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You are on page 1of 49

M. B. Patil

mbpatil@ee.iitb.ac.in

www.ee.iitb.ac.in/~sequel

Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

Common-emitter amplifier

10 V

3.6 k

10 k coupling

RC RC

capacitor

R1 R1

coupling

capacitor 6V

CC 1.8 V

AND

CB VCC VCC

RL

1.1 V

RC RL

vs R2 R2 vs R1 R2

load RE

2.2 k RE

resistor

1k CE

capacitor

* We have already analysed the DC (bias) circuit of this amplifier and found that

VB = 1.8 V , VE = 1.1 V , VC = 6 V , and IC = 1.1 mA.

Common-emitter amplifier

10 V

3.6 k

10 k coupling

RC RC

capacitor

R1 R1

coupling

capacitor 6V

CC 1.8 V

AND

CB VCC VCC

RL

1.1 V

RC RL

vs R2 R2 vs R1 R2

load RE

2.2 k RE

resistor

1k CE

capacitor

* We have already analysed the DC (bias) circuit of this amplifier and found that

VB = 1.8 V , VE = 1.1 V , VC = 6 V , and IC = 1.1 mA.

* We now analyse the AC (small-signal) circuit to obtain vb , ve , vc , ic .

Common-emitter amplifier

10 V

3.6 k

10 k coupling

RC RC

capacitor

R1 R1

coupling

capacitor 6V

CC 1.8 V

AND

CB VCC VCC

RL

1.1 V

RC RL

vs R2 R2 vs R1 R2

load RE

2.2 k RE

resistor

1k CE

capacitor

* We have already analysed the DC (bias) circuit of this amplifier and found that

VB = 1.8 V , VE = 1.1 V , VC = 6 V , and IC = 1.1 mA.

* We now analyse the AC (small-signal) circuit to obtain vb , ve , vc , ic .

* We will then get the complete solution by simply adding the DC and AC results,

e.g., iC (t) = IC + ic (t).

Common-emitter amplifier

3.6 k

10 k coupling

RC RC

capacitor

R1 R1

coupling

capacitor 6V

CC 1.8 V

AND

CB VCC VCC

RL

1.1 V

RC RL

vs R2 R2 vs R1 R2

load RE

2.2 k RE

resistor

1k CE

capacitor

* We have already analysed the DC (bias) circuit of this amplifier and found that

VB = 1.8 V , VE = 1.1 V , VC = 6 V , and IC = 1.1 mA.

* We now analyse the AC (small-signal) circuit to obtain vb , ve , vc , ic .

* We will then get the complete solution by simply adding the DC and AC results,

e.g., iC (t) = IC + ic (t).

* We will assume that CB , CC , CE are large enough so that, at the signal

frequency (say, 1 kHz), they can be replaced by short circuits.

Common-emitter amplifier

RC RL

vs R1 R2

Common-emitter amplifier

B rb Cµ C

RC RL Cπ rπ ro

vs R1 R2 vs R1 R2 gm vbe RC RL

E

Common-emitter amplifier

B rb Cµ C

RC RL Cπ rπ ro

vs R1 R2 vs R1 R2 gm vbe RC RL

of 1 kHz, their impedance is 1/ωC ∼ 1/(2π × 103 × 10−12 ), i.e., ∼ 100 MΩ.

→ Cπ and Cµ can be replaced by open circuits.

Common-emitter amplifier

B rb Cµ C

RC RL Cπ rπ ro

vs R1 R2 vs R1 R2 gm vbe RC RL

of 1 kHz, their impedance is 1/ωC ∼ 1/(2π × 103 × 10−12 ), i.e., ∼ 100 MΩ.

→ Cπ and Cµ can be replaced by open circuits.

* For simplicity, we will assume rb to be small and ro to be large (this assumption

will only slightly affect the gain computation).

Common-emitter amplifier

B rb Cµ C

RC RL Cπ rπ ro

vs R1 R2 vs R1 R2 gm vbe RC RL

of 1 kHz, their impedance is 1/ωC ∼ 1/(2π × 103 × 10−12 ), i.e., ∼ 100 MΩ.

→ Cπ and Cµ can be replaced by open circuits.

* For simplicity, we will assume rb to be small and ro to be large (this assumption

will only slightly affect the gain computation).

* The above considerations significantly simplify the AC circuit.

Common-emitter amplifier

B rb Cµ C B C

RC RL Cπ rπ ro

vs R1 R2 vs R1 R2 gm vbe RC RL vs R1 R2 rπ RC RL

gm vbe

E

E

of 1 kHz, their impedance is 1/ωC ∼ 1/(2π × 103 × 10−12 ), i.e., ∼ 100 MΩ.

→ Cπ and Cµ can be replaced by open circuits.

* For simplicity, we will assume rb to be small and ro to be large (this assumption

will only slightly affect the gain computation).

* The above considerations significantly simplify the AC circuit.

Common-emitter amplifier

B C

2.2 k 3.6 k 10 k

10 k

vs R1 R2 rπ RC RL vo

gm vbe

Common-emitter amplifier

B C

2.2 k 3.6 k 10 k

10 k

vs R1 R2 rπ RC RL vo

gm vbe

vo

→ ALV = voltage gain = = −gm (RC k RL )

vs

(superscript L is used because the gain includes the effect of RL .)

Common-emitter amplifier

B C

2.2 k 3.6 k 10 k

10 k

vs R1 R2 rπ RC RL vo

gm vbe

vo

→ ALV = voltage gain = = −gm (RC k RL )

vs

(superscript L is used because the gain includes the effect of RL .)

Since IC (bias current) = 1.1 mA, gm = IC /VT = 1.1 mA/25.9 mV = 42.5 mf.

Common-emitter amplifier

B C

2.2 k 3.6 k 10 k

10 k

vs R1 R2 rπ RC RL vo

gm vbe

vo

→ ALV = voltage gain = = −gm (RC k RL )

vs

(superscript L is used because the gain includes the effect of RL .)

Since IC (bias current) = 1.1 mA, gm = IC /VT = 1.1 mA/25.9 mV = 42.5 mf.

→ ALV = −42.5 mf × (3.6 k k 10 k) = −112.5

Common-emitter amplifier

B C

2.2 k 3.6 k 10 k

10 k

vs R1 R2 rπ RC RL vo

gm vbe

vo

→ ALV = voltage gain = = −gm (RC k RL )

vs

(superscript L is used because the gain includes the effect of RL .)

Since IC (bias current) = 1.1 mA, gm = IC /VT = 1.1 mA/25.9 mV = 42.5 mf.

→ ALV = −42.5 mf × (3.6 k k 10 k) = −112.5

Common-emitter amplifier

B C

2.2 k 3.6 k 10 k

10 k

vs R1 R2 rπ RC RL vo

gm vbe

vo

→ ALV = voltage gain = = −gm (RC k RL )

vs

(superscript L is used because the gain includes the effect of RL .)

Since IC (bias current) = 1.1 mA, gm = IC /VT = 1.1 mA/25.9 mV = 42.5 mf.

→ ALV = −42.5 mf × (3.6 k k 10 k) = −112.5

vo = ALV vs = −(112.5) (2 mV ) sin ωt = −(125 mV ) sin ωt

Common-emitter amplifier

B C

2.2 k 3.6 k 10 k

10 k

vs R1 R2 rπ RC RL vo

gm vbe

vo

→ ALV = voltage gain = = −gm (RC k RL )

vs

(superscript L is used because the gain includes the effect of RL .)

Since IC (bias current) = 1.1 mA, gm = IC /VT = 1.1 mA/25.9 mV = 42.5 mf.

→ ALV = −42.5 mf × (3.6 k k 10 k) = −112.5

vo = ALV vs = −(112.5) (2 mV ) sin ωt = −(125 mV ) sin ωt

ic = gm vbe = gm vs = −42.5 mf × (2 mV ) sin ωt = −85 sin ωt µA.

Common-emitter amplifier

10 V

3.6 k

10 k RC

R1

CC

VCC

CB

RL

R2 2.2 k

vs

1 k RE CE

For vs (t) = (2 mV ) sin ωt, we can now obtain expressions for the instantaneous currents and

voltages:

vC (t) = VC + vc (t) = VC + vo (t) = 6 V − (125 mV ) sin ωt .

iC (t) = IC + ic (t) = 1.1 mA − 0.085 sin ωt mA .

Common-emitter amplifier

10 V

3.6 k

10 k RC

R1

CC

VCC

CB

RL

R2 2.2 k

vs

1 k RE CE

For vs (t) = (2 mV ) sin ωt, we can now obtain expressions for the instantaneous currents and

voltages:

vC (t) = VC + vc (t) = VC + vo (t) = 6 V − (125 mV ) sin ωt .

iC (t) = IC + ic (t) = 1.1 mA − 0.085 sin ωt mA .

Note that the above procedure (DC + AC analysis) can be used only if the small-signal

approximation (i.e., |vbe | VT ) is valid. In the above example, the amplitude of vbe is 2 mV ,

which is much smaller than VT .

Common-emitter amplifier

10 V

3.6 k

10 k RC

R1

CC

VCC

CB

RL

R2 2.2 k

vs

1 k RE CE

For vs (t) = (2 mV ) sin ωt, we can now obtain expressions for the instantaneous currents and

voltages:

vC (t) = VC + vc (t) = VC + vo (t) = 6 V − (125 mV ) sin ωt .

iC (t) = IC + ic (t) = 1.1 mA − 0.085 sin ωt mA .

Note that the above procedure (DC + AC analysis) can be used only if the small-signal

approximation (i.e., |vbe | VT ) is valid. In the above example, the amplitude of vbe is 2 mV ,

which is much smaller than VT .

For vs (t) = (20 mV ) sin ωt, for example, the small-signal approximation will not hold, and a

numerical simulation will be required to obtain the currents and voltages of interest.

Common-emitter amplifier

10 V

3.6 k

10 k RC

R1

CC

VCC

CB

RL

R2 2.2 k

vs

1 k RE CE

voltages:

vC (t) = VC + vc (t) = VC + vo (t) = 6 V − (125 mV ) sin ωt .

iC (t) = IC + ic (t) = 1.1 mA − 0.085 sin ωt mA .

Note that the above procedure (DC + AC analysis) can be used only if the small-signal

approximation (i.e., |vbe | VT ) is valid. In the above example, the amplitude of vbe is 2 mV ,

which is much smaller than VT .

For vs (t) = (20 mV ) sin ωt, for example, the small-signal approximation will not hold, and a

numerical simulation will be required to obtain the currents and voltages of interest.

In practice, such a situation is anyway not prevalent (because it gives rise to distortion in the

output voltage) except in special types of amplifiers.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Common-emitter amplifier with partial bypass

coupling

RC capacitor RC

R1 R1

coupling

capacitor

CC

CB VCC

VCC

RL RE

R2 RE1 R2

load

vs resistor

RE2

CE

bypass DC circuit

capacitor

Common-emitter amplifier with partial bypass

coupling

RC capacitor RC

R1 R1

coupling

capacitor

CC

CB VCC

VCC

RL RE

R2 RE1 R2

load

vs resistor

RE2

CE

bypass DC circuit

capacitor

our earlier amplifier, with RE ← RE 1 + RE 2 .

Common-emitter amplifier with partial bypass

coupling

RC capacitor RC

R1 R1

coupling

capacitor

CC

CB VCC

VCC

RL RE

R2 RE1 R2

load

vs resistor

RE2

CE

bypass DC circuit

capacitor

our earlier amplifier, with RE ← RE 1 + RE 2 .

* Bypassing a part of RE (as opposed to all of it) does have an impact on the

voltage gain (see next slide).

Common-emitter amplifier with partial bypass

B C

coupling

RC capacitor

R1 ib β ib

coupling

capacitor rπ

CC

gm vbe

CB vs R1 R2 RC RL

VCC

E

RL

RE1

R2 load

vs resistor RE1

RE2

CE AC circuit

bypass

capacitor

short circuits, and the BJT parasitic capacitances by open circuits.

Common-emitter amplifier with partial bypass

B C

coupling

RC capacitor

R1 ib β ib

coupling

capacitor rπ

CC

gm vbe

CB vs R1 R2 RC RL

VCC

E

RL

RE1

R2 load

vs resistor RE1

RE2

CE AC circuit

bypass

capacitor

short circuits, and the BJT parasitic capacitances by open circuits.

vs

vs = vbe = ib rπ + (β + 1) ib RE 1 → ib = .

rπ + (β + 1) RE 1

Common-emitter amplifier with partial bypass

B C

coupling

RC capacitor

R1 ib β ib

coupling

capacitor rπ

CC

gm vbe

CB vs R1 R2 RC RL

VCC

E

RL

RE1

R2 load

vs resistor RE1

RE2

CE AC circuit

bypass

capacitor

short circuits, and the BJT parasitic capacitances by open circuits.

vs

vs = vbe = ib rπ + (β + 1) ib RE 1 → ib = .

rπ + (β + 1) RE 1

vo β (RC k RL )

vo = −β ib × (RC k RL ) → =− .

vs rπ + (β + 1) RE 1

Common-emitter amplifier with partial bypass

coupling

RC capacitor

R1 ib β ib

coupling

capacitor rπ

CC

gm vbe

CB vs R1 R2 RC RL

VCC

E

RL

RE1

R2 load

vs resistor RE1

RE2

CE AC circuit

bypass

capacitor

short circuits, and the BJT parasitic capacitances by open circuits.

vs

vs = vbe = ib rπ + (β + 1) ib RE 1 → ib = .

rπ + (β + 1) RE 1

vo β (RC k RL )

vo = −β ib × (RC k RL ) → =− .

vs rπ + (β + 1) RE 1

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Frequency response of common-emitter amplifier

B rb Cµ C

103

CB CC

Cπ rπ ro

gm vbe

Gain

102

vs R1 R2 E RC RL

RE CE 101

101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108

Frequency (Hz)

Frequency response of common-emitter amplifier

B rb Cµ C

103

CB CC

Cπ rπ ro

gm vbe

Gain

102

vs R1 R2 E RC RL

RE CE 101

101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108

Frequency (Hz)

frequencies.

Frequency response of common-emitter amplifier

B rb Cµ C

103

CB CC

Cπ rπ ro

gm vbe

Gain

102

vs R1 R2 E RC RL

RE CE 101

101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108

Frequency (Hz)

frequencies.

* Cπ , Cµ are small capacitances → 1/ωC is perceptibly small only at high

frequencies.

Frequency response of common-emitter amplifier

B rb Cµ C

103

CB CC

Cπ rπ ro

gm vbe

Gain

102

vs R1 R2 E RC RL

RE CE 101

101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108

Frequency (Hz)

frequencies.

* Cπ , Cµ are small capacitances → 1/ωC is perceptibly small only at high

frequencies.

* In the intermediate range (called “mid-band”), the large capacitances behave

like short circuits, and the small capacitances behave like open circuits. In this

range, the gain is independent of frequency.

General representation of an amplifier

source

resistance

Rs Ro

load

source Rin

vs vi vo resistance

(signal) AV vi RL

amplifier

resistance.

General representation of an amplifier

source

resistance

Rs Ro

load

source Rin

vs vi vo resistance

(signal) AV vi RL

amplifier

resistance.

* The above representation involves AC quantities only, i.e., it describes the AC

equivalent circuit of the amplifier.

General representation of an amplifier

source

resistance

Rs Ro

load

source Rin

vs vi vo resistance

(signal) AV vi RL

amplifier

resistance.

* The above representation involves AC quantities only, i.e., it describes the AC

equivalent circuit of the amplifier.

* The DC bias of the circuit can affect parameter values in the AC equivalent

circuit (AV , Rin , Ro ). For example, for the common-emitter amplifier,

AV ∝ gm = IC /VT , IC being the DC (bias) value of the collector current.

General representation of an amplifier

source

resistance

Rs Ro

load

source Rin

vs vi vo resistance

(signal) AV vi RL

amplifier

resistance.

* The above representation involves AC quantities only, i.e., it describes the AC

equivalent circuit of the amplifier.

* The DC bias of the circuit can affect parameter values in the AC equivalent

circuit (AV , Rin , Ro ). For example, for the common-emitter amplifier,

AV ∝ gm = IC /VT , IC being the DC (bias) value of the collector current.

* Suppose we are given an amplifier as a “black box” and asked to find AV , Rin ,

and Ro . What experiments would give us this information?

Voltage gain AV

source

resistance

Rs Ro il

load

source vs Rin

vi vo resistance

(signal) AV vi RL

amplifier

If RL → ∞, il → 0, and vo → AV vi .

Voltage gain AV

source

resistance

Rs Ro il

load

source vs Rin

vi vo resistance

(signal) AV vi RL

amplifier

If RL → ∞, il → 0, and vo → AV vi .

We can remove RL (i.e., replace it with an open circuit), measure vi and vo , then use

AV = vo /vi .

Input resistance Rin

source

resistance

Rs ii Ro

load

source vs Rin

vi vo resistance

(signal) AV vi RL

amplifier

Output resistance Ro

Rs Rs

Ro Ro io

vs vi Rin vo RL vi Rin vo

AV vi

Method 1:

If vs → 0, AV vi → 0.

Now, connect a test source vo , and measure io .

Clearly, Ro = vo /io .

Output resistance Ro

Rs

Ro

vs vi Rin vo RL

AV vi

Method 2:

RL

vo = AV vi .

RL + Ro

Output resistance Ro

Rs

Ro

vs vi Rin vo RL

AV vi

Method 2:

RL

vo = AV vi .

RL + Ro

If RL → ∞, vo1 = AV vi .

Output resistance Ro

Rs

Ro

vs vi Rin vo RL

AV vi

Method 2:

RL

vo = AV vi .

RL + Ro

If RL → ∞, vo1 = AV vi .

1 1

If RL = Ro , vo2 = AV vi = vo1 .

2 2

Output resistance Ro

Rs

Ro

vs vi Rin vo RL

AV vi

Method 2:

RL

vo = AV vi .

RL + Ro

If RL → ∞, vo1 = AV vi .

1 1

If RL = Ro , vo2 = AV vi = vo1 .

2 2

Procedure:

Vary RL to obtain vo = vo1 /2.

The corresponding RL is the same as Ro .

Common-emitter amplifier

3.6 k

coupling

RC B C

capacitor

R1

coupling 10 k

capacitor

CC

vs vi R1 R2 rπ RC vo RL

CB VCC gm vbe

RL

vs R2

2.2 k RE load E

1k resistor

CE amplifier

bypass

capacitor

Common-emitter amplifier

3.6 k

coupling

RC B C

capacitor

R1

coupling 10 k

capacitor

CC

vs vi R1 R2 rπ RC vo RL

CB VCC gm vbe

RL

vs R2

2.2 k RE load E

1k resistor

CE amplifier

bypass

capacitor

vo

AV = , with RL → ∞.

vi

−gm vbe RC

AV = = −gm RC = −42.5 mf × 3.6 k=153.

vi

Common-emitter amplifier

3.6 k

coupling

RC B C

capacitor

R1

coupling 10 k

capacitor

CC

vs vi R1 R2 rπ RC vo RL

CB VCC gm vbe

RL

vs R2

2.2 k RE load E

1k resistor

CE amplifier

bypass

capacitor

vo

AV = , with RL → ∞.

vi

−gm vbe RC

AV = = −gm RC = −42.5 mf × 3.6 k=153.

vi

The input resistance of the amplifier is, by inspection, Rin = (R1 k R2 ) k rπ .

Common-emitter amplifier

coupling

RC B C

capacitor

R1

coupling 10 k

capacitor

CC

vs vi R1 R2 rπ RC vo RL

CB VCC gm vbe

RL

vs R2

2.2 k RE load E

1k resistor

CE amplifier

bypass

capacitor

vo

AV = , with RL → ∞.

vi

−gm vbe RC

AV = = −gm RC = −42.5 mf × 3.6 k=153.

vi

The input resistance of the amplifier is, by inspection, Rin = (R1 k R2 ) k rπ .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

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