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# EE101: BJT circuits (Part 2)

M. B. Patil
mbpatil@ee.iitb.ac.in
www.ee.iitb.ac.in/~sequel

## Department of Electrical Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Common-emitter amplifier

10 V
3.6 k
10 k coupling
RC RC
capacitor
R1 R1
coupling
capacitor 6V
CC 1.8 V
AND
CB VCC VCC
RL
1.1 V
RC RL
vs R2 R2 vs R1 R2
2.2 k RE
resistor
1k CE

## bypass DC circuit AC circuit

capacitor

* We have already analysed the DC (bias) circuit of this amplifier and found that
VB = 1.8 V , VE = 1.1 V , VC = 6 V , and IC = 1.1 mA.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Common-emitter amplifier

10 V
3.6 k
10 k coupling
RC RC
capacitor
R1 R1
coupling
capacitor 6V
CC 1.8 V
AND
CB VCC VCC
RL
1.1 V
RC RL
vs R2 R2 vs R1 R2
2.2 k RE
resistor
1k CE

## bypass DC circuit AC circuit

capacitor

* We have already analysed the DC (bias) circuit of this amplifier and found that
VB = 1.8 V , VE = 1.1 V , VC = 6 V , and IC = 1.1 mA.
* We now analyse the AC (small-signal) circuit to obtain vb , ve , vc , ic .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Common-emitter amplifier

10 V
3.6 k
10 k coupling
RC RC
capacitor
R1 R1
coupling
capacitor 6V
CC 1.8 V
AND
CB VCC VCC
RL
1.1 V
RC RL
vs R2 R2 vs R1 R2
2.2 k RE
resistor
1k CE

## bypass DC circuit AC circuit

capacitor

* We have already analysed the DC (bias) circuit of this amplifier and found that
VB = 1.8 V , VE = 1.1 V , VC = 6 V , and IC = 1.1 mA.
* We now analyse the AC (small-signal) circuit to obtain vb , ve , vc , ic .
* We will then get the complete solution by simply adding the DC and AC results,
e.g., iC (t) = IC + ic (t).

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Common-emitter amplifier

10 V
3.6 k
10 k coupling
RC RC
capacitor
R1 R1
coupling
capacitor 6V
CC 1.8 V
AND
CB VCC VCC
RL
1.1 V
RC RL
vs R2 R2 vs R1 R2
2.2 k RE
resistor
1k CE

## bypass DC circuit AC circuit

capacitor

* We have already analysed the DC (bias) circuit of this amplifier and found that
VB = 1.8 V , VE = 1.1 V , VC = 6 V , and IC = 1.1 mA.
* We now analyse the AC (small-signal) circuit to obtain vb , ve , vc , ic .
* We will then get the complete solution by simply adding the DC and AC results,
e.g., iC (t) = IC + ic (t).
* We will assume that CB , CC , CE are large enough so that, at the signal
frequency (say, 1 kHz), they can be replaced by short circuits.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Common-emitter amplifier

RC RL
vs R1 R2
Common-emitter amplifier

B rb Cµ C

RC RL Cπ rπ ro
vs R1 R2 vs R1 R2 gm vbe RC RL

E
Common-emitter amplifier

B rb Cµ C

RC RL Cπ rπ ro
vs R1 R2 vs R1 R2 gm vbe RC RL

## * The parasitic capacitances Cπ and Cµ are in the pF range. At a signal frequency

of 1 kHz, their impedance is 1/ωC ∼ 1/(2π × 103 × 10−12 ), i.e., ∼ 100 MΩ.
→ Cπ and Cµ can be replaced by open circuits.
Common-emitter amplifier

B rb Cµ C

RC RL Cπ rπ ro
vs R1 R2 vs R1 R2 gm vbe RC RL

## * The parasitic capacitances Cπ and Cµ are in the pF range. At a signal frequency

of 1 kHz, their impedance is 1/ωC ∼ 1/(2π × 103 × 10−12 ), i.e., ∼ 100 MΩ.
→ Cπ and Cµ can be replaced by open circuits.
* For simplicity, we will assume rb to be small and ro to be large (this assumption
will only slightly affect the gain computation).
Common-emitter amplifier

B rb Cµ C

RC RL Cπ rπ ro
vs R1 R2 vs R1 R2 gm vbe RC RL

## * The parasitic capacitances Cπ and Cµ are in the pF range. At a signal frequency

of 1 kHz, their impedance is 1/ωC ∼ 1/(2π × 103 × 10−12 ), i.e., ∼ 100 MΩ.
→ Cπ and Cµ can be replaced by open circuits.
* For simplicity, we will assume rb to be small and ro to be large (this assumption
will only slightly affect the gain computation).
* The above considerations significantly simplify the AC circuit.
Common-emitter amplifier

B rb Cµ C B C

RC RL Cπ rπ ro
vs R1 R2 vs R1 R2 gm vbe RC RL vs R1 R2 rπ RC RL
gm vbe
E
E

## * The parasitic capacitances Cπ and Cµ are in the pF range. At a signal frequency

of 1 kHz, their impedance is 1/ωC ∼ 1/(2π × 103 × 10−12 ), i.e., ∼ 100 MΩ.
→ Cπ and Cµ can be replaced by open circuits.
* For simplicity, we will assume rb to be small and ro to be large (this assumption
will only slightly affect the gain computation).
* The above considerations significantly simplify the AC circuit.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Common-emitter amplifier

B C

2.2 k 3.6 k 10 k
10 k
vs R1 R2 rπ RC RL vo
gm vbe

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Common-emitter amplifier

B C

2.2 k 3.6 k 10 k
10 k
vs R1 R2 rπ RC RL vo
gm vbe

## vo = −(gm vbe ) × (RC k RL ) = −(gm vs ) × (RC k RL )

vo
→ ALV = voltage gain = = −gm (RC k RL )
vs
(superscript L is used because the gain includes the effect of RL .)

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Common-emitter amplifier

B C

2.2 k 3.6 k 10 k
10 k
vs R1 R2 rπ RC RL vo
gm vbe

## vo = −(gm vbe ) × (RC k RL ) = −(gm vs ) × (RC k RL )

vo
→ ALV = voltage gain = = −gm (RC k RL )
vs
(superscript L is used because the gain includes the effect of RL .)
Since IC (bias current) = 1.1 mA, gm = IC /VT = 1.1 mA/25.9 mV = 42.5 mf.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Common-emitter amplifier

B C

2.2 k 3.6 k 10 k
10 k
vs R1 R2 rπ RC RL vo
gm vbe

## vo = −(gm vbe ) × (RC k RL ) = −(gm vs ) × (RC k RL )

vo
→ ALV = voltage gain = = −gm (RC k RL )
vs
(superscript L is used because the gain includes the effect of RL .)
Since IC (bias current) = 1.1 mA, gm = IC /VT = 1.1 mA/25.9 mV = 42.5 mf.
→ ALV = −42.5 mf × (3.6 k k 10 k) = −112.5

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Common-emitter amplifier

B C

2.2 k 3.6 k 10 k
10 k
vs R1 R2 rπ RC RL vo
gm vbe

## vo = −(gm vbe ) × (RC k RL ) = −(gm vs ) × (RC k RL )

vo
→ ALV = voltage gain = = −gm (RC k RL )
vs
(superscript L is used because the gain includes the effect of RL .)
Since IC (bias current) = 1.1 mA, gm = IC /VT = 1.1 mA/25.9 mV = 42.5 mf.
→ ALV = −42.5 mf × (3.6 k k 10 k) = −112.5

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Common-emitter amplifier

B C

2.2 k 3.6 k 10 k
10 k
vs R1 R2 rπ RC RL vo
gm vbe

## vo = −(gm vbe ) × (RC k RL ) = −(gm vs ) × (RC k RL )

vo
→ ALV = voltage gain = = −gm (RC k RL )
vs
(superscript L is used because the gain includes the effect of RL .)
Since IC (bias current) = 1.1 mA, gm = IC /VT = 1.1 mA/25.9 mV = 42.5 mf.
→ ALV = −42.5 mf × (3.6 k k 10 k) = −112.5

## For vs (t) = (2 mV ) sin ωt, the AC output voltage is,

vo = ALV vs = −(112.5) (2 mV ) sin ωt = −(125 mV ) sin ωt

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Common-emitter amplifier

B C

2.2 k 3.6 k 10 k
10 k
vs R1 R2 rπ RC RL vo
gm vbe

## vo = −(gm vbe ) × (RC k RL ) = −(gm vs ) × (RC k RL )

vo
→ ALV = voltage gain = = −gm (RC k RL )
vs
(superscript L is used because the gain includes the effect of RL .)
Since IC (bias current) = 1.1 mA, gm = IC /VT = 1.1 mA/25.9 mV = 42.5 mf.
→ ALV = −42.5 mf × (3.6 k k 10 k) = −112.5

## For vs (t) = (2 mV ) sin ωt, the AC output voltage is,

vo = ALV vs = −(112.5) (2 mV ) sin ωt = −(125 mV ) sin ωt

## The AC collector current is,

ic = gm vbe = gm vs = −42.5 mf × (2 mV ) sin ωt = −85 sin ωt µA.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Common-emitter amplifier

10 V
3.6 k
10 k RC
R1

CC
VCC
CB
RL
R2 2.2 k
vs
1 k RE CE

For vs (t) = (2 mV ) sin ωt, we can now obtain expressions for the instantaneous currents and
voltages:
vC (t) = VC + vc (t) = VC + vo (t) = 6 V − (125 mV ) sin ωt .
iC (t) = IC + ic (t) = 1.1 mA − 0.085 sin ωt mA .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Common-emitter amplifier

10 V
3.6 k
10 k RC
R1

CC
VCC
CB
RL
R2 2.2 k
vs
1 k RE CE

For vs (t) = (2 mV ) sin ωt, we can now obtain expressions for the instantaneous currents and
voltages:
vC (t) = VC + vc (t) = VC + vo (t) = 6 V − (125 mV ) sin ωt .
iC (t) = IC + ic (t) = 1.1 mA − 0.085 sin ωt mA .

Note that the above procedure (DC + AC analysis) can be used only if the small-signal
approximation (i.e., |vbe |  VT ) is valid. In the above example, the amplitude of vbe is 2 mV ,
which is much smaller than VT .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Common-emitter amplifier

10 V
3.6 k
10 k RC
R1

CC
VCC
CB
RL
R2 2.2 k
vs
1 k RE CE

For vs (t) = (2 mV ) sin ωt, we can now obtain expressions for the instantaneous currents and
voltages:
vC (t) = VC + vc (t) = VC + vo (t) = 6 V − (125 mV ) sin ωt .
iC (t) = IC + ic (t) = 1.1 mA − 0.085 sin ωt mA .

Note that the above procedure (DC + AC analysis) can be used only if the small-signal
approximation (i.e., |vbe |  VT ) is valid. In the above example, the amplitude of vbe is 2 mV ,
which is much smaller than VT .
For vs (t) = (20 mV ) sin ωt, for example, the small-signal approximation will not hold, and a
numerical simulation will be required to obtain the currents and voltages of interest.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Common-emitter amplifier

10 V
3.6 k
10 k RC
R1

CC
VCC
CB
RL
R2 2.2 k
vs
1 k RE CE

For vs (t) = (2 mV ) sin ωt, we can now obtain expressions for the instantaneous currents and
voltages:
vC (t) = VC + vc (t) = VC + vo (t) = 6 V − (125 mV ) sin ωt .
iC (t) = IC + ic (t) = 1.1 mA − 0.085 sin ωt mA .

Note that the above procedure (DC + AC analysis) can be used only if the small-signal
approximation (i.e., |vbe |  VT ) is valid. In the above example, the amplitude of vbe is 2 mV ,
which is much smaller than VT .
For vs (t) = (20 mV ) sin ωt, for example, the small-signal approximation will not hold, and a
numerical simulation will be required to obtain the currents and voltages of interest.
In practice, such a situation is anyway not prevalent (because it gives rise to distortion in the
output voltage) except in special types of amplifiers.
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay
Common-emitter amplifier with partial bypass

coupling
RC capacitor RC
R1 R1
coupling
capacitor
CC

CB VCC
VCC
RL RE
R2 RE1 R2
vs resistor
RE2
CE

bypass DC circuit
capacitor

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Common-emitter amplifier with partial bypass

coupling
RC capacitor RC
R1 R1
coupling
capacitor
CC

CB VCC
VCC
RL RE
R2 RE1 R2
vs resistor
RE2
CE

bypass DC circuit
capacitor

## * For DC computation, CE is open, and the DC analysis is therefore identical to

our earlier amplifier, with RE ← RE 1 + RE 2 .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Common-emitter amplifier with partial bypass

coupling
RC capacitor RC
R1 R1
coupling
capacitor
CC

CB VCC
VCC
RL RE
R2 RE1 R2
vs resistor
RE2
CE

bypass DC circuit
capacitor

## * For DC computation, CE is open, and the DC analysis is therefore identical to

our earlier amplifier, with RE ← RE 1 + RE 2 .
* Bypassing a part of RE (as opposed to all of it) does have an impact on the
voltage gain (see next slide).

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Common-emitter amplifier with partial bypass

B C
coupling
RC capacitor
R1 ib β ib
coupling
capacitor rπ
CC
gm vbe
CB vs R1 R2 RC RL
VCC
E
RL
RE1
vs resistor RE1

RE2
CE AC circuit
bypass
capacitor

## Again, assume that, at the frequency of operation, CB , CC , CE can be replaced by

short circuits, and the BJT parasitic capacitances by open circuits.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Common-emitter amplifier with partial bypass

B C
coupling
RC capacitor
R1 ib β ib
coupling
capacitor rπ
CC
gm vbe
CB vs R1 R2 RC RL
VCC
E
RL
RE1
vs resistor RE1

RE2
CE AC circuit
bypass
capacitor

## Again, assume that, at the frequency of operation, CB , CC , CE can be replaced by

short circuits, and the BJT parasitic capacitances by open circuits.
vs
vs = vbe = ib rπ + (β + 1) ib RE 1 → ib = .
rπ + (β + 1) RE 1

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Common-emitter amplifier with partial bypass

B C
coupling
RC capacitor
R1 ib β ib
coupling
capacitor rπ
CC
gm vbe
CB vs R1 R2 RC RL
VCC
E
RL
RE1
vs resistor RE1

RE2
CE AC circuit
bypass
capacitor

## Again, assume that, at the frequency of operation, CB , CC , CE can be replaced by

short circuits, and the BJT parasitic capacitances by open circuits.
vs
vs = vbe = ib rπ + (β + 1) ib RE 1 → ib = .
rπ + (β + 1) RE 1

vo β (RC k RL )
vo = −β ib × (RC k RL ) → =− .
vs rπ + (β + 1) RE 1

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Common-emitter amplifier with partial bypass

B C
coupling
RC capacitor
R1 ib β ib
coupling
capacitor rπ
CC
gm vbe
CB vs R1 R2 RC RL
VCC
E
RL
RE1
vs resistor RE1

RE2
CE AC circuit
bypass
capacitor

## Again, assume that, at the frequency of operation, CB , CC , CE can be replaced by

short circuits, and the BJT parasitic capacitances by open circuits.
vs
vs = vbe = ib rπ + (β + 1) ib RE 1 → ib = .
rπ + (β + 1) RE 1

vo β (RC k RL )
vo = −β ib × (RC k RL ) → =− .
vs rπ + (β + 1) RE 1

## Note: RE 1 gets multiplied by (β + 1).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay
Frequency response of common-emitter amplifier

B rb Cµ C
103
CB CC
Cπ rπ ro
gm vbe

Gain
102
vs R1 R2 E RC RL

RE CE 101
101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108
Frequency (Hz)

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Frequency response of common-emitter amplifier

B rb Cµ C
103
CB CC
Cπ rπ ro
gm vbe

Gain
102
vs R1 R2 E RC RL

RE CE 101
101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108
Frequency (Hz)

frequencies.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Frequency response of common-emitter amplifier

B rb Cµ C
103
CB CC
Cπ rπ ro
gm vbe

Gain
102
vs R1 R2 E RC RL

RE CE 101
101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108
Frequency (Hz)

## * CB , CE , CC are large capacitances → 1/ωC is perceptibly large only at low

frequencies.
* Cπ , Cµ are small capacitances → 1/ωC is perceptibly small only at high
frequencies.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Frequency response of common-emitter amplifier

B rb Cµ C
103
CB CC
Cπ rπ ro
gm vbe

Gain
102
vs R1 R2 E RC RL

RE CE 101
101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108
Frequency (Hz)

## * CB , CE , CC are large capacitances → 1/ωC is perceptibly large only at low

frequencies.
* Cπ , Cµ are small capacitances → 1/ωC is perceptibly small only at high
frequencies.
* In the intermediate range (called “mid-band”), the large capacitances behave
like short circuits, and the small capacitances behave like open circuits. In this
range, the gain is independent of frequency.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

General representation of an amplifier

source
resistance

Rs Ro
source Rin
vs vi vo resistance
(signal) AV vi RL

amplifier

resistance.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

General representation of an amplifier

source
resistance

Rs Ro
source Rin
vs vi vo resistance
(signal) AV vi RL

amplifier

## * An amplifier is represented by a voltage gain, an input resistance, and an output

resistance.
* The above representation involves AC quantities only, i.e., it describes the AC
equivalent circuit of the amplifier.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

General representation of an amplifier

source
resistance

Rs Ro
source Rin
vs vi vo resistance
(signal) AV vi RL

amplifier

## * An amplifier is represented by a voltage gain, an input resistance, and an output

resistance.
* The above representation involves AC quantities only, i.e., it describes the AC
equivalent circuit of the amplifier.
* The DC bias of the circuit can affect parameter values in the AC equivalent
circuit (AV , Rin , Ro ). For example, for the common-emitter amplifier,
AV ∝ gm = IC /VT , IC being the DC (bias) value of the collector current.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

General representation of an amplifier

source
resistance

Rs Ro
source Rin
vs vi vo resistance
(signal) AV vi RL

amplifier

## * An amplifier is represented by a voltage gain, an input resistance, and an output

resistance.
* The above representation involves AC quantities only, i.e., it describes the AC
equivalent circuit of the amplifier.
* The DC bias of the circuit can affect parameter values in the AC equivalent
circuit (AV , Rin , Ro ). For example, for the common-emitter amplifier,
AV ∝ gm = IC /VT , IC being the DC (bias) value of the collector current.
* Suppose we are given an amplifier as a “black box” and asked to find AV , Rin ,
and Ro . What experiments would give us this information?

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Voltage gain AV

source
resistance

Rs Ro il
source vs Rin
vi vo resistance
(signal) AV vi RL

amplifier

If RL → ∞, il → 0, and vo → AV vi .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Voltage gain AV

source
resistance

Rs Ro il
source vs Rin
vi vo resistance
(signal) AV vi RL

amplifier

If RL → ∞, il → 0, and vo → AV vi .

We can remove RL (i.e., replace it with an open circuit), measure vi and vo , then use
AV = vo /vi .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Input resistance Rin

source
resistance

Rs ii Ro
source vs Rin
vi vo resistance
(signal) AV vi RL

amplifier

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Output resistance Ro

Rs Rs

Ro Ro io

vs vi Rin vo RL vi Rin vo
AV vi

Method 1:

If vs → 0, AV vi → 0.
Now, connect a test source vo , and measure io .
Clearly, Ro = vo /io .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Output resistance Ro

Rs

Ro

vs vi Rin vo RL
AV vi

Method 2:
RL
vo = AV vi .
RL + Ro

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Output resistance Ro

Rs

Ro

vs vi Rin vo RL
AV vi

Method 2:
RL
vo = AV vi .
RL + Ro
If RL → ∞, vo1 = AV vi .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Output resistance Ro

Rs

Ro

vs vi Rin vo RL
AV vi

Method 2:
RL
vo = AV vi .
RL + Ro
If RL → ∞, vo1 = AV vi .
1 1
If RL = Ro , vo2 = AV vi = vo1 .
2 2

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Output resistance Ro

Rs

Ro

vs vi Rin vo RL
AV vi

Method 2:
RL
vo = AV vi .
RL + Ro
If RL → ∞, vo1 = AV vi .
1 1
If RL = Ro , vo2 = AV vi = vo1 .
2 2
Procedure:

## Measure vo1 with RL → ∞ (i.e., RL removed).

Vary RL to obtain vo = vo1 /2.
The corresponding RL is the same as Ro .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Common-emitter amplifier

3.6 k
coupling
RC B C
capacitor
R1
coupling 10 k
capacitor
CC
vs vi R1 R2 rπ RC vo RL
CB VCC gm vbe
RL
vs R2
1k resistor
CE amplifier

bypass
capacitor

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Common-emitter amplifier

3.6 k
coupling
RC B C
capacitor
R1
coupling 10 k
capacitor
CC
vs vi R1 R2 rπ RC vo RL
CB VCC gm vbe
RL
vs R2
1k resistor
CE amplifier

bypass
capacitor

vo
AV = , with RL → ∞.
vi
−gm vbe RC
AV = = −gm RC = −42.5 mf × 3.6 k=153.
vi

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Common-emitter amplifier

3.6 k
coupling
RC B C
capacitor
R1
coupling 10 k
capacitor
CC
vs vi R1 R2 rπ RC vo RL
CB VCC gm vbe
RL
vs R2
1k resistor
CE amplifier

bypass
capacitor

vo
AV = , with RL → ∞.
vi
−gm vbe RC
AV = = −gm RC = −42.5 mf × 3.6 k=153.
vi
The input resistance of the amplifier is, by inspection, Rin = (R1 k R2 ) k rπ .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Common-emitter amplifier

3.6 k
coupling
RC B C
capacitor
R1
coupling 10 k
capacitor
CC
vs vi R1 R2 rπ RC vo RL
CB VCC gm vbe
RL
vs R2
1k resistor
CE amplifier

bypass
capacitor

vo
AV = , with RL → ∞.
vi
−gm vbe RC
AV = = −gm RC = −42.5 mf × 3.6 k=153.
vi
The input resistance of the amplifier is, by inspection, Rin = (R1 k R2 ) k rπ .

## The output resistance is RC (by “Method 1” seen previously).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay