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Bealltiful eappadocfn o./T......

'isitorsa landscape
of natural wo nders Ibat seems ."prung! rom
11 d ream.

Cappadoda. meaning(he land of Beautiful Horses


in the Persian language. comprises the provinces of
Aksaray, Xe\"~hir. Nigde. Kay,;eri, and K1qehir.
~bjor towns indudc Urhisar, Avanos, Urgii p,
Derinkuyu , Kaymakh . and Ihlara.
~tillions of years ago, the \'OIC lOOCS of ~itir(,5. Ha..-.andag
and ~telendiz mountains erupted and covered
Cappadoda....ith a layer of tuff Over millennia. IhL" ruff
layerwas eroded. producing earth formations that , in
tur n, inspired C3\'l' an that has carr ied the imprint of
ancient civilisations 10 our times. The earliest human
settlements in Cappadccia date to the Palacolithic
Period, and the written history ofthe region goesback
10theHtnites. Th roughout its history, Cappadoda has
served 3.<;an important trading post and
bridge between the various lands of the
Silk Rood.
In the Upper ~l iocene epoch, the volcanoes under the .
lakes erupted and sp outedla va.TIle lava formed
a plateau,a landscape that smaller eru ptionsconstantly
altered. During the l.pperPboccnc epoch, the
Kcahrmak River, togetherwith lesserstreamsandlake>,
ru t deep into the tuffplateau. and the region gradually
beganto lake its present shape.
\\'ind and rainwater flowing do....n the skiesof valleys
eroded the tuffstnxrure.and sculpted the formations
kno....n as "fairy chimneys". The principle type of
"fairy chimney" in Cappadodai'itbe conical rock
structures loppedwith a hat, eithera cooe or a
mushr oom shapedcap.
TheCultures of the Prehistori c Period of
Cappadoca GIll bestheseen in the following
formations: Ki~k !ootound in I'iWJe. ~lkh Moond in
Aksaray andCiwlek Cave in I'~h i r. l hc human
sertement in Cappadoca begandUring the Prehisrooc
Period, and the era of &syrian Cr.ili~tion in the
ft.1:kXl beganduring the Early Bronze Age. Trading
nached its zenith in that <..1'3.. and it is In this period
that the fmt examp les of writin g in Analolia dare.
'lbc "Cappadoda Tablets", wriucn in Ok!A'i\)Tian
cuncilorm script.deal with
methods or taxation, interest
rates,andmarriage contracts.
The early Haruan.'it1tler.; werefollowal~· the empire;
of Hitme, PhI1W;tn, Persian. Roman. Byzantine, Scliuk
andOttoman. andeach left its markon the enchanting
landscape ofCappadoda.
Cappadooa. situated on the principal trading routes
of theSilk Road, was ameeting place for different
phiktiophie; andrdiWCIfi'i, each of\\hich left a hisloriGlI
and culturalimpression on the rt:Wt.JO. Christians who
had k.fl: jeusakm in the 2nd century AD passed t.hrough
Aruakya and Kavscri to arrive in Central Anatolia. and
senled in the vicinityof Dennkuyu
TheseearlyChristians, facing the oppression of me
Roman Emper ors, found refuge against raids in the
subterranean cities of the region, Here the soft rock
allowed the excavationof elaborate dwellings. food
stores, water wellsand osrcms, wincncs and places of
worship, enabling habitation fora prolonged period.
These subterranean drtes predateJesus Christ, and
have always provided a safehaven 10 people looking
for I>t:'JCt.' and tranquillity. Amongother man-made
OIWS arcchurches and monasteries , hewn from the
rock with greatlabour and skill.
It has been claimed that the re were more than
on c thousand ch urches in Cappadod a. The
construction. archucctuml details,artistic arrJI1~l'JTICnl\
and decorations <In.' awe inspiring.
~Unr of the churches have a ha.'iilica or crucitorm plan.
wjth anave, narthex (vestibule). columns.arches.vaults
and domes.
The fresco art that adorns the churcheswasthe fruit
of elaborate artistry. The maintenance, repairand
restoration ofthesefrescos continue unceasingly, and
the subterranean cities and churches are open 10
visitors.
The MAlUM n:ligio.h onkr was founded ,
by the philosopher Ahi Evran. who
believed in the harmonious unity
of morality and the arts.Thecokr
ttla ~ vdi MlN'UIII ha, developed in Kl'¥'hir, and
Following the arrivalof lslam inAnatolia. Cappadoca SO\\TI the seedsof love in the

became home forseveral famous ~I uslim hearts andminds ofthe Anatoian


scholars, In the 13th century, the Turkish people.
Islamic Sufi lIarl Bektas-s" ell settled in
present dayHaobektasCounty, where today
a museum surroundingthe tombof the
scholar is open to visilln. Haa Bektas-r veli.
credited with creatingTurkish unity in
Anatolia. based his philosophy on loveof
humanity, tolerance, S(~ idariry and
social equality, adumbratingthe
principles of the 19-18 Universal
Declaration of Human Rights.
EveI)' year inremanonal
ceremonies to CUlllmlTI10rJrC
Hac Bekras-r veli are held
on the 16-18 August, and
visited hya large number
of his adherents.
Ihlara VaUey was created as the basalt and andesite .
intensive lava from Hasandagr cooleddown,andgave
way lO cracks andsubsidence. Streams foundtheir
way in thesecracks. andthe Melendiz Stream, called
"Potamus Kapadokus" in antiquity, has eroded the
bottom of the valley, hringing itlOit' present form.
TI,e IhlaraVallcr is 14 kilometres lung andstarts from
thhraandends inSelime. The valley sides arebetween
lOO and 150 metres high. There arenumerousabodes,
tombs and churches hewn into the rock face along
the valley. The Egritaj (Inclined Stone) Church.Aga<;altl
(Under Tree) Church, Kokar (Smelly) Church,Ydanh
(Snake) Church, Pilrenliscki (Calluna Terrace) Church,
Kirkdamalu Church, Ala (Red) Church, Direkli (Pillar)
Church, Fortress Munastery,and Selime Cathedralare
among the must-see buildings.
'~\:l l ll Church

12
let's try to solve the mystery of the white clouds is an attractive little (Own which is 7 kilometres awav
surro undi ng us. They are doves, whose dWina and from ~f\,* h i r. The Fortress of L\,hisar is the best
~ fugl" "'Jle,SlN>ined 17; If<Jick . ing moerents, vantage pointoverlookingwhole region.
dcligiu5visitors. These beautiful d oves nest along the ~'e are approaching the "Belief Centres" sites where
Y.li1el' around lJ<;hisar; in KJlM,iar and GillIUdere Y.li1cl> the mvstkatmosphere intensifies. It l'ibelieved that.
of Goreme; 07.engi,Ort.a Hisar, Balkan Deresi and during (he Roman Period. Goreme. which is 10
Kmk,ukur Y.Ii1cl' around Urgiip; <;:u Valley I1Clf Nt'"jChir; kilometres from Ne...¥ hir, servedtbe peoplethingon
and Sogmh Valley in the prrAince orKayseri, the location of Ava nos as a necropolis.
In theIslamic belief, the doverepresents demtionID
family andpeace, and inOuistianiry it represents the
spirit of God. Dovecots have 1x.'l.11 Gl.I'\'Cd at high spots
allalong mevalley sides, and in the fairy chimneys on
thesouth or east looking aspects.
Ifyourcamera is ready forthe fJ.'ilinating panoramic
views, Cappadocia awaits )'OU ~ capturethem. l~hiw
The C.oreme Open Air Mu~um sits at thesitewhere
"thesystem of education unif)ing allChristian ideas"
was developed by St. Basil the Great and his Siblings.
The architectural slyle and fres coes of the Tokah
(Buckle) Church, The '''Iona~ tery of Nuns and Monks,
St. Basil Chapel. E1ma1, (Apple) Church. 'nlanh (Snake)
Church, Karanhk (Dark) Church, and f;ank1J(Saodal)
Church retain alltheir old glory.
<;.a~ in i...one of the oldestsettlementsof me region
and is about 2 kilometres from Goreme. Ibe church
ofQl\'Wiin, built in 964and 965, isdecorated with
scenes frum the Bible and the lifeof je,us Christ.

lelve is another centre of Cappadodan archnecural


wonders famous for its church, the Pasabaglan. and
the reilof St. Simcon.
Sel¥hir is at the centre of Cappadoda. and C'rgiip.
situated 20 kilometres 10 the west, is famous forSaint
Thexkxa (Tagar) Church and Pancamk Church which
have remarkable religious frescoes.
The most Impressive place of Ort ahisar , which is 6
kilometres from O~up , is strategically Important
"Orta hisa r Fortress". The best examples of the
Cappadodan civilian architecturecan be seenon the
lower slope;of thehill. and the OziimlU (Grape) Church
is 10 the wCSt of town.
,\t u s lafa pa~a is 6 kilometres south of Urgup, and it
was inhabitedbyChristiansand Turks together until
the beginning of the 20th century. The old Christian
houses displayexamples of a splendid masonry.
The Sobesos Chl' of Antiquity, at presen t day
Sahincfcndt Village, 30kilometresfmm Orgup, is worth
a visit. Exca vations have revealed the meetinghall and

17
bathhousecomplex ofthe city. Themeeting hall monastery or a garrison. ~"ell preserved frescos can
covers iOO square metres. and the main hall hasa beseen in the church on the site.
mosaic flo or. a roofsupported bycolumns and In A~, k Sara)' lIarabcleri (Open Palace Ruins) arc
plastered walk Therearealsotwosiderooms, one numerouscellsandchurches thatwerehewn into
of which is a burial place and theotherone has ruff RIcks during the 9th and 10thcenturies.
mosaics. Mushroom cap type fairychimneys canunlybe seen
Tatlarin Subterranean O rr is SilU:lI00 10kiIornctre, inthis ruin in all Cappadocia.
north ofAogiil, in the province of xevsehtr. Its1\\11 Karabas . Kubbdi and SI. Barbara (Tahtah)
underground kvek an: open to visitors. Given rhe Churches arcinthe Soganh vallcj-which is in the
numerous chapels. researchers belie·..e (hat Iathrin \icinilY of Y~ i1 h isarof Ka )"SCri province. Their
was not a civilian settlement. hUE rimera religious u.;dnating architecture and frescn deccrarions make
(hem verv special.
111l' Old Silver (Eski GOmO~) Church L'i:1 rockhewn
churchsituated at GOlllO~ler, 8 kilometres northwest
of l\;i~de . Its frescoes arc fineexamples of detailed
workmanship.Abo Kavaktcpc. Pcnek. Konakh. Bagama
and 1<:1)1f11 subterranean cities as wc11 as Yl1 ilyun.
AkdXj. Andabahs churches are important for Christian
visitors. Tvana cily of Antiquity (Roman Period), r\igde
Fortress. Aknll'lifl~ (\t'hitcMadrasah). OkOz Mehmet
PashaCaravansera iat rlu ~1a (Sdiuk Period) areother
important sires 10 visit.
Visitors to Cappad ocla , whic h is cited in the .
World Heritage List by UNESCO, also enjoy fine
examples of Selj uk and Ottoman architecture.
Some of the unique examples arc as follows: The Egri
Minaret, and theAlayhan and Sultanhamcaravanserais
- examples ufSl.:ljukper iod works inAksaray province;
theSanhan Caravanserai (Scliuk) and the Urgtip
Ta:j k m p;L~
Mosque (Karamanh Period) in Nev~eh ir
province: andthe Sungur Bey Mosque, Rahmaniye
MosqueandMt lthn Mosque aswell asHudave nt Hatun
Tomb are highly impressive structures. In Kayseri
province, someof the places worth visiting arc Doncr
Kiimbet (Tomb). Slfi;ah Kumber. AJi Cafer Kumbeti,
Cami Kcbir (Mosque), the HunatHatun Kiilliyesi
(Complex), Kursunlu Mosque, GUpgiipuglu Konagr
(Mansion), Kara Musmfa Pasa Car:.IV::1llSlTJi, and
Karatayhan Caravanserai. Whilein Kaysen. be sure to
make a stop at the Museumofthe Historyof Medicine,
located in what used to he the SifJiye Medrese. This
was the first medical school andhospital in Anatolla.
and was built at the behest of Gcvhcr Ncsibc, a sister
of the Seliuk SultanGryaxeddtn Keyhtlsrev I, in 1205.
Magnificent worksof historical and artistic importance
in Kl~ehir province include the Cacabey Mosque, the
Ahi Evran Mosque, the ~lkp~a Tomb, the Mclikgazi
Tomb, and Kesikkopru Bridge.

l.li~II:I' Kiimtll:l
(Tomb)
How about slopping by wine
houses of Orgiip wailing for us
10 relieve o ur travel tlrednesst

AI: (hefamous v.ine houses ofDrgUp,


10c'2l wines areserved to visitors in
authentic rerrac ona decanters and
ceramic goblets. We aresurethat
you will enioy the blood red or doudy
whitedelicious wines pruduo.'. dat local
vineyards where the raregrapes of
Cappadoda arccultivated.
Someof the localwinesare producedusing
modern techniques, whilethere arestill some
locals using the age old traditional production
methods.
The Cappadocia
Region provides an
enchanting mixture
or natural wonders
and aesthetic
elegan ce beyond its
vtsttors ' imagination.
Exploring all these bcaunful
~iKht'i during an indigenous
balloon trip is an 'out dims world'
experience.
Balloon trips have become nu c popularsince
the Ballooning Championship that was organised
in Cappadcciain 1997.
Theskilled pilots Of I IK~C hot air balloons having up
anddown COntrol, enable mu to have an unbelievable
tour. '111e balloons sometimes soar to 3000 feel
(approximately1000 metres) and at other times touch
IrccIOPS, utilizing ground wind ur high altitude winds
10 travel overland in the desired direction.
The balloons generally depart in the t."".myhours of
morning fromGo reme vallcv, and passengers enjoy
the sunrise above the enchanting geography of
Cappadoda. and \\itha binl's eyeview they follow the
anocmbreathtaking fuil1'l'hinll1t1'S and thesettlements
of(t®ip, A\'3fIOS, <;a\~in. Zdve. Goreme. and Uc;hhar,
l'fllt'f'ging out the darkness. washed overbytheglorious
sun..bine.
Horseback Tour (Safari)
"Thelandof beautiful horses" can best be
seenon (he back of itslegendary mounts,
riding through wildvalleys and ancient
seukns..mts. Horseback Safari isagroupacti\iry
that enables you toenjoy theharmony of the
horseandthe riderwith narure. Every
group hasanexperiencedguide who
knows (he region thoroughly, and
toursgenerallylast 2-3 hours, hut can
last me\\TIOIe day, Longcr tours, with
lent or hotel accommodation, are
also possible.
Pottery
The historyof potteryinCappadoda goes backto
Hirures. Porter)'making first stalled in Anatoha during
the Neohthic age(7th millennium BC) at Caralhoyuk
(Kenya), and, around the 2000BC, the Assyrians of
Mc::;opotamiabrought theskill of rerracxra pot making
to their trJding partners, the Hittites. The handicraft
has been continued by the civilisationsof the region
to due.
The most renowned terracotta pottery producingtown
uf Cappadocia to; Avanos. The town is built on volemic
soil, anti the silt carnet! bythe Kizrhrmak
River as well as the good quality day
depositsmake the towna suitableplace
for ceramicproduction. The red fat soil
Is processed and brought for hand
turning at simple-looking workshops.

JI
Carpel and Kilim \fe.ning
In Cappadoda, weaving. cominuing since the Byzantine
Period. ts morecommon inurgupandAvanos. In
Avanos the linepatternKilimisalsowoven. St:ljuk
patterns an: dominant inancient carpets woven with
root dyes . However at present the patterns from
surroundingreg ions arcalsowoven.
TIlt' numerous carpet shops display and supply IOl'J l
carpetsaswell as carpets from otherregions. Hereyou
canfi nd almost any type ofTurkish carpet.
Onyx-Stone Turn ing
InCappadocia. stones have played an important role
in daily life frum past to present. Stones have been
used furbuilding houses andreligious huilding-; aswell
asproducingjewellery anddecorative items,
The vicinityof Haobektas is renowned fordeposits of
yellow, pink, redandmilkyonyx. Then: an:also stones
of mixed colour, railed 'marbled stones'. The onyx is
designedand carved tu make or nament belongings
and house accessories.
Accommodation
Thereare many holds and pensions in me region.
Hyou prefer, you Gin Sla y, like generations of
Cappadodans, in fairy chimneys or rock hewn
dwellings operatingas b outique hotels.
Shopping
Shops and marketplacesselling local handicrafts
provide awide palette ofcolours, patterns,and designs.
Local onyxstone works arcgiven a form which will
appealto your taste. The "rag do lls" reflecting the
warmth and sweetness of the region with their
colourfuldesigns and costumes are mostly preferred
hy the collect ors.Terracotta pots, tiles, statuettesof
carved ruff and rock, hand woven carpets anti kilims,
aswell as good qualitywines shouldalsobe on your
shoppinglist.
,

~ r· .
.....1.. L
!

\l'c; hope }'OU \i.~il


and enjoy
indescribable. unique Cappadoda.

Do nor leave Cappadocia unless:

""
• Youhavt:vbitlUAhi E\TJn ~la;quc . <;'1~LaY .\btrasah,
lhlara Val1t1', Gi.izd~1Jrt, and ~igdc Museum.
• You have 111jo}l,.'{\ trekking onAladag
Mountain which IskIlU\\TI as thetrekking
capital ofTurklT.
• You hawl'rlMW rafting 011 Zarrann River.
• You have visited therockchurches, and
~'C1ltheByzantine frescoes.
• Youhave cspbrcd Cappadocia ....uha baikon.
• You have boughtrcrracotta items, decorative
items made 001 of onyx, COPJX,-'f, or leather souvenirs.
• You have tasted the kxnl wmcs.
LOCAL EYE1'iTS
AKSAR'Y
Ne,,~ehi r Turkoman Cuisine F
Turkish-Greek Friendship . Brotherhood and Evcrv W'M on the third Saturdav
Cult ure Festival ofSepjcrnbcr '
Organized byme:'-otunidpality of Guzclvurt
e\1::1Y}'t21' inSeptember lIaCI Bekl~1 \'eH Com me
Ceremonies, Culture a nd
Aksarav-lblara Tou rism and Culture Festival l6-lSAuRUq
Organized t'\'t..1)' yearbetween ISth and
Jl st ofJuly by the Municipahryof Aksarav K1~ElliR

Yunus Emre Com me mora tion Days Bard's Festival


Organized by the Provincial Direct orate of Organized l"'cryyearin August bv
Culture and Tourism l'\'CI)' year during the :\Iunid palityof KJl}t'hir
me first week ofSeptember
Yunus Emre Commemora tion Day
NIGOE .Orgamzed everyyear during(he first .... cckof
September by the Krrschir Governor's Office
Darbogaz Che rry Fest ival
9-12July Ululujla-I}Jr!Jogaz Week of AhiCulture and Tradesmen 's Celebration
- Fyana Cult ure a nd Tourism Festival Organized everyyear during(he second week of
First wee kof August. Kemerhisar Oct ober bythe KJl)Chir Governor's Office
1
- U1 u kl~ la Gra pe a nd Culture Festival KAYSERi
last week ofSeptember
Week of Ahi Culture
- <;ama rdl Mounta ineerin~ and Organized everyyear 10-16 October
Transhumance Festival
Iuly-August, Carnanh Erclyes Snow Festival
N EV~E11IR
Ileld every year. hut the date var ies.

Urgiip In ternational Wine Com pe tition Zama nt r Rafting Pest lval


a nd vintage Festival Held every year, hut the dale vanes,
3-4 September
Mimar Sinan Commcmcra rlon,
Avanos International Tourism and Cu lture an d Art Week
Handlcrafts Festival 9·16April
31August- I September •
-', r;
--r
t,
" ..
PRO\lNClAL DIREC10RATES OF
ClILTL"RE A,1\jD TOURISM
AKSARAY •Taspazar Mah., Kadroglu Sok., No , I,
Td, (+90382)212 4688-2 13 2474
(lnfo.) Taspazar Mah., Kadooglu Sok., No,I,
ra . (+90382) 2474, m
Fax , +90(382) 21235 63
ikrm68@ kulrur.gov.tr,
www.aksaraykulturturizm.gov.tr
Giizel,.urt· Guzelyurt II\CSi, ~l Merkezi,
Tel , (+90382)451 24911
Ihlara . Ihlara Kasabasr. vadibasr Giri~i ,
TeI , (+90382) 453 7482
KAYSERI • Ki.iltiir Merkezi, Seyit GaziMah.,
Ahmet Yesevi Bulv., No:42,
Td , (+90352) 222 03 63·22208 98,
F"" +90(352) 232 25 81
info@kayserikultur.gov.tr,
www.kavserikultur.gov.tr
(Info.) Cumhuriyet Meydam,
Zeynel Ahidin Turbesl Yam, Meltkgazl
Tel , (+90352)222 OB 9B- 222 0363
KI~FJdR • Ahi Evran Mah.,!\hi Evran Cad,
No, 10, TeI, +90(386) 2134443
Fax , (+90 386) 21 232 9\
~'E\~F1dR. Yen] Kayseri Cad., No, 14,
ra . (+90384) 2134260,
Fax , +90(384) 213 7045
iktm)O@ kulturturi7.ffi.gov.tr,
www.nevsehirkulrurtunzm.gov.tr
Avanos .Td , (+90384) 511 43 6O,
Fax, +90(384) 5114360
Hacbektas- Tel , (+90384) 44136 87,
Fax , +90(384) 4413394
Urgiip • Atatiirk Cad. , Park h;i No: 37,
TeI , (+90384) 34140 59,
Fax, +90(384) 3414059
NIGOE • BorCad., Kiiltiir MerkeziBtnasr
ra . (+90388) 232 3393-94,
Fax, +90(388) 2320038
. nigdcku!tur@unet.net.tr
Cultural Heritage is Fragile
The world's culturalheritage is like a bigpuzzle.
Each monument. eachobject, is an irreplaceable pall
of the overall picture which givesus insight into our
origins,our development andour lives rodavlt helps
us 10 understand andappreciate other cultures. Each
discovery, each new interpretation addsto the puzzle
and makes the picture clearer. \'(1(' must ensure the
protection of every single piece today, so that future
generations may have the opportunitiesto enjoy the
puzzle.

f..lanypeople are not aware that our cultural heritage


is understress from natural disasters such as earthquakes
andtloods, and fromslower acting processes such as
pollution or human actions. Even the most Innoc ent
gesturessuch ascollecting ancient pieces of potteryor
mosaics as souveni rs have a destructive impact if
repealed by thousands. Touching an objectof stone,
metal or rexrtleleavestraces of grease, acid or sweat
on itssurface. Climbinga monument wears down the
structure underneath andcan dismantle it.\X'riting or
engraving names Inflicts permanent damage. Strolling
around narrow crowded places with bulky bags or
backpacks might knock over an object or scratch a
mural paintingand ruin it There arecountless ....'avs in
which one can unknowingly contribute to the
destruction of cult ural heritage.

In 2020 there will be 1.6 billion visitors per year


worldwide. Let us raiseawareness of this issue so that
we may join together to protectandenjoy thediversity
and richness ofour cultural heritage.
International Drganiza tiun for Conserva tio n of Cultural
Heritage (ICCROM)
BLACK SEA
lNCE BlJIlllN

sI P

(
~~
~
T.R. MISISTRY OF CULTURE AND l'O URISM
General Directorate of Inform ation ©
www.gorurkey.com
....wv...kuhurturizru.gov.tr

Text
Cengiz Ekid

Redacti on
Berivan Salnk.
Pmar Gunq

Graphic Design
Canan Bayram

Phot os

AkKun AkO\"3, Cengiz Ekici. OOF. Erdal Yaao.


Hih ntiGUrsel. lhrahimZaman.lzzct Kcribar.
Mana ~O\""Jk . ~k(in 'nldmrn. Murat Ocal, Raul ~tiski.
Sabu KalfuWL Sukr FIl':U, ~msi Gtlner.
Archive of the ~lin btry of Culture and Tourism,

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Anka ra 2009

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