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# EE101: RC and RL Circuits (with DC sources)

M. B. Patil
mbpatil@ee.iitb.ac.in
www.ee.iitb.ac.in/~sequel

## Department of Electrical Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Capacitors

i
Q
conductor 1111111111111
0000000000000
0000000000000
1111111111111 i

insulator 0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
t v C=
ǫA
t
conductor 0000000000000
1111111111111
Q

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Capacitors

i
Q
conductor 1111111111111
0000000000000
0000000000000
1111111111111 i

insulator 0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
t v C=
ǫA
t
conductor 0000000000000
1111111111111
Q

* In practice, capacitors are available in a wide range of shapes and values, and
they differ significantly in the way they are fabricated.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capacitor)

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Capacitors

i
Q
conductor 1111111111111
0000000000000
0000000000000
1111111111111 i

insulator 0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
t v C=
ǫA
t
conductor 0000000000000
1111111111111
Q

* In practice, capacitors are available in a wide range of shapes and values, and
they differ significantly in the way they are fabricated.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capacitor)
* To make C larger, we need (a) high , (b) large area, (c) small thickness.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Capacitors

i
Q
conductor 1111111111111
0000000000000
0000000000000
1111111111111 i

insulator 0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
t v C=
ǫA
t
conductor 0000000000000
1111111111111
Q

* In practice, capacitors are available in a wide range of shapes and values, and
they differ significantly in the way they are fabricated.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capacitor)
* To make C larger, we need (a) high , (b) large area, (c) small thickness.
* For a constant capacitance,
dQ dv dv
Q(t) = C v (t) , =C , i.e, i(t) = C .
dt dt dt

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Capacitors

i
Q
conductor 1111111111111
0000000000000
0000000000000
1111111111111 i

insulator 0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
t v C=
ǫA
t
conductor 0000000000000
1111111111111
Q

* In practice, capacitors are available in a wide range of shapes and values, and
they differ significantly in the way they are fabricated.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capacitor)
* To make C larger, we need (a) high , (b) large area, (c) small thickness.
* For a constant capacitance,
dQ dv dv
Q(t) = C v (t) , =C , i.e, i(t) = C .
dt dt dt
* If v = constant, i = 0, i.e., a capacitor behaves like an open circuit in DC
conditions as one would expect from two conducting plates separated by an
insulator.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Example
Plot v, p, and W versus time 20
for the given source current.
Assume v(0) = 0 V, C = 5 mF.

i (mA)
0
i

−20
v
Example
Plot v, p, and W versus time 20
for the given source current.
Assume v(0) = 0 V, C = 5 mF.

i (mA)
0
i

−20
v

dv
i(t) = C
dt
1 Z
v(t) = i(t) dt
C
Example
Plot v, p, and W versus time 20
for the given source current.
Assume v(0) = 0 V, C = 5 mF.

i (mA)
0
i

−20
v
8

v (V)
dv 0
i(t) = C
dt
1 Z −4
v(t) = i(t) dt
C
Example
Plot v, p, and W versus time 20
for the given source current.
Assume v(0) = 0 V, C = 5 mF.

i (mA)
0
i

−20
v
8

v (V)
dv 0
i(t) = C
dt
1 Z −4
v(t) = i(t) dt
C
p(t) = v(t) × i(t)
Example
Plot v, p, and W versus time 20
for the given source current.
Assume v(0) = 0 V, C = 5 mF.

i (mA)
0
i

−20
v
8

v (V)
dv 0
i(t) = C
dt
1 Z −4
v(t) = i(t) dt
C 0.2
p(t) = v(t) × i(t) power (Watts) 0.1

−0.1
−0.2
Example
Plot v, p, and W versus time 20
for the given source current.
Assume v(0) = 0 V, C = 5 mF.

i (mA)
0
i

−20
v
8

v (V)
dv 0
i(t) = C
dt
1 Z −4
v(t) = i(t) dt
C 0.2
p(t) = v(t) × i(t) power (Watts) 0.1
Z
W(t) = p(t) dt 0

−0.1
−0.2
Example
Plot v, p, and W versus time 20
for the given source current.
Assume v(0) = 0 V, C = 5 mF.

i (mA)
0
i

−20
v
8

v (V)
dv 0
i(t) = C
dt
1 Z −4
v(t) = i(t) dt
C 0.2
p(t) = v(t) × i(t) power (Watts) 0.1
Z
W(t) = p(t) dt 0

−0.1
−0.2
0.2
energy (J)

0.1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6
time (sec)
Example
Plot v, p, and W versus time 20
for the given source current.
Assume v(0) = 0 V, C = 5 mF.

i (mA)
0
i

−20
v
8

v (V)
dv 0
i(t) = C
dt
1 Z −4
v(t) = i(t) dt
C 0.2
p(t) = v(t) × i(t) power (Watts) 0.1
Z
W(t) = p(t) dt 0

−0.1
Z
W(t) = p(t) dt −0.2
Z dv 0.2
= C v dt
Z
dt
energy (J)

= C v dv 0.1
1
= C v2
2 0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6
time (sec)

Home work

i i (mA)
20

0 1 2 time (sec)

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Home work

i i (mA)
20

0 1 2 time (sec)

* For the given source current, plot v (t), p(t), and W (t), assuming v (0) = 0 V ,
C = 5 mF .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Home work

i i (mA)
20

0 1 2 time (sec)

* For the given source current, plot v (t), p(t), and W (t), assuming v (0) = 0 V ,
C = 5 mF .
* Verify your results with circuit simulation.

Inductors

v

i L
Units: Henry (H)

Inductors

v

i L
Units: Henry (H)

Inductors

v

i L
Units: Henry (H)

## * An inductor is basically a conducting coil wound around a “core.”

  
dφ d d µN i
* V =N =N (B · A) = N A .
dt dt dt l
di
Compare with v = L .
dt
A A
⇒ L = µ N2 = µr µ0 N 2 .
l l

Inductors

v

i L
Units: Henry (H)

## * An inductor is basically a conducting coil wound around a “core.”

  
dφ d d µN i
* V =N =N (B · A) = N A .
dt dt dt l
di
Compare with v = L .
dt
A A
⇒ L = µ N2 = µr µ0 N 2 .
l l
* To make L larger, we need (a) high µr , (b) large area, (c) large number of turns.

Inductors

v

i L
Units: Henry (H)

## * An inductor is basically a conducting coil wound around a “core.”

  
dφ d d µN i
* V =N =N (B · A) = N A .
dt dt dt l
di
Compare with v = L .
dt
A A
⇒ L = µ N2 = µr µ0 N 2 .
l l
* To make L larger, we need (a) high µr , (b) large area, (c) large number of turns.
* For 99.8 % pure iron, µr ' 5, 000 .
For “supermalloy” (Ni: 79 %, Mo: 5 %, Fe): µr ' 106 .

Inductors

v

i L
Units: Henry (H)

## * An inductor is basically a conducting coil wound around a “core.”

  
dφ d d µN i
* V =N =N (B · A) = N A .
dt dt dt l
di
Compare with v = L .
dt
A A
⇒ L = µ N2 = µr µ0 N 2 .
l l
* To make L larger, we need (a) high µr , (b) large area, (c) large number of turns.
* For 99.8 % pure iron, µr ' 5, 000 .
For “supermalloy” (Ni: 79 %, Mo: 5 %, Fe): µr ' 106 .
* If i = constant, v = 0, i.e., an inductor behaves like a short circuit in DC
conditions as one would expect from a highly conducting coil.

Inductors

v

i L
Units: Henry (H)

## * An inductor is basically a conducting coil wound around a “core.”

  
dφ d d µN i
* V =N =N (B · A) = N A .
dt dt dt l
di
Compare with v = L .
dt
A A
⇒ L = µ N2 = µr µ0 N 2 .
l l
* To make L larger, we need (a) high µr , (b) large area, (c) large number of turns.
* For 99.8 % pure iron, µr ' 5, 000 .
For “supermalloy” (Ni: 79 %, Mo: 5 %, Fe): µr ' 106 .
* If i = constant, v = 0, i.e., an inductor behaves like a short circuit in DC
conditions as one would expect from a highly conducting coil.
* Note: B = µ H is an approximation. In practice, B may be a nonlinear function
of H, depending on the core material.
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay
RC circuits with DC sources

A
Circuit
(resistors, i
voltage sources,
v
current sources, C
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B
RC circuits with DC sources

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v
C
≡ VTh v
C
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits with DC sources

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v
C
≡ VTh v
C
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits with DC sources

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v
C
≡ VTh v
C
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

## * If all sources are DC (constant), VTh = constant .

dv
* KVL: VTh = RTh i + v → VTh = RTh C +v.
dt

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits with DC sources

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v
C
≡ VTh v
C
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

## * If all sources are DC (constant), VTh = constant .

dv
* KVL: VTh = RTh i + v → VTh = RTh C +v.
dt
* Homogeneous solution:
dv 1
+ v = 0 , where τ = RTh C is the “time constant.”
dt τ
→ v (h) = K exp(−t/τ ) .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits with DC sources

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v
C
≡ VTh v
C
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

## * If all sources are DC (constant), VTh = constant .

dv
* KVL: VTh = RTh i + v → VTh = RTh C +v.
dt
* Homogeneous solution:
dv 1
+ v = 0 , where τ = RTh C is the “time constant.”
dt τ
→ v (h) = K exp(−t/τ ) .
* Particular solution is a specific function that satisfies the differntial equation. We
know that all time derivatives will vanish as t → ∞ , making i = 0, and we get
v (p) = VTh as a particular solution (which happens to be simply a constant).

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits with DC sources

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v
C
≡ VTh v
C
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

## * If all sources are DC (constant), VTh = constant .

dv
* KVL: VTh = RTh i + v → VTh = RTh C +v.
dt
* Homogeneous solution:
dv 1
+ v = 0 , where τ = RTh C is the “time constant.”
dt τ
→ v (h) = K exp(−t/τ ) .
* Particular solution is a specific function that satisfies the differntial equation. We
know that all time derivatives will vanish as t → ∞ , making i = 0, and we get
v (p) = VTh as a particular solution (which happens to be simply a constant).
* v = v (h) + v (p) = K exp(−t/τ ) + VTh .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits with DC sources

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v
C
≡ VTh v
C
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

## * If all sources are DC (constant), VTh = constant .

dv
* KVL: VTh = RTh i + v → VTh = RTh C +v.
dt
* Homogeneous solution:
dv 1
+ v = 0 , where τ = RTh C is the “time constant.”
dt τ
→ v (h) = K exp(−t/τ ) .
* Particular solution is a specific function that satisfies the differntial equation. We
know that all time derivatives will vanish as t → ∞ , making i = 0, and we get
v (p) = VTh as a particular solution (which happens to be simply a constant).
* v = v (h) + v (p) = K exp(−t/τ ) + VTh .
* In general, v (t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , where A and B can be obtained from
known conditions on v .
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay
RC circuits with DC sources (continued)

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v
C
≡ VTh v
C
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

## * If all sources are DC (constant), we have

v (t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , τ = RC .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits with DC sources (continued)

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v
C
≡ VTh v
C
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

## * If all sources are DC (constant), we have

v (t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , τ = RC .
1
 
dv
* i(t) = C = C × A exp(−t/τ ) − ≡ A0 exp(−t/τ ) .
dt τ

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits with DC sources (continued)

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v
C
≡ VTh v
C
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

## * If all sources are DC (constant), we have

v (t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , τ = RC .
1
 
dv
* i(t) = C = C × A exp(−t/τ ) − ≡ A0 exp(−t/τ ) .
dt τ
* As t → ∞, i → 0, i.e., the capacitor behaves like an open circuit since all
derivatives vanish.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits with DC sources (continued)

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v
C
≡ VTh v
C
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

## * If all sources are DC (constant), we have

v (t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , τ = RC .
1
 
dv
* i(t) = C = C × A exp(−t/τ ) − ≡ A0 exp(−t/τ ) .
dt τ
* As t → ∞, i → 0, i.e., the capacitor behaves like an open circuit since all
derivatives vanish.
* Since the circuit in the black box is linear, any variable (current or voltage) in
the circuit can be expressed as
x(t) = K1 exp(−t/τ ) + K2 ,
where K1 and K2 can be obtained from suitable conditions on x(t).

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RL circuits with DC sources

A
Circuit
(resistors, i
voltage sources,
v
current sources,
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B
RL circuits with DC sources

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v ≡ VTh v
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RL circuits with DC sources

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v ≡ VTh v
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RL circuits with DC sources

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v ≡ VTh v
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

## * If all sources are DC (constant), VTh = constant .

di
* KVL: VTh = RTh i + L .
dt

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RL circuits with DC sources

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v ≡ VTh v
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

## * If all sources are DC (constant), VTh = constant .

di
* KVL: VTh = RTh i + L .
dt
* Homogeneous solution:
di 1
+ i = 0 , where τ = L/RTh
dt τ
→ i (h) = K exp(−t/τ ) .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RL circuits with DC sources

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v ≡ VTh v
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

## * If all sources are DC (constant), VTh = constant .

di
* KVL: VTh = RTh i + L .
dt
* Homogeneous solution:
di 1
+ i = 0 , where τ = L/RTh
dt τ
→ i (h) = K exp(−t/τ ) .
* Particular solution is a specific function that satisfies the differntial equation. We
know that all time derivatives will vanish as t → ∞ , making v = 0, and we get
i (p) = VTh /RTh as a particular solution (which happens to be simply a constant).

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RL circuits with DC sources

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v ≡ VTh v
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

## * If all sources are DC (constant), VTh = constant .

di
* KVL: VTh = RTh i + L .
dt
* Homogeneous solution:
di 1
+ i = 0 , where τ = L/RTh
dt τ
→ i (h) = K exp(−t/τ ) .
* Particular solution is a specific function that satisfies the differntial equation. We
know that all time derivatives will vanish as t → ∞ , making v = 0, and we get
i (p) = VTh /RTh as a particular solution (which happens to be simply a constant).
* i = i (h) + i (p) = K exp(−t/τ ) + VTh /RTh .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RL circuits with DC sources

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v ≡ VTh v
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

## * If all sources are DC (constant), VTh = constant .

di
* KVL: VTh = RTh i + L .
dt
* Homogeneous solution:
di 1
+ i = 0 , where τ = L/RTh
dt τ
→ i (h) = K exp(−t/τ ) .
* Particular solution is a specific function that satisfies the differntial equation. We
know that all time derivatives will vanish as t → ∞ , making v = 0, and we get
i (p) = VTh /RTh as a particular solution (which happens to be simply a constant).
* i = i (h) + i (p) = K exp(−t/τ ) + VTh /RTh .
* In general, i(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , where A and B can be obtained from
known conditions on i.
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay
RL circuits with DC sources (continued)

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v ≡ VTh v
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

## * If all sources are DC (constant), we have

i(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , τ = L/R .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RL circuits with DC sources (continued)

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v ≡ VTh v
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

## * If all sources are DC (constant), we have

i(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , τ = L/R .
1
 
di
* v (t) = L = L × A exp(−t/τ ) − ≡ A0 exp(−t/τ ) .
dt τ

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RL circuits with DC sources (continued)

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v ≡ VTh v
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

## * If all sources are DC (constant), we have

i(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , τ = L/R .
1
 
di
* v (t) = L = L × A exp(−t/τ ) − ≡ A0 exp(−t/τ ) .
dt τ
* As t → ∞, v → 0, i.e., the inductor behaves like a short circuit since all
derivatives vanish.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RL circuits with DC sources (continued)

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v ≡ VTh v
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

## * If all sources are DC (constant), we have

i(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , τ = L/R .
1
 
di
* v (t) = L = L × A exp(−t/τ ) − ≡ A0 exp(−t/τ ) .
dt τ
* As t → ∞, v → 0, i.e., the inductor behaves like a short circuit since all
derivatives vanish.
* Since the circuit in the black box is linear, any variable (current or voltage) in
the circuit can be expressed as
x(t) = K1 exp(−t/τ ) + K2 ,
where K1 and K2 can be obtained from suitable conditions on x(t).

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits: Can Vc change “suddenly?”

R=1k
Vs
i
5V
Vs Vc
C = 1 µF
Vc (0) = 0 V 0V t

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits: Can Vc change “suddenly?”

R=1k
Vs
i
5V
Vs Vc
C = 1 µF
Vc (0) = 0 V 0V t

## * Vs changes from 0 V (at t = 0− ), to 5 V (at t = 0+ ). As a result of this

change, Vc will rise. How fast can Vc change?

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits: Can Vc change “suddenly?”

R=1k
Vs
i
5V
Vs Vc
C = 1 µF
Vc (0) = 0 V 0V t

## * Vs changes from 0 V (at t = 0− ), to 5 V (at t = 0+ ). As a result of this

change, Vc will rise. How fast can Vc change?
* For example, what would happen if Vc changes by 1 V in 1 µs at a constant
rate of 1 V /1 µs = 106 V /s?

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits: Can Vc change “suddenly?”

R=1k
Vs
i
5V
Vs Vc
C = 1 µF
Vc (0) = 0 V 0V t

## * Vs changes from 0 V (at t = 0− ), to 5 V (at t = 0+ ). As a result of this

change, Vc will rise. How fast can Vc change?
* For example, what would happen if Vc changes by 1 V in 1 µs at a constant
rate of 1 V /1 µs = 106 V /s?
dVc V
* i =C = 1 µF × 106 = 1 A.
dt s

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits: Can Vc change “suddenly?”

R=1k
Vs
i
5V
Vs Vc
C = 1 µF
Vc (0) = 0 V 0V t

## * Vs changes from 0 V (at t = 0− ), to 5 V (at t = 0+ ). As a result of this

change, Vc will rise. How fast can Vc change?
* For example, what would happen if Vc changes by 1 V in 1 µs at a constant
rate of 1 V /1 µs = 106 V /s?
dVc V
* i =C = 1 µF × 106 = 1 A.
dt s
* With i = 1 A, the voltage drop across R would be 1000 V ! Not allowed by KVL.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits: Can Vc change “suddenly?”

R=1k
Vs
i
5V
Vs Vc
C = 1 µF
Vc (0) = 0 V 0V t

## * Vs changes from 0 V (at t = 0− ), to 5 V (at t = 0+ ). As a result of this

change, Vc will rise. How fast can Vc change?
* For example, what would happen if Vc changes by 1 V in 1 µs at a constant
rate of 1 V /1 µs = 106 V /s?
dVc V
* i =C = 1 µF × 106 = 1 A.
dt s
* With i = 1 A, the voltage drop across R would be 1000 V ! Not allowed by KVL.
* We conclude that Vc (0+ ) = Vc (0− ) ⇒ A capacitor does not allow abrupt
changes in Vc if there is a finite resistance in the circuit.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits: Can Vc change “suddenly?”

R=1k
Vs
i
5V
Vs Vc
C = 1 µF
Vc (0) = 0 V 0V t

## * Vs changes from 0 V (at t = 0− ), to 5 V (at t = 0+ ). As a result of this

change, Vc will rise. How fast can Vc change?
* For example, what would happen if Vc changes by 1 V in 1 µs at a constant
rate of 1 V /1 µs = 106 V /s?
dVc V
* i =C = 1 µF × 106 = 1 A.
dt s
* With i = 1 A, the voltage drop across R would be 1000 V ! Not allowed by KVL.
* We conclude that Vc (0+ ) = Vc (0− ) ⇒ A capacitor does not allow abrupt
changes in Vc if there is a finite resistance in the circuit.
* Similarly, an inductor does not allow abrupt changes in iL .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Analysis of RC /RL circuits with a piece-wise constant source

For example,
Vs
(1) t < t1
(2) t1 < t < t2
(3) t > t2
0 t1 t2

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Analysis of RC /RL circuits with a piece-wise constant source

## * Identify intervals in which the source voltages/currents are constant.

For example,
Vs
(1) t < t1
(2) t1 < t < t2
(3) t > t2
0 t1 t2

* For any current or voltage x(t), write general expressions such as,
x(t) = A1 exp(−t/τ ) + B1 , t < t1 ,
x(t) = A2 exp(−t/τ ) + B2 , t1 < t < t2 ,
x(t) = A3 exp(−t/τ ) + B3 , t > t2 .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Analysis of RC /RL circuits with a piece-wise constant source

## * Identify intervals in which the source voltages/currents are constant.

For example,
Vs
(1) t < t1
(2) t1 < t < t2
(3) t > t2
0 t1 t2

* For any current or voltage x(t), write general expressions such as,
x(t) = A1 exp(−t/τ ) + B1 , t < t1 ,
x(t) = A2 exp(−t/τ ) + B2 , t1 < t < t2 ,
x(t) = A3 exp(−t/τ ) + B3 , t > t2 .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Analysis of RC /RL circuits with a piece-wise constant source

## * Identify intervals in which the source voltages/currents are constant.

For example,
Vs
(1) t < t1
(2) t1 < t < t2
(3) t > t2
0 t1 t2

* For any current or voltage x(t), write general expressions such as,
x(t) = A1 exp(−t/τ ) + B1 , t < t1 ,
x(t) = A2 exp(−t/τ ) + B2 , t1 < t < t2 ,
x(t) = A3 exp(−t/τ ) + B3 , t > t2 .

## * Work out suitable conditions on x(t) at specific time points using

(a) If the source voltage/current has not changed for a “long” time
(long compared to τ ), all derivatives are zero.
dVc diL
⇒ iC = C = 0 , and VL = L = 0.
dt dt

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Analysis of RC /RL circuits with a piece-wise constant source

## * Identify intervals in which the source voltages/currents are constant.

For example,
Vs
(1) t < t1
(2) t1 < t < t2
(3) t > t2
0 t1 t2

* For any current or voltage x(t), write general expressions such as,
x(t) = A1 exp(−t/τ ) + B1 , t < t1 ,
x(t) = A2 exp(−t/τ ) + B2 , t1 < t < t2 ,
x(t) = A3 exp(−t/τ ) + B3 , t > t2 .

## * Work out suitable conditions on x(t) at specific time points using

(a) If the source voltage/current has not changed for a “long” time
(long compared to τ ), all derivatives are zero.
dVc diL
⇒ iC = C = 0 , and VL = L = 0.
dt dt
(b) When a source voltage (or current) changes, say, at t = t0 ,
Vc (t) or iL (t) cannot change abruptly, i.e.,
Vc (t0+ ) = Vc (t0− ) , and iL (t0+ ) = iL (t0− ) .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Analysis of RC /RL circuits with a piece-wise constant source

## * Identify intervals in which the source voltages/currents are constant.

For example,
Vs
(1) t < t1
(2) t1 < t < t2
(3) t > t2
0 t1 t2

* For any current or voltage x(t), write general expressions such as,
x(t) = A1 exp(−t/τ ) + B1 , t < t1 ,
x(t) = A2 exp(−t/τ ) + B2 , t1 < t < t2 ,
x(t) = A3 exp(−t/τ ) + B3 , t > t2 .

## * Work out suitable conditions on x(t) at specific time points using

(a) If the source voltage/current has not changed for a “long” time
(long compared to τ ), all derivatives are zero.
dVc diL
⇒ iC = C = 0 , and VL = L = 0.
dt dt
(b) When a source voltage (or current) changes, say, at t = t0 ,
Vc (t) or iL (t) cannot change abruptly, i.e.,
Vc (t0+ ) = Vc (t0− ) , and iL (t0+ ) = iL (t0− ) .
* Compute A1 , B1 , · · · using the conditions on x(t).

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients
R
Vs
i
V0
Vs v
C
0V t
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients
R
Vs
i
V0
Vs v
C
0V t

## Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A)

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients
R
Vs
i
V0
Vs v
C
0V t

## Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A)

Conditions on v(t):

## (1) v(0− ) = Vs (0− ) = 0 V

v(0+ ) ≃ v(0− ) = 0 V
Note that we need the condition at 0+ (and not at 0− )
because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0.

## (2) As t → ∞ , i → 0 → v(∞) = Vs (∞) = V0

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients
R
Vs
i
V0
Vs v
C
0V t

## Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A)

Conditions on v(t):

## (1) v(0− ) = Vs (0− ) = 0 V

v(0+ ) ≃ v(0− ) = 0 V
Note that we need the condition at 0+ (and not at 0− )
because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0.

## Imposing (1) and (2) on Eq. (A), we get

t = 0+ : 0 = A + B ,
t → ∞: V0 = B .
i.e., A = V0 , B = −V0
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients
R
Vs
i
V0
Vs v
C
0V t

## Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A)

Conditions on v(t):

## (1) v(0− ) = Vs (0− ) = 0 V

v(0+ ) ≃ v(0− ) = 0 V
Note that we need the condition at 0+ (and not at 0− )
because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0.

## Imposing (1) and (2) on Eq. (A), we get

t = 0+ : 0 = A + B ,
t → ∞: V0 = B .
i.e., A = V0 , B = −V0

v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients
R R
Vs Vs
i i
V0 V0
Vs v Vs v
C C
0V t 0V t

## Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A)

Conditions on v(t):

## (1) v(0− ) = Vs (0− ) = 0 V

v(0+ ) ≃ v(0− ) = 0 V
Note that we need the condition at 0+ (and not at 0− )
because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0.

## Imposing (1) and (2) on Eq. (A), we get

t = 0+ : 0 = A + B ,
t → ∞: V0 = B .
i.e., A = V0 , B = −V0

v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients
R R
Vs Vs
i i
V0 V0
Vs v Vs v
C C
0V t 0V t

Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A) Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A)

Conditions on v(t):

## (1) v(0− ) = Vs (0− ) = 0 V

v(0+ ) ≃ v(0− ) = 0 V
Note that we need the condition at 0+ (and not at 0− )
because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0.

## Imposing (1) and (2) on Eq. (A), we get

t = 0+ : 0 = A + B ,
t → ∞: V0 = B .
i.e., A = V0 , B = −V0

v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients
R R
Vs Vs
i i
V0 V0
Vs v Vs v
C C
0V t 0V t

Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A) Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A)

## Conditions on v(t): Conditions on v(t):

− −
(1) v(0 ) = Vs (0 ) = 0 V (1) v(0− ) = Vs (0− ) = V0

+
v(0 ) ≃ v(0 ) = 0 V v(0+ ) ≃ v(0− ) = V0

+
Note that we need the condition at 0 (and not at 0 ) Note that we need the condition at 0+ (and not at 0− )
because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0. because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0.

## Imposing (1) and (2) on Eq. (A), we get

t = 0+ : 0 = A + B ,
t → ∞: V0 = B .
i.e., A = V0 , B = −V0

v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients
R R
Vs Vs
i i
V0 V0
Vs v Vs v
C C
0V t 0V t

Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A) Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A)

## Conditions on v(t): Conditions on v(t):

− −
(1) v(0 ) = Vs (0 ) = 0 V (1) v(0− ) = Vs (0− ) = V0

+
v(0 ) ≃ v(0 ) = 0 V v(0+ ) ≃ v(0− ) = V0

+
Note that we need the condition at 0 (and not at 0 ) Note that we need the condition at 0+ (and not at 0− )
because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0. because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0.

## (2) As t → ∞ , i → 0 → v(∞) = Vs (∞) = V0 (2) As t → ∞ , i → 0 → v(∞) = Vs (∞) = 0 V

Imposing (1) and (2) on Eq. (A), we get Imposing (1) and (2) on Eq. (A), we get

+
t = 0 : 0 = A+B, t = 0+ : V0 = A + B ,
t → ∞: V0 = B . t → ∞: 0 = B .
i.e., A = V0 , B = −V0 i.e., A = V0 , B = 0

v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients
R R
Vs Vs
i i
V0 V0
Vs v Vs v
C C
0V t 0V t

Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A) Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A)

## Conditions on v(t): Conditions on v(t):

− −
(1) v(0 ) = Vs (0 ) = 0 V (1) v(0− ) = Vs (0− ) = V0

+
v(0 ) ≃ v(0 ) = 0 V v(0+ ) ≃ v(0− ) = V0

+
Note that we need the condition at 0 (and not at 0 ) Note that we need the condition at 0+ (and not at 0− )
because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0. because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0.

## (2) As t → ∞ , i → 0 → v(∞) = Vs (∞) = V0 (2) As t → ∞ , i → 0 → v(∞) = Vs (∞) = 0 V

Imposing (1) and (2) on Eq. (A), we get Imposing (1) and (2) on Eq. (A), we get

+
t = 0 : 0 = A+B, t = 0+ : V0 = A + B ,
t → ∞: V0 = B . t → ∞: 0 = B .
i.e., A = V0 , B = −V0 i.e., A = V0 , B = 0

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R
Vs
i
V0
Vs v
C
0V t

## Compute i(t), t > 0 .

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R
Vs
i
V0
Vs v
C
0V t

## Compute i(t), t > 0 .

d
(A) i(t) = C V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]
dt
CV0 V0
= exp(−t/τ ) = exp(−t/τ )
τ R
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R
Vs
i
V0
Vs v
C
0V t

## Compute i(t), t > 0 .

d
(A) i(t) = C V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]
dt
CV0 V0
= exp(−t/τ ) = exp(−t/τ )
τ R

## (B) Let i(t) = A′ exp(−t/τ ) + B′ , t > 0 .

t = 0+ : v = 0 , Vs = V0 ⇒ i(0+ ) = V0 /R .

t → ∞: i(t) = 0 .

## Using these conditions, we obtain

V0 V0
A′ = , B′ = 0 ⇒ i(t) = exp(−t/τ )
R R
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R R
Vs Vs
i i
V0 V0
Vs v Vs v
C C
0V t 0V t

## Compute i(t), t > 0 . Compute i(t), t > 0 .

d
(A) i(t) = C V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]
dt
CV0 V0
= exp(−t/τ ) = exp(−t/τ )
τ R

## (B) Let i(t) = A′ exp(−t/τ ) + B′ , t > 0 .

t = 0+ : v = 0 , Vs = V0 ⇒ i(0+ ) = V0 /R .

t → ∞: i(t) = 0 .

## Using these conditions, we obtain

V0 V0
A′ = , B′ = 0 ⇒ i(t) = exp(−t/τ )
R R
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R R
Vs Vs
i i
V0 V0
Vs v Vs v
C C
0V t 0V t

## Compute i(t), t > 0 . Compute i(t), t > 0 .

d d
(A) i(t) = C V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )] (A) i(t) = C V0 [exp(−t/τ )]
dt dt
CV0 V0 CV0 V0
= exp(−t/τ ) = exp(−t/τ ) =− exp(−t/τ ) = − exp(−t/τ )
τ R τ R

## (B) Let i(t) = A′ exp(−t/τ ) + B′ , t > 0 .

t = 0+ : v = 0 , Vs = V0 ⇒ i(0+ ) = V0 /R .

t → ∞: i(t) = 0 .

## Using these conditions, we obtain

V0 V0
A′ = , B′ = 0 ⇒ i(t) = exp(−t/τ )
R R
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R R
Vs Vs
i i
V0 V0
Vs v Vs v
C C
0V t 0V t

## Compute i(t), t > 0 . Compute i(t), t > 0 .

d d
(A) i(t) = C V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )] (A) i(t) = C V0 [exp(−t/τ )]
dt dt
CV0 V0 CV0 V0
= exp(−t/τ ) = exp(−t/τ ) =− exp(−t/τ ) = − exp(−t/τ )
τ R τ R

(B) Let i(t) = A′ exp(−t/τ ) + B′ , t > 0 . (B) Let i(t) = A′ exp(−t/τ ) + B′ , t > 0 .

## t = 0+ : v = 0 , Vs = V0 ⇒ i(0+ ) = V0 /R . t = 0+ : v = V0 , Vs = 0 ⇒ i(0+ ) = −V0 /R .

t → ∞: i(t) = 0 . t → ∞: i(t) = 0 .

## Using these conditions, we obtain Using these conditions, we obtain

V0 V0 V0 V0
A′ = , B′ = 0 ⇒ i(t) = exp(−t/τ ) A′ = − , B′ = 0 ⇒ i(t) = − exp(−t/τ )
R R R R

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R=1k
Vs
i
5V
Vs v
C = 1 µF
0V t

v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]
V0
i(t) = exp(−t/τ )
R
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R=1k
Vs
i
5V
Vs v
C = 1 µF
0V t

v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]
V0
i(t) = exp(−t/τ )
R

5
Vs

v
v (Volts)

0
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R=1k
Vs
i
5V
Vs v
C = 1 µF
0V t

v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]
V0
i(t) = exp(−t/τ )
R

5
Vs

v
v (Volts)

5
i (mA)

−2 0 2 4 6 8
time (msec)
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R=1k R=1k
Vs Vs
i i
5V 5V
Vs v Vs v
C = 1 µF C = 1 µF
0V t 0V t

## v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )] v(t) = V0 exp(−t/τ )

V0 V0
i(t) = exp(−t/τ ) i(t) = − exp(−t/τ )
R R

5
Vs

v
v (Volts)

5
i (mA)

−2 0 2 4 6 8
time (msec)
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R=1k R=1k
Vs Vs
i i
5V 5V
Vs v Vs v
C = 1 µF C = 1 µF
0V t 0V t

## v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )] v(t) = V0 exp(−t/τ )

V0 V0
i(t) = exp(−t/τ ) i(t) = − exp(−t/τ )
R R

5 5
Vs

v Vs
v (Volts)

v (Volts)
v

0 0

5
i (mA)

−2 0 2 4 6 8
time (msec)
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R=1k R=1k
Vs Vs
i i
5V 5V
Vs v Vs v
C = 1 µF C = 1 µF
0V t 0V t

## v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )] v(t) = V0 exp(−t/τ )

V0 V0
i(t) = exp(−t/τ ) i(t) = − exp(−t/τ )
R R

5 5
Vs

v Vs
v (Volts)

v (Volts)
v

0 0

5 0
i (mA)

i (mA)

0 −5

−2 0 2 4 6 8 −2 0 2 4 6 8
time (msec) time (msec)
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay
Significance of the time constant (τ )

x e −x 1 − e −x
0.0 1.0 0.0
1.0 0.3679 0.6321
2.0 0.1353 0.8647
3.0 4.9787×10−2 0.9502
4.0 1.8315×10−2 0.9817
5.0 6.7379×10−3 0.9933

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Significance of the time constant (τ )

x e −x 1 − e −x
0.0 1.0 0.0
1.0 0.3679 0.6321
2.0 0.1353 0.8647
3.0 4.9787×10−2 0.9502
4.0 1.8315×10−2 0.9817
5.0 6.7379×10−3 0.9933

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Significance of the time constant (τ )

x e −x 1 − e −x
0.0 1.0 0.0
1.0 0.3679 0.6321
2.0 0.1353 0.8647
3.0 4.9787×10−2 0.9502
4.0 1.8315×10−2 0.9817
5.0 6.7379×10−3 0.9933

## * For x = 5, e −x ' 0, 1 − e −x ' 1.

* In RC circuits, x = t/τ ⇒ When t = 5 τ , the charging (or discharging) process
is almost complete.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Significance of the time constant (τ )

x e −x 1 − e −x
1
0.0 1.0 0.0 1 − exp(−x)
1.0 0.3679 0.6321
2.0 0.1353 0.8647
exp(−x)
3.0 4.9787×10−2 0.9502
4.0 1.8315×10−2 0.9817 0

x

## * For x = 5, e −x ' 0, 1 − e −x ' 1.

* In RC circuits, x = t/τ ⇒ When t = 5 τ , the charging (or discharging) process
is almost complete.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R R
Vs Vs
i i
5V 5V
Vs v Vs v
C = 1 µF C = 1 µF
0V t 0V t

## v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )] v(t) = V0 exp(−t/τ )

R = 100 Ω
5 5

R = 1 kΩ
v (Volts)

v (Volts)
R = 1 kΩ

0 0
R = 100 Ω
−1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
time (msec) time (msec)

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1
i(0) = 0 A, Find i(t).
RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1
i(0) = 0 A, Find i(t).
There are three intervals of constant Vs :
(1) t < t0
(2) t0 < t < t1
(3) t > t1
RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1
i(0) = 0 A, Find i(t).
There are three intervals of constant Vs :
(1) t < t0
(2) t0 < t < t1
(3) t > t1
RTh seen by L is the same in all intervals:

RTh = R1 k R2 = 8 Ω
R1
τ = L/RTh
R2
= 0.8 H/8 Ω
Vs
= 0.1 s
RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1
i(0) = 0 A, Find i(t).
At t = t−
0 , v = 0 V, Vs = 0 V .
There are three intervals of constant Vs : ⇒ i(t− +
0 ) = 0 A ⇒ i(t0 ) = 0 A .
(1) t < t0
(2) t0 < t < t1
(3) t > t1
RTh seen by L is the same in all intervals:

RTh = R1 k R2 = 8 Ω
R1
τ = L/RTh
R2
= 0.8 H/8 Ω
Vs
= 0.1 s
RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1
i(0) = 0 A, Find i(t).
At t = t−
0 , v = 0 V, Vs = 0 V .
There are three intervals of constant Vs : ⇒ i(t− +
0 ) = 0 A ⇒ i(t0 ) = 0 A .
(1) t < t0
If Vs did not change at t = t1 ,
(2) t0 < t < t1
we would have
(3) t > t1
Vs
RTh seen by L is the same in all intervals:
10 V

RTh = R1 k R2 = 8 Ω
R1 t
τ = L/RTh t0 t1
R2
= 0.8 H/8 Ω v(∞) = 0 V, i(∞) = 10 V/10 Ω = 1 A .
Vs
= 0.1 s
RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1
i(0) = 0 A, Find i(t).
At t = t−
0 , v = 0 V, Vs = 0 V .
There are three intervals of constant Vs : ⇒ i(t− +
0 ) = 0 A ⇒ i(t0 ) = 0 A .
(1) t < t0
If Vs did not change at t = t1 ,
(2) t0 < t < t1
we would have
(3) t > t1
Vs
RTh seen by L is the same in all intervals:
10 V

RTh = R1 k R2 = 8 Ω
R1 t
τ = L/RTh t0 t1
R2
= 0.8 H/8 Ω v(∞) = 0 V, i(∞) = 10 V/10 Ω = 1 A .
Vs
= 0.1 s
Using i(t+
0 ) and i(∞), we can obtain
i(t), t > 0 (See next slide).

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1

1
i (Amp)

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
time (sec)
RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1

1
i (Amp)

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
time (sec)

In reality, Vs changes at t = t1 ,
and we need to work out the
solution for t > t1 separately.
RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1

## For t0 < t < t1 , i(t) = 1 − exp(−t/τ ) Amp.

1
Consider t > t1 .
i (Amp)

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
time (sec)

In reality, Vs changes at t = t1 ,
and we need to work out the
solution for t > t1 separately.
RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1

## For t0 < t < t1 , i(t) = 1 − exp(−t/τ ) Amp.

1
Consider t > t1 .

i(t+
1 ) = i(t1 ) = 1 − e
−1
= 0.632 A (Note: t1 /τ = 1).
i (Amp)

i(∞) = 0 A.

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
time (sec)

In reality, Vs changes at t = t1 ,
and we need to work out the
solution for t > t1 separately.
RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1

## For t0 < t < t1 , i(t) = 1 − exp(−t/τ ) Amp.

1
Consider t > t1 .

i(t+
1 ) = i(t1 ) = 1 − e
−1
= 0.632 A (Note: t1 /τ = 1).
i (Amp)

i(∞) = 0 A.
Let i(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B.
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
time (sec)

In reality, Vs changes at t = t1 ,
and we need to work out the
solution for t > t1 separately.
RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1

## For t0 < t < t1 , i(t) = 1 − exp(−t/τ ) Amp.

1
Consider t > t1 .

i(t+
1 ) = i(t1 ) = 1 − e
−1
= 0.632 A (Note: t1 /τ = 1).
i (Amp)

i(∞) = 0 A.
Let i(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B.
0 It is convenient to rewrite i(t) as
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 i(t) = A′ exp[−(t − t1 )/τ ] + B.
time (sec)

In reality, Vs changes at t = t1 ,
and we need to work out the
solution for t > t1 separately.
RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1

## For t0 < t < t1 , i(t) = 1 − exp(−t/τ ) Amp.

1
Consider t > t1 .

i(t+
1 ) = i(t1 ) = 1 − e
−1
= 0.632 A (Note: t1 /τ = 1).
i (Amp)

i(∞) = 0 A.
Let i(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B.
0 It is convenient to rewrite i(t) as
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 i(t) = A′ exp[−(t − t1 )/τ ] + B.
time (sec)
Using i(t+
1 ) and i(∞), we get
In reality, Vs changes at t = t1 , i(t) = 0.693 exp[−(t − t1 )/τ ] A.
and we need to work out the
solution for t > t1 separately.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1

## i(t) = 0.693 exp[−(t − t1 )/τ ] A.

1
i (Amp)

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
time (sec)
RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1

i(t) = 0.693 exp[−(t − t1 )/τ ] A. Combining the solutions for t0 < t < t1 and t > t1 ,
we get
1

1
i (Amp)

i (Amp)

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0
time (sec)
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
time (sec)
(SEQUEL file: ee101_rl1.sqproj)

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k
t=0
i ic

5k 1k
R2 vc
R1
5 µF
6V
RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k 5k 5k
t=0
i ic i ic i ic

5k 1k 5k 1k 5k
R2 vc vc AND vc
R1
5 µF 5 µF 5 µF
6V 6V

t<0 t>0
RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k 5k 5k
t=0
i ic i ic i ic

5k 1k 5k 1k 5k
R2 vc vc AND vc
R1
5 µF 5 µF 5 µF
6V 6V

t<0 t>0
t = 0− : capacitor is an open circuit, ⇒ i(0− ) = 6 V/(5 k + 1 k) = 1 mA.
RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k 5k 5k
t=0
i ic i ic i ic

5k 1k 5k 1k 5k
R2 vc vc AND vc
R1
5 µF 5 µF 5 µF
6V 6V

t<0 t>0
t = 0− : capacitor is an open circuit, ⇒ i(0− ) = 6 V/(5 k + 1 k) = 1 mA.
vc (0− ) = 6 V − 1 mA × R2 = 5 V ⇒ vc (0+ ) = 5 V.
RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k 5k 5k
t=0
i ic i ic i ic

5k 1k 5k 1k 5k
R2 vc vc AND vc
R1
5 µF 5 µF 5 µF
6V 6V

t<0 t>0
t = 0− : capacitor is an open circuit, ⇒ i(0− ) = 6 V/(5 k + 1 k) = 1 mA.
vc (0− ) = 6 V − 1 mA × R2 = 5 V ⇒ vc (0+ ) = 5 V.
⇒ i(0+ ) = 5 V/(5 k + 5 k) = 0.5 mA.
RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k 5k 5k
t=0
i ic i ic i ic

5k 1k 5k 1k 5k
R2 vc vc AND vc
R1
5 µF 5 µF 5 µF
6V 6V

t<0 t>0
t = 0− : capacitor is an open circuit, ⇒ i(0− ) = 6 V/(5 k + 1 k) = 1 mA.
vc (0− ) = 6 V − 1 mA × R2 = 5 V ⇒ vc (0+ ) = 5 V.
⇒ i(0+ ) = 5 V/(5 k + 5 k) = 0.5 mA.

## Let i(t) = A exp(-t/τ ) + B for t > 0, with τ = 10 k × 5 µF = 50 ms.

RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k 5k 5k
t=0
i ic i ic i ic

5k 1k 5k 1k 5k
R2 vc vc AND vc
R1
5 µF 5 µF 5 µF
6V 6V

t<0 t>0
t = 0− : capacitor is an open circuit, ⇒ i(0− ) = 6 V/(5 k + 1 k) = 1 mA.
vc (0− ) = 6 V − 1 mA × R2 = 5 V ⇒ vc (0+ ) = 5 V.
⇒ i(0+ ) = 5 V/(5 k + 5 k) = 0.5 mA.

## Using i(0+ ) and i(∞) = 0 A, we get

i(t) = 0.5 exp(-t/τ ) mA.
RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k 5k 5k
t=0
i ic i ic i ic

5k 1k 5k 1k 5k
R2 vc vc AND vc
R1
5 µF 5 µF 5 µF
6V 6V

t<0 t>0
t = 0− : capacitor is an open circuit, ⇒ i(0− ) = 6 V/(5 k + 1 k) = 1 mA.
vc (0− ) = 6 V − 1 mA × R2 = 5 V ⇒ vc (0+ ) = 5 V.
⇒ i(0+ ) = 5 V/(5 k + 5 k) = 0.5 mA.

## Using i(0+ ) and i(∞) = 0 A, we get

i(t) = 0.5 exp(-t/τ ) mA.

i (mA)

## 0 time (sec) 0.5

RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k 5k 5k
t=0
i ic i ic i ic

5k 1k 5k 1k 5k
R2 vc vc AND vc
R1
5 µF 5 µF 5 µF
6V 6V

t<0 t>0
t = 0− : capacitor is an open circuit, ⇒ i(0− ) = 6 V/(5 k + 1 k) = 1 mA.
vc (0− ) = 6 V − 1 mA × R2 = 5 V ⇒ vc (0+ ) = 5 V.
⇒ i(0+ ) = 5 V/(5 k + 5 k) = 0.5 mA.

## Using i(0+ ) and i(∞) = 0 A, we get

i(t) = 0.5 exp(-t/τ ) mA.

1 0 5

i (mA) ic (mA)
vc (V)
0 0
−0.5
0 time (sec) 0.5 0 time (sec) 0.5 0 time (sec) 0.5
RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k 5k 5k
t=0
i ic i ic i ic

5k 1k 5k 1k 5k
R2 vc vc AND vc
R1
5 µF 5 µF 5 µF
6V 6V

t<0 t>0
t = 0− : capacitor is an open circuit, ⇒ i(0− ) = 6 V/(5 k + 1 k) = 1 mA.
vc (0− ) = 6 V − 1 mA × R2 = 5 V ⇒ vc (0+ ) = 5 V.
⇒ i(0+ ) = 5 V/(5 k + 5 k) = 0.5 mA.

## Using i(0+ ) and i(∞) = 0 A, we get

i(t) = 0.5 exp(-t/τ ) mA. (SEQUEL file: ee101_rc2.sqproj)

1 0 5

i (mA) ic (mA)
vc (V)
0 0
−0.5
0 time (sec) 0.5 0 time (sec) 0.5 0 time (sec) M. B. Patil,0.5
IIT Bombay
RC circuits: home work

10 Ω
i2 i1 ic

10 V 10 Ω vc
200 µF

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits: home work

10 Ω
i2 i1 ic

10 V 10 Ω vc
200 µF

* Given vc (0) = 0 V , find vc (t) for t > 0. Using this vc (t), find i1 , i2 , ic for t > 0.
Plot vc , i1 , i2 , ic versus t.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits: home work

10 Ω
i2 i1 ic

10 V 10 Ω vc
200 µF

* Given vc (0) = 0 V , find vc (t) for t > 0. Using this vc (t), find i1 , i2 , ic for t > 0.
Plot vc , i1 , i2 , ic versus t.
* Find i1 , i2 , ic directly (i.e., without getting vc ) by finding the initial and final
conditions for each of them (i1 (0+ ) and i1 (∞), etc.) and then using them to
compute the coefficients in the general expression,
x(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits: home work

10 Ω
i2 i1 ic

10 V 10 Ω vc
200 µF

* Given vc (0) = 0 V , find vc (t) for t > 0. Using this vc (t), find i1 , i2 , ic for t > 0.
Plot vc , i1 , i2 , ic versus t.
* Find i1 , i2 , ic directly (i.e., without getting vc ) by finding the initial and final
conditions for each of them (i1 (0+ ) and i1 (∞), etc.) and then using them to
compute the coefficients in the general expression,
x(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B.
* Verify your results with SEQUEL (file: ee101 rc3.sqproj).

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits: home work

2Ω 3Ω

t=0 i1 ic

24 V 5Ω vx 1 mF vc 0.1 vx

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits: home work

2Ω 3Ω

t=0 i1 ic

24 V 5Ω vx 1 mF vc 0.1 vx

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits: home work

2Ω 3Ω

t=0 i1 ic

24 V 5Ω vx 1 mF vc 0.1 vx

## * Find vc (0− ), vc (∞).

* Find RTh as seen by the capacitor for t > 0.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits: home work

2Ω 3Ω

t=0 i1 ic

24 V 5Ω vx 1 mF vc 0.1 vx

## * Find vc (0− ), vc (∞).

* Find RTh as seen by the capacitor for t > 0.
* Solve for vc (t) and i1 (t), t > 0.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits: home work

2Ω 3Ω

t=0 i1 ic

24 V 5Ω vx 1 mF vc 0.1 vx

## * Find vc (0− ), vc (∞).

* Find RTh as seen by the capacitor for t > 0.
* Solve for vc (t) and i1 (t), t > 0.
* Verify your results with SEQUEL (file: ee101 rc4.sqproj).

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RL circuits: home work

20 Ω 20 Ω

t=0 i
5V L=0.1 H 10 V

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RL circuits: home work

20 Ω 20 Ω

t=0 i
5V L=0.1 H 10 V

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RL circuits: home work

20 Ω 20 Ω

t=0 i
5V L=0.1 H 10 V

## * Find i(0− ), i(∞).

* Find RTh as seen by the inductor for t > 0.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RL circuits: home work

20 Ω 20 Ω

t=0 i
5V L=0.1 H 10 V

## * Find i(0− ), i(∞).

* Find RTh as seen by the inductor for t > 0.
* Solve for i(t), t > 0.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RL circuits: home work

20 Ω 20 Ω

t=0 i
5V L=0.1 H 10 V

## * Find i(0− ), i(∞).

* Find RTh as seen by the inductor for t > 0.
* Solve for i(t), t > 0.
* Verify your results with SEQUEL (file: ee101 rl2.sqproj).