lgikIf ;dfrf/ / k|:6 ljrf/sf nflu

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x]g{ ge'Ng'xf]nf .

jif{ !!, c+s #&, @)&% ;fn ;fpg ^ ut] cfOtaf/ (July 22, 2018) d"No ?= !).– ;'Gg ge'Ng'xf]nf .

cf]nL ;/sf/sf] kf“r dlxgf ukmd} ;Lldt
sf7df8f} F . g] k fn sDo' l gi6
kf6L{sf cWoIf s]kL cf]nL g]tT[ jdf
lyPgg\ . w'nf]–lxnf] d'Qm ;8s, dxFuL
lgoGq0f, htftt} b] l vPsf
ljt[i0ff a9\g yfNof] . cf]nLk|lt
hgtfdf ljZjf; e8\sfpg]df pgsf
t o;sf] tLa| cfnf]rgf g} eof] .
oftfoft If]qdf l;l08s]6 tf]8]sf]
8f= s];LnfO{ sf“u|];sf] ;fy
sf7df8f}F . g]kfnL sfFu|];sf
;efklt Pjd\ k"jk{ w| fgdGqL z]/axfb'/
cgzg hf/L /fVg ;Nnfx lbPsf 5g\ .
lq=lj= lzIf0f c:ktfndf cgzg/t

;/sf/ ag]sf] kfFr dlxgf k"/f ePsf] c/fhstfsf] lgoGq0f o:t} o:t} . dlGqd08nsf ;b:ox?sf] af]nL / 3f]if0ff ubf{ kfPsf] jfxjfxL ;]nfpg
5 . kfFr jif{sf nflu ag]sf] alnof] gful/ssf b} l gsL;F u hf] l 8Psf Aofjxf/ klg ylkPsf] 5 . h;n] gkfpFb} ;/sf/sf dGqLx?aLrs}
;/sf/sf] sfdsf] d"Nofªsg kfFr ljifoeGbf ;/sf/sf] Wofg 7"nf / jiff}{+jif{ n8]/ NofPsf] :jtGqtfk|lt :jfy{ aflemP / sfof{Gjog lkmtnf]
dlxgfd} ug{' Tolt Gofof]lrt geP k|rf/d'vL s'/fdf a9L slGb|t b]lvP . gful/snfO{ em:sfof] . sf7df8f}Fsf aGof] . l;lG8s]6 v's'lnFb} hfFbf
klg ;/sf/sf k|wfgdGqLb]lv dGqLsf gful/sdf ;/sf/ c8fglaxLg /
sfo{z}nLsf sf/0f cfnf]rgf a9\g Joj;foLsf] k|efjdf k/]sf] cfz+sf
yfn]sf] 5 . cfdlgjf{rgtfsf cf]nLsf] a9]sf] 5 . h;n] klg ;/sf/k|lt
/fhgLlts u|fkm lgs} a9]sf] lyof] . hgtfsf] ljZjf; 36fPsf] 5 .
clwsf+z gful/s cf]nL g]t[Tjdf oxLaLrdf cfkm} F n ] u/] s f] b]pjfn] cgzg/t 8fS6/ uf]ljGb tyf pkr/fy{ 8fS6/ s];LnfO{ b]pjfn]
;/sf/ ag]sf] x]g{ rfxGy] . sf/0f, k| l tj4tf ljkl/t lrlsT;f s];LnfO{ e]6/] dfu k"/f geP;Dd -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_
pgn] /fi6« lgdf{0f / ;d[l4sf nflu lzIff;DaGwL ljw] o s ;+ ; bdf
lgs} /fd|f of]hgf ;fj{hlgs u/] . k'¥ofPkl5 t ;dfhjfbsf] ;kgf
;fob, ToxL sf/0fn] xf]nf tTsfnLg
Pdfn]n] lgjf{rgdf lgs} /fd|f] kl/0ffd
afF8\g] ;/sf/ s;sf] kIfkf]if0fdf
pqFb}5 eGg] k|Zgn] 3]l/Psf] 5 . 8f=
d'Qmxlnofsf gfddf s/f]8f}+ e|i6frf/
sf7df8f} F . d' Q mxlnof dfnkf]t sfof{no 88]nw'/fdfkm{t\
xft kf¥of], cf]nL g]t[Tjd} ;/sf/ uf]ljGb s];L cgzg / lrlsT;f k'g:yf{kgfsf gfdsf] tLg s/f]8 a9L sfof{ G jog eO/x] s f] d' Q mxlnof
aGof] . cem Pdfn] / dfcf]jfbL lzIffdf ;' w f/sf] cfˆg} g] t [ T j /sddf e|i6frf/ ePsf] v'nf;f k'g:yf{kgf sfo{qmddf ePsf] cfly{s
PsLs/0f x'Fb} ;+3Lo ;dfhjfbL ;/sf/n] o;cl3 hf/L u/] s f] ePsf] 5 . d'Qmxlnofsf nflu lhNnf clgoldttf k|s/0fsf] cg';Gwfg
kmf]/d;d]t ;/sf/df k'uk] l5 ;/sf/ cWofb] z ljkl/t plePkl5 dfnkf]t sfof{no 88]nw'/fdfkm{t clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]un]
b'O{ ltxfO{sf] ax'dtsf] aGof] . ha ;/sf/k|lt hge/f];f v:sg yfn]sf] cfPsf] @# s/f]8dWo] # s/f]8 #* ug]{ ePsf] 5 . d'Qm xlnof k'g:yf{kgf
;/sf/ alnof] x'bF } uof], ta cf]nLsf] xf] . ToxL a]nf g]kfn ;+:s[t ljZj nfv ?k}ofF e|i6frf/ ePsf] eGb} ph'/L sfo{qmdsf nfeflGjt AolQmx?n] hUuf
/fhgLlts u|fkm cf]/fnf] nfUg yfNof] . k|wfgdGqL cf]nLn] af]n]sf /]n, lglZrt If]qdf dfq lj/f]w k|bz{g ljBfnosf pks'nklt s'nk|;fb k/]sf] 5 . lhNnfsf !@ ;o xlnofsf vl/b, 3/ dd{t / 3/ lgdf{0fsf
alnof] ;/sf/ ag] k l5 pgsf] kfgL hxfh s'bfpg], 3/–3/df t]nsf] ug{ kfpg] eGb} lgif]lwt If]q tf]lsFbf sf]O/fnfnfO{ ljb]z hfg nfu]sf a]nf nflu cfPsf] /sddWo] !@ xhf/sf nflu k|fKt cg'bfg /sddf 3';
/fhgLlts u|fkm a9\gk' g]d { f 36\gs
' f kfOknfOg k'¥ofpg] h:tf s'/f ;'Gbf gful/s:t/af6} lj/f]w eof], h;n] ljdfg:ynaf6 kmsf{P/ afn'jf6f/df b/n] dfnkf]t sfof{non] 3"; dfu]sf] dfu] s f] eGb} dfnkf] t sfof{ n o
s]xL sf/0f pgL cfkm}F ag] . g]kfnL hlt /dfOnf] lyof] t/ gfs}d'lgsf ;/sf/sf] lj/f]wdf hgdt ;[hgf ug{ ckdflgt 9+uaf6 /flvg', cfk"m eGb} kLl8tx?n] lhNnf k|zf;g 88]nw'/fsf sd{rf/L, /fli6«o xlnof
hgtfn] vf;} 7"nf] ck]Iff u/]sf ;d:of ;dfwfg gul/Fbf gful/sdf an k'¥ofof] . ;fdflhs ;~hfndf -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_ sfof{ n odf ph' / L lbPsf x' g \ . -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_

afujf0fL clws[tnfO{ sfnf]df];f] ;of}+ sfg'g lgdf{0f / kl/dfh{gsf] kvf{Odf
sf7df8f}F . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{n] s/f]8 @) nfv /sddf #% nfv nfvsf] agfPsf] . sf7df8f}F . ;/sf/n] k|fyldstf ;+;bn] *) j6f sfg'g agfO;s]sfn] w]/} 5}gg\ . ;+;b nueu sfdljxLg
u7g u/]sf] hgkl/ifb\n] afujf0fL dfq} sfd u/]sf] / c? lxgfldgf @= e6df; / o'l/of ! nfv a/fa/sf] glbFbf gofF agfpg'kg]{ tLg bh{g sfg'g afFsL sfg'g lgdf{0fsf] lhDdf xfnsf] h:tf] alg;s]sf] 5 .
ljsf; clws[tnfO{ sfnf]df];f] bn]sf] u/]sf] atfOPsf] 5 . afujf0fL ljsf; NofPsf] t/ s[ifsx?nfO{ ljt/0f / ;+zf]wg ug{k' g]{ ;of}+ sfg'g afFsL ;+;bsf] sfFwdf cfPsf] 5 . tL ;a} ;+3Lo ;+;b ;lrjfnosf ;xfos
5 . 8f]6Lsf] lzv/ gu/kflnsfl:yt clws[ l tnfO{ sfnf] d f] ; f] bNg' s f gu/]sf] ;dodf tof/ x'g]df cfz+sf a9\b} sfg'g casf] * dlxgf leq} agfO;Sg' k|jQmf s]zj cof{n ;+ljwfgn] Joj:yf
s[ l if OsfO{ sfof{ n odf sfo{ / t #= s[ l if ;fdu| L lat/0f ubf{ uPsf] 5 . ;+ljwfgtM cfufdL kmfu'g kg]5{ . Pp6f sfg'g lgdf{0fsf nflu u/]cg';f/ sfg'g lgdf{0fnfO{ ;/sf/n]
s[i0fbQ kf08]n] lap, dn / s[lif s[ i fsnfO{ gfddf x:tfIf/ # ut]leq ;+3Lo ;+/rgfcg';f/ ;a} k|rlnt cEof;cg';f/ sDtLdf b'O{ k|fyldstfdf /fVg'kg]{ atfpF5g\ .
;fdu|L e|i6frf/ u/]sf] eGb} sfnf]df];f] u/fPsf] t/ kfpg' kg]{ slt egL sfg'g lgdf{0f tyf kl/dfh{g ul/;Sg' dlxgf nfUb5 . sltko sfg'gsf] t sltko df}lns xs;DaGwL sfg'gsf]
bn]sf x'g\ . a'waf/ ljxfg kl/ifb\sf hfgsf/L gn]vs ] f] . kg]{5 . ;+ljwfgn] kmfu'g # cyf{t ;/sf/n] d:of}:bf ;d]t u/]sf] 5}g . d:of}bf tof/ eP/ dlGqkl/ifbdf
sfo{stf{x?n] sfof{od} k'u/] kf08]nfO{ $= ls;fgnfO{ cg'bfgdf lbg'kg]{ lap ;+3Lo ;+;bsf] klxnf] a}7s a;]sf] df}lns xs;DaGwL ;a} sfg'g ;+ljwfg k'us] f] 5 . ;+ljwfg sfof{Gjogsf nflu
sfnf]df];f] bn]sf 5g\ . hgkl/ifb\n] lahg klg xfkm d"Nodf lat/0f Ps jif{leq ;+3Lo ;+/rgf cg';f/sf hf/L ePsf] # jif{leq agfO;Sg'kg]{ dxTjk"0f{ dflgg] ;+3, k|bz ] / :yfgLo
5f]8]sf] krf{df ldS; lap t/sf/L u/]sf] . ;a} sfg'g agfO;Sg'kg]{ Joj:yf Joj:yf ;+ljwfgd} pNn]v 5 . ;+ljwfg txaLr ;dGjo sfod ug],{ ;+3Lo
&% xhf/df vl/b u/]sf] t/ tLg %= lat/0f k| l qmofdf Psnf} 6 L u/]sf] 5 . pQm ;dodf tL sfg'g hf/L ePsf] # jif{ k'/f x'g ca b'O{ k|x/L, nf]s ;]jf cfof]u, k|bz
] nf]s;]jf
nfvsf] e/kfO{ agfOPsf], e6df; / tl/sfn] lghLs/0f h:tf] ug]{ u/L lgdf{0f tyf kl/dfh{g gul/P :jtM dlxgf dfq afFsL 5 . o; cjlwdf cfof]u, /fli6«o dfgjclwsf/ cfof]u,
o'l/of ! nfv a/fa/sf] NofPsf] t/ sfd u/]sf] . vf/] h x' g ] k| i 6 Joj:yf 5 . #! j6f df}lns xs;DaGwL sfg'gdWo] ;+ 3 Lo cfly{ s sfo{ l jlw;DaGwL
s[ i fsx?nfO{ lat/0f gu/] s f] , sf/0fx?– ^= Ps s/f] 8 @) nfv /sd ;+ljwfgcg';f/ ;/sf/n] # ;o !$ !) gofF / # j6f k"0f{ kl/dfh{g ug{k' g]{ dxTjk'0f{ sfg'gsf] eg] cem} d:of}bf
ls;fgnfO{ cg'bfgdf lbg'kg]{ lap != ldS; lap t/sf/L &% xhf/sf] sfof{ n odf cfPsf] t/ Tof] j6f sfg'g lgdf{0f tyf kl/dfh{g 5 . sfg'g agfpg] ynf] eg]sf] ;+;b x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . oL ;a} sfg'g df3
lahg klg cfwf lat/0f u/]sf], Ps vl/b u/]sf] t/ e/kfO{ tLg -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_ ug{'kg]{ 5 . To;dWo] ?kfGtl/t xf] . ;+;bdf btf{ ePsf sfg'g vf;} -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_

7uLsf] cleof]udf ufp“kflnsf cWoIf kqmfp
sf7df8f}F . c5fdsf] /fdf/f]zg
ufpFkflnsfsf cWoIf em+s/ ;fpbnfO{
k|x/Ln] kqmfp u/]sf] 5 . c;f/
atfP . ;fpbn] 7uL u/]sf] ?k}ofF
lbg'sf] ;f6f] pN6} k|x/L nufP/ y'gfpg]
wDsL lbg] yfn]kl5 cfk"mx? ph'/L
rf/ dhb"/ ;+u7gåf/f r/0fa4 cfGbf]ngsf] 3f]if0ff
sf7df8f} F . ;/sf/n] xfn}
;fj{ h flgs u/] s f] dhb' / x?sf]
g]kfnsf cWoIf /fhg ltdlN;gfn]
ljuth:t} of] ;/sf/n] klg dhb'/
ug]{ r]tfjgL ;d]t lbP . …gf] js{ gf]
k]Ú tyf …xfo/ P08 kmfo/Ú lj/f]wL
;/sf/, /f]huf/bftf / slyt 6]«8
o"lgogsf k|ltlglw;lxt ;xefuL
;dfGt ;lsg} nfUbf sf7df8f}F k'us ] f lbg afWo ePsf] kLl8tx? atfpF5g\ .
;fpbnfO{ dxfg\u/Lo k|x/L k|efu :yfgLo r'gfjsf] s]xL ;docl3 Go' g td kfl/>ldsn]
sfF8f3f/Ln] kqmfp u/]sf] 5 . j}bl] zs dfq} kLl8t c5fd k'u]/ ;fpbnfO{ cfddhb"/x?nfO{ ckdfg u/]sf] eGb}
rf/j6f dhb" / ;+ u 7gx?n]
/f]huf/Ldf k7fO{ lbg] eGb} rf/ wgu9L NofPsf lyP . Tolta]nf cfGbf]ngsf] 3f]if0ff u/]sf 5g\ . a9\bf]
hgfaf6 rf/ nfv ?k}ofF 7uL u/]sf] ;fpbn] r'gfj ;lsPnuQ} ;a} ?k}ofF dxF u LnfO{ Vofn u/L dhb" /
cf/f]kdf ;fpbnfO{ k|x/Ln] kqmfp lbg] jfrf u/]sf lyP . cfk"mx?nfO{ ;+u7gx?n] dfl;s @% xhf/ ?k}ofF
u/]sf] xf] . cWoIf ;fpbn] dsfp ljleGg k|nf]eg b]vfP/ ?k}ofF nu]sf] kfl/>lds tf]Sg dfu ;d]t u/]sf
k7fOlbg] eGb} tLg jif{ klxn] rf/hgf t/ ljb]z gk7fPsf] kLl8tx?n] 5g\ . z'qmaf/ ;+jfb 8anLdf g]kfn
o'jfaf6 Ps–Ps nfvsf b/n] rf/ atfP . lhNnf k|zf;gaf6 kqmfp u/L sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ lgs6 clvn g]kfn
nfv ?k}ofF 7lu u/]sf] eGb} kLl8tn] b'a} kIfnfO{ 5nkmnsf nflu af]nfpg' qmflGtsf/L 6«]8 o'lgog dxf;+3,
lhNnf k|zf;g sf7df8f}Fdf ph'/L / ;xdtL geP sfof{nodf xflh/ qmflGtsf/L dfcf]jfbL lgs6 clvn
lyPsf lyP . kLl8t k" 0 f{ a xfb' / u/fpg' eGg] kq cfPsf] k|x/Ln] g]kfn qmflGtsf/L 6«8] o'lgog dxf;+3,
v8\sfsf cg';f/ ;fpbn] v8\sfaf6 atfPsf] 5 . :yfgLo r'gfjdf ;fpbn] g] s kf -dfcf] j fbL s] G b| _ lgs6
b'O{ nfv, /la a:g]t, /fh]Gb| axfb'/ tTsflng dfcf]jfbL s]Gb|af6 r'gfj qmflGtsf/L 6«8] o'lgog dxf;+3, g]kfn
rGb, lji0f' If]qLaf6 PsPs nfv lht]sf lyP . hgo'4 n8]sf g]tfn] / g]skf -dfn]_ lgs6 k|utLlzn
:jtGq 6«8] o'lgog dxf;+3 -lksf]06_
?k}ofF / kf;kf]6{ nu]sf lyP . k6s– o'jfx?nfO{ ljb]z k7fpg] eGb} 7uL n] ;+o'Qm kqsf/ ;Dd]ng u/]/ gofF
k6ssf] k|of; kl5 ;fpbn] # r/0fdf u/]sf] ;'gk] l5 /fdf/f]zgsf :yfgLon] cfGbf]ngsf] 3f]if0ff u/]sf 5g\ .
u/L Ps nfv %) xhf/ lkmtf{ u/] nfhn] e'tS' s} ePsf 5g\ . …/fd|f] eg]/ kqsf/ ;Dd]ngdf uf]kfn ls/fFtL df/f gLlt NofPsf] eGb} cfsf]z kf]v] . ;+u7gx?;Fu ;xsfo{ ug{ cfk"mx? /x]sf] elgPsf] Go"gtd j]tg lgwf{/0f
klg afFsL /sd dfUbf pN6} wDsfpg] ef] 6 xfn] s f] t/ 7u k/] 5 Ú g]t[Tjsf] g]skf -dfcf]jfbL s]Gb|_ pgn] cfˆgf dfux? / va/bf/Lx?sf] tof/ /x] s f] hfgsf/L ;d] t ;ldltn] u/]sf] ;f] lg0f{o / k|so[ fk|lt
u/]kl5 k|x/Ldf ph'/L lbPsf] v8\sfn] /fdf/f]zgaf;L eG5g\ . lgs6 qmflGtsf/L 6«8] o'lgog dxf;+3, a]jf:tf u/] s8feGbf s8f cfGbf]g ltldlN;gfn] lbP . kqsf/ ;Dd]ngdf -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_
2 @)&% ;fn ;fpg ^ ut] cfOtaf/
ltdL ltd|f] tl/sfn] n8, xfdL xfd|f] tl/sfn] n8\5f}

✍ ;DkfbsLo
– s= dfcf]T;] t'ª
ah]6, ahf/ / ljsf; M Ps lh1f;f
cy{dGqL 8f= o'j/fh vltj8fn] eof] . leqL rqmkysf] sfd klg Ps c;n l5d]sL b]z xf] . p;n] ePsf] 5 . ;/sf/sf ePsf dGqL,
xfn} d"Noj[l4;Fu ah]6sf] s'g} ;DaGw g;lsFb} sltko :yfgdf agfOPsf rfXof] eg] g]kfndf /]ndfq xf]Og cGo ltgsf kfj/ d] s /x¿ /
u0ftGq w/fzoL kfg]{ v]n gePsf] s'/f atfPkl5 pgL PsfPs
rrf{ / ljjfbsf 3]/fdf k/]sf 5g\ .
cfsf;] k'n / af6fx¿ km]l/ eTsfpg'
kg]{ s'/f klqsfdf k|fljlwsx¿ af]Ng
7"N7"nf If]qdf ;d]t bLuf] nufgL
leq\ofOlbg ;S5 t/ To;df xfd|f
cf;]kf;]x¿s} Ob{lub{df /x]sf 6fps]
/ nfps]x¿ g} l;l08s]6sf hggL
ljQLo cy{zf:qsf sf]0faf6 ah]6 yfln;s] . g]tfs} af]nL / k|:tfjx¿ bx|f];Fu x'g\ . ltgLx¿nfO{ sf/jfxL ug]{ kfd/
s]kL cf]nLsf] g]tT[ jdf ;/sf/ ag]sf] 5 dlxgf eg]s} ahf/;Fu ;DalGwt d'b|f bz{g p7\g'k5{ . ;/sf/ /fVg} ;Sb}g . en} ;/sf/
ePsf] 5 . b'O{ ltxfO{sf] :ki6 ax'dt ;/sf/sf] xf] . cy{dGqL gaf]Ng' kg]{ s'/f af]n]/ cfrfo{ cem cufl8 eG5g\ – b'O{ ltxfO{ ;dy{gsf] 5 t/ lxhf]b]lv
of a9L af]n]/ ljjfbdf cfPsf x'g\, …g]kfnn] rLgnfO{ lbg ;Sg] eg]s} Jofkf/ Psflwsf/sf] h/f] uf8]/ a;]sf
of]aLrsf] sfo{ x]g{] xf] eg] cfdhgtfn] nHhfaf]w Tof] s'/f kl5Nnf lbgx¿df v'Nb} k6s–k6s Pshf]8L u}F8f / ;'/Iff b[ Z o/cb[ Z o kfj/ d] s /x¿nfO{
hfnf . pgsf cledtsf kIfdf ax; k|Tofe"lt dfq xf] . vf;df rLgn] lr9\ofP/ ;/sf/ To:tf] hf]lvd df]Ng
ug'k{ g]{ l:ylt 5 . ;/sf/n] h:tf];s ' } qmflGtsf/L k}/jL ug]{ s'g} cy{zf:qL kqklqsf g]kfnnfO{ cfˆgftkm{ 9NsfP/ p;sf] rfxFb}g h;n] p;nfO{ eljiodf
/ cu|ufdL efif0f u/] klg Jojxf/df z"Go 5 . / cgnfOgdf b]vfk/]sf 5}gg\ . pgL ljb] z s" 6 gLltnfO{ ef/t;F u rf}tkmL{ bafj em]Ng' gk/f];\ .Ú
o;dfg]df PSnf] cy{zf:qL x'g\ h;n] lr9\ofpg klg rfxFb}g . p;nfO{ of] s'/f cfd hgtfn] a'em]sf
;/sf/sf] o:tf] /a}ofn] cfdgful/s cflht ePsf dxFuL / ah]6nfO{ Pscsf{;uF lg/k]If g]kfndf ef/tsf] h:tf] Jofkf/ ug{' 5}gg\ . h;n] a'em]sf 5g\ ltgLx¿
x'g] kl/efiffsf] hfdf le/fOlbPsf h?/L klg 5}g .Ú oftfoft, t/sf/L, cf}ifwL / cGo
5g\ . ;/sf/ hgtfsf] b}lgsL ;/n / ;xh 5g\ . ljZj cy{ t Gqn] ;+ ; f/sf ;g\ @)!* sf] ljZjsf ;Qf;Lg If]qsf] l;08Ls]6sf af/]df af]Ng ?lr
/fi6«x¿nfO{ Ps}rf]6L Ps}k6sdf g]tfx¿sf] al/otfdf rLgsf /fi6«klt /fVb}gg\ . en} ;/sf/ clxn] #* s]hL
agfpgeGbf klg ;kgf afF8g\ dfq pBt 5 . k|efj 5f8\g] ;fOa/ hdfgfdf xfd|f ;L lhg lkª\ klxnf] gDa/df, /l;ofsf cj}w ;'g t:s/Lsf] dfdnfdf cfkm}F
k];n cfrfo{
hgtfsf] ;+s6 …lbg b'O{ u'0ff /ft rf}u0' ffÚsf] b/n] kl7t / lbUuh cy{dGqL eg] cfd /fi6« k lt Enflbld/ k' l 6g bf] ; | f ] klg h]lnFb} uPsf] cj:yfdf 5 .
hgtfnfO{ k|efj kfg{ ;Sg] s'/fnfO{ ;/sf/ eg] hgtfnfO{ ;kgf gDa/df / cd] l /sfsf /fi6« k lt u[xdGqL cfˆgf] sfo{af6 kl5 gkms{g]
a9L /x]sf] 5 . t/, ;/sf/nfO{ s'g} rf;f] ePsf] klg ;fdfGo s'/f eg]/ klG5g vf]H5g\ b]vfO/x]sf] 5 . dxFuf] /]n ;kgf . 8f]gfN8 6«Dk t];f| ] gDa/df /x]sf] s'/f ;Gb]z k|jfx ul//x]sf 5g\ eg] 7"nf
eg] o; dfg]df crDd dfGbf x'G5 . /fhwfgL lxnf]sf] ;s;af6 cfqmfGt b]vfPsf] lyof] . rLg clxn] dxfzlQm df5fnfO{ n'sfpg] bfpdf :jod\
b]lvFbg} . dxFuL / e|i6frf/n] ;Ldf gf3]sf] 5 . pgsf] cy{zf:q ;+;f/sf] eGbf a]un ePsf a]nf ufpF3/df klx/f]n] pl7af; /fi6« aGg] bf}8df cf}Bf]lus, ;fdl/s, ;/sf/sf s]xL kfj/k"mn dGqLx¿
cr]n x/]s ;~rf/ dfWoddf k|rf/–k|;f/ ePsf jf cnu–cnu 5 < nufpg yfln;Sof] . ufpFn] af6fx¿ j}1flgs / cGo cfljisf/ tyf nflu/x]sf] s'/f aflx/ r'lxg yfn]sf]
a¿ pgn] km];a'sd} vfg';Dd ;dod} :t/f]Gglt gul/gfn] pTkflbt pTkfbg ;d]tnfO{ 8/nfUbf] u/L 5.
;fdu|L x]g{] xf] eg] klg o; s'/fsf] k'li6 x'G5 . vKsL vfPsf 5g\ . km] ; a' s df s[ l if pkhn] ahf/ gkfpg] ljsf; u/L ljZj /+ud~rdf cl3 g]kfn k|x/Lsf k|x/L k|dv
' ;j]G{ b|
Pshgf af} l 4s JolQm n] V 5g, lglZrtk|foM 5 . ;/sf/ eg] rLgaf6 al9/x]sf] 5 . o;af6 cd]l/sf / vgfnn] k"j{ / axfnjfnf k|x/Lsf
u0ftGq g]kfnsf] b'O{ ltxfO{ hgdt k|fKt bx|f] …l;+xb/af/sf] jftfg's"lnt sIfdf k|wfgdGqL cfPkl5 s]?ª–sf7df8f}F /l;of klg dgf] j } 1 flgs ¿kn] af/]df ;kf6 z}nLdf pQ/ lbO;s] .
;/sf/ t/ ;/sf/sf] sfo{z}nL cu|udgeGbf a;]/ eGg t ;lhnf] 5 t/ ah]6kl5 /] n ;kgf hKg 5f8] s f] 5} g . 8/fO/x]sf] cj:yf 5 . o;/L x]/]sf k|x/Lsf af/]df arfp u/]/ af]Ng]
ahf/ cfd hgdfg;n] y]Ug} g;lsg] k|wfgdGqLn] xfn} Ps sfo{qmddf …k'; v08df rLg g]kfnsf nflu ljZj dg;fo pgsf] gePsf] s'/f :ki6
kZrudglt/ df]l8Psf] 5 . k~rfot / lg/+sz ' u/L psfnf] nfu]sf] 5 . Ps ;osf] !^ ut] sf7df8f}aF f6 l6s6 sf6\g; ' \ /fhgLltdf lgs} kl5Nnf] k|fyldstfdf e} ; s] k l5 ca s' / f] cfPsf] 5
t]n Ps ;o aL; ePsf] 5 . o;}u/L / snsQf /] n df hfg;\ Ú eGg] kb{5 . t/ oxfF h;/L JofVof eO/x]sf] ljutb]lvsf dGqL, a]kf/L, 8g, cb[Zo
/fhtGqn] hgtfdfly gnfb]sf] lg/+sz ' tf of] ;/sf/ bfn, rfdn, t/sf/L, k]6«f]lnod atfO;s]sf 5g\ . Tof] /]n stfaf6 5 Tof] cfˆgf] /fhgLlts t'li6sf nflu nufgLstf{ / Jofkf/Lx¿nfO{ xfn;Dd
nfb\g vf]Hb}5 . ;/sf/ cfkm}F ;+ljwfgsf] wHhL kbfy{, Uof; / cGo b}lgs pkef]Uo ;'¿ eP/ stf hfg] s'/f rflxF klg k|of]u eO/x]sf] 5 . eP u/]sf] cg';Gwfgsf cfwf/df d'2f
;fdu|Lsf] efp;d]t lg/Gt/ psfnf] atfPsf 5}gg\ . g]kfnsf] cj:yf e"–/fhgLlts rnfpg] ls grnfpg] eGg] O:;'df
p8fpg] sfo{df nfu]sf] 5 . ;+ljwfg k|bQ hgtfsf] nflu /x]sf] 5 . dGqLHo"nfO{ oL lemgf /fhwfgLsf hgtfnfO{ clxn] /fhgLltsf] lhnLufF7f]n] a]l/Psf] ;/sf/ g} df} g 5 . g] k fnsf]
dl;gf s'/fx¿n] 5'Fb}g Sof/] ÛÚ sf]6Z] j/s} hfd / rfalxn–hf]/kf6L– kl/j]zdf 5 . oxfFsf g]tfx¿sf] af]nL t:s/Lsf] Oltxf;df of] To:tf] s];
df}lns xsdfly 7f8f] x:tIf]k ePsf] 5 . dxFuL, x'g klg aRrfn] vfg] laxfgsf] ;fFv'sf] Jo:t ;8sdf b}lgs ?kn] / sfd u/fOsf] tf}/tl/sfdf ljb]zL ePsf] 5 h;sf 7" n f df5fx¿
b" w ljiffQm 5 . lbgsf] kfgL cfjthfjt ug}{ ;s; eO/x]sf] k|e' / dxf;fdGtnfO{ 3'dfO{ lkm/fO{ ;a}nfO{ kqm]/ d'2f rnfpFbf g]kfnsf]
e|i6frf/, u'08fubL{ / clgodttfn] ;Ldf gf3]sf] lkpgof] U o 5} g . ;fj{ h lgs cj:yf 5 . e'OFdf ;lhnf];Fu 6]Sg] rfs/L ug]{ / r'gfjdf cgfj;gfj /fhgLlts l;gf]l/of] Ps}k6s eTsg
5 . ;Qf;Lg bn / pgLx?sf] g]tf / sfo{stf{x?n] oftfoftdf r9]/ s'g} klg sfd eg]sf cfwf/ gePsf a]nf ;/sf/ eg] efif0f lbP/ dt k8\sfpg] dfq /x]sf] ;S5 . d'2f grnfpFbf ;/sf/ cfkm}n F ]
;dodf ;DkGg ug{ ;lsGg . lg/Gt/ df]gf]/n] , d]6f« ] /]n / cGt{bz
] Lo 5 . s]xL ;do cl3 ;/sf/n] ef/tLo af/Daf/ eGg] u/]sf] ;'zf;g /
b]zdf a|Xdn'6 dRofO/x]sf 5g\ . …;fgfnfO{ P]g, lbgel/sf] w"nf], w"Fjf / k|b'if0faf6 /]n ;]jfsf] u'nb:tf p8fO/x]sf] 5 . k|d g/]Gb| df]bLnfO{ u/]sf] :jfut\ / ;fdflhs Gofosf] /6sf af/]df kmF:g
hgtf ha ;fFemdf 3/ lkm5{ clg x'Fbfx'Fbf wfg lbj;sf] 5]sf] kf/]/ p;sf ljb]zdGqL ;'idf :j/fhn] ;S5 .
7"nfnfO{ r}gÚ eGg] pvfnfO{ of] ;/sf/n] 7\ofSs} /flt p;n] x]g{] 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/df /fhwfgLsf] d'6' 7d]ndf :yfgLon] wfg lbPsf] cleJolQmn] ;d]t g]kfnnfO{ of] s'/fn] bGTo syfdf rsrs]
rl/tfy{ u/]sf] 5 . ;/sf/sf] o:tf] /a}ofn] u0ftGq ;/sf/ pxL /6 nufO/x]sf] x'G5 . /f]kfOF u/] . o;af6 klg ;/sf/ cem} ef/t 3'dfp/f] efiffdf k]Ng} afFb/n] rsrs ug]{ l;nl;nfdf
/]n, /]n / clg /]n . g]kfndf k"jf{wf/ ljsf;k|lt slt u}/ lhDd]jf/ 5 eGg] vf]lh/x]sf] efg ePsf] lyof] . sf7 lrg{ wl/gdf /fv]sf] sf7sf]
/ ;+3Lotf w/fkdf kg]{ lglZrt 5 . ;/sf/sf] ljsf;sf ;jfndf 8f=;j{ / fh hgfpF5 . c;f/] ljsf; eg]/ JoªUo cfd hgdfg;sf] efjgf ljk/Lt km];f] lgsfNg pkb|f] ubf{ cfˆg} km'n
cfrfo{sf ;fdfGo ;"qx?s} cg'z/0f ul/g] ljsf; klg /fhwfgLdf ;d]t ;/sf/n] df]bLnfO{ To;a]nf gful/s r]lkP/ d/]sf] k|;Ë p7\g ;S5 .
sfo{zn } L x]bf{ ;/sf/ cfkm}F u0ftGqsf] wHhL p8fpg u/]sf v08df klg …u|fdL0f ;8s, gePsf] cj:yfn] b]zsf] af:tljs clegGbg ug{' x'bF g} Yof] . @ g+= k|bz
] sf g]kfnL efiffdf k'/fgf] pvfg 5 –
nfluk/]sf] k|:6 b]lvG5 . To;}n] !) jif]{ hgo'4 / h8La'6Lsf] k|zf]wg / ko{6gdf hlt xfntsf] hfx]/ u5{ . d'VodGqLn] h'g efj / z}nLdf df]bLnfO{ nx/f] tfGbf kx/f] uh{ g ] . x] / f} +
ax'n hg;xeflutf 5 cGo d]3f /]n ;]jf g]kfndf x'g} g;Sg] eg] s'/f nufpg] vfnsf] efif0f ;Dk|]if0f g]kfndf zflGt, ;d[l4, ljsf;,
!( lbg] hgcfGbf]ngaf6 k|fKt u0ftGqsf] /Iff ug{ k|f]h]S6df 5}gg\ .Ú ;fdflhs Gofo / xf]Og . o;sf kIfdf g]kfnn] nfdf] u/] To;n] ;r]t g]kfnL dfq xf]Og ;fdflhs Gofo / ljlwsf] zf;g
kf6L{ut cfGtl/s nf]stGq klg ;dob]lv nljª u/]sf] s'/f klg xfn} b]zb]zfj/df /x]sf af}l4s g]kfnLsf] :yfkgfsf nflu r'gfjsf a]nfdf
hgtf hfUg'kg]{ ePsf] 5 . cGoyf ;/sf/s} sf/0f ;d[l4 / ljsf;nfO{ ;Fu;Fu} n}hfg] k"j{ k//fi6« ;lrj tyf s"6gLlts ;d]t g'/ lu/]sf] k|dfl0ft eof] . cfd dtbftfnfO{ /fli6«otfsf] kf7
u0ftGq u'Dg ;S5, cfd;r]t gful/sn] a'‰g'kg]{ afxsx¿ x'g\ . To;}u/L nf]stGqsf] dfdnfsf hfgsf/ lj1 dw'/d0f g]kfnn] cfˆg} Nofst, a'l4 / k9fpFb} ef]6 ;+sng u/L ToxL ef]6sf]
uxgf eg]sf] :j:Yo / af}l4s lj/f]w cfrfo{n] atfPsf 5g\ . pgL cufl8 ju{n] ;d[l4 / ljsf;sf] 5nfª\ e/]ª\ agfP/ ;Qfsf] lzv/df k'u]sf]
;do cfPsf] 5, r]tgf eof . klg xf] . xfn} ;/sf/n] /fhwfgLdf eG5g\ …o;k6ssf] k|dsf] e|d0fdf nufpg ;S5 . s;};Fu lgx'/d'G6L clxn]sf] b'vL / ul/asf] dl;xf
lgif]lwt If]qx¿ tf]s]/ hgtfsf] g]kfnn] hlt s'/f p7fpg' kg]{ lyof] u/]/ dfUg} kb}{g . s[lif, ko{6g, dfGg] ;/sf/n] hgtfsf dg lhTg]

An8 k|;] / 36fpg] eP==== zflGtk" 0 f{ lj/f] w ug{ kfpg]
clwsf/;d]t vf];]sf] 5 . of] /j}of
a9\b} uof] eg] ef]ln s'g} klg axfgfdf
tL bx| f ] u/L p7fpg ;s] g .
lrlgofFx¿n] g]kfnLx¿n] ug{' kg]{ hlt
xf]djs{ gu/]sf] / clxn] ePsf
h8La'6L / hn;|f]tdf ;xL / bLuf]
kf/fn] nufgL u/]sf v08df klg g]kfn
cl3 hfG5 . o;df b'O{ dt 5}g .
sfd u5{ ls cfˆgf b[Zo-cb[Zo
dflnsx¿s} tfj] b f/L ub} { ;' b " /
eljiodf ;d]t hgtfnfO{ lhNofpg]
sf7df8f} F . pRr /Qmrfkn] #= 8fs{ rsn]6 5fnf rlDsnf]
Åbo3ft, dl:tis3ft h:tf agfpg], z/L/df phf{ a9fpg], ahg k|];dfly c+s'z nfUg ;S5 . clxn] ;Demf}tfx¿ k'/fg} ;/sf/ / ljutdf a] n fotdf a;] / cy{ z f:qdf sfd u5{ .
vt/gfs /f]u lgDTofpg ;S5 . olb 36fpg] jf a9fpg] h:tf ljleGg af}l4s hgdfg;x¿ Totfk§L klg ePsf s'/fx¿nfO{ rLgn] cufl8 lj1tf xfF l ;n ub} { u/] s f Ps cfu] ;/sf/df /x]sf Psb'O{
;dodf g} cfkm\gf] z/L/nfO{ x]/rfx kmfObf /x]sf] rsn]6n] pRr /Qmrfk cfz+lst x'g yfn]sf 5g\ . a9fpg ;fy lbPsf]dfq xf] . xfdLn] cy{zf:qL n]V5g\– …a¿ ;o lbg klg OdfGbf/ dGqLx¿sf] lbn / lbdfudf
ug{] xf] eg] pRr /Qmrfk sd ug{ sd ug{ / Go"g /Qmrfk a9fpg klg /fhwfgLsf] ;'Gb/tfsf] eJo / a]l;sNnL gofF s'/fdf lrgLofFx?nfO{ latfO{ ; s] s f] ;/sf/sf lj?4df b]z / hgtfk|ltsf] efjgf cem}
;lsG5 . pRr /Qmrfk sd ug{ d4t u5{ . cf}iflw klg Hofbf vfFbf uf}/jk"0f{ k|tLs dflgg] /fgLkf]v/Lsf] ;xdltdf Nofpg ;SYof}+ t/ r'Sof}+ .Ú zg}Mzg}M lj/f]wsf :j/x¿ kqklqsf, as{/f/ 5 eg] hgtfsf] enfO x'g]
xfdLn] cfkm\gf] hLjgz}nL kl/jt{g laif aGb5 To:t} pRr /Qmrfk ePsf lr/x/0f ePsf] jif{lbg a9L e};Sof] . g]kfndf ePhlt xNnf rLgn] ug{ cgnfOg / km];a'ssf leQfdf cfpg sfd u5{ . gq eg] g]kfndf hlxn]
ug{'k5{ . d'Votof vfg] s'/fdf Wofg JolQmn] w]/} rsn]6 vfFbf o;n] /fhwfgLs} gu/lktf ljkIfLn] sfd rfx]sf] klg 5}g . p;nfO{ g]kfnaf6 yfn]sf 5g\ . ;/sf/n] oftfoftsf klg ;'?df s'g} klg O:;' p7\bf
k'¥ofpg], tgfj sd lng] tyf lgoldt /Qmrfk cem a9fpF5 t/ &) k|ltzt ug{ glbPsf] u'gf;f] ;'gfpFb} lxF8]sf ;'/Iff vt/f gxf];\, ef/tsf] Ps5Q If]qdf JofKt l;l08s]6nfO{ hf]/h'nd ' hf]/;f]/sf ;fy p7\g] / kl5 PsfPs
Jofofd ug{] xf] eg] pRr /Qmrfk sf]sf kfp8/ ldl;Psf] rsn]6 lbgdf 5g\ . w/x/fsf] s'/} p7\g 5f8\of] . xflnd'xfnL g]kfndf gxf];\ eGg] g} nufP/ cGTo ug{ vf]h]s} xf], Tof] x/fpg] sf08x¿sf] ;"rLdf of] ;'g
sd x'g] lj1x¿ ;'emfpF5g\ . #) Sofnf]/Lsf b/n] vfg] xf] eg] o;n] aflx/L rqmkysf] s'/f ;]nfPsf] w]/} lrGtf p;df JofKt 5 . pm g]kfnsf] klg clxn] cfP/ 6'Ëfdf gk'uL dTy/ sf08 klg gx/fpnf eGg ;lsGgF .
pRr /Qmrfk sd u/fpg d2t pRr /Qrfk sd u/fpF5 .
ug{ ] s] x L vfg] s ' / fx¿
!= b'w lrNnf] sd ePsf] b'w vfg'
:jf:Yosf] nflu Psbd} /fd|f] dflgG5 .
o;df kfOg] SoflN;od / le6fldg 8L
ldn]/ /Qmrfk sd u/fpg d2t
$= s]/f s]/fsf laleGg kmfObf
dWo /Qmrfk sd ug{] klg Ps xf] .
s]/f df kf]6fl;odsf] dfqf al9 x'g]
ePsfn] laxfg vfnL k]6df s]/f vfg]
xf] eg] o;n] klg /Qmrfksf] dfq
t]nsf] yf]kfyf]kf hf]ufcf}+
ub{5 . b'w ;]jgn] z/L/df /utsf]
;+rf/df klg ;'wf/ NofpF5 .
@= kfn'Ëf] tfhf xl/of] kfn'Ëf]nfO{
;nfbsf] ?kdf vfF b f zl//df
sd ub{5 .
%= xl/of] e6df; xl/of] e6df;df
kf]6fl;od / DofUg]l;odsf] dfqf a9L
kfOg] ePsfn] of] pRr /Qmrfk sd
OGwg vr{ 36fcf}+
/Qm;+rf/df ;'wf/ cfpF5 . kfn'Ëf]df
Sofnf]/L yf]/} x'g] / kf]6fl;od, kmf]n6] ,
kmfOa/ DofUg]l;od h:tf tgfj
ug{] Pp6f /fd|f] dfWod xf] . xl/of]
e6df;nfO{ tftf] kfgLdf % ldg]6
pl;g]/ vfg] xf] eg] o;n] z/L/df
g]kfn cfon lgud lnld6]8
k|;:t} kfOg] ePsfn] kfn'Ëf] vfFbf pRr /Qmrfksf] dfqf sd ug{ d2t
kmf]g g+=+ $@^@(&), km\ofS; M $@^#$&!
/Qmrfk sd x'g d2t k'¥ofpF5 . u5{ .
@)&% ;fn ;fpg ^ ut] cfOtaf/ 3

PsLs[t hgqmflGtdf ;+u7gfTds r'gf}tL
!= e" l dsf
ljZj t/+lut kfg]{ ;+u7gfTds
k'FhLjfbL b[li6sf]0fn] ;f/tM j:t'nfO{
kl/jt{g ug{ g;lsg] kl/jt{g eOxfn]
oyfl:yltjfbL ljrf/ htf;'s} /xg]
u5{ . kl/jt{ g sf kIfw/ /
/x]sf] qmflGtsf/L ju{ / ljrf/sf]
g]t[Tj qmflGtsf/L kf6L{n] ug]{ u/]sf]
j? of] ;+u qmflGt, d'lQm, dfgj
:jtGq+tfdf n's/] a;]sf] 5 . o;}nfO{
ckl/xfo{ sfdx?df Odfgbf/Ltf /
lhDd] j f/L jf] w ;lxt ;r] t /
tfst ;lxt xfldn] bz jif{ dxfg\ klg j}1flgs lgod4f/f xf]Og, a? oyfl:yltsf kIfw/ ljrf/ xfd|} x'G5 eg] ;'wf/jfbL cj;/jfbL tyf k|fKt ug{ ljlw, ljwfgsf] cfjZostf of]hgfj4 kxnsf] sdL b]lvG5 .
hgo'4 n8\of} . of] ck/fhLt tfst s'g} cb[Zo cnf}lss zlQm4f/f x'G5 ;dfhdf kfOG5g\ . ;dfhdf kl/jt{g k"+hLjfbL ljrf/sf] g]t[Tj bnfn k/]sf] xf] eGg] s'/fnfO{ xfdLn] /fd|f] o;f] x'g g;Sg'df d'Vo u/L b'O{
xfdLn] hGd lnPsf] oxL g]kfnL e"ld eGg] cfbz{jfbL b[li6sf]0f /fVb5 . rfxg] dflg;x? jx';+Vodf x'G5g\ . ;+;bLo j'hj'{ f kf6L{x?n] u/]sf] x'G5 . ;+u cfTdf;ft ug{ cfjZos 5 / j6f sf/0f b]lvG5g\ . klxnf] kf6L{ /
/ g]kfnL hgtfsf] jLraf6 P]ltxfFl;s o;sf/0f k' F h LjfbL cfbz{ j fbL t/ kl/jt{gsf/L k|s[ofdf k|ToIf jt{ d fg g] k fnL ;dfhdf ;f] cg';f/ kf6L{sf tNnf sld6Lx?nfO{ qmflGt k|lt k"0f{ ljZjf;, b[9tf /
cfjZostfn] hGdfPsf] lyof] . o;sf] b[ l i6sf] 0 fn] x/] s j:t' n fO{ ;xefuL x'g] dflg;x?sf] ;+Vof eg] qmflGtsf/L ju{ / ljrf/sf] g]t[Tj kf6L{sf] cg'zf;g ljlw, ljwfgdf k|ltj4tf gx'g' xf] eg] bf]>f] kf6L{ /
xfd|f] kf6L{ g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{n] / 8f]¥ofpg clt h?/L eO{;s]sf] 5 . qmflGt k|lt k"0f{?kdf OR5's gx'g'
lxtdfg ;'wf/jfbL cj;/jfbL tyf k"+hLjfbL
;+;lbo ljrf/sf] g]tT[ j sfFu;]| Pdfn], ;d:of
3_ lhDd] j f/L jf] w gug] { xf] . t]>f] kf6L{df b]vfkg]{ v/fjLx?n]
tNnf] k+lQmdf kfg]{ gsf/fTds k|efjn]
dfs] h:tf kf6L{x?n] ul//x]sf 5g\ . xfd|f] kf6L{ / cfGbf]ngdf b]vfk/]sf] kf6L{, qmflGt / g]tT[ j k|lt z+sf–
;du| qmflGtsf] jt{dfg g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;'wf/jfbL csf]{ ;d:of eg]sf] lhDd]jf/L jf]w pkz+sf hGdL/xg' h:tf sf/0fx?
ljrf/wf/f cjnDjg u/]sf kf6L{x?n] gug]{ ;d:of xf] . of] ;d;of x]bf{ of]hgfj4tf / ultlzntfsf nflu
g]tT[ jstf{ kf6L{ ;+;lbo k"+hLjfbL /fHoJoj:yfsf] v]/L ;fdGo h:tf] nfu] klg cGtt cj/f]w b]lvG5g\ . o;sf] nflu klxnf]
:yfoLTj / lb3f{o'sf] sfdgf ;lxt of] ljrf/ s} ;d:of xf] . clxn] of] pkrf/ j}rfl/s, /fhg}lts lr/kmf/
ePsf]n] ;a} txsf To;sf] g] t [ T j u/] s f 5g\ hf] ;d:of xfd|f] cfGbf]ngdf 9f+65n ug],{ xf] eg] bf>f] pkrf/ x/]s txsf]
cj}1flgs / unt 5 eg] To;nfO{ JolQmut ;fdfGof kf6L{sf] cufl8 g]tT[ jx?n] sfo{stf{df ;sf/fTds /
kf6L{ ;+u7gnfO{ PsLs[t hgqmflGtsf] dfWodaf6 t];f{pg], kf6L{ of]hgf sfo{Gjogsf] qmflGtsf/L k|efj lbg] u/L kf6L{sf
jbn] / To;sf] 7fpF d f j} 1 flgs clGtd r/0fdf cfP/ ljleGg afxfgf ljrf/ / gLltnfO{ cIf/zM Aojxf/df
kl/kSs gagfO{sg ;dfhjfb :yfkgf ug]{ nIo ;lxt
xfdLn] qmflGtsf] g]tT[ j ul//x]sf 5f},
afhL ug]{, ;fgf eGbf ;fgf ;d:of
t];f{P/ g]tT[ jn] c:jLsf/ ug}{ g;Sg]
cg'jfb ug{' xf] . g]tT[ jsf lqmofsnfkn]
kf6L{ / qmflGtdf w]/} s'/f lgwf{/0f
qmflGtsf] ljho ;Dej hf] j}1flgs / ;lx 5 . o;df xfd|f]
kf6L{sf tNnf lgsfo / ;fw/0f kf6L{
u/L g}lts ;+s6df kfg]{, cGtdf
kf6L{sf] of]hgf sfo{Gjogdf hfg} kg]{
x'g] ub{5g\ . k|r08, afa'/fdx?n]
kf6L{ / qmflGtnfO{ lbPsf] 7'nf] wf]sf
5}g . To:t} kf6L{nfO{ ;b:o ;DdnfO{ :ki6 kfg{ clt
cfjZos b]lvG5 . cfwf/e"t a'emfO{
l:ylt cfof] eg] ljleGg dgf]u9Gt]
ts{x? psf:g], ;se/ ljifofGt/
/ u4f/Lsf lk8fx? ef]u]sf] xfdL;Fu
sfo{stf{sf] 7"nf] k+lQm 5 . of] k+lQmnfO{
agfpg'sf ;–;fy} kf6L{sf] j/Lk/L Jofks hgjuL{o gaGb} kf6L{ ;+u7gdf cfj4 x'g] /
ul/g] s'/fn] qmflGt ug{sf] lglDt
u/]/ kf6L{ lg0f{o, of]hgf cj}1flgs
;fljt ug{ vf]Hg] cflb ?kdf of]
x/]s txsf] g]t[Tjn] ;r]t 9+un]
klxnf], k|ltqmflGtsf] kL8faf6 d'Qm
agfO{g] ;+u7g / To; ;+u7sf] ;d:of JoQm ePsf] b]lvG5 . ug{' kg]{ 5, eg] bf]>f] of] k+lQmnfO{
;+u7g lgdf{0fsf] sfdnfO{ klg TolQs} dxTjsf ;fy ;b:on] kf6L{ / qmflGtsf] lxt ub}g{ . j}rfl/s lx;fjn] of] ;d:ofsf] qmflGts/0f ug{ g] t [ T j cfkm} n ]
To;n] qmflGtsf] ljhonfO{ glhs d"n h/f] eg]sf] JolQmjfbL cj;/jfb kxnsbdL lnO{ pRr ;fx;sf ;fy
lng cfjZos 5 . kf6L{ Pp6f Kofhsf] bfgfsf] u'bL xf] agfpg dxfg\ of]ubfg lbg klg xf] . of] ;d:ofsf] klxnf] lrGtf / pgLx? ;+u} ;xsfo{ ug]{ / g]t[Tj
;Sb}g . t;y{ xfd|f kf6L{ ;b:ox? p2]Zo eg]sf] cfˆgf] kb gu'df];\ eGg] cfkm} sfo{stfsf] k|]/0ffsf] >f]t aGg]
eg] hgjuL{o ;+u7g Kofhsf] bfgf j/Lk/Lsf kqx? tyf tNnf sld6Lx?nfO{ g} x'G5 . bf];|f] cfkm'n] 9f+65n / s'/fn] dfq kf6L{ sld6Lx? nfO{ l56f]
ljrf/wf/fTds k|lzIf0fsf] dfWod lts8d u/]sf] ;se/ sld6Lsf] d'n eGbf l56f] qmflGtsf] nflu tof/ ug{
x'g\ . csf]{ efifdf kf6L{, ;]gf / hgjuL{o ;+u7gx? 4f/f cfwf/e"t a'emfO{ lgdf{0f ug{ g]tŒ[ j / ;xof]4fn] ;'Os { f] ;Dd gkfpg ;lsg] 5 . cGoyf :jt:km{'ttfjfbL
clt cfjZos b]lvG5 . eGg] /xG5 . t];f| ] ;se/ kf6L{n] ug]{ ;f]rn] xfdLn] rfx]sf] h:tf] qmflGtsf]
qmflGtsf] gLlDt hLljt / r]t ePsf xltof/ x'g eg] u_ ;+ u 7gfTds cg' z f;g, ljlw
tyf k4ltdf gjflwg] ;d:of
lg0f{o / of]hgfn] cfˆgf] JolQmut
lxtdf c;/ gk/f];\ eGg] s'/fdf clt
tof/L ug{ ljnDj x'g]5 .
#= lgisif{
jGb's cr]t / lghL{j xltof/ xf] . o;y{ hLljt tyf ;fdfGotM s'g} klg kf6L{ jf ;+3,
;+u7g ;+rfngsf] nflu cfjZos kg]{
;t{s /xG5 . rf}yf] kf6L{sf] 3]/f eGbf
aflx/ kf6L{ s f] zlQm / cf8df
xfd|f] kf6L{ bz jif{ qmflGt -dxfg\
hgo'4_ / bz jif{ k|lt qmflGt -
r]t ePsf xltof/ tof/ ug{' xfd|f] qmflGtsf] klxnf] ljlw ljwfg lgdf{0f ul/Psf] x'G5, /
To; ljlw ljwfg cg'?k kf6L{ tyf
JolQmut nfenfO{ w'/Ldf /fv]/ ;DaGw
lj:tf/ ug]{ ub{5 . kf+rf} JolQmut
k|r08, jfj'/fdx?sf] cfTd;dk{0f /
ljrng_ sf lj?4 n8\b} ljho k|fKt
cfjZostf aGg k'us ] f] 5 . of] sfo{nfO{ h'g;'s} ;+3 ;+u7g ;+rfng ul/G5, ;DalGwt
;+3 ;+u7gdf cfj4 k|To]s ;b:ox?n]
gfkmf–gf]S;fgnfO{ Vofn u/]/ dfq rNg'
o;sf] d'n ljz]iftf /xG5 . oL
u/]/ lgdf{0f ul/Psf] qmflGtsf/L kf6L{
xf], g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ . k|lt
ljz]iftfn] htf–htf sfd u/]sf 5g\ qmflGtsf lj?4df h] x fb 5] 8 \ b }
d'Nodf klg xfdLn] k'/f ug{' kg]{ 5 . of] sfo{ hlt To; ;+u7gsf] ljlw ljwfgnfO{ dfGg'
/ ;f] cg';f/ rNg' p;sf] klxnf] ToxfF – ToxfF kf6L{ / cfGbf] n gdf qmflGtsf] /Iffy{ g]t[TjbfoL e'ldsf
st{Ao jf lhDd]jf/L leq kb{5 . ultlxgtfsf] ;d:of b]lvG5, eg] lgjf{x ug{' x'g] xfd|f] kf6L{sf lzif{:y
rfF8f] k'/f ug{ ;S5f},+ Tolt rfF8f] o;sf] uj{df n'ss ] f] sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ ;+u7gsf cf?g} htf–htf oL ;d:ofaf6 d'n ?kdf g]t[Tjx? wGojfbsf kfq x'g'x'G5 .
d'No, dfGotf, ljlw, ljwfg, k4lt / kf6L{ d'Qm 5, ToxfF–ToxfF kf6L{ / cj PsLs[t hgqmflGtsf] ;+rfng /
j}1flgs ;dfhjfbsf] pbo x'g5] . cg'zf;g x'g] ub{5 . sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ cfGbf]ngn] qmlGtsf/L cfsf/ a9fpb} ljsf;sf] P]ltxfFl;s g]t[TjbfoL
d'n ?kdf hgjfbL s]lGb|otfsf] uPsf] oyf{ttf :ki6 g} 5 . of] lhDd] j f/L klg xfd| f ] lzif{ : y
hGd :jtM :k"mt{ 9+un] geO{ ;j{xf/f ultlzntfdf geO{ oyfl:yltdf j'‰g] yf]/} x'G5 . lsgeg] kl/jt{g rfxg] / l;4fGt cg'?k ;+rfng ul/G5 . ;d:ofsf lj?4 kf6L{ sld6Lx?df g]t[Tjx?s} sfFwdf OltxfF;n] ydfO{
juL{o ljrf/, b[li6sf]0f / lglZrt ub{ 5 / j:t' s f] ?kfGt/0f tyf kl/jt{gsf] r'gf}tLk"0f{ k|lqmof qmflGtdf jf]Nz]ljs kf6L{sf g]tf tyf ljZj j}rfl/s ;+3if{sf] h]xfb 5]8\g] xf]O{g lbPsf] 5 . of] P]ltxfl;s lhDd]jf/L
/fhg}lts nIo k|fKtLsf] p2]Zo ;lxt kl/jt{g ug{ ;r]t kxn ub}{g . ;xefuL x'g] eGg] s'/f cnu s'/f ;j{xf/f ju{sf d'lQmbftf s=n]lggn] eg] xfd|f] kf6L{n] kl/sNkgf u/]sf] s' z ntfk" j { s k' / f ul/g] s' / fdf
;r]t / of]hgfj4 kxndf ePsf] o;sf] l7s pN6f] xfdL dfn]dfjfbL xf] . ;fdfGotof ;lhnf] jf6f] vf]Hg', ljsf; ug{ ' ePsf] hgjfbL dfgj ;Eotf j}1flgs ;dfhjfbdf kf6L{ d f s' g } b' O { dt 5} g . of]
lyof] . ljrf/ tyf /fhgLlt ;xL xf]; b[li6sf]0f /fVg]x?n] j:t'sf] ?kfGt/0f ;lhnf] sfd vf]Hg' r'gf}tL df]Ng s]lGb|otfsf] l;4fGtdf d'Vo u/L % k'Ug ljnDj x'g5 ] . o;y{ tnb]lv ljZjf;nfO{ gofF prfO{ k|bfg ub}{
of unt xf];\ o;sf] sfo{Gjogsf] nflu / kl/jt{g ug]d { f ;r]t / of]hgfj4 grfxg' eg]sf] dflg;sf] cfd k|jl[ t j6f s'/fx? kb{5g\ . o;df klxnf] dfly ;Dd k| T o] s txsf kf6L{ qmflGtsf] lglDt xfdL ;a} g]tf–
klxnf] xltof/ eg]sf] ;+u7g g} jGg kxn ug]{ ub{5f}+ . t/ oxfFg]/ xfd|f] g} x'G5 . of] eg]sf] ;'wf/jfbL ljrf/ AolQm ;+u7gsf] dftxt, bf];f| ] tNnf] ;b:ox?nfO{ kf6L{n] lbPsf] lhDd]jf/L sfo{stf{n] cfk"m / cfk"m dftxtsf]
hfG5 . ;+u7g ljgf gt ljrf/ g} b[li6sf]0fdf b]vfk/]sf] Pp6f ;d:of k|j[tL xf] . o;} leq csf]{ ;fxl;s sld6L dflyNnf] sld6Lsf] dftxt, k|lt /ftL klg ;kgf b]Vg] agfpg k+lQmnfO{ j}rfl/s–/fhg}lts, kmf}hL,
k| j fx ug{ ;lsG5 gt lgwf{ l t s] 5 eg] bz jif]{ hgo'4n] g;s]sf] qmflGtsf/L k|j[lt klg oxL ;dfhdf t];f| ] cNkdt ax'dtsf] dftxt, rf}yf] cfjZos 5 . clg dfq xfd|f] ;kgfsf] ;+u7gfTds, ;+3if{ / cfly{s ;a}
/fhg}lts nIo, p2]Zo g} k|fKt ug{ ;Qf kl/jt{gsf] sfd cj s;/L x'g] u5{ . hf] r'gf}tL b]lv g8/fpg], ;Dk"0f{ sld6Lx? s]lGb|o ;ldltsf] ;dfhjfb–;fDojfb k|fKt ug{ l9nf] If]qdf hlt l56f] tof/ ug{ ;Sb5f}
;lsG5 . o;y{ clxn] xfdLn] ;+rfng ;Dej 5 < eGg] ;f]rfO{ /fVb5f}+ / cK7of/fx?sf] ;fdgf ug{ tof/ x'g], dftxt, / kf+rf} s]lGb|o ;ldlt x'g] 5}g . Tolt l56f] qmflGtsf] ljho glhlsg]
ub{} u/]sf] PsLs[t hgqmflGtdf slxn] sfF x L kf6L{ s f lhDd] j f/ kl/jt{gsf] kIfkf]if0f ug]{, b]z / dxflwj]zgsf] dftxt eGg] xf] . ;j{ky| d ª_ ;r]t / of]hgfj4 kxnsf] cefj lglZrt 5 .
b] v fk/] s f ;+ u 7gfTds If] q sf lgsfodf /x]sf sd/]8x? af6 klg ;dfhsf] lrGtf ug]{ cflb :j?kdf of] dfGoftfnfO{ cfTdf;ft gul/sg gt sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ ;r]t dflg;x?sf] ;du| qmflGtsf] g]t[Tjstf{ kf6L{
;d:ofsf ljifodf of] n]vdf ;+lIfKt ?of§ of] k|Zg cfpg] u5{ . hgtfsf] of] ljrf/ k|s6 x'g] ub{5 . d'ntM xfdL sDo'lgi6 kf6L{sf] cg'zf;gdf a:g Pp6f b:tf xf] . qmflGtsf tLg ePsf]n] ;a} txsf kf6L{ ;+u7gnfO{
rrf{ ul/g]5 . h;n] xfd|f] h:tf] txdf of] k|Zg :jefljs dfGg ;dfhdf /x]sf oL b'j} ljrf/ / k|jl[ t ;S5f}, gt xfdL sDo'lgi6 kf6L{sf] c;n ;fj{ef}d l;4fGt qmflGtsf/L sDo'lgi6 kl/kSs gagfO{sg qmflGtsf] ljho
qmflGtsf/L kf6L{sf nflu ;xof]u k'Ug] ;lsPklg kf6L{sf lhDd]jf/ lgsfodf kf6L{ ;+u7gdf klg :a]nf–a]nfdf ;b:o g} aGg ;S5f} . kf6L{, qmflGtsf/L hg;]gf / j[xt ;Dej 5}g . To:t} kf6L{nfO{ agfpg'sf
ck]Iff ul/Psf] 5 . /x]sf sd/]8x?sf] ;Gbe{df ljrf/ k|s6 x'g] ub{5g\ . ljz]iftM oL b'j} o;y{ qmflGtsf] dxgg sfo{df ;+oQ " m df]rf{ dWo] kf6L{ ;+u7g d'Vo ;–;fy} kf6L{ s f] j/Lk/L Jofks
@= ;+ u 7gfTds If] q df b] l vPsf / b[ l i6sf] 0 fdf /x] s f] cfwf/e" t k|j[ltsf] klxrfg qmflGtsf] clt cufl8 a9\b} u/]sf] xfd|f] kf6L{df xf] . qmflGtsf] nflu j:t'ut cj:yf hgjuL{o ;+u7g lgdf{0fsf] sfdnfO{
;d:ofx? c:ki6tfsf] ;d:of xf] . h'g h'g ;+s6sf] ;dodf :ki6 x'g] ub{5 . hgjfbL s]Gb|LotfnfO{ u|x0f ug]{ / cg' s ' n %:aGb} uPsf] ePklg klg TolQs} dxTjsf ;fy lng
s_ ljrf/ / b[li6sf]0fsf] ;d:of sd/]8x?n] o:tf] k|sf/n] ;f]Rb5g\ kf6L{ leq ;+u7gdf oL b'j} ljrf/ ;f] cg';f/ cg'zf;gsf] ljsf; ug]{, qmflGtnfO{ g]t[Tj k|bfg ug]{ kf6L{ cfjZos 5 . kf6L{ Pp6f Kofhsf]
cfh;Ddsf] dfgj ;dfhsf] / ts{ ug]{ ub{5g\ tL sd/]8x? nfO{ k|j[ltsf] aLrdf cGt/;+3if{ eO/xg] kf6L{sf] ljlw k4ltnfO{ cfTd;ft ug]{ ;+u7g ;a} lx;fjn] k"0f{ ?kdf bfgfsf] u'bL xf] eg] hgjuL{o ;+u7g
Oltxf;df :ki6 5 ls j:t',;dfh, PsLs[t hgqmflGt lhTg ;lsG5 eGg] ub{5, of] ;+3if{ ;fdfGo cj:yfdf ;f] cg';f/ cfk"mnfO{ ?kfGt/0f ug]{ / tDtof/ ePg eg] j:t'ut cj:yf Kofhsf] bfgf j/Lk/Lsf kqx? x'g\ .
k|s[lt tyf ;fdflhs, /fhgLlts ljZjf; klg 5}g / lhTg] u/L lqmoflzn ;fdfGo ?kdf x'G5 eg] ljz]if / sld6L k|0ffnLdf /xg] h:tf cfwf/e't cg's'n eP/ dfq qmflGtsf] ljsf; csf]{ efifdf kf6L{, ;]gf / hgjuL{o
Joj:yfnfO{ x]g]{, a'‰g], u|x0f ug]{ / eP/ /fhgLlt, ;+u7g, ;+3if{sf r'gf}tLk"0f{ cj:yfdf k]lrnf] klg aGg] ljifodf ;d:of b]vfk/]sf 5g\ . x'Fb}g . qmflGt eg]s} ;r]tg kIf - ;+u7gx? qmflGtsf] gLlDt hLljt /
nfu' ug] { b' O { leGg b[ l i6sf] 0 f ljleGg If]qdf sfd klg u/]sf] ub{5 . cGttM of] ;xL / untaLrsf] hgo'4sf cg'ejn] klg xfdLnfO{ s] qmflGtsf/L kf6L{_ sf] g]t[TjbfoL r]t ePsf xltof/ x'g eg] jGb's
dfn]dfjfbL / k'FhLjfbL /x]sf 5g\ . b]lvb}g . t;y{ o:tf sd/]8x? nfO{ ljrf/wf/fTds ;+3if{ g} xf] . kf6L{ atfpF5 eg] Pp6f kmnfd] cg'zf;gdf e'ldsf / of]hgfj4 kxndf ul/g] cr]t / lghL{j xltof/ xf] . o;y{
o; nfO{ b'O{ ljZj b[li6sf]0f klg kf6L{sf] s'g} klg lgsfosf] k|d'v hLjgdf nfu' x'g] of] cGt/;+3if{ aflwPsf] c;n qmflGtsf/L kf6L{sf] sfo{ xf] . of] ;fdfGo a'emfO{ xfd|f hLljt tyf r]t ePsf xltof/ tof/
elgG5 . klxnf] dfn] d fjfbL lhDd]jf/L lbO{g' xF'b}g / pxfFx?sf] ;dfhdf ju{;+3if{sf] ?kdf JoQm ljsf; gxF'bf ;Dd k'/fgf] ;Qfsf tNnf ;+ u 7gx?df alg;s] s f] ug{' xfd|f] qmflGtsf] klxnf] cfjZostf
b[li6sf]0fn] j:t', ;dfh, k|s[lt / OdfGbf/Ltfsf] kf6f]nfO{ Wofg lbP/ eO/x]sf] x'G5 . :jefjtM ;dfhdf d'NodfGotf eTsfpg ;lsb}g / b]lvb}g . o; k|sf/sf] cfwf/e"t aGg k'u]sf] 5 . of] sfo{nfO{ h'g;'s}
;fdflhs /fhgLlts Joj:yfnfO{ b[li6sf]0f lgdf{0fdf kf6L{n] of]hgfj4 /x]sf] pTkLl8t tyf >dhLlj ju{;uF ;du|df qmflGtnfO{ ljhosf] lzv/df a'emfO{ gag]s} sf/0f kf6L{sf tNnf d'Nodf klg xfdLn] k'/f ug{' kg]{ 5 .
kl/jt{gzLn / ultlzn j:t'sf] kxn ug{' kg]{ b]lvG5 . qmflGtsf/L ljrf/ x'g] u5{ eg] >d k'¥ofpg ;lsb}g . o;y{ cg'zf;g txdf ePsf ;+u7gx? ;'b[9 ug]{, of] sfo{ hlt rfF8f] k'/f ug{ ;S5f}+,
?kdf a'‰b5 / ToxL cg';f/ u|x0f v_ j} r fl/s tyf /fhg} l ts zf]if0f ug]{ ju{ ;'wf/jfbL, cj;/jfbL eg]sf] s;}dfly hj{h:tL nfb\g] ljifo yk ;+u7gx? lgdf{0f / lj:tf/ ug],{ Tolt rfF8f] o;sf] uj{df n's]sf]
u/L kl/jt{g / ?kfGt/0fsf] kIfdf c:ki6tfsf ;d:of tyf k"+hLjfbL ljrf/ x'g] ub{5 . o; xf]Og{ , ljlw k4ltdf /xg' eg]sf] s'g} ;Dk"0f{ ;+u7gx?nfO{ qmflGt / d'lQm j}1flgs ;dfhjfbsf] pbo x'g]5 .
cfˆgf] ljrf/, b[li6sf]0f /fVb5 . bf]>f] ;dfhdf qmflGtsf/L / ;'wf/jfbL, s'/fnfO /fhgLlt If]qdf x]bf{ ;dfhdf sfnsf]7/Ldf jGbL eP/ a:g' xf]Og{ . k| l t cf:j:y kfg] { h:tf clt -n]vs M k"j{ /fHodGqL x'g ._
4 @)&% ;fn ;fpg ^ ut] cfOtaf/

‘PdaLaLP;’df uf]N8 d]8n xfl;n
cf]nLsf] dw]z gLlt M ljv08g ls ;Daf]wg <
c/ljGb ;fx k|efljt tTsfnLg k|wfgdGqL Pj+ /fi6« ef/tsf] ;Ldfdf k'¥ofOof] . s]kL cyf{t k|b]z @ afx]s cGo ;a} u/]sL 5fqf leIf' algg\ Û
cf–cfkm\ g f] zlQm a9fpg k|dv' lul/hfk|;fb sf]O/fnfn] dw]zL cf]nLsf] ckdfghgs zAb / uf]nL k|bz ] df :yfgLo tx, k|bz ] ;ef / sf7df8f}F . ef/tsf] cxdbgu/ o'lgel;{6Laf6 PdaLaLP;df uf]N8 d]8n
/fhkl/jf/leq ag]sf u'6 pku'6n] df]rf{;Fu u/]sf] @)^$ ;fn kmfNu'g nf7Lsf] k| x f/n] ubf{ dw] z L k|ltlglw;efsf] lgjf{rgdf s]kL k|fKt u/]sL lxgf lx+u8n] h}g leIf' hLjg c+ufn]sL l5g\ . pgn] ;"/tdf
ubf{ v]Ng df}sf kfPsf hunaxfb'/ !^ ut] * a'Fb] ;Demf}tf / g]kfnsf] cfGbf]ngsf/L ef/tLo l;dfgf 5]pdf cf] n Ln] ef/L ax' d t k| f Kt u/L
/f0ffn] sf]t kj{ / e08f/vfn kj{sf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# sf] dd{ / k' U g afWo eP . dw] z L ;a}eGbf 7"nf] kf6L{sf] x}l;otdf
cf8df ;os8f} + ef/bf/ tyf efjgfnfO{ ;d]t a]jf:tf u/L bf];|f] cfGbf] n gsf/Ln] gfsfaGbL u/L plePkl5 sDo'lgi6 Pstfsf] gfddf
b/al/ofx¿nfO{ cfkm\gf] t/af/n] xTof ;+ljwfg;efaf6 zf;sju{ cfkm\gf] cfjthfjt k"0f{¿k]0f aGb u/]kl5 dfcf]jfbL s]Gb|nfO{ cfkm\gf] ;fydf
u/L zlQmdf cfPkl5 /fhf /fh]Gb| cg'sn " ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f ug{ nfu]kl5 b}lgs pkef]Uo j:t'sf] cefjdf ld;fpFb} b'O{ ltxfO{ ax'dt ePsf]
zfxnfO{ kbRo"t u/L o'j/fh ;''/]Gb| csf] { t] ; | f ] dw] z ljb| f ] x eof] . k/]sf kxf8L ;d'bfo klg dw]zLdfly zlQmzfnL k|wfgdGqLsf] ¿kdf s]kL
zfxnfO{ /fhf agfO{ lj=;+= !()# d]rLb]lv dxfsfnL;Ddsf dw]zL, vlgb} k|wfgdGqL s]kL cf]nLsf] sfFwdf cf]nLsf] pbo ePsf] 5 . h+uaxfb'/
sflt{s !@ ut] b]zsf k|wfgdGqL / blnt, dlxnf, d'l:nd / yf¿ ;d'bfo sfFw ldnfP/ kl/0ffd :j¿ dw]zLsf] /f0ff /fhf ;'/]Gb| zfxnfO{ s7k'tnL
sdf08/ Og lrkm ag] . /fhsLo zf;ssf] cGofo cTofrf/ lj¿4 /utsf] vf]nf] / nfzsf] 9]/ nfUb} agfO{ zlQmzfnL ag]sf] h:t} s]kL
;Dk"0f{ clwsf/ ;lxt ;Gtfg b/ cfGbf]ngdf plqP . cfGbf]ngnfO{ uof] . cf]nLn] k'iksdn bfxfn …k|r08Ú nfO{
;Gtfg !)$ jif{;Dd h+uaxfb'/ bafpg tTsfnLg g]kfnL sf+u|]; / zf]if0f k|j[lQn] g} ;+;f/nfO{ oqf] cfkm\ g f] k| e fjdf kf/L g] k fnsf]
qm"/tfk"js
{ g]kfndf zf;s eO{ zf;g Pdfn] s f] u7aGwg ;/sf/åf/f b'b{zfdf k'¥ofPsf] 5 . zf]ifsx¿sf] Oltxf;d} ;a} e Gbf zlQmzfnL
u/] . /f0ff sfnLg zf;g Joj:yfdf ;~rflnt k'ln; k|zf;g lgxTyf cGofo, cTofrf/, lje]b / zf]if0f k| w fgdGqL ag] s f 5g\ . clt
s'g} klg dw]zLnfO{ /fHosf] s'g} klg dw]zL hgtfsf] 6fpsf] / 5ftLdf k||j[lQsf] kl/0ffd g} xf] ul/aL, h'g dxTjfsf+IfL JolQm s]kL cf]nL gf6sLo
e"ldsfdf /fv]sf lyPgg\ . dw]zLn] uf]nL xfGb} d[To'sf] z}Øofdf k'¥ofpFb} g/sLo hLjgeGbf klg a9L bb{gfs 9+ u n] ;+ 3 Lo ;dfhjfbL kmf] / d cf}krfl/s ?kdf h}g k/Dk/f cg';f/ bLIff u|x0f ub}{ leIf' hLjgdf kfOnf
sf7df8f}F k|jz
] ug{ kf;kf]6{ lng'kg]{ uof] . dw]z If]qnfO{ b+ufu|:t If]q x' G 5 . cflnzfg / j} e jzfnL g]kfnsf cWoIf pk]Gb| ofbjnfO{ ;d]t 6]ss] L x'g\ . leIf' eP;Fu} pgsf] klxrfg kl/jt{g ePsf] 5 . pgnfO{ ca
sfg"gL Joj:yf lyof] . 3f]if0ff u/L sk\m{o' nufO{ g]kfnsf] ;+ud/d/sf 7"nf–7"nf uugr'DaL ;Qfdf ;xefuL agfpg ;kmn ePsf ;fWjL ljzf/bdfn gfdn] lrlgg] 5 . ef/tLo ;+rf/dfWodsf cg';f/ pgn]
To:t} dw]zLnfO{ clwsf/af6 ;+ljwfg @)&@ hf/L ul/of] . dxn, b/af/ / ejgx¿, df]6/ uf8L, 5g\ eg] k'ln;sdL{x¿nfO{ cfGbf]ngsf] s]xL jif{cl3b]lv g} kl/jf/sf ;b:o;Fu leIf' hLjgdf k|jz] sf nflu cg'dlt
jl~rt /fVg / dw]z cfGbf]ngnfO{ dw]z cfGbf]ngnfO{ a]jf:tf u/L nfjfnZs/, gf]s/ rfs/, ;'/f;'Gb/L, qmddf Hofg df/]sf] cf/f]kdf aGbL dfu]sL lyOg\ . t/, kl/jf/sf ;b:on] cg'dlt lbPsf] lyPg . pgL kl/jf/sf
bafpg ;os8f}+ jL/ dw]zL lgxTyf @)&@ ;fn cflZjg # ut] hf/L ckf/ ;Dkbf cflbsf] nf]e nfnrn] u[xdf y'gfdf /x]sf hglgjf{lrt ;b:ox?sf] cfsf+Iff / ;'emfjnfO{ pk]Iff ub}{ ;f+;fl/s df]xaf6 6f9f k'us
] L
hgtfnfO{ uf]nLsf] lzsf/ agfO{ ul/Psf] g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg @)&@ nfO{ ubf{ g} d'l¶e/ dfG5] bfgjLo ¿k k| l tlglw;ef ;b:o /] z dnfn x'g\ . pgn] cfWoflTds u'? cfrfo{ ljho ozf]jdf{ ;'/Z] j/hL dxf/fhaf6
/fli6« o tfsf] gfddf zlQmzfnL dw] z L hgtfn] hnfpF b } eLif0f wf/0f u/]sf x'G5g\ . caf}{+ vaf}{+sf] rf}w/LnfO{ l/xfO{ / ;+ljwfg ;+zf]wg bLIff lnPsL x'g\ . bLIff lng'cl3 pgn] $* lbg;Dd Wofg u/]sf] atfOG5 .
k| w fgdGqLsf] ¿kdf v8\ u k| ; fb
cf]nLsf] pbo ePsf] 5 .
zfx j+zLo /fhfsf] kfnfb]lv
cfGbf]ngdf plqPkl5 ;Qf;Lg ePsf
tTsfnLg k|wfgdGqL s]kL cf]nLsf]
dw]zL ;d'bfodfly cfqmf]z a9\b}
cfDbfgL s;/L cfpF5 < lrNnf–
lrNnf ufnf / /ftf/ftf cf]7 s;sf]
/utn] /+luG5 < of] s'g} efu /
u/L dw]zLsf] dfu ;Daf]wg ug]{
u/fpg] zt{df dw]zsf] csf]{ zlQm
/fhkf g]kfn klg ;Qf;Lg x'g] s'/f
b; lbg cl3 d[To' ePsf] dlxnfn] aRrf hGdfOg\ Û
sf7df8f}F . blIf0f clk|msfsf] blIf0fL–k"jL{ s]k k|fGtl:yt yflo;Ldf
zf]if0f, pTkL8g, cGofo, cTofrf/ / uof] . b'O{ rf/ cf]6f cfFk v:b}df eujfgaf6 cfPsf] x'Fb}g . Tof] ;a} rrf{df 5 . h+uaxfb'/ /f0ff cfkm\gf] d[To' ePsf] !) lbgkl5 Ps dlxnfn] aRrfnfO{ hGd lbPsL l5g\ . ##
lje]bdf kfl/Fb} cfPsf dw]zL, blnt s]xL km/s kb}g{ eGb} dw]zL dfly ls;fg, dhb"/, ul/a, k/f>lds / rt'/fO{n] dw]zsf klZrdL e"efu jifL{of gf]De]ln;f] gf]df;f]Gtf] PDbf]oLn] d'To' ePsf] !) lbgkl5 aRrf
/ yf¿ ;d' b fo cfcfkm\ g f] xs uf]nLsf] af}5f/ ug{ yflnof] . o'lk o'jfx¿sf] cfkm\gf] v'g, kl;gf, ldx]gt cFuh ]| af6 lkmtf{ lnP h:t} s]kL cf]nL hGdfPsL x'g\ . 8]nL d]nsf cg';f/ cfk"mnfO{ PsfPs ;f; km]g{ ;d:of
clwsf/sf nflu k6s–k6s laxf/L, dfv] dw]zL ljv08gsf/L eGb} / Tofuaf6 pTkfbg u/] s f klg dw]zL ;d'bfonfO{ xftdf kf/L ePsf] atfPsL lyOg\ . kfFr ;GtfgsL gf]De]ln;f]sf] tTsfn d[To' eof] .
cfGbf] n gdfkm{ t \ cfkm\ g f] cfjfh kxf8L ;] l G6d] G 6 xftdf lnfb} pTkfbsTjnfO{ zf]if0f u/L zf]ifsju{n] dw]znfO{ ljv08gaf6 hf]ufpg] xf] clGtd ;+:sf/sf nflu Ps ;+:yfnfO{ pgsf] zj a'emfOof] . t/ d[To'
p7fpFb} cfPsf 5g\ t/ /fHon] s'g} dw]zLdfly aa/tfk"0f{ bdg rqm ykfg]{ u/]sf cs"t ;DklQ xf] . ls rrf{ 5 . ljZj:t x'g z+sf 5 . ePsf] !) lbgkl5 clGtd ;+:sf/ ug]{ lbg pQm ;+:yfn] pgsf] zjsf] b'O{
jf:tf u/]sf] 5}g . rnfpg yfn] . ufpF3/ 6f]n zx/af6 dw]zL ;d'bfonfO{ bafpg ;kmn -n]vs /fhkfsf g]tf x'g\ ._ -dw]z v'§fsf] aLrdf d[To' eO;s]sf] aRrf b]v] .
@)^#÷)^$ sf] dw]z ljb|fx] af6 dw]zL dfly uf]nL rnfpFb} nv]6\b} ePs} sf/0f dw]zsf cf7 lhNnf bk{ 0 f lkmr/ ;] j f_ d[To' kl5 df+;k]zL lzlyn x'Fbf / AofS6]l/ofsf] ljsf;sf sf/0f pgsf]
zl//dfleq ePsf] aRrf aflx/ cfPsf] x'g;Sg] :jf:YosdL{nfO{ pw[t ub}{

xftdf ‘x’ lrGx 5 eg] o:tf] x'g5] tkfO{sf] eljio
sf7df8f}F . Hofltif ljBf o:tf] xftsf] /]vf x]g{] ul/G5 . x/]s JolQmsf] :jf:Yo;DjGwL ljleGg s' / fx? afx]s o:tf] lrGx cGo JolQmsf]
cGt/f{li6«o ;dfrf/ dfWodn] hgfPsf] 5 . clGtd ;+:sf/ ug]{ ;+:yf
lnGbf]vn ' ˆo'g/n km'G8fOn dfsfnfgfsf dflnsn] eg], …ha xfdLn] pgsf]
zl//nfO{ zju[xsf] 6«]af6 slkmgdf /fVg vf]Hof}+ ta xfdLn] pgsf] b'O{
v'§fsf] aLrdf ev{/} hlGdPsf] aRrf e]6\of}+ .Ú …aRrfsf] d[To' eO;s]sf]
ljBf xf] h;n] s]xL g s]xL tl/sfaf6 xTs]nfdf ljleGg k|sf/sf x:t/]vfx? atfpF5 . xftsf] /]vf x]/]/ eljiosf] xTs]nfdf ;d]t b]Vg ;lsG5 . h'g lyof] . xfdL lgs} rlst / 8/fPsf sf/0f aRrfsf] lnË klg x]g{ ;s]gf}+ .Ú
dflg;sf] eljio atfpF5 . kl5Nnf] x'G5g\ . cfh xfdL tkfO{nfO{ xTs]nfdf cg'dfg nufpg ;lsg] xhf/ jif{ ;+ ; f/df # k| l tzt dflg;sf] …d of] Joj;fodf nfu]sf] @) jif{eGbf w]/} ;do eO;Sof] t/ d}n] slxn]
;dodf of] ljBf k| d fl0ft klg ePsf] o:t} Pp6f /]vfsf] af/]df klxn]g} lxGb" Clif afNdLlsn] %^& xTs]nfdf dfq kfpFg ;lsG5 . ev{/} klg d[To' eO;s]sf] dlxnfn] aRrfnfO{ hGd lbPsf] 36gf b]vs ] f] jf ;'gs
] f]
eO;s]sf] 5 . ljleGg tl/sfdWo] atfpFg uO/x]sf 5f} . 5Gb o'Qm Ps uGy|df pNn]v u/]sf xTs]nfdf x /]vfsf] af/]df hfgsf/L 5}g .Ú of] ckTofl/nf] 36gfn] pgsL &^ jifL{of cfdf dfG8hfnfnfO{ yk
Hof]ltif ljBfsf] Ps tl/sf xf] x:t s] xf] x:t/] v f < lyP . / o:tf] /]vf x'gx] ?sf] efUosf] af/]df kL8fdf kfof]{ . pgL elG5g\, …xfdL lzlIft ju{dfem of] a'emfOlbg cfu|x ug{
/]vf . oxL /]vfsf] dfWodaf6 Hof]ltifn] x:t/]vf zf:qsf] k|flrg 1fgsf] xTs]nfdf x x'g' ul/Psf] Ps l/;{r ul/Psf] lyof] rfxG5f}+ ls d[To' eO;s]sL Ps dlxnfn] s;/L cfˆgf] ;GtfgnfO{ hGd lbg
tkfO{sf] cfˆgf] hLjgsf] af/]df w]/} cfwf/df xTs]nfsf] /]vf dflg;sf] ld;|sf ljåfgsf cg';f/ l;s+b/ df:sf] o"lgel;{P6Ldf . pQm l/;{rn] ;lS5g\ .Ú …d clxn] &^ jif{ k'lu;s]sL 5' / slxn] klg o:tf] 36gfaf/]
Ps k] k /g} lgsfn] s f] 5 . pQm ;'g]sf] lyOgF . d]/L 5f]/LnfO{ g} o:tf] lsg eof] <Ú
ljZjljBfnodf ePsf] zf] w df
zf]wstf{n] @ ldlnog dflg;sf] af/]df
hfgsf/L Plss[t u/]sf lyP . h;df
g]kfn ljZjs} ;'Gb/ b]zsf] klxnf] :yfgdf
sf7df8f}F . a]nfotsf] 6«fen ufO8 a'sn] ko{6sLo uGtJosf nflu ljZjsf
hLljt jf d[t b'j} dflg;df ul/Psf]
!) ;'Gb/ b]zx?sf] ;'rL k|sflzt u/]sf] 5M . To;dWo] e|d0fsf nflu g]kfn
pQm zf]wsf cg';f/ h'g dflg;sf]
klxnf] gDa/df k/]sf] 5 . ;g\ @)!^ df e|d0fsf nflu a]nfotsf] /km
xftdf x lrGx x'G5 pgLx? 7"nf g]tf
ufO8n] k|sflzt u/]sf] ljZjsf !) pTs[i6 b]zsf] ;"rLdf g]kfn k/]sf] xf] .
x'g], sf]lx JolQm nf]slk|o jf sf]lx
)&@ ;fn j}zfv !@ ut] uPsf] e"sDkn] lynlynf] ePsf] g]kfnsf]
JolQm 7"nf–7"nf sfdsf] nflu k|l;4
ko{6g Jofj;fo dfly pSnFb} uPsf] 5 eGb} ufO{8n] g]kfn e|d0f ug{ of]Uo
ePsf] e]l6Psf lyP .
;'Gb/ b]z eg]sf] 5 . /km ufO{8n] g]kfnsf] 6«l] sª ?6, xf]d :6] tyf ljleGg
s] xf] o;sf] cy{
;f+:s[lts If]qnfO{ ko{6sLo cfsif{0fsf] d'Vo s]Gb| eg]sf] 5 . e"sDkn] cfˆgf
h'g JolQmsf] b'j} xftdf o:tf]
lk|ohg u'dfpg'sf] kL8f, cyfx wghgsf] Ifltsf afah't klg g]kfnL hgtfsf]
/]vf x'G5 pgLx? 7"nf] sfd u/]/
cflTdo :jfut / Jojxf/nfO{ klg g]kfnL ko{6g If]qsf] ;'Gb/ / ;an kIf
k|l;4 x'g] tyf d/]kl5 klg ofbu/
eg]sf] 5 . ljleGg lxd z[v F nf, h+unL hgfj/ tyf ljljwtfn] el/k"0f{ g]kfnL
x'g] u5{g\ . h'g JolQmsf] Pp6f dfq
h+unx?nfO{ ko{6gsf nflu pTs[i6 /x]sf] atfOPsf] 5 . /km ufO8sf] !)
xTs]nfdf o:tf] lrGx x'G5 pgLx?
s'/f atfpF5g\ . x:t/]vfsf] cg';f/ JolQmTj / eljiosf] ;Defjgf h:t} dxfg\sf] xftdf klg o:tf] lrGx b]zsf] ;"rLdf g]kfn klxnf], sf]nlDaofnfO{ bf];f| ] gDa/df /flvPsf] 5 . So'jf
k|ltli7t x'g] / ;kmntfn] pgLx?sf]
k'?ifsf] bfofF xft / dlxnfsf] afofF sl/o/, hLjg, ljjfx, wg / b]lvPsf] kfOG5 . l;s+b/sf] xTs]nfdf t];f| ,] hf]8g{ rf}y+ f], cNaflgof kfFrf},+ /f]dflgof 5}6f},+ Pn ;fnef8f]/ ;ftf},+ j]N;
sbd sbddf r'Dg] atfOg .

sn]hf] :j:y /fVg] eP
cf7f},+ s]Gof gjf}+ tyf >Ln+sf bzf}+ gDa/df k/] klg ef/tnfO{ eg] s'g} klg
;'lrdf /flvPsf] 5}g .

hxf“sf dflg;x? t]nn] g'xfp“5g\
sf7df8f}F . sn]hf] dfgj z/L/sf] kf5{ . Ps lunf; c+u'/sf] /;n] vfPklg of] sn]hf]sf] :jf:Yosf nflu cGo ljiffQm kbfy{x? aflx/ lgsfNg sf7df8f}F . ljZjdf cg]s vfnsf dfGotf, ljZjf;, k/Dk/f tyf
dxTjk"0f{ c+u xf] . kfrg k|0ffnLdf sn]hf]nfO{ ljiffQmd'Qm ug]{ OGhfOd pkof]uL x'G5 . o;df Snf]/f]lkmN; d2t u5{ . o;af6 SofG;/ x'g] vt/f lqmofsnfkx? x'G5g\ . cfˆgf] lhp :j:y /fVgsf nflu dflg;n] b]v–] ;'g–]
;d:of cfpg'df *) k|ltzt e"ldsf pTkfbgdf ;xof]u u5{ . kfOg] ePsfn] /utaf6 jftfj/0fLo klg sd x'G5 . hfg];Ddsf cg]sg pkfo ckgfpg kl5 kb}g{ . sltkon] lhp :j:y /fVg
sn]hf]sf] g} x'g] atfOG5 .o:tf] r'sGb/ / ufFh/ M oL b'jd } f ljiffQm kbfy{ lgsfNg d2t u5{ . sfutL M l;6/; hftsf lrlsT;f lj1fgsf] ;xf/f lnG5g\ t sltkon] cGwljZjf;sf] clg sltn]
cleGg dflgg] c+u sn]hf]nfO{ :j:y a]6f Sof/f]l6g pRr dfqfdf kfOG5 . Pef]sf8f] M kf]ifstTjn] e/k"/ kmnkm'ndf pRrdfqfdf le6fldg l; cfo'jb{] sf] . ch/a}hfgsf] gfkmtnfg ;x/sf dflg;x?n] lhp :j:y /fVg eGb}
s;/L /fVg] t hfgf}F– To;}n] r'sGb/ / ufFh/sf] ;]jgn] Pef]sf8f]n] sn]hf] ;kmf ug{ cfjZos kfOG5 . laxfg lgoldt ?kdf sfutL sRrf t]nn] g'xfpg] ub{5g\ . gfkmtnfg ;x/df Pp6f o:tf] x]Ny ;]G6/ /x]sf]
Kofh M Kofhdf lne/ sn]hf]n] sfd ug]{ Ifdtf a9fpF5 . tTj Un'6fyfOg pTkfbg ug{ ;xof]u kfgL lkpgfn] sn]hf]nfO{ /fd|f;
] u+ sfd 5 h;n] sRrf t]nn] g'xfOlbP/ lj/fdLsf] pkrf/ ub{5 . la/fdLx?nfO{ sRrf
OGhfOdnfO{ ;lqmo agfpg] Ifdtf u|Lg 6L M of] sn]hf]sf] :jf:Yosf u5{ . ug{ d2t u5{ . t]nn] el/Psf] afy6adf k;]/ g'xfpg nufOG5 . :d/0f/xf];\ ch/a}hfg t]n
x'G5, h;n] z/L/df ePsf ljiffQm nflu pko'Qm kbfy{ xf] . o;df :ofp M o;df k]lS6g gfds lgof{t ug]{ Pp6f k|dv ' b]z xf] . pQm :jf:Yos]Gb|df 5fnf, gzf tyf afysf
kbfy{nfO{ aflx/ lgsfNg d2t u5{ . Sof6]lrG; gfds PlG6clS;8]G6 tTj pRr dfqfdf kfOg] ePsfn] /f]uLx? klg pkrf/sf nflu 6f9f6f9faf6 cfpg] ub{5g\ . sRrf t]nn] el/Psf]
o;df clwsdfqfdf x'g] cnfOl;g / kfOG5, h;n] sn]hf]nfO{ ;xof]u u5{ . kfrg k|0ffnLaf6 ljiffQm kbfy{ ;kmf 5f]/f;/x afy6adf 8'aN' sL df/]/ g'xfpg'sf cnfjf oxfF cGo ljlwx? klg 5g\ .
t/ $) l8u|L ;]lN;o; tfkqmddf ! ;o #) ln6/ sRrf t]nn]
;]n]lgod gfds b'O{j6f k|fs[lts u|Lg 6L :jflbi6dfq geP/ o;n] u5{ .
tTjn] sn]hf]nfO{ :j:y /fVg d2t
u5{ .
;du| 8fO6df klg j[l4 u5{ .
xl/of ;fu;AhL M sn]hf] ;kmf
a| f ] s fpnL / sfpnL M oL
t/sf/Ln] z/L/df Un'sf]l;gf]n]6
5f]/LnfO{ :s'n el/Psf] afy6adf la/fdLnfO{ rf]kn]/ ul/g] pkrf/ rflxF ;a}eGbf w]/}
nf]slk|o 5 . ToxfF b}lgs &) hgf lj/fdLsf] pkrf/ ul/g] / ?;, shfls:tfg
c+u'/ M c+u/' df le6fldg l; / ug]{ zlQmzfnL vfBkbfy{df xl/of gfds tTj j[l4 u5{G, h;n] sn]hf]df tyf hd{gL nufotsf b]zaf6 ;d]t dflg;x? pkrf/sf nflu cfpg]
PlG6clS;8]G6 pRr dfqfdf kfOG5, ;fu;AhL klg k5{g\ . sfFr} vfFbf, OGhfOdsf] sfd u5{ . oL k|fs[lts k9\g k7fcf}+ atfOG5 . tftf] t]ndf g'xfpFbf cfˆgf] x•L tyf 5fnf ;DaGwL ;d:ofx?
lgsf] ePsf] dflg;x?sf] cg'ej /xg] u/]sf] 5 .
h;n] sn]hf]nfO{ k|fs[lts ?kdf ;kmf ksfP/ vfFbf of h'; agfP/ h;/L OGhfOdn] z/L/af6 sfl;{of]lhG; /
@)&% ;fn ;fpg ^ ut] cfOtaf/ 5

o'4 ;+ux| fno cjnf]sgsf] clj:d/0fLo If0f
x:taxfb' / s] = ;L= 6f]nLnfO{ csf]{ g]kfnL 6f]nL a:g] u/fOPsf] lyof] . ToxL sf8{n] d]l;gdf kf] xNnfx ul//x]sf] x'GYof] /]nleq
bf“tnfO{ ls/f nfUgjf6 hf]ufpg] eP
sf7df8f}F . ha bfFt / luhfsf] aLrdf xfdLn] vfPsf kbfy{x¿, bfFtsf]
rkfpg] efudf jf bfFtx¿aLrsf] sfkdf bGt n]psf ¿kdf c8\s/] a:5 .
dxfg\\ n]lggsf] g]tT[ jdf dxfg\ ?;L xf]6]ndf k'¥ofpg' eof] . ToxfF klxn] 5f]P kl5 u]6 kf; x'GYof] . To;}u/L klg . g]kfnL :jefj ToxfF klg /fd|/L :6]K6f]sf]s; AofS6]l/ofn] tTsfn Pl;8 pTkfbg ug{ yfN5 . ;f] Pl;8n]
cS6'a/ ;dfhjfbL qmflGt ;DkGg g} ?;L qmflGtsf/L sDo'lgi6 g]tf hf] u]6 k|jz
] u¥of}+ . s/La @)) ld6/ emlNsGYof] . d]6«f] /]naf6 cf]ln{
ul/Psf] b]z ?; n]lggjfbsf ;an cUnf] sb, uf]/f] 5fnf, lxp;Fu ;fdgf tn e"ldut d]6«f] /]n cfpg] ePsfn] ;s]kl5 b'Ot{ nf dfly lnˆ6af6 r9of}+
sfof{ G jogstf{ / lx6n/L ug{ ;Sg] afSnf] a|fgLsf]6 k}l/Psf] / lnˆ6åf/f tn em¥of} + . bfofF / / aflx/ lgl:Sof} + . ;8sdf
kmfF;LjfbnfO{ w'nf] r6fP/ tTsflng n]lggn] em} v}/f] /+usf] 5fnfsf] emf]nf afofFlt/af6 d]6«f] /]nx? cfO/x]sf uO;s] k l5 bfofk§Lsf] efuaf6
cufl8 sd/]8 lbldqL nfUg' eof] .
xfd|f] 6f]nL cufl8 a9\of] .
To; lbg ;j{ky| d xfdLnfO{ d:sf]
l:yt o'4 ;+u|xfnodf nluof] . ;g\
!(#( b]lv !($% ;Dd rn]sf] bf];|f]
ljZjo'4sf] ;dodf hd{gsf] lx6n/L
gfhLjfbLx?n] ?;dfly eLif0f cfqmd0f
u/]sf] lyof] . hd{g ;fd|fHojfbsf
lj?4 :6flngsf] g]tT[ jdf ?;L ;]gfn] …Ogfd]nÚ lvOg yfN5 . lvPsf] 7fpFaf6 hfg] AofS6]l/ofn] leqL efudf ;+qmd0f
axfb'/Lk"0f{ /fli6«o o'4 n8]/ hd{g ub}{ hfG5 . Pl;8n] bfFtsf] aflx/L efu cyf{t\ Ogfd]n kmf]8k] l5 To;leqsf
;]gfnfO{ v/fgL kf/]/ ?;L e"ldaf6 efux¿ kmf]8g\ ufx|f] xFb' g} . Ogfd]n kmf]8;
] uF } AofS6]l/ofn] leq yk vf]Nb}
nv]6]/ ljho k|fKt u/]sf] lyof] . /, hfG5 . ha bfFtdf vf]lN;Fb} hfG5, vfg]s/' f ToxLF uP/ cl8\sG5 / cl8\sPkl5
zfgbf/ ?kdf ljho k|fKt u/]sf] yk Pl;8 pTkfbg x'g yfN5 . emg\–emg\ bfFt vf]lqmFb} hfG5 .
lyof] . lx6n/L ;]gfsf lj?4 n8\bfv]/L ljz]ifu/L afnaflnsfnfO{ u'lnof] vfg]s/' f lbFbf bfFtdf ls/f nfU5 eGg]
lgdf{ 0 f ul/Psf cTofw' l gs e|d 5 . u'lnof] dfq} xf]Og, h'g;'s} vfBkbfy{n] klg bfFt lauf5{, olb Tof]
xftxltof/x?, uf] n faf?4 / bfFtdf /Xof] eg] . t/, s] klg xf] eg] rsn]6 / ld7fO{ vfFbf tL kbfy{x¿
ld;fOnx?sf] 7"nf] e08f/0f ul/Psf] 6fFl;g] ePsfn] l56f] vfg d2t x'g] xf] . t/, lrgLkfgL, dxh:tf u'lnof]
/x] 5 / To;nfO{ Pp6f v' n f lrh vfFbf To;sf] c;/ eg] sd x'G5 . vfg]s'/f bfFt jf d'vdf /xgf;fy
Do'lhodsf ?kdf Jojl:yt ?kn] Pl;8 pTkfbg eO{ To;n] bfFt laufg]{ xf] .
/flvPsf] /x]5 . cg ug{ dfq afFsL laxfg–a]n'sf vfgf vfO;s]kl5 ˆnf]/fO8o'Qm dGhgn] bfFt df‰g] .
/flvPsf / o'4df zq'l;t n8\g bfFt df‰bf rkfpg] efudf klg df‰g] . aRrfnfO{ ;'t]/ vfg]s'/f jf b"w
tof/L cj:yfdf /flvPsf h:tf vfg glbg] . To;/L lbFbf vfg]s'/f d'vel/ /xG5 / bfFtdf Pl;8 pTkfbg
;f]leot ;+3nfO{ hf]ufpg ;kmn ljZj le/]sf sd/]8 lbldqL sf]Gr]Gsf] / lyP, uO/x]sf lyP . Pp6f /]n hDdf b]lvg] tL ;a} xltof/x?sf] uxg tLj| x'G5 . sf]N8l8«+S; vfFbf ;s];Dd kfOksf] k|of]u u/f}+ . af]tnaf6 jf
rlr{t qmflGtsf/L of]4f :6flngn] dlxnf of]4f tfl/;f ;d]t To; ! ldg]6 dfq ToxfF /f]lsg] /x]5 . Tof] 9+un] cWoog cjnf]sg ug]{ sfd lunf;af6 vfFbf bfFtsf] Ogfd]n lauf5{, t/ kfOkaf6 vfFbf bfFtnfO{ Tolt
k'glg{df{0f u/]sf] b]z ?;df kfOnf] xf]6n
] df klxn] g} cfO;Sg' ePsf] ;do leq ofq'x? cf]ln{g / r9\g] ul/of] . /, To; P]ltxfl;s If]0fsf c;/ ub}{g . la:s'6 rSn]6 tyf cGo vfg]s'/f vfO;s]kl5 ;s];Dd
6]ls;s]kl5 klxnf] gDa/df n]lgg / /x]5 . pxfFx? cGoq a:g' x'GYof] . ul/;Sg'kYof]{ . cjl:d/0fLo tl:j/x? klg lvRg] sfd d'vs'Nnf ug]{ . xNsf sfnf] jf kxF]nf] bfFt b]lvgf;fy pkrf/sf nflu
:6flng Pj+ qmflGtsf/L ?;L hgtfn] PsIf0f kZrft o'/f]lkog 6f]nL klg ToxfF rf/}lt/sf leQfx?df dfS;{, ul/of] . lsgeg] of] cToGt} 7"nf] ;Dks{ ug]{ . ;'?d} hfFr ubf{ bfFtsf] pkrf/ ;xh x'G5 .
lgdf{0f u/]sf lj/f;t x]g{ xfdL w]/}
cft' / lyof} + . n] l gg :6flngsf
lj/f;tx?nfO{ t klxnf] gDa/df x]g{
ToxL xf]6n
] df cfOk'Uof] . xf]6n aflx/
cfF u g / /f] 8 lt/ ;] t fDo} lxpF
hld/x] s f] lyof] . xft d' v
n]lgg, :6flngsf kmf]6f]x? /+uLgdf
s'lbPsf lyP, uf]sL{ k'lusg cflb
slj, ;flxTosf/x?sf kmf]6fx? klg
cj;/ lyof] . xfdLx? dxfg\ cS6'a/
qmflGtn] !)) jif{ k" / f u/] s f]
cj;/df ?;s} P]ltxfl;s zx/
k|fl] 6g sd x'b“ f b]lvg] oL nIf0f
sf7df8f}F . z/L/nfO{ geO{ gx'g] kf]ifs tTjdf k5{ k|fl] 6g . cË, df+;k]zL,
/ cWoog ug{ xfdL lgs} cft'/ lyof}+ . s7Øfª\lu|g] lr;f] lyof] . xf]6]nsf] ;lhPsf lyP / htftt} sDo'lgi6 n]lggu|fbdf cfof]hgf x'g] cS6'a/ :gfo' k|0ffnL tyf k|lt/Iff k|0ffnL w]/} xb;Dd k|f]l6gdf e/ k5{g\ . z/L/sf]
xfdL;Fu g]kfnL 6f]nL !% hgfsf] / cufl8 xfdLnfO{ ofqf u/fpg] uf8L kf6L{sf em08fx? l;d]G6d} s'lbP/ qmflGt ;t\jflif{sf]T;jdf efu lng ;+/rgf ljsf;df o;sf] e"ldsf dxQ\jk"0f{ x'G5 . k|f]l6gsf] cefj ePsf]
a|flhn, a]lNhod, g]b/Nof08 / tof/L cj:yfdf b]lvGYof] . leQfdf 6fF;]/ /flvPsf lyP . tL hfF b } lyof] . ToxL dxTjk" 0 f{ / cj:yfdf /utdf KnfHdf k|fl] 6g sdL x'G5 . sn]hf]n] kof{Kt dfqfdf kmnfd
sf]l/of sd/]8x? u/L $) hgfsf] d xf]6n
] sf] njLdf k'Ug] lalQs} kmf]6fx?sf af/]df / ToxfFsf] cGo P]ltxfl;s sfo{qmddf efu lng kfpg' tTj ;~ro ug{ g;Sbf o;/L KnfHdf k|fl] 6g sd x'g] xf] . kmnfd tTjsf]
xfd|f] ;+oQ
' m 6f]nL lyof] . xfd|f] g]kfnL sd/]8 lbldqL p7]/ cfpg'eof] / ljifosf af/]df sd/]8 lbldqLn] / ;xefuL x'g kfpg' eg]sf] d]/f] sdL eP/ x]df]Unf]lagsf] pTkfbg 36\5 / /QmcNktf eP/ cfFvf ;'lGgG5 .
6f]nLdWo] dnufot & hgf sd/]8x? d;Fu u/dhf];sf ;fy xft ldNofpg' /l;og efiffdf eGb} hfg' x'GYof] eg] hLjgsf] nflu Hofb} uf}/jsf] ljifo k|f]l6g sd x'Fbf z/L/ ylst x'G5 lsgeg] z/L/n] kof{Kt pmhf{ kfpFb}g .
xf]:6]ndf a:b} cfPsf lyof}+ . cGo eof] / dlt/ x]b{} eGg'eof], …h}s6] a]lNhodsf sd/]8n] c+u|]hL efiffdf lyof] . of] o'4 ;+u|fxno klg sd z/L/df lrgLsf] dfqf k|f]l6gsf] ;xof]udf Jojl:yt x'G5 . o;}n] k|f]l6gsf]
* hgf ;fyLx? cs}{ xf]6]ndf a:g' nufP/ cfpg' xf]:, of] ;'6n] t hf8f] xfdLnfO{ a'emfpFb} cufl8 a9\g' x'GYof] . dxTj / P]ltxfl;s lyPg . n]lggu|fb kof{Kt dfqf ePg eg] lbdfun] /fd|f; ] uF sfd ug{ ;Sb}g / ysfg dx;';
ePsf] lyof] eg] o'/f]lkog 6f]nL cs}{ dl/G5 lgÚ d}n] pgLofsf] sf]6, /ftf] af]Nbf ;fgf] ;fgf] dfOs z/L/d} h8fg hfg] qmddf $ lbg hlt /fhwfgL x'G5 . df+;k]zL Ifo x'g'n] k|f]l6gsf] sdL b]vfpF5 . k|f]l6gsf] cefj ePdf
xf]6n
] df a;]sf] lyof] . :j]6/ pgLofs} sldh / sfnf] k]G6;Fu ug{'ePsf] lyof] . cfvf lrDn]/ af]Ng] d:sf] d f a;] / ToxfF s f n] l gg, df+;k]zLsf] cfsf/ sd x'g yfN5 .
of] ;g\ !(!& gf]eD] a/ # tfl/vsf] sfnf] ;'6df lyP . of] b]v]/ sd/]8 pxfsf] x]lj6 lyof] . tL s'/fx? ;'Gb} :6flngsf of]ubfg / lj/f;tn] k|f]l6gsf] cfefjdf ef]s w]/} nfU5 . emf8fkvfnf nfUg' eg]sf] kfrg
lbgsf] s'/f xf] . xfdL ?;sf] d:sf] lbldqLn] ;To af]Nb} x'g' x'GYof], lsgls xfdLx? cufl8 a9\of}+ . /]ndf r9\g] el/Psf 7fpF, Do'lhod cGo dxTjk"0f{ k|0ffnL lau|g' xf] . o; cj:yfdf cfGb|fn] kf]ifs tTj /fd|f];Fu cjzf]lift
l:yt k|]df]dfof:sfof zx/df a;]sf ;fdfGo ;'6 nufP/ ?;sf] hf8f] emg} a]nf eof] . lbldqLn] ;+st] ug{' eof] . s'/fx?sf] cjnf]sg e|d0f u/fpg] ug{ ;s]sf] x'Fb}g / z/L/df k|f]l6gsf] sdL x'ghfG5 . bfn / u]8fu'8Ldf
lyof}+ . ?;df kfOnf] 6]sL ;s]kl5 d:sf]df ePsf] lxdkft / hf8f] wfGg d]6«f] /]n cfOk'Uof], l8Aafx? v'Ng cfof]hs sd/]8x? of]hgf /x]5 ToxL kof{Kt dfqfdf k|fl] 6g x'G5 t/ o;k|sf/sf] k|fl] 6g krfpg ufx|f] x'g] ePsfn]
j}1flgs ;fDojfbsf l;4fGtsf/ Pj+ t ufx|f] lyof] g} . t/, d}n] leqk§L yfn] . xtf/df ofq'x? cf]ln{P . xfdL of]hgf d'tfljs xfdLnfO{ tL tL t/sf/L;Fu ldnfP/ /fd|f];Fu rkfP/ vfg'k5{ . c08fdf xfdLnfO{ rflxg]
;j{xf/fju{sf c;n u'? sfn{ dfS;{sf] Ol08og afSnf] < ydf]{sf]6 nufPsf] klg l56l56f] /]nsf] lbAaf leq :yfgx?df k' ¥ ofpg] / cToGt} dxQ\jk"0f{ k|fl] 6g x'G5 . ;fy} ;a} cf7 k|sf/sf cTofjZos Pldgf] Pl;8
zflGtsf] cjnf]sg ug]{, ljzfn lyP, To;n] ubf{ hf8f] krfpg ;Sy] . k:of}+ . ?;L hgtfsf ;fy st} Jojl:yt 9+un] cWoog cjnf]sg ug]{ klg c08fdf kfOG5 .
/]8:Sjfo/ d}bfgsf] cjnf]sg ug]{ of] s'/f d}n] sd/]8 lbldqLnfO{ pleP/ t st} s';L{df a;]/ ofqf / u/fpg] sfo{ eO/x]sf] lyof] . xfd|f] /f}Fsf] df]6fO{ j+zf0f'ut x'g] eP klg k|f]l6gsf] cefjdf /f}F kftnf] x'G5 .
sfo{ / cToGt} dgdf] x s tyf ;'emfo . To; lbldqLn] …cf]s]Ú eGg' kf/ u¥of}+ . Hofb} /d0fLo ofqf lyof] 6f]nL / d :jo+n] To; P]ltxfl;s o'4 z/L/df k|f]l6gsf] sdL x'g hfFbf z/L/n] /IffTds pkfo ckgfP/ /f}F,
P]ltxfl;s hlh{of kfs{sf] cjnf]sg eof] . dnfO{ hf8f]n] lhTg ;s]sf] Tof] . ;+ u | x fnosf] lgs} dxTj lbP/ gªnfO{ k|f]l6g cfk"lt{ ug{ 5f8\5 . o;}sf/0fn] gª / /f}Fsf] :jf:Yo lau|G5 .
t ul/;s]sf lyof}+ . t/, n]lgg, lyPg klg . ?;L ofq'x? /]nleq xNnfx slQ cjnf]sg e|d0f ul/of] . c? w]/} x]g{ o;}n] /f}F / gªsf] :jf:Yo cj:yfn] z/L/df k|f]l6gsf] dfqf b;f{pF5 .
:6flngsf lj/f;tx? / cGo To;kl5 xfdL ToxfFaf6 cufl8 klg u/]sf x'Fb}g lyP . w]/}h;f]n] rfxFbf–rfxFb} klg ;dosf cefjn] :j:y dflg;df klg k|f]l6gsf] cfefj ePsf] cj:yfdf af/Daf/ la/fdL
dxTjk"0f{ / ljifosf] cWoog cjnf]sg a9\of] / uf8Ldf r9\of}+ . d]6«f] /]nj] s]xLn] lstfa vf]n]/ t sf]xLn] ubf{ To; 7fpFaf6 xfdLx? aflxl/g kg{ yfN5 . z/L/sf] k|lt/Iff k|0ffnL alnof] x'g kof{Kt dfqfdf k|f]l6g
ug{ xfdL Hofb} lyof}+ . ljxfg ( :6]zg;Dd ToxL uf8Ln] k'¥ofOlbof] . 6\ofAn]6 / df]afOn vf]n/] l;+u} lstfa afWo eof}+ . :d/0fdf ;a} b[Zox? cfjZos k5{ . /ftf] /Qmsf]if, ;f]tf] /Qmsf]if / PlG6a8Lsf] cfwf/ k|f]l6g
ah]lt/sf] s'/f xf], ufO8/ ?;L /]nj] :6]zgdf k|j]z ug{sf nflu vf]n/] k9L /x]sf b]lvGYof] . jftfj/0f s}b ub}{ sd/]8 lbldqLsf] g]t[Tjdf xf] . oL ;a} kIfn] ldn]/ z/L/df /f]uf0f' gfz ug]{ sfd u5{g\ .
sd/]8x? Pn]S;L / cfGtf]gn] xfd|f] xfdLnfO{ l6s6sf] ?kdf sf8{ pknAw zfGt x'GYof] . a? xfd|f] g]kfnL 6f]nLn] cufl8 a9\of}+ .

;fawfg, d]xGbL nufp“bf SofG;/;Dd x'g ;S5 Û
sf7df8f}F . k|foM ;a} h;f] dlxnf / /Ë leq pkl:ylt hgfpg] Pp6f dxQ\jk"0f{ sltko 7fpFdf d]xGbLnfO{ 8fs{ eGb}df h:tf];s' } d]xGbL nufpFbf dflg;sf]
/fli6«o cv08tf, ;fdflhs
dof{bf e]befj/lxt ;TotYo
o'jtLn] ;fpg dlxgfel/ xftdf xl/of kIf d]xGbL klg xf] . ljz]if lxGb' gf/Lx¿n] agfpgsf nflu ljleGg s]ldsn, k]6f« n] , :jf:Yodf uDeL/ c;/ kl///x]sf] 5 .
r'/f / d]xGbL nufpF5g\ . k|fs[lts ¿kdf
klg ;fpg dlxgf xl/of] dlxgf xf] . wd{
;+:s[lt dfGg] dlxnfx¿n] nufpg] d]xGbL
;'Gb/tf / ;f}efUosf nflu ;fpg
dlxgfe/ k|of]u ug]{ d]xGbLsf] u'lgnf] kIf
a9L eP klg ahf/df hyfefaL kfOg]
P;L8 nufotsf j:t' /flvG5 h'g
dflg;sf] :jf:Yosf] nflu 3fts xf] .
o:tf d]xG] bLsf] k|of]un] 5fnf kf]Ng] 5fnfsf]
To;}n] d]xGbL nufpFbf k|fs[lts d]xG] bL
k|of]u ug{ lrlsT;sx¿sf] ;'emfj 5 .
g]kfndf d]xGbL Jofkf/sf nflu g
;"rgfsf] ;Dk|i] f0f, zflGt
/ r'/f kl5Nnf] ;do k|fo ;a} h;f]
dlxnf / o'jtLsf] nufpg] u/]sf 5g\ .
d]xGbLn] :jf:Yodf klg plQs} xfgL
k'¥ofpg] u/]sf] 5 .
PnhL{ b]lv SofG;/;Ddsf] /f]u nfUg]
vt/f a9L x'G5 . ;:tf] d"Nodf kfOof]
s'g} dfkb08 5, g s'g} cg'udg g}.
h;n], hxfFaf6 h:tf];s ' } d]xGbL NofP/
k|j4{gdf cu|;/ x'g' xfdL
clxn] t d]xGbL / r'/f km];gs} ¿kdf
:yflkt ePsf] kfOG5 . /ËLrËL
a]r] klg s;}n] s]xL ub}g{ . g]kfndf
s:d]l6S;sf] dfkb08 / lgoudg ug]{
;a}sf] st{Jo xf] .
klx/g;Fu} ahf/df r'/f, d]xG] bL / s'g} lgsfo 5}g. o:tf] ljlwlxgtfsf]
sk8fx¿sf] Jofkf/ a9]sf] 5 . kL8fdf g]kfnL gf/Lx¿ x/]s ;fpg;Fu}
;fpgdf ljz]if ¿kdf dgfpg] z/L/df 3fts /f]u ;Í|d0fsf] kLl8t
;f]daf/sf] j|t a:g] xl/of], k+xn] f] /Ësf] eO/x]sf 5g\ .
r'/fsf ;fy} d]xGbL / xl/of] /ftf] sk8f 5fnfdf /f]u k|lt/f]wL Ifdtf a9fpg
/ z[Ëf/df ;lhg] u5{g\ . ;fpg dlxgf klg plQs} d2t u5{ . To:t} d]xGbLsf]
cfPnuQ} xl/of] r'/f / dx]GbLnufot ;]jg pRr /Qmrfksf la/fdLx¿sf] nflu
cGo >[Ëfl/s ;fdfgsf] laqmL /fd|f] j/bfg dflgG5 eg] skfnsf] /Iffsf nflu
eO/x]sf] 5 . cGo ;dodfeGbf ;fpgdf d]xGbLnfO{ /Iffsjr g} 7flgG5 . t/ ca
o:tf ;fdu|Lsf] sf/f]af/af6 dgUo :jf:Yo k|of]ustf{df g} lge{/ 5 . d]xGbLsf g] k fn ;/sf/
cfDbfgL x'bF } cfPsf] Jofkf/Lsf] egfO{ 5 . k|of]ustf{x¿n] ;ts{tf ckgfP d]xGbL ;~rf/ tyf ;"rgf k|ljlw dGqfno
k|sl[ t dfq geO{ ;fpg;Fu xl/ofnLsf] :jf:Yosf nflu xf] eg] hyfefaLsf] k|of]u
ljz]if ;DaGw / ;fldKotf /xG5 . oxL ug]s
{ f] nflu vt/fsf] vfgL klg xf] . ;"rgf ljefu
6 @)&% ;fn ;fpg ^ ut] cfOtaf/

;flxTodf cj;/jfbL jfbn 5fpg'sf] cfly{s–;fdflhs sf/0f
slyt jfdkGyL wf/fsf] ;flxlTos
kl/b[ Z odf cj;/jfbsf] cb\ e " t
gjpbf/jfbsf] rf}tkmL{ nx/ kl5 o:tf]
36gf 7"nf] :t/df Pp6f cfdf k|jl[ t
lvr8L kl:sb} 5g\ . hLjg tyf n]vg
b'jd} f k|ultzLntf / k|ltufldtfsf]
dxf 7u k|d] –kfzdf sl;/x]sf] lyof]
ToxL ;do hLjgdf ltgLx¿ ;Qf;Fu
s]kL sd/]8sf] slatfnfO{ sf]tbf{==
rGb|flu/L r9]/
efg'eQmsf] ehg eGg]x?sf] eL8df
– hfu[ t /fodfemL

s'g} a]nfsf sd/]8 s]kLcf]nLn]
nfhdbf]{ jfbn 5fPsf] 5 / s]xL bzs eP/ cfPsf] 5 / gAa]sf] bzsf] ljefhg /]vf emG8} d]6fO lbPsf 5g\ . cj} w ;DaGwdf e| d /eGbf a9L slatf sf]/]5g\
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k|lti7fg;Fu lbp;} df]ndf]nfO{ x'G5 yflnP / To;kl5 t nfh ;/dsf ;j} ;d'bfosf] d'Vo wf/f Tof] v';xfn dWod tfls{s kl/0flt !(() sf] bzsdf cxF ldn]g lkod Û
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oxfF afr'~h]n dfq} hLjg 5}g
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;/sf/sf] cfof]hgfdf nfh gdfgL cf/=P;=P;=sf] /fd dfwjb]lv lnP/ jr{:j -x]hd] gL_sf] lj?4 pleGYof], t/ uof] . k'FhLsf] ;fdflhs cfwf/sf] hLjg klg 5
af]nfOG5g\ / ;d"x agfP/ cfˆgf] arfpm laxf/sf afx'anL g]tf kKk' ofbj;Ddsf] ca of] ToxL jr{:jsf] :yfkgfsf] nflu lj:tf/sf] ;fydf of] tKsf clg
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hf] d'Qm s07n] d'lQmjf]wn] h:t} o:tf] gfdj/ l;+x, dlxnfx¿k|ltsf] cfˆgf] kl/jt{gs} Pp6f cleJolQm xf], To;}sf] If]q;Fu hf]l8Psf Joj;foLx¿sf] ;+Vof tFkfOsf] ;kgfnfO{
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cj;/jfbsf] cf]/fnf]lt/ lxF8s ] f] of] xjNbf/ h:t} vfnsf] s'nkltlu/L dflg;x¿sf] lgdf{0f o'/f]ksf] tl/sfn] h:tfsf] t:t} 5 . cfˆgf] cfly{s sf7df8f}F / b]zsf] gS;f sf]g{ nufP/
em'Nnf / v]tdf
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;flxlTos dxf]T;jdf s}og hfg] dfg]sf glhssf] dfG5] k'/fgf] cj;/jfbL /jLGb| qmflGtsf] k|lqmofsf] ;dodf ePsf] dWod juL{o j'l4hLlj ;d'bfosf] cxF em'Nb}g .
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;flxTosf/x¿sf] ;xeflutfsf] 36gf d=uf=xL=la=la=df s'g} kb of zf]wj[lt k'hF LjfbL lasf;sf] :jtGq af6f]af6 peL ;s]sf] 5 . h'Dnfdf df;L{ wfg kmnfP/ dfq} em'Nnf lg Û
gofF sf];9] Ë' f xf] / /dg l;+x ToxL lnP/ d:tL u/]sf bh{gf} n]vs–slau0f, lx8]/ o;n] qmflGtsf/L hgjfbsf] dfly rrf{ ul/Psf] /fhgLlts ;fx"x?nfO{ lzIff ;'lDkP/
d':s'/fpg kfpnfg\ / efaL ;GttL Û<
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/Qmkftsf] s'rqm /r] / oxL /fhgLltsf /fo;Fu s[t1 ePkl5 k6gf uP/ gLltz / ef/t Pp6f cf}klgj]l;s ;fdflhs, kl/0ffd cfh jfdkGyL v] d fdf laBfyL{x?nfO{ a]hf]8n] bf}8g lbFbf dfq}
afxs g} u'h/ft -@))@ sf] cdfgjLo ;/sf/sf] ;/sf/L ;f+:s[lts k|lti7fgsf] cfly{s ;+/rgfleq h'g d'Vo j}rfl/s ;flxlTos l;h{gfdf gj?kjfb / d':s'/fpnfg lg efaL ;GttL Û
/Qmkftsf] ;"qfwf/ lyP / oxL ;/sf/ cWoIf kbdf k'us ] f s'g} hdfgfsf cfwf/ tyf vl08t hgkIfw/tf vfn] hLjgsf] :t/df 3l6of cj;/jfbsf] l5d] s Lx?af6
xf] h;n] dfcf]jfbL lgd{n " ug]{ gfddf …dxfqmflGtsf/LÚ clUgd'vL slj cfnf]s /fli6«o hgjfbL r]tgf ljsl;t eof], ljrngn] 9fls/x]sf] 5 . slyt dfgf];fdn / nQfsk8f dufP/
OlGhg / OGwg leq\ofP/
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kl/jf/x¿nfO{ phfl8;s]sf] 5 / hGd lbgdf :jfdL s/fkfqLsf] cf>ddf / wfld{s k|ltR5fofsf] ljrng lyof] ;flxTosf/x¿sf] 7"nf] ;+Vof k|fk] m];/, pAhfpg] ;f/f tGg]/Lx?nfO{
nuftf/ ToxfF aa{/ cTofrf/sf gofF ljBf>L Gof;sf] tTjfjwfgdf cfof]lht / h'emf? ef}ltsjfbL ts{ w]/} xb;Dd gf]s/zfx, ldl8ofsdL{ of :jtGq pTkfbg ug]{ ;f/f gf}hjfgx?nfO{
gofF sLlt{dfg /lr/x]sf] 5 / ToxL n]vs lzlj/sf] cfof]hgfdf cu|0fL sdhf]/ lyof] / :jtGqtf k|flKt kl5 k];fsdL{ cflbsf] ?kdf v';xfn dfWod lab]z lgof{t u/]/
;/sf/nfO{ nf]stflGqs / ;lxi0f' l;4 e"ldsf lgefpg] hn]z, k|n; ] tyf /fli6«o cfGbf]ngsf] j'hj'{ f gfosTj juL{o k|f0fL alg;s]sf] 5, hf] >dhLlj /xnf / of] b]z Û<
cxF /xGg .
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lbgx'F kflg lkO{–lkO{sg ufnL ug]{ czf]s ljZj/+hgsf] cfof]hgfdf ;xefuL tyf x'g ;do nfu]g . krf; / ;f7Lsf] ;' / lIft, ;' l jwf;DkGg hLjg kfvf / kv]?x?;Fu
afhk]oL / pmh:t};uF k|ultzLntfsf] cfˆgL :jf:gLnfO{ s'6g\ ] s'/fdf k|l;4 bzsdf ef/tLo j' l 4hLlj / ljtfp5 . leqaf6 ;fj{xf/f qmflGtsf] v]t / vlnofgx?;Fu
bf];Nnf cf]l9/xg] hubLZj/ rt'jb{] L s[i0fdf]xg, zf]w 5fqfx¿sf] of}g ;flxTosf/x¿sf] 7'nf] lx:;fn] knfog eljiodf g p;sf] cf:yf 5, g o:tf] d]l;g / cf}hf/x?;Fu
=k'?iff]Qd cu|jfn, g/]z ;S;]gf, pTkL8gsf] cf/f]kL cho ltjf/L, ;}kmO{ tyf cl:tTjjfbb] l v lnP/ qmflGt p;sf] nflu kmfObfhgs b]V5 . dfp; / l/df]6{x?;Fu
ldt]/L nufpg nufP kf] /xnf Û
cflbjf;Lx¿, blntx¿sf :joDe" dxf]T;jdf uP/ d'nfod l;+xsf] e/df/ ;j{lgif]wjfb / cGwlab|fx] ;Ddsf] af6f] o:tf] d f …jfdk+ y Ú p;sf] nflu l;l08s]8 l;WofP/
;flxlTos dl;xf / dl0fsf u'Ktf, k|eft k|;;+ f ug]{ s]bf/ gfy l;+x, clvn]z lxF8g\ ' of cfˆgf] dWodjuL{o hLjgsf] kbk|lti7f lsGg] ahf? l;Ssf of sf6]{n lgDTofP/
/+hg / lxhf]cfh ;flxTosf] cfsfzdf ;/sf/af6 :yflkt ef/t–ef/tL ;'v–b'Mv–qf;bL–lj8Dagfx¿ tyf pGgltsf] ln:gf] e};s]sf] 5 . qmflGtsf sf6]{n ;vfk kf/]/
cfu–k'tnLh:t} km'/km'/ ug]{ bh{gf}+ k'/:sf/ lng] b"wgfy l;+x tyf o:t} cnufjsf] kL8fdf z'td ' u'{ n
{ ] h:tf] …dxfVofgx¿Ú k|lt cfz+sf b]vfpFb} / skf]{/]6 leq\ofP/
ukmf8L vfnsf gf}a9 …o'jf t's{Ú ;f/f dflg; s]xL lbgsf] cfnf]rgf / 6fpsf] n'sfpg'sf] oxL sf/0f lyof] . ljvl08t ;fdflhs cfGbf]ng tyf cfpnf / ;d[l4 / ;dfhjfb Û<
zf]efodfg eP / Pp6f hdfgf lyof] u'gf;f]kl5 km]l/ jfdkGyLx¿sf] ;d"xdf t]nu+ fgf ;+3if{sf] k/fho tyf jfd xLg–ljd;{sf] …pNnf;Ú dgfpb} o:tf cxF cfpFb}g .
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k|fKt ef/t ejgdf ch{g' l;+xsf lk|o ;/sf/sf] ;flxTo dxf]T;jdf efu lng] kl5 ljrf/ tyf ;flxTo snfsf] If]qdf tyf j'hj'{ f ;Qfsf] ;fdflhs ;xf/fsf] a]lkmqmL lxF8\g] lxDdt ubf{ dfq}
gf]s/zfx ;flxTosf/ czf]s afhk]oL k'?;f]Qd cu|jfn, g/]z ;S;]gf, jfd wf/f k[i7e"lddf ws]lnof] . To;f] ?kdf cfˆgf] e"ldsfsf] tyf / cfˆgf] cfpnf lg ;dfhjfb .
Pp6f s';n lzsf/Ln] h:t} s}og /dl0fsf u'Ktf, /0f]Gb|, k|eft /+hgnufot t of] jfd wf/fsf] klg Oltxf; k|bQ lhGblusf] aa{/ v'l;ofnLsf] …hl:6kmfO{Ú lr;f] r'nf]nfO{
jfdkGyL ;flxTosf/x¿nfO{ yl/yl/sf w]/} slyt jfddfuL{ o'jf hdft tyf cfˆg} ;Ldf tyf sdhf]/Lx¿ lyP . ul//x]sf x'G5g\ . …jfdkGyÚsf] asf]{ Uof; kfOksf] ukmn]
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/ Tof] ;dodf klg ef/t ejgsf] efOx¿sf] klg o:t} x'G5 . ha Pp6L dWod juL{o j'l4hLljx¿sf] Pp6f gofF tyf ;fDk|bflostf, lj:yfkg, k|x/L ul/vfg] xftnfO{
s'rqmsf cfnf]rsx¿sf] ;+Vof /fd|} x'g] y}nLdf ;a}sf] d'v hf]l8G5 s;sf] la?4 lk+9L …/]b8LsnfOh\Ú eP/ jfd k|efjdf bdg of blnt pTkL8g h:tf k|Zgdf al;Vjfpg] WjfF;n]
uYof]{ / kl5 ef/t ejgaf6 nfe s;n] cfjfh p7fpg] Û s;}n] t o; cfof] . cfˆgf] ljrf/wf/fTds gfd dfqsf] lj/f]w–k|bz{g, x:tfIf/ la:yfkg ug{ ;Sb}g lg Û
lng]x¿sf] sf/0fn] c;fWo} nfhdg{' klg sf/0f ;bfrf/sf] s'/f ul//x]sf 5g\ sdhf]/Lx¿ / …jfdÚ b':;fx;jfbL cleofgdf efu lng] h:tf sfd u/]/ hgtfsf] lhGbuLsf] hf]xf]
cfZjf;gn] xf]Og, cj;/n] x'G5 Û
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kZrftfk klg u/] / slxn] kfkdf]rgsf s'g} cfsif{0f / k|nf]egsf/L df}sf ldn]sf] hGd]sf] qmflGtsf/L jfd wf/f en} l5§} e"ldsf v]N5g\ . oL dflg;x¿n] leml6u'G6fdf ;d'Gb|kf/Lsf] ;kgf kf]sf] kf/]/
s]xL pkqmd klg u/] / ca b]zdf 5}g, hf] c;Gt'i6 5g\ tL lab|fx] L 5g\ / ljefh / uTofj/f]wsf] l;sf/ ePsf] ;flxTosf] /fhgLlt dflkmof lu/f]xsf] Po/kf]6{af6 p8\g]x?sf]
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…ef/t ejgÚ 5g\, k'h F Lklt 3/fgfsf s'/fsf] kIfdf ts{ ug{ yfN5g . ult lbof] / t}klg ;Q/Lsf] bzsdf jf:tljstf vf]lnlbg vf]Hof] eg] l;4 ub}{g / <
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jfnfx¿ klg ;flxTosf/x¿nfO{ efp slyt jfdkGyLx¿sf ;flxTo l;h{gfdf t/ of]aLrdf :t/Lo n]vg klg 7"nf] o'4, k/f]If o'4 of zLto'4 rnfpg rGb|flu/Laf6 otf
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ltgsf nflu s}og kbx¿ l;lh{t x'bF 5} g\ x'G5g\ . logLx¿sf] Pp6f 7"nf] ;d"xnfO{ ;flxTosf] k|efjL wf/fsf] ?kdf :yflkt / w]/h } ;f] dflg; cfˆgf] If'b| cfTd– ls,
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#% nfvsf] dfq sfd u/L cGo cfˆgf sdhf]/L ;RofO{ ;a} >lds /f]huf/Lsf] lg/Gt/tf lbFb} :ofyL u/ . b'?kof]u u/]sf 5g\ . sf7df8f}F . la|l6; cfdL{df ca g]kfnL dlxnfn] klg cj;/ kfpg]
/sd lxgfldgf u/]sf] kfOPsf]n] . kIfLo 6] « 8 o' l gogsf] ;j{ k IfLo #%= ;fdflhs ;'/Iffs/ jfkt To:t}, lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{no ePsf 5g\ . sl/j b'O{ ;o jif{eGbf a9L ;dob]lv la|l6; ;]gfsf] cleGg
&= ljleGg k| o f] h gdf cfly{ s ;xdltaf6 gofF j]tg lgwf{/0f ug{ p7]sf] /sd >ldssf] lxtdf tTsfn 88]nw'/fsf ;xfos k|d'v lhNnf c+u /x]sf] …la|u8] ckm uf]vf{hÚ df klxnf]k6s g]kfnL dlxnfnfO{ ;d]t etL{
e|i6frf/ u/]sf]n] . lj1lKtdf dfu ul/Psf] 5 . sfo{Gjog u/ . – lbkf rf}w/L clwsf/L s?0ffs/ cj:yLn] lhNnf ul/g] ePsf] xf] . n8fOFdf k|ToIf pqg kfpg] u/L g]kfnL dlxnfnfO{ etL{
o;}aLr, g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ dhb"/ ;+u7gx?n] cfˆgf dfu k|zf;g sfof{no dflyg} em'6f] cfz+sf lng cfj]bg vf]Ng nfluPsf] a]nfotL cvaf/x¿n] hgfPsf 5g\ . ;g\
lhNnf hgkl/ifb\ u'NdLn] 5qsf]6 k" / f u/fpg #% a' F b ] dfu;lxt d'Qmxlnofsf==== pTkGg eO/x]sf] b'v;] f] kf]vs
] f 5g . @)@) ;Dd g]kfnL dlxnfnfO{ la|l6; ;]gfdf cj;/ k|bfg ug{ nfluPsf]
ufpFkflnsf j8f g+= $ ;fljssf] r/0fj4 cfGbf]ngsf sfo{qmd klg d' l Qm ;dfh dxf;+ 3 ;Dj4 k|dv' lhNnf clwsf/Lsf] ;+of]hsTjdf xf] . To;sf] nflu klg k'?ifn] h:t} s7f]/ 5gf]6 k|lqmof kf/ ug{' kg]{ x'G5 .
3f]if0ff u/]sf 5g\ . h;cg';f/ oxL JolQmx?sf gfddf lhNnf k|zf;g ul7t d'Qm xlnof k'g:yf{kgf lhNnf dlxnfn] klg k'?ifn] ug]{ h:t} tflnd / lgod k'/f u/]/ etL{ x'g kfpg]
lbufd uflj;sf cWoIf l8nf/fd 5g\ . dlxnfn] klg k'?ifn] h:t} r'gf}tLsf sfd ug{ ;S5g\ eGg] s'/f
Gof}kfg]nfO{ tTsfn /fhLgfdf lbg ;fpg !@ ut] >ddGqL tyf && j6} sfof{nodf ph'/L lbg yfn]kl5 lhNnf ;ldltsf] lg0f{ocg';f/ sfo{qmd
lhNnf k| ; f;g sfo{ n o ;dIf k|zf;g sfof{no 88]nw'/fn] k|f/lDes sfof{Gjog x'g] u/]sf] 5 eg] /fli6«o ljZjf; u/]/ a]nfot ;/sf/n] o:tf] gLlt NofPsf] hgfPsf] 5 .
r]tfjgL lbPsf] 5 . hgkl/ifb\ k|dv ' 5fglag u/L yk cg';Gwfgsf nflu a]nfotL ;]gfsf] uf]vf{ /]lhd]G6df etL{ x'g @% lsnf] afn'jf 8f]sf]df
1fkgkq k]; a'emfpg], !% ut]bl] v d' Q m xlnof ;dfh dxf;+ 3 sf
k|zfGt a/fnn] Ps lj1lKt hf/L ub}{ #! ut];Dd b]z}e/ lj/f]w ;ef tyf clVtof/ b' ? kof] u cg' ; Gwfg k|ltlglwx?;d]t k'g:yf{kgf ;ldltsf af]s/] kfFr lsnf]ld6/ psfnf] bf}l8g] zf/Ll/s k/LIf0f nufot cGo tflnd
cWoIf Gof}kfg]n] sLt]{ sfuhkq agfO{ ebf} ! ut] a6f bf]>f] r/0fsf] cfGbf]g cfof]udf k7fOPsf] k|d'v lhNnf ;fy} sfo{bndf /x]sf 5g\ . ug{'kg]{ 5 . h'g k'?if / dlxnfsf nflu Pp6} lgod xf] . a]nfotsf] /Iff
( nfv a/fa/sf] e|i6frf/ u/]sf]
k|df0f;lxt hgkl/ifb\df lgj]bg
ug]{ atfPsf 5g\ . clwsf/L df]xg/fh hf]zLn] hfgsf/L 8f= s];LnfO{===== dGqfnon] u/]sf] o:tf] lg0f{on] g]kfnL dlxnf nfeflGjt x'g] ePsf 5g\ .
/Iff dGqL ufljg ljlnoD;gsf cg';f/ ;]gfsf] ljlzi6 ;d"xdf /x]/ dlxnfn]
o:tf 5g\ #% a'Fb] dfux? lbP . pgn] lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{nodf e]6/] eg]sf lyP– …8fS6/Ú;fk uf] c
cfPsf] eGb} tTsfn /fhLgfdf lbg != ;j{kIfLo 6]8« o'lgogx?sf] k|fKt lnlvt tyf df}lvs ph'/Lsf x]8, d tkfO{sf] ;fydf 5', dfu k"/f klg ;]jf ug{ kfpg\ eg]/ o:tf] lgod NofOPsf] xf] . a]nfotL ;]gfsf] j]a
r]tfjgL lbPsf x'g\ . Gof}kfg]n] ;xeflutfdf clwsf/ ;DkGg j]tg cfwf/df 3'; lnPsf JolQmx?;Fu geP;Dd cgzg hf/L /fVg'xf];\ .Ú ;fO6df lbOPsf] hfgsf/L cg';f/ etL{ x'g rfx]g dlxnfsf] tf}n %) lsnf]
/fhLgfdf glbP sf/jfxL ug] { af]8{ u7g u/ . :ki6Ls/0f dfu u/L 7f8f] aofg ;/sf/n] h'g b'Jo{jxf/ h'Dnfdf u¥of], eGbf a9L / prfO{ slDtdf % lkm6 ! OGr x'g' kg]5 { . etL{ k|lqmof
hgkl/ifb\n] atfPsf 5g . cWoIf @= >ldsx?sf] df}lns xs / lnP/ yk sf/jfxLsf nflu To;sf] cfˆgf] kf6L{n] eT;{gf u/]sf] kf]v/fdf x'g]5 / 5flgPsfx? !) xKt] tflnfdsf nflu sfl§l/s, gy{
Gof}kfg]n] :yfgLo ljsf;sf] gfddf x8\tfnnfO{ clwsf/nfO{ ;"lglZrt clVtof/df k7fOPsf] atfPsf 5g\ . ;'gfpFb} pgn] cfk"mx?sf] k"0f{ ;fy / of]s{lz/ hfg] 5g\ .
u/ . d'Qm xlnofaf6 ljleGg jfxgfdf @) ;xof]u 8fS6/ s];LnfO{ /x]sf] klg
hgtfnfO{ lbUe| l dt kfg] { /
lbgk|ltlbg 7Ug] u/]sf] ph'/L cfPsf]
atfPsf 5g .
#= ;+zf]lwt >dP]g–@)&$ sf]
>lds lj/f]wL k|fjwfgx? ;lxt wf/f–
xhf/b] l v %% xhf/ ?k} o fF 3' ;
lnOPsf] ph'/Ldf pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 .
;'gfPsf lyP . b]pjfn] cgzg/t
8fS6/ uf]ljGb s];L s;}n] prfn]/
c;f/] ljsf;df /fxtsf] vf]hL
!$& vf/]h u/ . clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cgzg ga;] s f] atfPsf 5g\ . /fs] z k| ; fb rf} w /L
hgtfaf6 lgjf{lrt eP/ uPsf $= js{k/ld6 nfu" u/ . cfof]u If]qLo sfof{no dx]Gb|gu/sf z'qmaf/ lqlj lzIf0f c:ktfndf
lgjf{lrt hgk|ltlgwLx¿n] g} v'nc] fd dw]zsf gbLgfnfdf aiff{sf] kfgLn] g[To ug{ yfn]sf] 5, cfFug ;fgf]
%= 6«8] o"lgogsf] gfddf e}/x]sf] ;"rgf clwsf/L k|x/L gfoa pk/LIfs 8fS6/ s];LnfO{ e]6/] kmls{Psf b]pjfn] eO;s]sf] 5 . s'g} a]nf kfgLsf] axfj bfofFafofF df]l8g ;S5 . o;af6
e| i 6rf/ ug{ yfn] k l5 g] s kfsf] ljrf}nLofs/0f / l;l08s]6 k|0fnL k|]d;fu/ s];Ln] lhNnf k|zf;g 8f= s];Lsf] dfu t'¿Gt k"/f ug{ hgwgsf] Iflt x'g] lglZrt k|foM 5 . ljkb\sf] a]nf s;/L afFRg] eg]/
hgcbfntdf sof}+ d'4fx¿ cfpg vf/]h u/ . sfof{no 88]nw'/fdfkm{t k|fKt ph'/L ;/sf/nfO{ cg'/f]w ub}{ pgL s;}n] r]tgfd"ns sfo{qmd ug{ ah]6 vlr{Psf] 5 . gbL, gx/sf] hL0ff]{åf/ ug{
yfn]sf 5g\ . g]skfn] b]z}el/ o:tf ^= …;] h Ú df ;+ r fng x' g ] / cGo ;" r gfsf cfwf/df ;f] prfn]/ gprflng] dfG5] ePsf] /sd ;d]t vlr{Psf] 5 . Tof] sfo{qmd ;fFlRrs} eof] jf sfuh dfq ldnfg
/fhLgfdf kqx¿ k7fPkl5 hgtfnfO{ pBf] u x?df 6« ] 8 o' l gog dfly k|s/0fsf] lj:t[t 5fgljg eO/x]sf] atfPsf x'g\ . …8f= s];L s;}n] prfNbf ePsf] xf] af/] ;"rgf tyf e|i6frf/ la/f]wL cleofgLn] vf]hgLlt ug]{ g}
7Ug] hgk|ltlglwx¿ cft+lst ag]sf] nufOPsf] k|ltaGw vf/]h u/ . atfPsf 5g\ . clVtof/n] 5fglag prflng] dfG5] xf] / <, ;~rf/sdL{;uF
;'? u/] nuQ} d'Qmxlnofaf6 3'; 5g\ . clxn] clgoldttf / e|i6frf/sf] d"n sf/0f c;f/ dlxgfdf ;/sf/L
atfOPsf] 5 . &= cfOPncf] cle;lGwsf] wf/f b]pjfn] eg], …d}n] pxfFsf] ljifodf /sd vr{ ug{ lbOg' g} xf] . o;sf lx:;]bf/sf] bfo/f clns 7'nf] xf]nf .
;}of}+===== g+= *& cg'df]bg u/ . lnPsf AolQmx?n] wdfwd 3'; lnPsf] k|wfgdGqL s]kL zdf{ cf]nL / k'iksdn
*= gLlt lgdf0f{ txdf >ldsx?sf] /sd lkmtf{ ul//x] s f] / /sd bfxfnnfO{ e]6]/} dfuaf/] cujt o;sf] c;/ b'O{ 7fpFdf b]lvPsf] 5 . yf]/} OdfGbf/ eP/ sfd ubf{sf]
d;fGt leq} agfO;Sg'kg]{ afWotf 5 . ;dfg k|ltlglwTjsf] Uof/]06L u/ . kfO;s]kl5 ph'/Lstf{x? ph'/L lkmtf{ u/fPsf] 5' .Ú b]pjfn] 8fS6/ s];Lsf] kl/0ffd klg Tolt ;'vbfoL 5}g . ToxL hgtfsf] r]tgf a9fpg ul/g'kg]{
sfg'g Gofo tyf ;+;bLo dfldnf ( >ldssf 5f]/f5f]/LnfO{ lgMz'Ns lng lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{no wfpg :jf:Yodf v]naf8 gug{' eGb} pgsf] nfvf}+nfv ¿k}ofsf] sfo{qmd sfuhd} ubf{ vf]hLgLlt ug]{ lgsfo 5}g .
dGqfnosf k| j Qmf /d] z 9sfn ufF;, af;, skf;, lzIff, :j:Yo / yfn]sf 5g\ . pgn] ph'/Lstf{g} dfu k"/f u/fpg] ;a} ;j{;fwf/0f yf]/} OdfGbf/ eP/ sfd ubf{ gbLdf cfpg] af9Ln] ug]{ IflteGbf
;+ljwfgn] tf]ss] f] ;do;Ldf leq} ;a} /f]hufLsf] k|jGw u/ . k5fl8 x6\g yfn]kl5 cg';Gwfgdf hgtfnfO{ ;fy lbg cfu|x u/]sf 5g\ . clns sd vt/fk"0f{ 5 . t/ o;sf] dfgl;s c;/ af9LeGbf a9L
sfg'g agfO;Sg] u/L sfd eO/x]sf] !)= /fli6«o ?kdf cflwsfl/s ;d:of pTkGg eO/x]sf] atfPsf To:t}, /fhkf g]kfnsf cWoIf vt/gfs 5 . ufpFzx/ ;a} 7fpFdf c;f/] ljsf; eO/x]sf] 5 . hgtfsf]
bfjL u5{g\ . nf]stGq eg]sf] ljlw, 6«8] o"lgogsf] lgjf{rg ug]{ Joj:yf 5g\ . 88]nw'/f lhNnfdf s'n b'O{ xhf/ d08nsf ;b:ox? /fhlszf]/ ofbj, Wofg klg lgdf{0f sfo{df dfq 5 . ljsf; lgdf{0feGbf s}of}+ u'0ff a9L
k|lqmof, k4lt, ;+:sf/ / ;+jw} flgs nfu" u/ . % ;o %! hgf d'Qm xlnof 5g\ . clgn emf / dx]Gb| /fo ofbj klg /sd r]tgfd"ns sfo{qmd, r]tgf ljsf;, 1fg;Lk clea[l4df vr{
;jf]R{ rtf klg xf] . ;+ljwfgdf n]lvlbg] !!= ax'/f{li6«o / j}bl] zs k'h
F LnfO{ h;dWo] Ps xhf/ *(% hgf 8fS6/ s];LnfO{ e]6g\ uPsf lyP . eO;s]sf] 5 . o;af/] kSs} klg h"g ;d"bfosf nflu sfo{qmd ePsf]
t/ Jojxf/df gb]lvg] /f]unfO{ TofUb} lgoGq0f u/ . k| d f0fLs/0f eO;s] s f 5g\ . s];Lsf dfux? hfoh /x]sf] ;'gfpFb} xf], To;dWo] w]/}nfO{ yfxf 5}g .
/fhgLlts g]tT[ jn] ;+jw} flgs Joj:yf !@= /fli6«o k'hF L / ?U0f pBf]usf] d'Qmxlnof kl/jf/nfO{ hUuf vl/bsf pgLx?n] ;/sf/n] tTsfn s];L;Fu w]/} 7fpFdf gu/kflnsfsf] d]o/ / ufpFkflnsfsf] cWoIfn] ug]{ sfo{qmdaf/]
cg'?k ;do;Ldf leq} sfg'g lgdf{0fdf ;+/If0f u/ . nflu b'O{ nfv, 3/ dd{t ;Def/sf jftf{ u/]/ dfu k"/f ug{k' g]{ wf/0ff j8fcWoIfnfO{ yfxf 5}g, k|bz ] / ;+3Lo ;f+;bn] ug]{ sfd d]o/ Pj+ cWoIfnfO{
!#= gofF /fli6« o >d tyf nflu Ps nfv @% xhf/ / 3/ /fv]sf lyP . yfxf 5}g . lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldltsf] ;efkltn] ug]{ sfd cGonfO{ yfxf
tbf?stf b]vfcf];\ . lgdf{0fsf nflu tLg nfv @% xhf/
cf}Bf]lus gLlt th{'df u/ . o;}aLr, lrlsT;f lzIff P]g 5}g . ;"rgf cbfgk|bfgdf /flvPsf] uf]klgotfn] w]/} gu/kflnsf /
cf]nL===== !$= dof{lbt sfd, ;fdflhs ?k}ofF cg'bfg pknAw u/fOg] dfnkf]t agfpF b f 8f= s] b f/eQm dfy] d f ufpFkflnsf åGå/t cj:yfdf 5 . oL hgdtaf6 lht]sf kbflwsf/Lx¿nfO{
cg's'nsf] sfd gu/]sf] eGb} g]skf sNof0f / >dlzIff nfu" u/ . sfof{no 88]nw'/fn] hgfPsf] 5 . sfo{bnn] lbPsf] k|ltj]bgadf]lhd g} 8'afg, s6fg / aiff{tsf] Iflt k"jf{g'dfg ug]{ km;{b g} 5}g . ePe/sf]
;dly{t sd{rf/Ln] /fli6«o 6«df !%= b]zleq} /f]huf/Lsf] jftfj/0f cfly{s jif{ @)&!–&@ af6 sfof{Gjog ug{'kg]{ lj1x?n] atfPsf 5g\ . ah]6nfO{ s;/L a9LeGbf a9L b'¿kof]u ug{ ;lsg] of]hgf agfpg d:t
;] G 6/sf 8fS6/ ef] h /fh >[hgf u/ . eO/x]sf] d'Qm xlnof k'g:yf{kgf dfy]df k|ltj]bgdf kl/dfh{g ug{k' g]{ 5g\ . lr+tf hgtfsf] eGbf klg ah]6, gLlt, sfo{qmdsf] 5 . gu/ Pj+
clwsf/LnfO{ ckx/0fsf] z}nLdf u[x !^= 7] s ] b f/L k| y f, b} l gs sfo{ q mddfkm{ t klxnf] jif{ 3/ cfjZostf g} g/x]sf] eGb} pgLx?n]
lgdf{0fsf nflu @* hgf, 3/ dd{t ufpFkflnsfsf ;/f]sf/jfnfn] gful/snfO{ ;+ljwfg / sfg"gn] Aoa:yf u/]sf]
dGqfno k'¥ofP/ ysf{pg' h:tf Hofnfbf/L, lk;/]6 / s/f/ k|yf vf/]h b'O{ ltxfOsf] bDe b]vfP/ 8f= uf]ljGb ;"rgfsf] xsnfO{ ;g'VvL-;Gb's_df tfNrf nufO{ aGb ul/Psf] 5 . ;"rgf
36gfn] af}l4s / k|fl1s If]q klg u/ . ;Def/sf nflu @) hgf / hUuf s];LnfO{ h'Dnfaf6 ;]gf nufP/
!&= gLlh If]qsf >ldsnfO{ vl/bsf nflu !% hgfn] cg'bfg k|fKt hah{:tL p7fpg' cIfDo ePsf] klg dfu ubf{ pQ/ lbg] sf]xL 5}g . ;a}n] dw]zdf ljsf; ul//x]sf]n] hgtfnfO{
?i6 aGof] . bnlgs6sf ;b:oafx]s ;"rgf lbg] sfd Tolt dxTjk"0f{ dflgPsf] 5}g .
c? dflg; ;/sf/sf] of] z}nLk|lt ;/sf/L sd{rf/L ;/xsf] ;]jf ;'ljwf u/]sf lyP eg] cfly{s jif{ @)&@– atfPsf 5g\ . dfy]df sfo{bnsf
/ tnj eQf nfu" u/ . &# df hUuf vl/bsf nflu !% hgf, ;b:o Pj+ jl/i7 lrlsT;s 8f= dbg yf]/} OdfGbf/Lk"js { ul/Psf s]xL r]tgf, ;Lk, 1fg ljsf;sf] sfo{qmddf
cfnf]rs ag]sf 5g\ . ;/sf/sf v]tLaf/] lrlsT;s, :jf:Yoaf/] sDKo'6/ k|fjlws, la1fg k|ljlw Pj+ OG6/g]6af/]
dGqLx?n] ljlw / k4tLaf6 eGbf !*= /fli6«o >d cfof]u u7g 3/ lgdf{0fsf nflu #) hgf / 3/ pkfWofon] 8f= uf] l jGb s] ; Ln]
u/ . dd{tsf nflu $) hgfn] cg'bfg p7fPsf dfu k"/f ug{'sf] ljsNk t/sf/L Aofkf/L, ljkb\sf] af/]df kz'kfnsnufotsfn] ;xhLs/0f Pj+ k|lzIf0f
lgb]z{ gsf e/df /fHo rnfpg vf]Hbf
kl5Nnf ;d:of lglDtPsf 5g\ . !(= >d sfo{nosf] cg'kftdf k|fKt u/]sf lyP . ;/sf/;Fu g/x]sf] eGb} lrlsT;f u5{ . gu/kflnsf Pj+ ufpFkflnsfn] lagf dfkb08, ;xhstf{ Pj+ k|lzIfssf]
gful/ssf b}lgs ;d:of ;dfwfgdf >d cbfntsf] u7g u/ . o;}u/L, cfly{s jif{ @)&#–&$ If]qsf] ljs[lt /f]Sg dfy]df sfo{bnsf] of]Uotf, ;Demf}tf ug]{ ;+3;+:yfsf] of]UotfeGbf a9L …Jojxf/Ú nfO{ dxTj
;/sf/ ;xof]uL ePsf] cg'el" t gxg' @)= ;jf]R{ r cbfntdf 5'§} >d df hUuf vl/bsf nflu ^*, 3/ k|ltj]bgadf]lhd g} P]g aGg'kg]{ lbPsf] b]lvPsf] 5 . n]gb]gsf] nfO{ ;fdflhs sfo{sf] efiffdf …Jojxf/Ú eGg]
a? gofF–gofF s/sf] ef/ ylkPkl5 Ohfnf;sf] Joj:yf u/ . lgdf{0fsf nflu @# / 3/ dd{tsf atfP . k|ltj]bgdf lrlsT;f If]qsf] ul/G5 . ;'rgf cleofgLx¿n] gu/ Pj+ ufpFkflnsfn] ;DkGg u/]sf ef}lts
cfddflg;k|lt ;/sf/sf] e/f];f @!= pBf]uwGbfx?df >ldsdfly nflu &@ hgfn] cg'bfg k|fKt u/]sf ljs[lt /f]Sg] ;'emfj dfq} gePsf] / Pj+ ;fdflhs ljsf;sf] k|ult ljj/0f dfu u/]/ ;fj{hlgs k/LIf0fsf nflu
kftlng yfn]sf] b]lvFb}5 . ePsf] zf]if0f bdg aGb u/ . lyP . ut cfly{ s jif{ d f hUuf To;df d]l8sn sn]hx?nfO{ s] ug]{ hgtfnfO{ ;xof]u ug]{5g\ . ToxL gePsf] sfo{qmdaf/] hfgsf/L kfpF5g\ .
@@= >d dGqfnocGtu{ t sf vl/bsf nflu b'O{ ;o, 3/ lgdf{0fsf eGg] < ;'emfj;d]t /x]sf] pgn] atfP . ;fy} yf]/} OdfGbf/Lk"js { ePsf sfo{x¿df ;+nUg ePsf ;+3;+:yf, ;xhstf{
rf/===== lgsfodf ePsf] l9nf;':tL cfly{s nflu rf/ ;o / 3/ dd{tsf nflu pgn] …of] dfu 8f= uf]ljGb s];Ln] Pj+ k|lzIfssf] of]Uotfaf/] gful/sn] yfxf kfpg]5g\ .
cfk"mx?sf]] uDeL/ c;xdtL /x]sf] cgldottf aGb u/ . 5 ;o hgfn] cg'bfg k|fKt ul/;s]sf p7fPsf] dfq geO sfo{bnn] lbPsf] af9Ln] utaif{ Iflt ef]u]sfx¿dWo] yf]/}n] dfq} o; aif{ /fxt kfPsf]
dhb"/ g]tfx?n] atfPsf lyP . @#= phf{zLn o'jf hgzlQm 5g\ . cg' b fg k| f Kt u/] s f ;'emfj;d]t xf]Ú– eg] . cd]l/sf ljsf; u'gfF;f] 5 . w]/} 7fpFdf /fhgLlts x:tIf]k eP/ gkfpg]x¿n] /fxt kfPsf]
…sDo'lgi6 gfdwf/L k'FhLjfbL lab]z knfog x'gaf6 aGb u/ . d'Qmxlnofx?n] xlnofsf] ;"rLdf gfd eP/ oxfF;Dd k'Ug'df klg To:t} l6sfl6Kk0fL eO/x]sf] 5 . kSs}klg of] aif{ g[Tosf] tof/Ldf /x]sf] gbLgfnfn]
;/sf/n] u7g u/]sf] ;f] ;ldltdf @$= >ldsx?nfO{ ;x' l not ;dfj]z ul/lbPsf] eGb} /fli6«o xlnof ;'emfjx?n] sfd u/]sf] klg 8f= Iflt ubf{ csf]a{ if{ /fxtdf slt …Jojxf/Ú ug]{ eg]/ ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿ ;f]lr/x]sf
;/sf/ kIfLo l;l08s] 6 wf/L sf8{sf] Joj:yf u/ . d' l Qm ;dfh dxf;+ 3 sf s] x L pkfWofon] atfP . lrlsT;f If]qsf] xf]nfg . t/ clxn] ufpFzx/df ePsf] c;f/] ljsf;n] dfgl;s c;/
k' ' F h LktLsf sf7k' t nL 6] « 8 @%= cfk|jf;L >lds;DaGwL kbflwsf/L / dfnkf] t sfof{ n o ;'wf/sf] dfu /fVb} h'Dnfdf cgzg/t
88]nw'/fsf sd{rf/Lx?n] sld;g k/]sfx¿sf] ;+Vof xhf/f}+ 5 . ljleGg ufpF / 6f]ndf k|fljlws ;xof]udf
o'lgogx?sf] dfq k|ltlglwTj / /fli6«o gLlt th{'df u/ . 8f= uf]ljGb s];LnfO{ sf7df8f}F Nofpg]
k|efjdf k/L cGo >lds kIfLo 6]8« lnPsf] eGb} ph'/L lbPsf x'g . x/]s pkef]Qmf ;ldlt, 7]sb] f/ / dfnbf/x¿n] u/]sf] ljsf; lgdf{0f sfo{n] kfgLsf]
@^= ;a} vfn] c;dfgtf / ;/sf/L /a}ofk|lt jl/i7 lrlsT;sx?n]
o'lgogx?sf] k|ltlglwTj gu/fO{ e]befjsf] cGTo u/L ;dfg sfddf d'Qmxlnofaf6 7"nf] /sd sld;g 3f]/ cfklQ hgfPsf 5g\ . jl/i7 lgsf; g} k|efljt ag]sf] 5 . 6f]n6f]ndf aiff{sf] kfgL hd]sf] 5 . nfdv'66\ s
] f]
ul/Psf] lg0f{o >lds lj/f]wL / ;dfg j]tg nfu" u/ . lnPsf] laifodf d'Qm xlnof ;dfh lrlsT;s pkfWofon] ;/sf/df cft+s 5 . hd]sf] kfgLaf6 cf]x/bf]x/ ubf{ kfgLhGo /f]uaf6 u|fld0f dfq
eT;{gfk"0f{ /x]sf] 5Ú kqsf/ ;Dd]ngdf @&= >ldsx?nfO{ lgMz' N s dxf;+3 leq tLa| ljjfb 5 . dxf;+3sf b]lvPsf] b'Ol{ txfO ax'dtsf] bDenfO{ geO{ zx/L If]qsf gful/s k/];fg 5g\ .
ljt/0f ul/Psf] k| ] ; lj1lKtdf >dlzIff / tflndsf] Joj:yf u/ . lhNnf cWoIf t'nf/fd ;fsL{, dxf;+3s} lrlsT;sx?n] ga'‰g] xf] eg] To;sf] …cfFug ;'vn 3/d] kfgLÚ eg]h:t} ljsf;n] ubf{ ufpF, zx/ 6fk'sf] ;d"x
elgPsf] 5 . ;+ o ' Q m lj1lKtdf @*= a] / f] h uf/ eQf / tkm{af6 lgo'Qm ;'k/efOh/ dfgaxfb'/ kl/0ffd /fd|f] gx'g] atfP . ag]sf] 5 . k|ltlglwx¿ r'gfj ePsf] vr{ / o;aif{ ePsf] Jojxf/sf]
;/sf/n] bnfn k' F h Lkltju{ / k]G;g;lxtsf] ;fdflhs ;'/Iff nfu" las, dfnkf]t sfof{nosf n]vfkfn lzIffdGqL lul//fhdl0f kf]v/]nn] d'vldnfg ub}{ csf]{ aif{ s'g ;+3;+:yf, pkef]Qmf ;ldlt, 7]sb] f/ / dfnbf/nfO{
pgLx?sf s7\kt' nL 6]8« o'lgogsf] u/ . lbnaxfb'/ P]/sf gfddf 3'; lnPsf] ;+ ; bdf ljw] o s k] ; ug{ ' c l3 sfd lbPdf /fd|f] Jojxf/ x'G5 eg]/ of]hgf agfpg d:t 5g\ . c;f/ laT5,
;xdltdf k|rlnt ahf/ d"No, dxFuL, @(= df};dL sfdbf/ tyf pv' eGb} ph'/L k/]sf] lhNnf k|zf;g cfk"mx?;Fu 5nkmn u/]/ ljw]os ;fpg cfpF5 . To;kl5 g t gbLn] g[To u5{, g t ljsf;sf] sf/0f 8'afg
>ldssf] hLjg:t/, cGt/f{li6«o >d pTkfbs s[lif >ldssf]¨ nflu pko'Qm sfof{non] hgfPsf] 5 . NofPsf] e'6f] k|rf/ u/]sf] eGb} 8f= / 6fk' ePsf ufpFzx/sf] s'/f cfpF5 . k|ltlglwx¿sf] efif0fdf /fxt,
dfkb08, l5d]sL b]zx?sf] j]tgsf] gLlt th{'df u/ . o;} k| s /0fdf kqsf/ s/g pkfWofon] cfk" m x?n] lbPsf] Ifltk"tL{, ;d[4 dw]z, ljsf;sf] s'/fx¿ ld7f] t/Lsfn] k|:t't x'G5 . To;kl5
cj:yf, g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;/sf/L tyf #)= >ldsx?n] lt/]sf] /]ld6]G; tfd|fsf/n] ;d]t 3'; lnPsf] eGb} ;'emfjnfO{ tf]8df]8 u/]/ ljw]os OGthf/ ;dfKt eP/ k'gM c;f/ dlxgf cfpF5 . of] qmd km]l/ rln/xG5 .
lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf] tnjdfgnfO{ >ldsx?s} lxtdf k|of]u u/ . ph'/L k/]sf] 5 . g]kfn kqsf/ NofOPsf] t/ k|rf/ pN6f] ul/Psf] ;fdfGo gful/sn] gkfP klg s]xL af]Nb}g, s]xL kfP eg] t af]Ng] s'/f g}
;d]t Vofn gu/L pgLx?s} bjfjdf #!= x/]s >lds hgtfnfO{ vfB dxf;+3 k|bz ] & sf ;lrj tfd|fsf/n] eGb} cfklQ hgfP . dfy]df sfo{bnsf] cfpFb}g .
lg0fo{ ug{' v]bk"0f{ ePsf] atfOPsf] ;Dk|e'tfsf] clwsf/ ;'lglZrt u/ . d'Qm xlnofsf gfddf /sd b'?kof]u k|ltj]bg Ps k6s k9\g k|wfgdGqL c;f/ dlxgfdf x'g] cfly{s aif{sf] ;dfKtLnfO{ ;+zf]wg u/]/ ;+:yfut
5 . ;/sf/n] /f]huf/L j[l4 ug{'sf] #@= >ldsx?sf] kl~hs/0fsf] ug]{ JolQmx?sf] kbf{kmf; x'g yfn]kl5 cf]nLnfO{ ;'emfj lbFb} lj1x?n] :jf:Yo eO;s]sf] clgoldttf / e|i6frf/ /f]Sg ;lsg] cj:yf clxn] b]lvPsf]
;f6f] pN6} ul/j tyf lgd' v f Joj:yf u/ . kqsf/nfO{ d'5g\ em'6f ph'/L lbOPsf] / lzIff ;/sf/sf]] bfloTj xf] ls 5}g . o:tf unt ultljlwnfO{ /f]Sg gful/s Pj+ gful/s ;dfh ;zSt
>ldsx?sf] /f]huf/L vf];/] k'h F LjfbL ##= j}b]lzs /f]huf/Ldf hfg] atfPsf 5g\ . 3/ lgdf{0f / dd{t xf]Og < eg]/ k|:6 x'gk' g]{ a]nf cfPsf] 9+un] p7\g'k5{ / ;'rgfsf] xsnfO{ xltof/sf] ¿kdf k|of]u ug'{k5{ .
bl/b|tf k|bz{g ug{ vf]hs ] f] atfOPsf] >ldsdfly ePsf] zf]if0f / 7uL aGb sfo{ ; DkGg gul/sg} sltkon] klg atfPsf 5g\ .
If]Kof:q k|sfzg s]Gb|åf/f k|sflzt, ;Dkfbs M /fh]Gb|k|;fb lrdf}l/of, sfof{no M yfkfufpF, sf7df8f}F, df]afOn M (*$!$)#*%!,
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