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EE101: BJT circuits (Part 2)

M. B. Patil
mbpatil@ee.iitb.ac.in
www.ee.iitb.ac.in/~sequel

Department of Electrical Engineering


Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Common-emitter amplifier

10 V
3.6 k
10 k coupling
RC RC
capacitor
R1 R1
coupling
capacitor 6V
CC 1.8 V
AND
CB VCC VCC
RL
1.1 V
RC RL
vs R2 R2 vs R1 R2
load RE
2.2 k RE
resistor
1k CE

bypass DC circuit AC circuit


capacitor

* We have already analysed the DC (bias) circuit of this amplifier and found that
VB = 1.8 V , VE = 1.1 V , VC = 6 V , and IC = 1.1 mA.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Common-emitter amplifier

10 V
3.6 k
10 k coupling
RC RC
capacitor
R1 R1
coupling
capacitor 6V
CC 1.8 V
AND
CB VCC VCC
RL
1.1 V
RC RL
vs R2 R2 vs R1 R2
load RE
2.2 k RE
resistor
1k CE

bypass DC circuit AC circuit


capacitor

* We have already analysed the DC (bias) circuit of this amplifier and found that
VB = 1.8 V , VE = 1.1 V , VC = 6 V , and IC = 1.1 mA.
* We now analyse the AC (small-signal) circuit to obtain vb , ve , vc , ic .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Common-emitter amplifier

10 V
3.6 k
10 k coupling
RC RC
capacitor
R1 R1
coupling
capacitor 6V
CC 1.8 V
AND
CB VCC VCC
RL
1.1 V
RC RL
vs R2 R2 vs R1 R2
load RE
2.2 k RE
resistor
1k CE

bypass DC circuit AC circuit


capacitor

* We have already analysed the DC (bias) circuit of this amplifier and found that
VB = 1.8 V , VE = 1.1 V , VC = 6 V , and IC = 1.1 mA.
* We now analyse the AC (small-signal) circuit to obtain vb , ve , vc , ic .
* We will then get the complete solution by simply adding the DC and AC results,
e.g., iC (t) = IC + ic (t).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Common-emitter amplifier

10 V
3.6 k
10 k coupling
RC RC
capacitor
R1 R1
coupling
capacitor 6V
CC 1.8 V
AND
CB VCC VCC
RL
1.1 V
RC RL
vs R2 R2 vs R1 R2
load RE
2.2 k RE
resistor
1k CE

bypass DC circuit AC circuit


capacitor

* We have already analysed the DC (bias) circuit of this amplifier and found that
VB = 1.8 V , VE = 1.1 V , VC = 6 V , and IC = 1.1 mA.
* We now analyse the AC (small-signal) circuit to obtain vb , ve , vc , ic .
* We will then get the complete solution by simply adding the DC and AC results,
e.g., iC (t) = IC + ic (t).
* We will assume that CB , CC , CE are large enough so that, at the signal
frequency (say, 1 kHz), they can be replaced by short circuits.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Common-emitter amplifier

RC RL
vs R1 R2
Common-emitter amplifier

B rb Cµ C

RC RL Cπ rπ ro
vs R1 R2 vs R1 R2 gm vbe RC RL

E
Common-emitter amplifier

B rb Cµ C

RC RL Cπ rπ ro
vs R1 R2 vs R1 R2 gm vbe RC RL

* The parasitic capacitances Cπ and Cµ are in the pF range. At a signal frequency


of 1 kHz, their impedance is 1/ωC ∼ 1/(2π × 103 × 10−12 ), i.e., ∼ 100 MΩ.
→ Cπ and Cµ can be replaced by open circuits.
Common-emitter amplifier

B rb Cµ C

RC RL Cπ rπ ro
vs R1 R2 vs R1 R2 gm vbe RC RL

* The parasitic capacitances Cπ and Cµ are in the pF range. At a signal frequency


of 1 kHz, their impedance is 1/ωC ∼ 1/(2π × 103 × 10−12 ), i.e., ∼ 100 MΩ.
→ Cπ and Cµ can be replaced by open circuits.
* For simplicity, we will assume rb to be small and ro to be large (this assumption
will only slightly affect the gain computation).
Common-emitter amplifier

B rb Cµ C

RC RL Cπ rπ ro
vs R1 R2 vs R1 R2 gm vbe RC RL

* The parasitic capacitances Cπ and Cµ are in the pF range. At a signal frequency


of 1 kHz, their impedance is 1/ωC ∼ 1/(2π × 103 × 10−12 ), i.e., ∼ 100 MΩ.
→ Cπ and Cµ can be replaced by open circuits.
* For simplicity, we will assume rb to be small and ro to be large (this assumption
will only slightly affect the gain computation).
* The above considerations significantly simplify the AC circuit.
Common-emitter amplifier

B rb Cµ C B C

RC RL Cπ rπ ro
vs R1 R2 vs R1 R2 gm vbe RC RL vs R1 R2 rπ RC RL
gm vbe
E
E

* The parasitic capacitances Cπ and Cµ are in the pF range. At a signal frequency


of 1 kHz, their impedance is 1/ωC ∼ 1/(2π × 103 × 10−12 ), i.e., ∼ 100 MΩ.
→ Cπ and Cµ can be replaced by open circuits.
* For simplicity, we will assume rb to be small and ro to be large (this assumption
will only slightly affect the gain computation).
* The above considerations significantly simplify the AC circuit.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Common-emitter amplifier

B C

2.2 k 3.6 k 10 k
10 k
vs R1 R2 rπ RC RL vo
gm vbe

vo = −(gm vbe ) × (RC k RL ) = −(gm vs ) × (RC k RL )

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Common-emitter amplifier

B C

2.2 k 3.6 k 10 k
10 k
vs R1 R2 rπ RC RL vo
gm vbe

vo = −(gm vbe ) × (RC k RL ) = −(gm vs ) × (RC k RL )


vo
→ ALV = voltage gain = = −gm (RC k RL )
vs
(superscript L is used because the gain includes the effect of RL .)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Common-emitter amplifier

B C

2.2 k 3.6 k 10 k
10 k
vs R1 R2 rπ RC RL vo
gm vbe

vo = −(gm vbe ) × (RC k RL ) = −(gm vs ) × (RC k RL )


vo
→ ALV = voltage gain = = −gm (RC k RL )
vs
(superscript L is used because the gain includes the effect of RL .)
Since IC (bias current) = 1.1 mA, gm = IC /VT = 1.1 mA/25.9 mV = 42.5 mf.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Common-emitter amplifier

B C

2.2 k 3.6 k 10 k
10 k
vs R1 R2 rπ RC RL vo
gm vbe

vo = −(gm vbe ) × (RC k RL ) = −(gm vs ) × (RC k RL )


vo
→ ALV = voltage gain = = −gm (RC k RL )
vs
(superscript L is used because the gain includes the effect of RL .)
Since IC (bias current) = 1.1 mA, gm = IC /VT = 1.1 mA/25.9 mV = 42.5 mf.
→ ALV = −42.5 mf × (3.6 k k 10 k) = −112.5

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Common-emitter amplifier

B C

2.2 k 3.6 k 10 k
10 k
vs R1 R2 rπ RC RL vo
gm vbe

vo = −(gm vbe ) × (RC k RL ) = −(gm vs ) × (RC k RL )


vo
→ ALV = voltage gain = = −gm (RC k RL )
vs
(superscript L is used because the gain includes the effect of RL .)
Since IC (bias current) = 1.1 mA, gm = IC /VT = 1.1 mA/25.9 mV = 42.5 mf.
→ ALV = −42.5 mf × (3.6 k k 10 k) = −112.5

For vs (t) = (2 mV ) sin ωt, the AC output voltage is,

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Common-emitter amplifier

B C

2.2 k 3.6 k 10 k
10 k
vs R1 R2 rπ RC RL vo
gm vbe

vo = −(gm vbe ) × (RC k RL ) = −(gm vs ) × (RC k RL )


vo
→ ALV = voltage gain = = −gm (RC k RL )
vs
(superscript L is used because the gain includes the effect of RL .)
Since IC (bias current) = 1.1 mA, gm = IC /VT = 1.1 mA/25.9 mV = 42.5 mf.
→ ALV = −42.5 mf × (3.6 k k 10 k) = −112.5

For vs (t) = (2 mV ) sin ωt, the AC output voltage is,


vo = ALV vs = −(112.5) (2 mV ) sin ωt = −(125 mV ) sin ωt

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Common-emitter amplifier

B C

2.2 k 3.6 k 10 k
10 k
vs R1 R2 rπ RC RL vo
gm vbe

vo = −(gm vbe ) × (RC k RL ) = −(gm vs ) × (RC k RL )


vo
→ ALV = voltage gain = = −gm (RC k RL )
vs
(superscript L is used because the gain includes the effect of RL .)
Since IC (bias current) = 1.1 mA, gm = IC /VT = 1.1 mA/25.9 mV = 42.5 mf.
→ ALV = −42.5 mf × (3.6 k k 10 k) = −112.5

For vs (t) = (2 mV ) sin ωt, the AC output voltage is,


vo = ALV vs = −(112.5) (2 mV ) sin ωt = −(125 mV ) sin ωt

The AC collector current is,


ic = gm vbe = gm vs = −42.5 mf × (2 mV ) sin ωt = −85 sin ωt µA.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Common-emitter amplifier

10 V
3.6 k
10 k RC
R1

CC
VCC
CB
RL
R2 2.2 k
vs
1 k RE CE

For vs (t) = (2 mV ) sin ωt, we can now obtain expressions for the instantaneous currents and
voltages:
vC (t) = VC + vc (t) = VC + vo (t) = 6 V − (125 mV ) sin ωt .
iC (t) = IC + ic (t) = 1.1 mA − 0.085 sin ωt mA .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Common-emitter amplifier

10 V
3.6 k
10 k RC
R1

CC
VCC
CB
RL
R2 2.2 k
vs
1 k RE CE

For vs (t) = (2 mV ) sin ωt, we can now obtain expressions for the instantaneous currents and
voltages:
vC (t) = VC + vc (t) = VC + vo (t) = 6 V − (125 mV ) sin ωt .
iC (t) = IC + ic (t) = 1.1 mA − 0.085 sin ωt mA .

Note that the above procedure (DC + AC analysis) can be used only if the small-signal
approximation (i.e., |vbe |  VT ) is valid. In the above example, the amplitude of vbe is 2 mV ,
which is much smaller than VT .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Common-emitter amplifier

10 V
3.6 k
10 k RC
R1

CC
VCC
CB
RL
R2 2.2 k
vs
1 k RE CE

For vs (t) = (2 mV ) sin ωt, we can now obtain expressions for the instantaneous currents and
voltages:
vC (t) = VC + vc (t) = VC + vo (t) = 6 V − (125 mV ) sin ωt .
iC (t) = IC + ic (t) = 1.1 mA − 0.085 sin ωt mA .

Note that the above procedure (DC + AC analysis) can be used only if the small-signal
approximation (i.e., |vbe |  VT ) is valid. In the above example, the amplitude of vbe is 2 mV ,
which is much smaller than VT .
For vs (t) = (20 mV ) sin ωt, for example, the small-signal approximation will not hold, and a
numerical simulation will be required to obtain the currents and voltages of interest.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Common-emitter amplifier

10 V
3.6 k
10 k RC
R1

CC
VCC
CB
RL
R2 2.2 k
vs
1 k RE CE

For vs (t) = (2 mV ) sin ωt, we can now obtain expressions for the instantaneous currents and
voltages:
vC (t) = VC + vc (t) = VC + vo (t) = 6 V − (125 mV ) sin ωt .
iC (t) = IC + ic (t) = 1.1 mA − 0.085 sin ωt mA .

Note that the above procedure (DC + AC analysis) can be used only if the small-signal
approximation (i.e., |vbe |  VT ) is valid. In the above example, the amplitude of vbe is 2 mV ,
which is much smaller than VT .
For vs (t) = (20 mV ) sin ωt, for example, the small-signal approximation will not hold, and a
numerical simulation will be required to obtain the currents and voltages of interest.
In practice, such a situation is anyway not prevalent (because it gives rise to distortion in the
output voltage) except in special types of amplifiers.
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay
Common-emitter amplifier with partial bypass

coupling
RC capacitor RC
R1 R1
coupling
capacitor
CC

CB VCC
VCC
RL RE
R2 RE1 R2
load
vs resistor
RE2
CE

bypass DC circuit
capacitor

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Common-emitter amplifier with partial bypass

coupling
RC capacitor RC
R1 R1
coupling
capacitor
CC

CB VCC
VCC
RL RE
R2 RE1 R2
load
vs resistor
RE2
CE

bypass DC circuit
capacitor

* For DC computation, CE is open, and the DC analysis is therefore identical to


our earlier amplifier, with RE ← RE 1 + RE 2 .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Common-emitter amplifier with partial bypass

coupling
RC capacitor RC
R1 R1
coupling
capacitor
CC

CB VCC
VCC
RL RE
R2 RE1 R2
load
vs resistor
RE2
CE

bypass DC circuit
capacitor

* For DC computation, CE is open, and the DC analysis is therefore identical to


our earlier amplifier, with RE ← RE 1 + RE 2 .
* Bypassing a part of RE (as opposed to all of it) does have an impact on the
voltage gain (see next slide).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Common-emitter amplifier with partial bypass

B C
coupling
RC capacitor
R1 ib β ib
coupling
capacitor rπ
CC
gm vbe
CB vs R1 R2 RC RL
VCC
E
RL
RE1
R2 load
vs resistor RE1

RE2
CE AC circuit
bypass
capacitor

Again, assume that, at the frequency of operation, CB , CC , CE can be replaced by


short circuits, and the BJT parasitic capacitances by open circuits.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Common-emitter amplifier with partial bypass

B C
coupling
RC capacitor
R1 ib β ib
coupling
capacitor rπ
CC
gm vbe
CB vs R1 R2 RC RL
VCC
E
RL
RE1
R2 load
vs resistor RE1

RE2
CE AC circuit
bypass
capacitor

Again, assume that, at the frequency of operation, CB , CC , CE can be replaced by


short circuits, and the BJT parasitic capacitances by open circuits.
vs
vs = vbe = ib rπ + (β + 1) ib RE 1 → ib = .
rπ + (β + 1) RE 1

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Common-emitter amplifier with partial bypass

B C
coupling
RC capacitor
R1 ib β ib
coupling
capacitor rπ
CC
gm vbe
CB vs R1 R2 RC RL
VCC
E
RL
RE1
R2 load
vs resistor RE1

RE2
CE AC circuit
bypass
capacitor

Again, assume that, at the frequency of operation, CB , CC , CE can be replaced by


short circuits, and the BJT parasitic capacitances by open circuits.
vs
vs = vbe = ib rπ + (β + 1) ib RE 1 → ib = .
rπ + (β + 1) RE 1

vo β (RC k RL )
vo = −β ib × (RC k RL ) → =− .
vs rπ + (β + 1) RE 1

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Common-emitter amplifier with partial bypass

B C
coupling
RC capacitor
R1 ib β ib
coupling
capacitor rπ
CC
gm vbe
CB vs R1 R2 RC RL
VCC
E
RL
RE1
R2 load
vs resistor RE1

RE2
CE AC circuit
bypass
capacitor

Again, assume that, at the frequency of operation, CB , CC , CE can be replaced by


short circuits, and the BJT parasitic capacitances by open circuits.
vs
vs = vbe = ib rπ + (β + 1) ib RE 1 → ib = .
rπ + (β + 1) RE 1

vo β (RC k RL )
vo = −β ib × (RC k RL ) → =− .
vs rπ + (β + 1) RE 1

Note: RE 1 gets multiplied by (β + 1).


M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay
Frequency response of common-emitter amplifier

B rb Cµ C
103
CB CC
Cπ rπ ro
gm vbe

Gain
102
vs R1 R2 E RC RL

RE CE 101
101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108
Frequency (Hz)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Frequency response of common-emitter amplifier

B rb Cµ C
103
CB CC
Cπ rπ ro
gm vbe

Gain
102
vs R1 R2 E RC RL

RE CE 101
101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108
Frequency (Hz)

* CB , CE , CC are large capacitances → 1/ωC is perceptibly large only at low


frequencies.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Frequency response of common-emitter amplifier

B rb Cµ C
103
CB CC
Cπ rπ ro
gm vbe

Gain
102
vs R1 R2 E RC RL

RE CE 101
101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108
Frequency (Hz)

* CB , CE , CC are large capacitances → 1/ωC is perceptibly large only at low


frequencies.
* Cπ , Cµ are small capacitances → 1/ωC is perceptibly small only at high
frequencies.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Frequency response of common-emitter amplifier

B rb Cµ C
103
CB CC
Cπ rπ ro
gm vbe

Gain
102
vs R1 R2 E RC RL

RE CE 101
101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108
Frequency (Hz)

* CB , CE , CC are large capacitances → 1/ωC is perceptibly large only at low


frequencies.
* Cπ , Cµ are small capacitances → 1/ωC is perceptibly small only at high
frequencies.
* In the intermediate range (called “mid-band”), the large capacitances behave
like short circuits, and the small capacitances behave like open circuits. In this
range, the gain is independent of frequency.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


General representation of an amplifier

source
resistance

Rs Ro
load
source Rin
vs vi vo resistance
(signal) AV vi RL

amplifier

* An amplifier is represented by a voltage gain, an input resistance, and an output


resistance.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


General representation of an amplifier

source
resistance

Rs Ro
load
source Rin
vs vi vo resistance
(signal) AV vi RL

amplifier

* An amplifier is represented by a voltage gain, an input resistance, and an output


resistance.
* The above representation involves AC quantities only, i.e., it describes the AC
equivalent circuit of the amplifier.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


General representation of an amplifier

source
resistance

Rs Ro
load
source Rin
vs vi vo resistance
(signal) AV vi RL

amplifier

* An amplifier is represented by a voltage gain, an input resistance, and an output


resistance.
* The above representation involves AC quantities only, i.e., it describes the AC
equivalent circuit of the amplifier.
* The DC bias of the circuit can affect parameter values in the AC equivalent
circuit (AV , Rin , Ro ). For example, for the common-emitter amplifier,
AV ∝ gm = IC /VT , IC being the DC (bias) value of the collector current.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


General representation of an amplifier

source
resistance

Rs Ro
load
source Rin
vs vi vo resistance
(signal) AV vi RL

amplifier

* An amplifier is represented by a voltage gain, an input resistance, and an output


resistance.
* The above representation involves AC quantities only, i.e., it describes the AC
equivalent circuit of the amplifier.
* The DC bias of the circuit can affect parameter values in the AC equivalent
circuit (AV , Rin , Ro ). For example, for the common-emitter amplifier,
AV ∝ gm = IC /VT , IC being the DC (bias) value of the collector current.
* Suppose we are given an amplifier as a “black box” and asked to find AV , Rin ,
and Ro . What experiments would give us this information?

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Voltage gain AV

source
resistance

Rs Ro il
load
source vs Rin
vi vo resistance
(signal) AV vi RL

amplifier

If RL → ∞, il → 0, and vo → AV vi .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Voltage gain AV

source
resistance

Rs Ro il
load
source vs Rin
vi vo resistance
(signal) AV vi RL

amplifier

If RL → ∞, il → 0, and vo → AV vi .

We can remove RL (i.e., replace it with an open circuit), measure vi and vo , then use
AV = vo /vi .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Input resistance Rin

source
resistance

Rs ii Ro
load
source vs Rin
vi vo resistance
(signal) AV vi RL

amplifier

Measurement of vi and ii yields Rin = vi /ii .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Output resistance Ro

Rs Rs

Ro Ro io

vs vi Rin vo RL vi Rin vo
AV vi

Method 1:

If vs → 0, AV vi → 0.
Now, connect a test source vo , and measure io .
Clearly, Ro = vo /io .

This method works fine on paper, but it is difficult to use experimentally.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Output resistance Ro

Rs

Ro

vs vi Rin vo RL
AV vi

Method 2:
RL
vo = AV vi .
RL + Ro

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Output resistance Ro

Rs

Ro

vs vi Rin vo RL
AV vi

Method 2:
RL
vo = AV vi .
RL + Ro
If RL → ∞, vo1 = AV vi .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Output resistance Ro

Rs

Ro

vs vi Rin vo RL
AV vi

Method 2:
RL
vo = AV vi .
RL + Ro
If RL → ∞, vo1 = AV vi .
1 1
If RL = Ro , vo2 = AV vi = vo1 .
2 2

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Output resistance Ro

Rs

Ro

vs vi Rin vo RL
AV vi

Method 2:
RL
vo = AV vi .
RL + Ro
If RL → ∞, vo1 = AV vi .
1 1
If RL = Ro , vo2 = AV vi = vo1 .
2 2
Procedure:

Measure vo1 with RL → ∞ (i.e., RL removed).


Vary RL to obtain vo = vo1 /2.
The corresponding RL is the same as Ro .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Common-emitter amplifier

3.6 k
coupling
RC B C
capacitor
R1
coupling 10 k
capacitor
CC
vs vi R1 R2 rπ RC vo RL
CB VCC gm vbe
RL
vs R2
2.2 k RE load E
1k resistor
CE amplifier

bypass
capacitor

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Common-emitter amplifier

3.6 k
coupling
RC B C
capacitor
R1
coupling 10 k
capacitor
CC
vs vi R1 R2 rπ RC vo RL
CB VCC gm vbe
RL
vs R2
2.2 k RE load E
1k resistor
CE amplifier

bypass
capacitor

vo
AV = , with RL → ∞.
vi
−gm vbe RC
AV = = −gm RC = −42.5 mf × 3.6 k=153.
vi

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Common-emitter amplifier

3.6 k
coupling
RC B C
capacitor
R1
coupling 10 k
capacitor
CC
vs vi R1 R2 rπ RC vo RL
CB VCC gm vbe
RL
vs R2
2.2 k RE load E
1k resistor
CE amplifier

bypass
capacitor

vo
AV = , with RL → ∞.
vi
−gm vbe RC
AV = = −gm RC = −42.5 mf × 3.6 k=153.
vi
The input resistance of the amplifier is, by inspection, Rin = (R1 k R2 ) k rπ .

rπ = β/gm = 100/42.5 mf = 2.35 k → Rin = 1.24 k.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Common-emitter amplifier

3.6 k
coupling
RC B C
capacitor
R1
coupling 10 k
capacitor
CC
vs vi R1 R2 rπ RC vo RL
CB VCC gm vbe
RL
vs R2
2.2 k RE load E
1k resistor
CE amplifier

bypass
capacitor

vo
AV = , with RL → ∞.
vi
−gm vbe RC
AV = = −gm RC = −42.5 mf × 3.6 k=153.
vi
The input resistance of the amplifier is, by inspection, Rin = (R1 k R2 ) k rπ .

rπ = β/gm = 100/42.5 mf = 2.35 k → Rin = 1.24 k.

The output resistance is RC (by “Method 1” seen previously).


M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay