performance of the speaker of English.

According to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: learning,

teaching and Assessment, a document developed by the Council of Europe, the learners of

a foreign language is located in three major levels: basic user.

(A1 and A2) Independent user (B1 and B2) and Advanced User (C1 and C2). One of the

goals of the program of bilingualism is that all students in eleventh grade in the year 2019

have a domain level B1 in English.

The national government, with the Law 115 establishes the compulsory subjects, but not

the time zone of the same intensity, which excluded the great difference in time allocated

for the study of English in the schools. While it is true that the students of private schools

may have 10, 12 and up to 15 hours of English weekly by the extensive academic sessions,

in the public schools are limited to 2 hours, as occurs in the school San Jose of Guare.

The teachers in the area of English have been willing to make changes that will lead to a

renewal of learning strategies, but not by the use of multimedia resources. With the

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passing of the years has renewed the curriculum of English, although it remains focused

on the grammar, and has implemented changes in the teaching.

9. Impacts
It will guide students to the learning of vocabulary in English, and develop

skills of communication with other cultures; moreover the classes will be

innovative and not traditional.

10. Theoretical framework


In this chapter a brief tour of the different concepts, ideas and pedagogical approaches

that have been developed in the course of history in the orientation of foreign languages

and the teaching and learning of vocabulary. In a principle will explain diver thinking and

general opinion about training languages and presented the postulates of Stephen Krashen

on the processes of teaching and learning in the field of foreign languages.

Later there will be a reflection on some approaches to foreign language teaching and its

influence on the teaching of term. Then you will be introduced to the most current

proposals on language learning, and the acquisition of vocabulary, and some research

carried out on the use of strategies for learning and the acquisition of vocabulary in

foreign languages.

10.1. General principles and on the learning and teaching of


languages
The learning a second language is a long and complex process, which implies the adoption

not only of a language, but of a new culture, ways of thinking, acting and feeling. To be a

complicated process, many teachers who teach languages are challenged each day about

what is appropriate or not, to do to improve the performance of their students.

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For H. Douglas Brown all the doubts and questions that emerge from the teaching

languages, should be thought of as challenges and not as problems, and would not expect

to find all the answers to questioning whom arise every day in a class. Much of them are

built every day. According to the author, understand this is vital because:

Our field of research is not one-dimensional reality and simple is:

"Slippery in all senses.(...) Some fragment of the puzzle of language learning have

been located in the place. Other yet to be discovered and the careful definition of

the questions will lead to finding those parts. We can undertake the task of placing

the pieces in a paradigm: a design, interlaced a theory of second language

acquisition”. (Brown, 2007,p.4)

Therefore, it would not be correct to say whom there is only one way to teach a language,

nor who a same technique is used to work with all people, however, there are certain

principles, ideas, proposals and theories that have developed over time and what still has

relevance for the job in the classroom and outside of it.

All of these have a support and in together build a theory about the teaching and learning

of languages.

10.2. Language.
To know the characteristics of the object of study of foreign languages is indispensable to

recognize that it is a language or language. You can move forward as a teacher or as an

apprentice in the process, but if you do not knowing the trait of the learning issue; it is not

possible to understand the complexity of all its aspects and understand the different

requirements to be taken into account. For Brown this definition is made up of:

1. The language is systematic.

2. The language is a set of arbitrary symbols.

3. The symbols are mainly vowels, but may also be impaired.

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4. The conventional symbols have meanings to which they refer.

5. The language is used for communication.

6. A language operates in a community of speakers or culture.

7. The language is essentially human, although possibly not limited to humans.

8. A language is acquired by all people in the same way; the language and language

learning are universal characteristics. (Brown, 2007,p.6)

10.3. Teaching and learning.


Brown also presents a compilation of definitions of learning what beyond that can be seen
as subjects of study and research:

Learning is the acquisition or "get".

Learning is the withholding of information or ability.

Retention involves storage systems, memory and cognitive organization.

Learning implies an active and aware and acting on events inside or outside agency.

Learning is relatively permanent but subject to forget.

Learning implies some kind of practice, perhaps habit reinforced.

Learning is a change in behavior (Brown, 2007,p.8)

10.4. Native language, second language, foreign language


You must first distinguish the native language or mother tongue. This is the first language

a person; it is basically the official language of each country.

However, there are countries with multiple official languages, in this case does not speak

of tongue, but of first, second, third, language, etc., as there is a high or a low number of

speakers of that language. On the other hand, a second language is one that makes part of

the region in which the apprentice, but that is not commonly use, which means that very

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few people use in everyday situations. The foreign language, on the other hand, is that

which is not part of the culture of the speaker and it is only used in contexts artificially

created.

10.5. Postulates of Krashen on learning and language


acquisition.
In 1982 Stephen Krashen presented a series of postulated that developed thanks to its

investigations with respect to the processes of teaching and learning in the field of foreign

languages. This is present in his work: principles and Practices in the acquisition of a

second language.

10.6. Hypothesis of the natural order.


One of their findings was the hypothesis of the natural demand. The theory pose what the

acquisition of grammatical structures in the foreign languages tends to be carried out in a

certain order. This order is different from the language of the learner, but the similarities

are high among the groups of learners of dissimilar tongue. In the same way it was found

who the first morphemes or constructional that students learn are in general terms the

easiest, and further raise the level of difficulty: "the order of difficulty was similar to the

arrange of achievement". (Krashen, 1982,p.12).

This allows the development of classifications for levels of knowledge and use of tongue,

as is the case with the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages.

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10.7. Theory of monitoring.
Another hypothesis is the theory of monitoring. This postulates that the acquisition and

learning are utilize in specific ways. Usually the acquisition process begins with our

expressions and is responsible for our level of fluency. The learning, on the other hand, has

the function of being the "monitor", or an editor. The knowledge is used to make changes

to our statements, as a system of auto-correction entries. The conscious learning can

modify the language production, but has a limited scope because you need three

conditions for this process is this: period, focus on the form and know the rule. To reflect

on the rules and conduct a review of its use is necessary to have time. In a conversation,

this period almost is never enough; and if the speaker reflects much, tends to has an

indecisive style of speech. Also, in addition to time it is necessary to focus on the form and

pay attention to what is said and how it is mentioned, and for that, it is essential to know

the rule. Without knowledge of the rules it is not possible to arrive at correct so you have

the time and check the shape of the statements. (Krashen, 1982,p.16) Therefore, learning

enables the development of the formal understanding of the language, and appeals to the

cognition of the apprentice.

10.8. Hypothesis of the Input.

The theory of the transmission of the content or hypothesis of the input. The input is

everything what the learner receives on the tongue. This theory is closely related to the

question: how do we acquire the target language? For Krashen the aim of pedagogy must

be structured the acquisition, because this is central and learning is peripheral. An

apprentice improvement and continues with its process when comprises an input that

contains the language that you know (i) and other structures above its current level (1),

although not in the purely grammatical sense. This (I 1) is achieved to the extent that our

linguistic competence allows us to use multiple resources as the context, the knowledge of

the world, extra-linguistic information, among other. Thus, advances from the

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comprehension to the knowledge and application of the rule, not the other way around.

When the learner is presented with an input that is well above what their resources can

interpret (I 2), the process is stopped. (Krashen, 1982,p.21)

(http://www.sdkrashen.com/Principles_and_Practice/index.html)

The theory of input also establishes that the fluency cannot be taught, but this emerges

over time, so that it can be concluded that the only way to develop the process of speech in

another language is to provide an input comprehensible. Hence the difference of

relationships what are established between the native speaker and the apprentice, and the

teacher and the learner.

Also the hypothesis of the input has validated the use of the extensive reading for the

acquisition and learning of vocabulary. According to (Brown, Principles of Language

Learning and teaching, 2007)“Instructional programs in reading should give strong

consideration to the teaching of the extensive reading”.

10.9. Acquisition and Learning.


Acquire a language, or learn it is two different processes. Stephen D.

Krashen describes it as follows:

The first way is the acquisition of the language, a process similar, if not identical, to the

way in which children develop ability in their first language. Language acquisition is a

subconscious process; (…) usually are not aware of the rules of the languages that we have

acquired. Instead, we have a "sense" of correction.

Grammatical sentences sound correct or "feel" and correct the errors they feel bad, even if

you do not consciously know that rule was violated. (…) The second way to develop

competence in a second language is for learning a language. We will use the term

"learning" hereinafter to refer to the conscious knowledge of a second language, know the

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rules, being aware of them and be able to discuss them. In non-technical terms, learning is

"to know" a language, recognized as the "grammar", or the "rules" for the majority of the

people. ( Krashen, 1982, p.10)

Thus, the process of language acquisition takes place in a natural way and unconscious.

The individual who acquires knowledge makes it automatically and without any specific

instruction.

10.10. Reflections on teaching-learning approaches and their


influence in the teaching-learning processes of vocabulary.
Since the beginning of the learning of languages until this point many changes have been

made, however, the emphasis on the learning of vocabulary has not been one of them. As

Cheryl Boyd Zimmerman "the teaching and learning of vocabulary have been

underestimated in the field of learning of a second language through various stages and up

to the present time" (Zimmerman, 1994) cited by Coady and Huckin, 1997

H. Douglas Brown, in his book Principles of Learning and Teaching of Languages proposes

a series of characteristics of the communicative teaching. In general, it can be said that the

objectives of the communicative competence are not limited to the linguistic and the

techniques employed are designed to engage students in use pragmatic, functional and

communicative language. Equally, the fluency and accuracy to be underlying foundation

since the most important thing is to have the pupils use the language of productivity and

with availability either in improvised contexts. (Brown, Principles of Language Learning

and Teaching. Quinta Edición, 2007, p.241)

This approach is now one of the more employees, because of the general interest to work

with methodologies that lead to the authenticity and the interaction and because this

approximated is student-centered and allows a real communication and is based on

significant and functional purposes. The acquisition of vocabulary is not the center of

attention of this approach, but the proper use of the communicative categories.

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On the handling of the lexical competence which up to that time Vivanco ( 2011) argues

that:

Tradition, the vocabulary is learned through listings that the student repeated to

himself from automatic mode to internalize the concepts, as this was the central theme

of the learning of languages. Between the years 60 and 80, the role of the terminology

lost importance to focus on morphology and syntax; later the communicative

competence became the fashion through the notional-functional approach which

provided the tools and skills for the oral performance in different situations of daily life.

The question of how students learn the word is the most difficult to measure because

they constitute a highly individualized. (p. 177- 178)

(http://www.encuentrojournal.org/textos/12.17.pdf)

Vivanco presents another vision of the learning of vocabulary as individual process, to the

extent that is limited to the skill memorize of students and the interest or to the feelings

involved in the process.

10.11. The Common Europea Framework of reference for


languages: learning, teaching, Assessments.

One of the jobs which emerged of the review of all these postulates and theories and

research is the Common European Framework of reference for languages: learning,

teaching, assessment. This work was developed by specialists in the field of applied

linguistics and pedagogy, from the 41 member states of the Council of Europe in addition

to a review of the most relevant ideas concerning the work that has been done with the

teaching of the languages, proposes new questions and solutions to work in the classroom.

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In the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: learning, teaching and

Evaluation recognize the work for competition as part of a system that leads to the

complex thought. Therefore, in this paper is a review of the communicative competence,

but as part of the general competencies of the individual. This communicative competence

is divided also in competition linguistic, sociolinguistic and pragmatic. Linguistics is

divided into competition semantic, grammatical, lexical, phonological awareness, spelling

check. In the pragmatic and functional competence (Ministerio de Educacion , Cultura y

deporte, 2002,p,99-128).

"The elements of a system are organized around a purpose. Education is a system and

as such poses the requirement to carry out a reflection on the actual operation of its

components in interaction with the context, taking into account their interaction and

long-term evolution". (Tobon, 2005, p. 11).

Consequently, the description of the linguistic competence of global and specific form

allows teachers to a real understanding about what can be achieved by the students in

each of the aspects and that lead to better performance in the general competencies.

10.12. Development of the lexical competence.


There is a broad development of lexical competition, either within the classroom or

outside it. When speaking of vocabulary competency refers to the "knowledge of the

vocabularies of a language and the ability to use it, is composed of lexical and grammatical

elements" (Ministerio de Educacion, Cultura y deporte, 2002, p. 108) as all the other

competences, you need time and resources to develop it in the appropriate way. This

competition involves knowledge of fixed formulas, idioms, structures, and the semantic

regime, among others. It cannot be assumed what all learners have sufficient knowledge to

understand the complexity of a word, but if there is an each of grow these aspects; it is

possible to organize better the work that is carried out in order to progress this

competence.

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According to Thornbury, "Teachers have not fully recognized the enormous advantage of

communication in the development of an extensive vocabulary". (Thornbury, 2002,p.13)

If so, the programs of study would focus on the development of competition lexical, but

what has been done so far is to overstate the Grammatical Competence, to the point of

displacing the other competitions. Therefore, develop effective strategies what lead to the

acquisition of vocabulary is the task that should begin to play. In addition, it should be

borne in mind that the process of understanding and using a word properly carries the

knowledge of the written and spoken word, his behavior, the grammatical meaning, its use

and the different connotations of the word.

The learning of words leads to develop in the apprentice what can be termed as mental

lexical. This lexicon, which, if they did not follow a system type dictionary, it is a highly

organized and interconnected system in the form of a network that helps build

partnerships, and what increases or changes according to the need of the trainee

In addition, the meaning of the word plays an important role. According to Thornbury

several systems take place in learning and memorization of the words: "All of this suggests

an organization based on semantics (meaning), and at the same time one that is based on

the form (in what is called morphological) as a backup". (Thornbury, 2002,p.13)

However, Meara (1996) Affirm that the development of lexical competence isn’t review

from the learning of words, but since the construction of lexicon. What we really need is

not so much a detailed understanding of the vocabulary, but a more profound

understanding of the lexicons. The area in which we work it seems that the whole is

considerably more interesting than the sum of its parts. The problem with some current

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models, I believe, is that they are in danger of losing the vision of the forest by

concentrating too much on individual trees (p. 2).

(http://www.lognostics.co.uk/vlibrary/meara1996c.pdf)

Furthermore, in general terms, as speakers we employ several strategies for learning of

vocabulary, and most of them are related to rely on the knowledge of other words.

11. Research design (Method).

11.1. ACTIVE – PARTICIPATORY METHODOLOGY


The participatory methodology is a way of conceiving and addresses the teaching-learning

processes and construction of knowledge.

This methodology part of the interest of the student prepares the students for the daily life

your foundation is based on Piaget's theory because it explains how the knowledge.

(Zanhuesa, Rojas, & Maricarmen, 2017)

According (Yan, 2012).The active methods involve the student in the development of their

knowledge through actions or activities that may be external or internal, but which

require a personal effort of action or search. The students are that act, those who carried

out the actions, they develop their knowledge, organize, coordinate and, afterwards, the

express.

The active learning methodologies it adapted to a model of learning in which the main role

corresponds to the student, who constructs knowledge based on guidelines, activities or

scenarios designed by the professor (the teacher isn’t the only way to obtain the "absolute

truth", in this methodology the students discover knowledge by the same with the help of

the teacher.

(www.monografias.com/docs/Metodologia-Activa-Participativa-PKCT7EWYBZ, s.f)

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11.2. Characteristics

 LUDIC: Through the game, it motivates the learning and makes possible a space for

participants externalize problematic situations. (Does not mean what everything

fun is good because, many times things that we fun damage ourselves).

 Interactive: it promotes dialog and discussion of the participants with the

objective of that they are brought together ideas, beliefs, myths and stereotypes in

a live up of respect and tolerance.

 Creative and flexible: it doesn’t respond to rigid models, static and authoritarian.

Although never loses sight of the proposed objectives, give up the idea that things

can only be done in a way.

 Encourage group conscience: Strengthens the group cohesion by promoting

solidarity and the fraternal affective.

12. Participants: Population and sample

The population, which was applied the research work were sixth graders (6th) San Jose of

Guare educational institution located in rural zone of the municipality of Guapi. A group of

14 students with an average age between 11 and 12 years, to implement this proposal

conducted diagnostic tests, inquiry and home visits to the homes of pupils.

13. Data colletion

Different harvesting techniques were used according to the objectives data. To explore the

difficulties of students of English for the development of vocabulary in students was a

semi-structured interview. The interview is defined as a meeting to exchange information

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between the interviewer and the interviewed. According to Sampieri, Fernandez and

Baptista although the interviews have They provide information permeated by the point of

view of the interviewee, the context can be considered and this is essential in the

interpretation of meanings.

"This kind of data is very useful for capturing fully (over whatever" possible) and above

all, to understand the underlying motives, meanings, and the reasons internal human

behavior." (2006, p. 583). The interviews are shown as excellent tools for data qualitative.

Within the classes of potential interviews was chosen the semi-structured interview. It is

based on guide of questions and the interviewer is free of enter additional questions to

clarify issues or concepts. (Sampieri et al, 2006) (p. 597). The interviews were designed by

the researcher and it based on the information collected during the literature review

carried out.

On the other hand, to assess the strategies most appropriate in the development of

vocabulary in class and to revise the design of activities that implement those strategies,

we reviewed the productions of the students and their academic results; a questionnaire

was conducted to check reviews and penetration that have changes in the work with

vocabulary; and tests were conducted to measure objective the progress of knowledge of

vocabulary and the extension that is reached based on tests carried out by different

researchers. On the use of different tests, Batia Laufer and Zahava Goldstein assert that:

various investigations recommended different vocabulary tests, Depending on your point

of view of the knowledge of vocabulary (trait or) interaccionalista), its preference for a

particular dimension of the knowledge and interests in size or depth. In this article, we We

adhere to the view feature of vocabulary, and although we recognize the importance of

testing depth and fluidity, we decided to focus the size vocabulary. Vocabulary size tests

have shown to predict success in reading, writing and general language proficiency, as

well as the achievement academic. (Laufer & Goldtiein, 2004, p.203)

22
13.1. Analysis of data.
From a qualitative perspective, the analysis of data to they were collected. Data were

collected from the initiation of the investigation, on the basis of General observations and

the data generated by the interviews, and the data obtained through a review of the

different documents. An analysis was performed from theory, reviewing relations that

emerged among the data to find meanings, patterns or categories that would reach valid

answers and to achieve the proposed objectives. From a quantitative viewpoint, the use of

measuring instruments such as the questionnaires were used to assess the perception that

students had of the virtual teaching materials that had access to this project. Since the

implementation of this research was done so that the students could have more progress

in their academic process, moreover, provide tools to help the teachers to optimize your

work in class; We performed a statistical analysis with regard to their academic

performance. The analysis of the test method is quantitative as provided statistical

percentages. This test can provide objective results, since it is It gives a numeric value to

each student through which the degree of knowledge is encoded lexicon of the same. The

results of the different tests had a quantitative analysis allowing you to check on the

progress of the students based on the Statistics, and get information about the relevance of

the different strategies applied.

14. Points of reference


As reference points were taken different studies that review the lexical competition, but all

of them have a component on reading. This is, to the look, a very recurrent variable in

research on the use of strategies for vocabulary learning, and is the direct relationship that

is made between the acquisition of vocabulary and reading. Others were used as reference

points research by Agustín Llach and barriers Gomez on analysis of errors, and the use of

strategies of reading and writing to increase the vocabulary; and research conducted by

Gerardo Corbo (2011) on learning and retention vocabulary with the use of strategies of

reading comprehension in English. It also took into consideration recommendations

23
extracted from other investigations and studies in which the thrown results allowed to see

the advantages of the use formal and clear strategies related to the teaching of vocabulary

(López- Mosque, 2007; Bromley, 2002). Articles by other authors (Wesche, and Paribakht,

were also taken into account 1996) that raise the use of tests to evaluate the vocabulary

knowledge of students from the depth or extension. Taking into account that know all the

semantic and syntactic details of a few words does not imply that the person can

understand a text in its entirety, while having a large vocabulary, Thus the level of

knowledge of all the words is not very deep allows to the student to better interpret a text.

24
14.1. Diagnostic test

25
26
27
28
14.2. Inquiry
.
The next slope was carried out to evidence the level and knowledge of vocabulary in
English, of sixth grader from the educational institution of Guare San Jose, were surveyed
10 girls and 4 children for a total of 14 students .

29
30
Group Size group Sample Size Methods and
techniques
students 14 14 Inquiry and
observation
Total 14 14 ----

1) Te sientes motivado en 2) Entiendes vocabularios


las clases de inglés? simples en inglés?
SIEMPRE ALGUNAS VECES NUNCA SIEMPRE ALGUNAS VECES NUNCA

21% 15% 21%


29%

50% 64%

3) Buscas ayuda del 4) Te gusta aprender palabras


diccionario para realizar nuevas en inglés?
tareas
SIEMPRE ALGUNAS VECES NUNCA
SIEMPRE ALGUNAS VECES NUNCA
7%
8%
9%

36%
57%
83%

5) Participas en las actividades 6) Realizas actividades en


planeadas por el profesor en grupo en clase de inglés?
clases de inglés?
SIEMPRE ALGUNAS VECES NUNCA
SIEMPRE ALGUNAS VECES NUNCA
14%

29%
43% 28%
29% 57%

31
7) Tienes dificultad cuando 8) Ayudas a tus compañeros a
hablas en in inglés? hacer las actividades
SIEMPRE ALGUNAS VECES NUNCA SIEMPRE ALGUNAS VECES NUNCA

10%
7%
14%
29%

83% 57%

9) Aprendes con facilidad 10) Puedes escribir y decir


palabras en inglés? una oración sencilla inglés?
SIEMPRE ALGUNAS VECES NUNCA SIEMPRE ALGUNAS VECES NUNCA

7% 14%

36%
57% 57% 29%

11) Repasas los vocabularios de 12) Tienes habilidad para


inglés que deja el profesor memorizar palabras nuevas en
inglés ?
SIEMPRE ALGUNAS VECES NUNCA
SIEMPRE ALGUNAS VECES NUNCA
14%
21%
22%
43%
64% 36%

32
15. Findings and conclusions

The question that guided this research was: ¿ How to improve level the vocabulary in

English in the student of degree 6th of the Educational Institution San José of Guare? And

based on the development of the activities proposed and the results thrown by the same, it

can be said that when the vocabulary learning strategies are used explicitly, students not

only increase their vocabulary but improve the understanding of the same depth, which

allows them to move forward in its process and start own production. If we review the

information collected in the research, it can be concluded that explicit vocabulary learning

strategies can if improve the level of knowledge of vocabulary of apprentices. An example

of this is that the students who participated in this research passed get 10.89% as average

on a test to obtain 47, 38%.

From the observations of class also showed that when vocabulary strategies are used,

students are much more aware of its process and its progress the terms of few words

manage to recognize and remember.

In addition, the fact strengthen your vocabulary improves your confidence and drives

them to advance in their process of learning English, which leads them to keep an affective

filter low. First and foremost, students observe, or even "feel" that are moving and what

they do is useful. The activities that were carried out in class, students recalled more those

that allowed them to talk with their peers. This small production for them meant a lot

because they began to employ the knowledge and found it useful. It was no longer

something remote from their context, but something that could be used at any given time.

33
However, to reach the decision on the type of strategies to be used with students is needed

to make a thorough review not only of literature available, but similar themes-related

research. Within this review found that there is lot of work regarding the use of

vocabulary learning strategies in the classroom, especially in the Colombian context, and

that the majority of articles and research related the use of reading strategies extensive.

In addition, after review of the literature on the subject, and the realization of class

activities, noted that there is a somewhat forgotten concept when trying to work on

vocabulary and refers to the teaching of words, which may facilitate or hinder makes the

process of acquiring new vocabulary, to the extent that not all words have the same

characteristics, and therefore not all must teach in the way. you begin to forget the idea of

learning words in isolated and disjointed way, and start thinking about how to help

students build their own networks of words.

34
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