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sustain. Equipment allowable reaction limits (forces and 120.2.3 Anchors or Guides. Where anchors or
moments) on piping connections are normally estab- guides are provided to restrain, direct, or absorb piping
lished by the equipment manufacturer. movements, their design shall take into account the
forces and moments at these elements caused by internal
120 LOADS ON PIPE-SUPPORTING ELEMENTS pressure and thermal expansion.

120.1 General 120.2.4 Supplementary Steel. Where it is necessary

to frame structural members between existing steel
(A) The broad terms “supporting elements” or “sup- members, such supplementary steel shall be designed
ports” as used herein shall encompass the entire range in accordance with American Institute of Steel
of the various methods of carrying the weight of pipe Construction specifications, or similar recognized struc-
lines, insulation, and the fluid carried. It, therefore, tural design standards. Increases of allowable stress val-
includes “hangers” that are generally considered as ues shall be in accordance with the structural design
those elements that carry the weight from above, with standard being used. Additional increases of allowable
the supporting members being mainly in tension. Like- stress values, such as allowed in para. 121.2(I), are not
wise, it includes “supports” that on occasion are deline- permitted.
ated as those that carry the weight from below, with the
supporting members being mainly in compression. In
many cases a supporting element may be a combination 121 DESIGN OF PIPE-SUPPORTING ELEMENTS
of both of these. 121.1 General
(B) In addition to the weight effects of piping compo-
Design of standard pipe-supporting elements shall be
nents, consideration shall be given in the design of pipe
in accordance with the rules of MSS SP-58. Allowable
supports to other load effects introduced by service pres-
stress values and other design criteria shall be in accor-
sure, wind, earthquake, etc., as defined in para. 101.
dance with this paragraph. Supporting elements shall
Hangers and supporting elements shall be fabricated
be capable of carrying the sum of all concurrently acting
and assembled to permit the free movement of piping
loads as listed in para. 120. They shall be designed to
caused by thermal expansion and contraction. The
provide the required supporting effort and allow pipe-
design of elements for supporting or restraining piping
line movement with thermal changes without causing
systems, or components thereof, shall be based on all
overstress. The design shall also prevent complete
the concurrently acting loads transmitted into the sup-
release of the piping load in the event of spring failure
porting elements.
or misalignment. All parts of the supporting equipment
(C) Where the resonance with imposed vibration
shall be fabricated and assembled so that they will not
and/or shock occurs during operation, suitable damp-
be disengaged by movement of the supported piping.
eners, restraints, anchors, etc., shall be added to remove
The maximum safe loads for bolts, threaded hanger rods,
these effects.
and all other threaded members shall be based on the
120.2 Supports, Anchors, and Guides root area of the threads. MSS SP-58 may be used for
guidance with respect to selection and application of
120.2.1 Rigid-Type Supports pipe hangers and supports.
(A) The required strength of all supporting elements
shall be based on the loadings as given in para. 120.1, 121.2 Allowable Stress Values
including the weight of the fluid transported or the fluid
(A) Allowable stress values tabulated in MSS SP-58
used for testing, whichever is heavier. The allowable
or in Mandatory Appendix A of this Code Section may
stress in supporting equipment shall be as specified in
be used for the base materials of all parts of pipe-
para. 121.2.
supporting elements.
(B) Exceptions may be made in the case of supporting
(B) Where allowable stress values for a material speci-
elements for large size gas or air piping, exhaust steam,
fication listed in Table 126.1 are not tabulated in
relief or safety valve relief piping, but only under the
Mandatory Appendix A or in MSS SP-58, allowable
conditions where the possibility of the line becoming
stress values from Section II, Part D, Tables 1A and 1B
full of water or other liquid is very remote.
of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code may be
120.2.2 Variable and Constant Supports. Load cal- used, provided the requirements of para. 102.3.1(B) are
culations for variable and constant supports, such as met. Where there are no stress values given in Section II,
springs or counterweights, shall be based on the design Part D, Tables 1A and 1B, an allowable stress value of
operating conditions of the piping. They shall not 25% of the minimum tensile strength given in the mate-
include the weight of the hydrostatic test fluid. However, rial specification may be used, for temperatures not
the support shall be capable of carrying the total load exceeding 650°F (345°C).
under test conditions, unless additional support is pro- (C) For a steel material of unknown specification, or
vided during the test period. of a specification not listed in Table 126.1 or MSS SP-58,

ASME B31.1-2016

an allowable stress value of 30% of yield strength (0.2% Table 121.5 Suggested Steel Pipe Support (16)
offset) at room temperature may be used at temperatures Spacing
not exceeding 650°F (345°C). The yield strength shall be Suggested Maximum Span
determined through a tensile test of a specimen of the
Water Steam, Gas,
material and shall be the value corresponding to 0.2% Nominal Diameter
Pipe Size, Nominal, Service or Air Service
permanent strain (offset) of the specimen. The allowable
stress values for such materials shall not exceed 9,500 psi NPS DN ft m ft m
(65.5 MPa). 1 25 7 2.1 9 2.7
(D) The allowable shear stress shall not exceed 80% 2 50 10 3.0 13 4.0
3 80 12 3.7 15 4.6
of the values determined in accordance with the rules
4 100 14 4.3 17 5.2
of (A), (B), and (C) above. 6 150 17 5.2 21 6.4
(E) The allowable compressive stress shall not exceed
8 200 19 5.8 24 7.3
the value as determined in accordance with the rules of
12 300 23 7.0 30 9.1
(A), (B), or (C) above. In addition, consideration shall 16 400 27 8.2 35 10.7
be given to structural stability. 20 500 30 9.1 39 11.9
(F) The allowable bearing stress shall not exceed 160% 24 600 32 9.8 42 12.8
of the value as determined in accordance with the rules
of (A), (B), or (C) above. GENERAL NOTES:
(a) Suggested maximum spacing between pipe supports for hori-
(G) The allowable stress in tension determined from
zontal straight runs of standard and heavier steel pipe at maxi-
(A), (B), or (C) above shall be reduced 25% for threaded mum operating temperature of 750°F (400°C).
hanger rods. (b) Does not apply where span calculations are made or where
(H) The allowable stress in partial penetration or fillet there are concentrated loads between supports, such as
welds in support assemblies shall be reduced 25% from flanges, valves, specialties, etc.
those determined in accordance with (A), (B), (C), or (c) The spacing is based on a fixed beam support with a bending
stress not exceeding 2,300 psi (15.86 MPa) and insulated pipe
(D) above for the weaker of the two metals joined.
filled with water or the equivalent weight of steel pipe for
(I) If materials for attachments have different allow- steam, gas, or air service, and the pitch of the line is such
able stress values than the pipe, then the allowable stress that a sag of 0.1 in. (2.5 mm) between supports is
for the weld shall be based on the lower allowable stress permissible.
of the materials being joined.
(J) Increases in the allowable stress values shall be
permitted as follows:
(J.1) an increase of 20% for short time overloading
during operation.
Class 2 fit turnbuckles and adjusting nuts shall have
(J.2) an increase to 80% of the minimum yield the full length of thread in engagement. Means shall be
strength at room temperature during hydrostatic testing. provided for determining that full thread length is in
Where the material allowable stress has been established engagement. All screw and equivalent adjustments shall
in accordance with the rules of (C) above, the allowable be provided with suitable locking devices.
stress value during hydrostatic testing shall not exceed
16,000 psi (110.3 MPa).
121.5 Hanger Spacing
121.3 Temperature Limitations Supports for piping with the longitudinal axis in
Parts of supporting elements that are subjected princi- approximately a horizontal position shall be spaced to
pally to bending or tension loads and that are subjected prevent excessive sag, bending and shear stresses in the
to working temperatures for which carbon steel is not piping, with special consideration given where compo-
recommended shall be made of suitable alloy steel, or nents, such as flanges and valves, impose concentrated
shall be protected so that the temperature of the support- loads. Where calculations are not made, suggested maxi-
ing member will be maintained within the appropriate mum spacing of supports for standard and heavier steel
temperature limits of the material. pipe are given in Table 121.5. Vertical supports shall be
spaced to prevent the pipe from being overstressed from
(16) 121.4 Hanger Adjustments the combination of all loading effects.

Hangers used for the support of piping, NPS 2 1⁄2

121.6 Springs
(DN 65) and larger, shall be designed to permit adjust-
ment after erection while supporting the load. Screwed The springs used in variable or constant effort type
adjustments shall have threaded parts to conform to supports shall be designed and manufactured in accor-
ASME B1.1. dance with MSS SP-58.

ASME B31.1-2016

121.7 Fixtures (C) Cast iron in accordance with ASTM A48 may be
used for bases, rollers, anchors, and parts of supports
121.7.1 Anchors and Guides
where the loading will be mainly compression. Cast iron
(A) Anchors, guides, pivots, and restraints shall be parts shall not be used in tension.
designed to secure the desired points of piping in rela-
(D) Malleable iron castings in accordance with
tively fixed positions. They shall permit the piping to
ASTM A47 may be used for pipe clamps, beam clamps,
expand and contract freely in directions away from the
hanger flanges, clips, bases, swivel rings, and parts of
anchored or guided point and shall be structurally suit-
pipe supports, but their use shall be limited to tempera-
able to withstand the thrusts, moments, and other loads
tures not in excess of 450°F (230°C). This material is
not recommended for services where impact loads are
(B) Rolling or sliding supports shall permit free move-
ment of the piping, or the piping shall be designed to
(E) Brackets shall be designed to withstand forces and
include the imposed load and frictional resistance of
moments induced by sliding friction in addition to other
these types of supports, and dimensions shall provide
for the expected movement of the supported piping.
Materials and lubricants used in sliding supports shall 121.7.3 Variable Supports
be suitable for the metal temperature at the point of (A) Variable spring supports shall be designed to
sliding contact. exert a supporting force equal to the load, as determined
(C) Where corrugated or slip-type expansion joints, by weight balance calculations, plus the weight of all
or flexible metal hose assemblies are used, anchors and hanger parts (such as clamp, rod, etc.) that will be sup-
guides shall be provided where necessary to direct the ported by the spring at the point of attachment to the
expansion into the joint or hose assembly. Such anchors pipe.
shall be designed to withstand the force specified by (B) Variable spring supports shall be provided with
the manufacturer for the design conditions at which the means to limit misalignment, buckling, eccentric load-
joint or hose assembly is to be used. If this force is ing, or to prevent overstressing of the spring.
otherwise unknown, it shall be taken as the sum of the
(C) It is recommended that all hangers employing
product of the maximum internal area times the design
springs be provided with means to indicate at all times
pressure plus the force required to deflect the joint or
the compression of the spring with respect to the approx-
hose assembly. Where expansion joints or flexible metal
imate hot and cold positions of the piping system, except
hose assemblies are subjected to a combination of longi-
where they are used either to cushion against shock or
tudinal and transverse movements, both movements
where the operating temperature of the piping system
shall be considered in the design and application of the
does not exceed 250°F (120°C).
joint or hose assembly.
(D) It is recommended that the support be designed
Flexible metal hose assemblies, applied in accordance
for a maximum variation in supporting effort of 25%
with para. 106.4, shall be supported in such a manner
for the total travel resulting from thermal movement.
as to be free from any effects due to torsion and undue
strain as recommended by the manufacturer. 121.7.4 Constant Supports. On high temperature
(16) 121.7.2 Other Rigid Types and critical service piping at locations subject to appre-
ciable movement with thermal changes, the use of con-
(A) Hanger Rods. Safe loads for threaded hanger rods
stant support hangers, designed to provide a
shall be based on the root area of the threads and 75%
substantially uniform supporting force throughout the
of the allowable stress of the material as provided in
range of travel, is recommended.
para. 121.2(G). In no case shall hanger rods less than
⁄8 in. (9.5 mm) diameter be used for support of pipe (A) Constant support hangers shall have a support
NPS 2 (DN 50) and smaller, or less than 1⁄2 in. (12.5 mm) variation of no more than 6% throughout the total travel
diameter rod for supporting pipe NPS 21⁄2 (DN 65) and range.
larger. See Table 121.7.2(A) for carbon steel rods. (B) Counterweight type supports shall be provided
Pipe, straps, or bars of strength and effective area equal with stops, and the weights shall be positively secured.
to the equivalent hanger rod may be used instead of Chains, cables, hanger and rocker arm details, or other
hanger rods. devices used to attach the counterweight load to the
Hanger rods, straps, etc., shall be designed to permit piping, shall be subject to requirements of para. 121.7.2.
the free movement of piping caused by thermal expan- (C) Hydraulic type supports utilizing a hydraulic
sion and contraction. head may be installed to give a constant supporting
(B) Welded link chain of 3⁄16 in. (5.0 mm) or larger effort. Safety devices and stops shall be provided to
diameter stock, or equivalent area, may be used for pipe support the load in case of hydraulic failure.
hangers with a design stress of 9,000 psi (62 MPa) (D) Boosters may be used to supplement the opera-
maximum. tion of constant support hangers.