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Train the Trainer - ASEAN National

Assessor

Train the Trainer


NTA 1
NTA 2.1
Trainee Manual
Trainee Manual
Train the Trainer –
ASEAN National
Assessor
NTA 2.1

Trainee Manual
Project Base
William Angliss Institute of TAFE
555 La Trobe Street
Melbourne 3000 Victoria
Telephone: (03) 9606 2111
Facsimile: (03) 9670 1330
Acknowledgements
Project Director: Wayne Crosbie
Project Manager Jim Irwin
Chief Writer: Alan Hickman
Subject Writer: Alan Hickman
Editor: Jim Irwin
DTP/Production: Daniel Chee, Mai Vu

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was established on 8 August 1967. The Member
States of the Association are Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar,
Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam.
The ASEAN Secretariat is based in Jakarta, Indonesia.
General Information on ASEAN appears online at the ASEAN Website: www.asean.org.
All text is produced by William Angliss Institute of TAFE for the ASEAN Project on “Process Refinement
and Training of ASEAN Tourism Master Trainers and Master Assessors”
This publication is supported by the Australian Government’s aid program through the ASEAN-Australia
Development Cooperation Program Phase II (AADCP II).
Copyright: Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) 2016.
All rights reserved.
Disclaimer
Every effort has been made to ensure that this publication is free from errors or omissions. However, you
should conduct your own enquiries and seek professional advice before relying on any fact, statement or
matter contained in this book. The ASEAN Secretariat and William Angliss Institute of TAFE are not
responsible for any injury, loss or damage as a result of material included or omitted from this course.
Information in this module is current at the time of publication. Time of publication is indicated in the date
stamp at the bottom of each page.
Some images appearing in this resource have been purchased from stock photography suppliers
Shutterstock and iStockphoto and other third party copyright owners and as such are non-transferable and
non-exclusive. Clip arts, font images and illustrations used are from the Microsoft Office Clip Art and
Media Library. Some images have been provided by and are the property of William Angliss Institute.
Additional images have been sourced from Flickr and SXC and are used under Creative Commons
licence: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en

File name: TM_ASEAN National Assessor_260916


Table of contents
Introduction to trainee manual ............................................................................................... 1
Unit descriptor ....................................................................................................................... 3
Assessment matrix ................................................................................................................ 5
Glossary................................................................................................................................ 7
Element 1: Review essentials of vocational training delivery using ASEAN Toolboxes ...... 11
Element 2: Implement assessment of an ASEAN Competency Standard........................... 79
Presentation of written work .............................................................................................. 115
Recommended reading ..................................................................................................... 117
Trainee evaluation sheet ................................................................................................... 123
Trainee self-assessment checklist..................................................................................... 125

© ASEAN 2016
Trainee Manual
Train the Trainer – ASEAN National Assessor
© ASEAN 2016
Trainee Manual
Train the Trainer – ASEAN National Assessor
Introduction to trainee manual

Introduction to trainee manual


To the Trainee
Congratulations on joining this course. This Trainee Manual is one part of a ‘toolbox’ which is
a resource provided to trainees, trainers and assessors to help you become competent in
various areas of your work.
The ‘toolbox’ consists of three elements:
 A Trainee Manual for you to read and study at home or in class
 A Trainer Guide with Power Point slides to help your Trainer explain the content of the
training material and provide class activities to help with practice
 An Assessment Manual which provides your Assessor with oral and written questions
and other assessment tasks to establish whether or not you have achieved competency.
The first thing you may notice is that this training program and the information you find in the
Trainee Manual seems different to the textbooks you have used previously. This is because
the method of instruction and examination is different. The method used is called
Competency based training (CBT) and Competency based assessment (CBA). CBT and
CBA is the training and assessment system chosen by ASEAN (Association of South-East
Asian Nations) to train people to work in the tourism and hospitality industry throughout all
the ASEAN member states.
What is the CBT and CBA system and why has it been adopted by ASEAN?
CBT is a way of training that concentrates on what a worker can do or is required to do at
work. The aim is of the training is to enable trainees to perform tasks and duties at a
standard expected by employers. CBT seeks to develop the skills, knowledge and attitudes
(or recognise the ones the trainee already possesses) to achieve the required competency
standard. ASEAN has adopted the CBT/CBA training system as it is able to produce the type
of worker that industry is looking for and this therefore increases trainee chances of
obtaining employment.
CBA involves collecting evidence and making a judgement of the extent to which a worker
can perform his/her duties at the required competency standard. Where a trainee can
already demonstrate a degree of competency, either due to prior training or work
experience, a process of ‘Recognition of Prior Learning’ (RPL) is available to trainees to
recognise this. Please speak to your trainer about RPL if you think this applies to you.
What is a competency standard?
Competency standards are descriptions of the skills and knowledge required to perform a
task or activity at the level of a required standard.
242 competency standards for the tourism and hospitality industries throughout the ASEAN
region have been developed to cover all the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to work
in the following occupational areas:
 Housekeeping
 Food Production
 Food and Beverage Service
 Front Office

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Introduction to trainee manual

 Travel Agencies
 Tour Operation.
All of these competency standards are available for you to look at. In fact you will find a
summary of each one at the beginning of each Trainee Manual under the heading ‘Unit
Descriptor’. The unit descriptor describes the content of the unit you will be studying in the
Trainee Manual and provides a table of contents which are divided up into ‘Elements’ and
‘Performance Criteria”. An element is a description of one aspect of what has to be achieved
in the workplace. The ‘Performance Criteria’ below each element details the level of
performance that needs to be demonstrated to be declared competent.
There are other components of the competency standard:
 Unit Title: statement about what is to be done in the workplace
 Unit Number: unique number identifying the particular competency
 Nominal hours: number of classroom or practical hours usually needed to complete the
competency. We call them ‘nominal’ hours because they can vary e.g. sometimes it will
take an individual less time to complete a unit of competency because he/she has prior
knowledge or work experience in that area.
The final heading you will see before you start reading the Trainee Manual is the
‘Assessment Matrix’. Competency based assessment requires trainees to be assessed in at
least 2 – 3 different ways, one of which must be practical. This section outlines three ways
assessment can be carried out and includes work projects, written questions and oral
questions. The matrix is designed to show you which performance criteria will be assessed
and how they will be assessed. Your trainer and/or assessor may also use other assessment
methods including ‘Observation Checklist’ and ‘Third Party Statement’. An observation
checklist is a way of recording how you perform at work and a third party statement is a
statement by a supervisor or employer about the degree of competence they believe you
have achieved. This can be based on observing your workplace performance, inspecting
your work or gaining feedback from fellow workers.
Your trainer and/or assessor may use other methods to assess you such as:
 Journals
 Oral presentations
 Role plays
 Log books
 Group projects
 Practical demonstrations.
Remember your trainer is there to help you succeed and become competent. Please feel
free to ask him or her for more explanation of what you have just read and of what is
expected from you and best wishes for your future studies and future career in tourism and
hospitality.

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Unit descriptor

Unit descriptor
Train the Trainer – ASEAN National Assessor
This unit deals with the skills, knowledge and attitudes required to conduct an assessment
using an ASEAN competency standard.
Unit Code:
NTA 2.1.1
Nominal Hours:
35

Element 1: Review essentials of vocational training delivery using


ASEAN Toolboxes
Performance Criteria
1.1 Identify elements underpinning the Toolbox project
1.2 Define Competency Based Training and Competency Based Assessment
1.3 Characterise role of ASEAN national trainers and assessors
1.4 Detail structure of vocational training using ASEAN Toolboxes
1.5 Describe assessment-related elements of an ASEAN Toolbox

Element 2: Implement assessment of an ASEAN Competency


Standard
Performance Criteria
2.1 Detail competency standard assessment requirements
2.2 Plan and prepare for assessment of an ASEAN Competency Standard
2.3 Conduct assessment of an ASEAN Competency Standard
2.4 Evaluate an ASEAN assessment

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Unit descriptor

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Assessment matrix

Assessment matrix
Showing mapping of Performance Criteria against Work Projects, Written
Questions and Oral Questions
The Assessment Matrix indicates three of the most common assessment activities your
Assessor may use to assess your understanding of the content of this manual and your
performance - Work Projects, Written Questions and Oral Questions. It also indicates
where you can find the subject content related to these assessment activities in the
Trainee Manual (i.e. under which element or performance criteria). As explained in the
Introduction, however, the assessors are free to choose which assessment activities are
most suitable to best capture evidence of competency as they deem appropriate for
individual students.

Work Written Oral


Projects Questions Questions

Element 1: : Review essentials of vocational training delivery using ASEAN Toolboxes

1.1 Identify elements underpinning the Toolbox 1.1 1–8 1


project

1.2 Define Competency Based Training and 1.1 9, 10, 11 2, 3


Competency Based Assessment

1.3 Characterise role of ASEAN national trainers 1.3 12 – 15 4, 5


and assessors

1.4 Detail structure of vocational training using 1.1 16 – 20 6 – 10


ASEAN Toolboxes

1.5 Describe assessment-related elements of an 1.2 21, 22, 23 11, 12, 13


ASEAN Toolbox

Element 2: Implement assessment of an ASEAN Competency Standard

2.1 Plan and prepare for assessment of an


2.1 24 – 28 14, 15
ASEAN Competency Standard

2.2 Plan and prepare for assessment of an


2.1 29, 30 16
ASEAN Competency Standard

2.3 Conduct assessment of an ASEAN


2.1 31, 32, 33 17
Competency Standard

2.4 Evaluate an ASEAN assessment 2.2 34, 35, 36 18

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Assessment matrix

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Glossary

Glossary
Term Explanation

AADCP ASEAN – Australia Development Cooperation Program

ASEAN Common Competency Standards for Tourism


ACCSTP
Professionals

AEC ASEAN Economic Community

AM Assessor Manual

AMS ASEAN Member States

AQEM ASEAN Qualifications Equivalence Matrix

ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations

ASEC ASEAN Secretariat

ATA ASEAN Tourism Agreement

ATM ASEAN Tourism Ministers

ATP ASEAN Tourism Professionals

ATPMC ASEAN Tourism Professionals Monitoring Committee

ATQEM ASEAN Tourism Qualifications Equivalence Matrix

ATPRS ASEAN Tourism Professional Registration System

ATFTMD ASEAN Task Force on Tourism Manpower Development

C Competent (as opposed to NYC)

CATC Common ASEAN Tourism Curriculum

CBA Competency Based Assessment

CBT Competency Based Training

CLMV Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam

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Glossary

Term Explanation

A unit which must be undertaken at the same time


Co-requisite unit
another unit is being undertaken

DTP Desk-top publishing

EU European Union

FB Food and beverage service

FO Front Office

FP Food Production

HK Housekeeping

ITAB Industry Training Advisory Board

MA Master Assessor

MT Master Trainer

M-ATM Meeting of ASEAN Tourism Ministers

MRA Mutual Recognition Arrangement

Mutual Recognition Arrangement on Tourism


MRA-TP
Professionals

NCVER National Centre for Vocational Education Research

NTO National Tourism Organisation

NTPB National Tourism Professional Board

NYC Not Yet Competent

OHP Overhead Projector

PC Pass Competent (as opposed to NYC)

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Glossary

Term Explanation

PCB Tourism Professional Certification Board

PPT PowerPoint presentation/slides

Mandatory unit which must be completed before another


Pre-requisite unit
unit is undertaken

RCC Recognition of Current Competencies

RITS Roadmap for Integration of Tourism Sector

RPL Recognition of Prior Learning

Regional Qualifications Framework and Skills


RQFSRS
Recognition System

RTO Registered Training Organisation

SRA Skills Recognition Audit

TA Travel Agencies

TAFE Technical and Further Education

TG Trainer Guide

TM Trainee Manual

TO Tour Operation

ToMT Training of ASEAN Master Trainers

ToMA Training of ASEAN Master Assessors

VAP Vientiane Action Plan

VET Vocational Education and Training

WAI William Angliss Institute

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Glossary

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: Review essentials of vocational training delivery using
ASEAN Toolboxes

Element 1:
: Review essentials of vocational
training delivery using ASEAN
Toolboxes
1.1 Identify elements underpinning the Toolbox
project
A proper understanding of the elements underpinning the Toolbox project is fundamental to
a total appreciation of the entire Mutual Recognition Arrangement on Tourism Professionals
initiative.
This section presents and describes key elements of the MRA-TP.

The key MRA components


The MRA-TP Handbook explains (pp. 1 – 2):
“The MRA-TP model consists of six mechanisms or components:
a) The National Tourism Professional Board (NTPB),
b) The Tourism Professionals Certification Board (TPCB),
c) The Common ASEAN Tourism Curriculum (CATC),
d) The ASEAN Tourism Professionals Registration System (ATPRS),
e) The ASEAN Tourism Qualifications Equivalency Matrix (ATQEM), and
f) The ASEAN Tourism Professional Monitoring Committee (ATPMC).
Each component forms part of a connecting infrastructure in support of effective
implementation of the MRA-TP system to become operational by 2015. Each part
requires development effort at either ASEAN (regional) level or Member State
(national) level.
At national or Member State level two agencies are required – the National Tourism
Professional Board and the Tourism Professionals Certification Board.
The NTPB has the function of quality control of the education and training system –
the Common ASEAN Tourism Curriculum that delivers the qualifications recognized
in the MRA.
The Tourism Professionals Certification Board will apply national competency
standards, assess and certify tourism professionals and also support the ASEAN
Tourism Professionals Registration System.

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The ATPRS is a web-based facility designed to disseminate details about qualified


tourist professionals in ASEAN Member States and provide a comparative
understanding of the scope, content and equivalent value (or status) of a tourism
qualification awarded in any one of the ASEAN Member States.
The MRA-TP is challenging because there are no agreed international tourism
standards which can act as a basis for conformity assessment for the MRA-TP. As a
result, it is essential to construct an equivalence matrix of tourism qualifications for
the AMS – the ASEAN Tourism Qualifications Equivalency Matrix to be used as the
basis for conformity assessment. This is an essential supporting mechanism for a
robust, reliable and transparent Mutual Recognition Arrangement for Tourism
Professionals.
The overall MRA-TP system will be under the oversight of the ASEAN Tourism
Professional Monitoring Committee.”

Common ASEAN Tourism Curriculum


When discussing the Common ASEAN Tourism Curriculum, the MRA-TP Handbook
explains (p. 19):
“The Common ASEAN Tourism Curriculum (CATC) is the approved common
curriculum for ASEAN Tourism Professionals as mutually agreed upon by the
ASEAN Tourism Ministers upon recommendation by the ASEAN NTOs.
The concept is founded upon a number of initiatives, including the Vientiane Action
Plan (VAP), ASEAN Tourism Agreement (ATA) and the Roadmap for Integration of
Tourism Sector (RITS). The CATC is linked to the Regional Qualifications Framework
and Skills Recognition System (RQFSRS).
Design principles
The curriculum was designed to be industry based, well-structured and flexible, in
order to meet varying local requirements of the Member States.
It is based on the agreed Competencies adopted by all Countries in ASEAN, and
using the agreed ACCSTP Units of Competence aims at making qualifications
relevant and useful to both students and the tourism industry.
CATC
The CATC is founded upon six labour divisions: Front Office, Housekeeping, Food
Production, Food & Beverage Service, Travel Agencies and Tour Operations. CATC
& RQFSRS go hand in hand. CATC supports and contributes to the development of
a harmonized tourism education and training framework within the ASEAN region,
while the RQFSRS supports and contributes to the implementation of the MRA - TP
which ultimately will facilitate skilled labour mobility, contributing to economic
integration of the region.”

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Regional Qualifications Framework and Skills Recognition System


The Regional Qualifications Framework and Skills Recognition System (RQFSRS) is the
overriding educational framework for the ASEAN region.
The RQFSRS comprises 52 qualifications from Certificate II to Advanced Diploma Level,
spread across the six identified Labour Divisions.
Qualifications can be selected be users (according to mandatory Packaging Rules) to suit
individual need from the 242 Units for which Competency Standards were developed and
Toolboxes produced.
RQFSRS provides a common yardstick (a standardised teaching and assessment
framework) for ASEAN member states in terms of accreditation of tourism qualifications and
skills recognition across the region, assisting with the implementation of the MRA and
promoting labour mobility.

The nature and formulation of the RQFSRS means:


 There is an opportunity and emphasis on qualifications meeting user (industry, students,
Training Provider) needs
 Flexibility is provided for students to select Units to meet career goals and for employers
to nominate Units which respond to workplace need
 Students can move between qualifications, streams and Labour Divisions as their study
progresses and/or as their need alters
 Students can enter the Framework at any level – they do not have to ‘start at the bottom’
and work their way up.
 It will provide, ensure and maintain ‘quality assurance’ across all countries and
educational providers across the ASEAN region.

ASEAN Common Competency Standards for Tourism Professionals


ASEAN Common Competency Standards for Tourism Professionals (ACCSTP) are:
 ‘Blueprints’ which support the implementation of competency-based common ASEAN
tourism programs
 Minimum requirements of competency standards in hotel and travel services which aim
to upgrade tourism services.
Together they provide Trainers and Assessors with the necessary guidance on the skills,
knowledge, and attitudes required for the participants to perform the tasks identified for the
six Labour Divisions at the defined standard for industry.

Developing the 242 Competency Standards of the ACCSTP has enabled stakeholders in the
ASEAN member states to implement tourism training programs which contain the minimum
standards required for participants to undertake a job effectively in the industry.

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The MRA-TP Handbook (p, 15) notes:


“In the development of the ACCSTP Framework (2004-2005), ATFTMD helped to
identify the minimum competency standards essential for each job title within the
following parameters:-
• The ACCSTP Framework common competency standards matrix must be
compatible with best practice to be recognised internationally;
• The ACCSTP Framework is the best available common denominator or common
language to advance the interests of the ASEAN community;
• The ACCSTP Framework would only include competencies that were current,
relevant and applicable to member countries. A ‘mainstream approach’ has been
used in cross-matching the common competencies (among member countries);
• Given an agreed ACCSTP Framework, each member country or industry may
choose to add (at a later date) additional competencies that may be necessary to
suit local requirements.”

National Tourism Professionals Board


The National Tourism Professional Board (NTPB) refers to the Board for Tourism
Professionals composed of representatives from the public and private sectors (including
academia and other relevant tourism stakeholders) to be determined by the respective
ASEAN NTOs. (MRA-TP Handbook, p.7).

As stated above the NTPB has the function of quality control of the education and training
system – the Common ASEAN Tourism Curriculum that delivers the qualifications
recognized in the MRA.

Page 39 of the MRA-TP Handbook provides:

“The NTPB of each ASEAN Member State shall have the following responsibilities:

• Create awareness and disseminate information about the MRA-TP;

• Promote, update, maintain, and monitor the ACCSTP and the CATC;

• Facilitate the exchange of information concerning assessment procedures,


criteria, systems, manuals and publications relating to this MRA-TP;

• Report its work progress to the ASEAN NTOs, including actions taken on cases
referred to it by the TPCB and/or ATPMC;

• Formulate and update necessary mechanisms to enable implementation of this


MRA;

• Facilitate the exchange of best practices and prevailing developments in tourism


sector with the view to harmonizing and updating regional and/or international
tourism competencies and curricula; and

• Such other functions and responsibilities that may be assigned to it by the


ASEAN NTOs in the future.”

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Tourism Professionals Certification Board


As mentioned above the Tourism Professionals Certification Board will apply national
competency standards, assess and certify tourism professionals and also support the
ASEAN Tourism Professionals Registration System.

The MRA-TP Handbook (p. 40) presents the following details regarding the TPCB:

Each Member State will establish a Tourism Professional Certification Board (TPCB).
Most will already have an established national qualifications accreditation agency
that would take on the role as TPCB. The TPCB would function in support of the
ATPRS by providing in-country qualification endorsements on existing professional
qualifications by applying the template established by the CATC Regional
Qualifications Framework.

In some countries, a TPCB or equivalent already exists and this development


presents a further indicator of the country’s readiness to proceed. For example, the
Government of Viet Nam with assistance from the EU established a working TPCB
named the Vietnam Tourism Certification Board which functions in support of the Viet
Nam National Authority on Tourism.

Responsibilities of the TPCB

Each Member Country will require the services of a Tourism Professionals


Certification Board. The TPCB will apply national competency standards and assess
and certify tourism professionals with an accredited qualification in order that they
can be registered on the ATPRS.

One of the primary functions of the TPCB is to manage the day-to-day operation of
the ATPRS. The TPCB is rooted firmly at the Member County level.”

ASEAN Tourism Professionals Registration System


The ASEAN Tourism Professional Registration System (ATPRS) is a web-based facility,
designed to register and disseminate details of certified ASEAN Tourism Professionals
(ATPs).
A key function of the ATPRS is to serve as a job-matching platform between industry and
ATPs across ASEAN.
Job seekers (foreign tourism professionals) can register on the system and seek job
opportunities in other member countries. Job opportunities can also be listed with the
specific requirements of the job so a match can be made. The job seeker will need to ensure
verification of his/her certificates by the national TPCB to ensure they match the
requirements of the Common ASEAN Tourism Curriculum (CATC).
Once the certificates are validated, and if the job seeker matches the requirements of the
job, then an interview will take place and subject to job offer, a work permit will be provided
by the host country.

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Pages 41 – 42 of the MRA-TP Handbook note:


“There are two aims of the ATPRS:
1. To compile the records of applicants (tourism professionals) in a format compliant
with an agreed model and procedure. By this procedure, tourism professionals
will be registered and thus formally identified for recognition by industry as a
registered professional, and
2. Further to a satisfactory registration process, the ATPRS would provide a
database system on which the data on applicants could be appraised by licensed
employers or agencies. The process would indicate expressions of interest from
registered professionals in seeking employment on an industry-approved contract
in another AMS.
ATPRS Ethos
ATPRS will be established to provide affordable access, (equitable) to meet the needs of
suitably qualified job-seekers irrespective of where they live in the ASEAN region.
It will be a well-defined reference mechanism, linked to the standards of the ACCSTP
Framework. Most importantly, ATPRS will be managed in an environment conducive to
the MRA goals and in a competent manner that would engender confidence in its
operation and potential outcomes.”

ASEAN Tourism Professionals Monitoring Committee


The ASEAN Tourism Professional Monitoring Committee (ATPMC) has oversight of the
overall MRA-TP system.
The ATPMC consists of ASEAN NTOs and appointed representatives from National Tourism
Professional Boards (NTPB).
The MRA-TP Handbook (p. 6) adds:
“The ATPMC’s responsibilities in relation to the MRA-TP, are:
a) Create awareness and disseminate information about the MRA on Tourism
Professionals within ASEAN;
b) Promote, update, maintain and monitor the ASEAN Common Competency
Standards for Tourism Professionals (ACCSTP) and the Common ASEAN Tourism
Curriculum (CATC);
c)Notify promptly the concerned Tourism Professional Certification Board (TPCB)
upon receipt of feedback from National Tourism Professional Board (NTPB), in case
a foreign Tourism Professional is no longer recognised by the host country;
d) Facilitate the exchange of information concerning assessment procedures, criteria,
systems, manuals and publications relating to this Arrangement;
e) Report its work progress to the ASEAN NTOs;
f) Formulate and update necessary mechanisms to enable the implementation of the
MRA on Tourism Professionals;
g) Such other functions and responsibilities that may be assigned to it by the ASEAN
NTOs in the future; and

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h) Resolve any differences among ASEAN Member States concerning the


interpretation or application of the MRA on Tourism Professionals and to settle them
in an amicable manner.”

Recognition of Prior Learning


“Recognition of Prior Learning is the process that gives current industry professionals who
do not have a formal qualification, the opportunity to benchmark their extensive skills and
experience against the standards set out in each unit of competency/subject.
Also known as a Skills Recognition Audit (SRA), this process is a learning and assessment
pathway which encompasses: Recognition of Current Competencies (RCC) Skills auditing
Gap analysis and training Credit transfer.
Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) is a similar process to RCC that recognizes previous
study or learning which can be mapped against competency standards.”
(Source: MRA-TP Handbook, p. 34)

Regional Secretariat MRA-TP


The Regional Secretariat for the Implementation of the MRA-TP was established through an
agreement signed by all ASEAN Tourism Ministers on 30 December 2015.
The Regional Secretariat, stationed in Jakarta, Indonesia, has the following functions:
(1) To enhance awareness and provide capacity building on the implementation of the MRA
TP including marketing and promotion of the services offered by the Secretariat;
(2) To develop, maintain and update the ATPRS including its database management and
resources for implementation of the MRA;
(3) To formulate, update and recommend the necessary mechanism including certification
and assessment to enable the smooth implementation of the MRA-TP;
(4) To ensure effective and efficient use of human, financial and capital resources of the
Secretariat; and
(5) To perform such other functions and responsibilities that may be assigned to it by the
Governing Council.
The Agreement is available at:
http://www.asean.org/storage/2016/01/6Jan/agreement/Agreement_on_the_Establishment_
of_the_Regional_Secretariat.pdf

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1.2 Define Competency Based Training and


Competency Based Assessment
Introduction
All the Toolboxes are based on Competency Based Training and Competency Based
Assessment.
This section defines ‘competency’, CBT and CBA.

Competency
The following is contained in the Trainer Guide for all Toolboxes:
“Competency refers to the ability to perform particular tasks and duties to the standard of
performance expected in the workplace.
Competency requires the application of specified
knowledge, skills and attitudes relevant to effective
participation, consistently over time and in the
workplace environment.
The essential skills and knowledge are either
identified separately or combined.
Knowledge identifies what a person needs to know
to perform the work in an informed and effective manner.
Skills describe the application of knowledge to situations where understanding is
converted into a workplace outcome.
Attitude describes the founding reasons behind the need for certain knowledge or why
skills are performed in a specified manner.
Competency covers all aspects of workplace performance and involves:
 Performing individual tasks
 Managing a range of different tasks
 Responding to contingencies or
breakdowns
 Dealing with the responsibilities of the
workplace
 Working with others.”

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Competency Based Training


CBT evolved over decades from the mid-1900’s originating in America and spreading
globally and developing into a system/method that is now recognised as the optimal training
method for vocational training.
The approach focuses on what candidate/student can do in the workplace rather than on
what they know.
This dramatically shifts the focus of learning from completing a program/course to being able
to demonstrate competency.
In relation to CBT:
 It is an approach to vocational (work) education and training that places emphasis on
what a person can do or is required to do in the workplace.
 It is not time based
 Participants’ achievements are measured against Competency Standards rather than
against the achievement of other learners
 For a person to be assessed competent they need to demonstrate the ability to perform
tasks and duties to the standard expected in employment
 CBT focuses on the development of skills, knowledge and attitudes required to achieve
the competency standard
 It is industry relevant.
CBT can be seen as comprising
 Competency Standard Common ASEAN Tourism Curriculum = the skills required to do a
job
 Assessment including RPL = process to judge if people have the required skills and
knowledge
 Learning strategies and learning material (Toolbox) = How people acquire the skills and
knowledge (Competency Toolbox)
 Qualification Framework/Regional Qualifications Framework & Skills Recognition =
system for the recognition of skills and knowledge.

Competency Based Assessment


For Competency Based Training to be complete and
effective there must be Competency Based Assessment.
CBT does not exist effectively on its own.
The results of CBA are either ‘Pass Competent’ or ‘Not
Yet Competent’: the concept of Pass or Fail and/or
percentages (such as 75% pass, or 82 out of 100) does
not exist within CBA.

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In relation to CBA:
 It is a process of systematically collecting evidence and making a judgement of a person
performance against the prescribed competency standard
 It seeks evidence/proof of trainee competency, in relation to the endorsed Industry
Competency Standards against which they are being assessed.
This evidence may be obtained by:
 Observing their work – in the workplace or in a
simulated setting
 Obtaining reports of their competence from
supervisors, co-workers and customers
 Sighting samples of work they have done.
To be assessed as Competent a candidate must demonstrate
they are able to:
 Perform at an acceptable level of skill
 Organise the required tasks
 Respond and react appropriately when things go wrong
 Fulfil a role in the scheme of things at work
 Transfer skills and knowledge to new situations.
Overview of CBT and CBA
 Occupational/job analysis forms the basis of a competency
 The focus of training is on the performance of the competency
 Trainees have access to the competency statements and the level of
achievement/assessment required
 Assessment methods are appropriate
 The results are reported as competencies achieved
 Detailed records are maintained.

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1.3 Characterise role of ASEAN national trainers


and assessors
Introduction
In order to fully appreciate the position of Trainers and
Assessors it is necessary to understand their roles and
responsibilities.
This section details the function and duties/tasks of
ASEAN national Trainers and Assessors.

Roles and responsibilities of Trainers


The common roles and responsibilities of a national
Trainer include:
 Being responsible to their employer/the Training Provider they work for – in terms of:
 Complying with all relevant legal obligations
 Aligning with workplace requirements applicable to Trainers
 Promoting vocational training to employers, students and prospective students
 Being responsible to their students – in terms of:
 Applying themselves to their work:
 Diligently
 Honestly
 Fairly
 Making delivery of quality training a constant objective and predominant priority
 Organising instruction and demonstration – planning and preparing for classes/training
by:
 Gathering information about learner characteristics and learning needs
 Confirming a safe learning environment
 Gathering and checking instruction and demonstration objectives and seeking
assistance if required
 Accessing, obtaining, preparing and/or and reviewing relevant learning resources
and learning materials for suitability and relevance, and seeking assistance to
interpret the contextual application
 Organising access to necessary equipment or physical resources required for
instruction and demonstration
 Preparing for every session – without exception
 Notifying learners of details regarding the implementation of the learning program
and/or delivery plan

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 Conducting instruction and demonstration – delivering training, including:


 Following the learning program and/or delivery plan to cover all learning objectives
 Briefing learners on any health, safety and welfare procedures and requirements
prior to and during training
 Using appropriate delivery techniques to structure, pace and enhance learning
 Applying coaching techniques to assist learning
 Using communication skills to provide information, instruct learners and demonstrate
relevant work skills
 Providing opportunities for practice during instruction and through work activities
 Checking student/learner performance – observing progress through:
 Using measures to ensure learners are acquiring and can use new technical/generic
skills and knowledge
 Monitoring learner progress and outcomes in consultation with learner
 Reviewing relationship between the trainer/coach and the learner and adjust to suit
learner needs
 Reviewing personal training performance and finalising documentation – in terms of:
 Reflecting upon personal performance in providing instruction and demonstration
 Documenting strategies for improvement
 Maintaining, storing and securing learner records according to organisational and
legal requirements.
 Growing training expertise through further training and by engaging with new and varied
training experiences.
 Liaising with national Assessors.

Roles and responsibilities of Assessors


The common roles and responsibilities of a national Assessor include:
 Being responsible to their employer/the Training Provider they
work for – in terms of:
 Complying with all relevant legal obligations
 Aligning with workplace requirements applicable to
Assessors
 Being responsible to their students – in terms of:
 Applying themselves to their work:
– Diligently
– Honestly
– Fairly
 Making quality assessment of vocational training a constant objective and predominant
priority

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 Organising assessment of candidates – planning and preparing for assessments by:


 Reading and digesting the Competency Standard for the Unit to be assessed in order
to gain an appreciation of:
– Content – in terms of Elements and
Performance Criteria
– The stated ‘Assessment Guide’
– ‘Critical Aspects of Assessment’
– ‘Context of Assessment’
– Options provided under ‘Assessment
Methods
 Gathering information about candidate
characteristics in order to determine special needs characteristics which need to be
accommodated as part of the assessment process
 Confirming a safe environment for the conduct of all assessment activities
 Liaising with the Trainer to:
 Determine the content the Trainer is delivering – to help serve as a basis for
determining ‘competency’ of candidates
 Time-table/schedule planned assessments to integrate with training delivery plans
 Discuss and confirm planned assessment activities are valid and appropriate to the
content being delivered
 Liaising and communicating with other Assessors to:
 Learn from their activities and initiatives
 Schedule assessment activities to accommodate their needs where there is the
potential for a clash of assessment activities, or the potential to benefit from
coordinating/combining assessment tasks
 Accessing, obtaining, preparing and/or and reviewing relevant assessment resources
and assessment materials for suitability and relevance, and seeking assistance to
interpret contextual application if required to ensure assessment aligns with actual
training delivery
 Organising access to necessary equipment or physical resources required by the
candidate/s in order for them to undertake identified assessment
 Preparing for every assessment session and item – without exception
 Notifying candidates of details regarding their planned assessment – in terms of dates,
start times, venues/locations, duration and assessment requirements and criteria
 Conducting assessments – undertaking/applying assessments as planned, including:
 Following the assessment plan/s developed for assessing each candidate for every
Competency Standard to be assessed
 Briefing candidates on requirements for the assessments they are about to undertake
– ensuring they are perfectly aware of what they are required to so and fully
understand all parameters and/or criteria and standards (for example: time limits,
materials available, finished product descriptors) which apply

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 Ensuring the actual assessments reflect:


 What the candidates were told to expect
 What the candidates were taught by their
Trainers
 Using appropriate assessment techniques
according to the nature and content of each
Competency Standard to obtain necessary
evidence to enable the ‘C’ or ‘NYC’ decision
to be made
 Applying suitable techniques during assessments to encourage, motivate and
support the candidate
 Using clear and appropriate communication skills to provide information to and
instruct candidates, as required, throughout the assessment activities
 Providing and organising further/additional opportunities for candidates to be
assessed when their initial assessment resulted in a NYC’ decision
 Liaising with Trainers after a candidate achieves a ‘NYC’ outcome to assist with
determining extra training which needs to be provided to facilitate a successful
subsequent assessment event
 Maintaining assessment records – in keeping with internal requirements and such that
they will accurately reflect the outcomes/results achieved by each candidate for every
assessment item/activity for each Competency Standard assessed.
 Reviewing personal assessment performance and finalising documentation – in terms of:
 Reflecting upon personal performance in planning for and conducing assessments
 Documenting strategies for improvement to assessments
 Maintaining, storing and securing candidate outcomes, results and records according
to organisational and legal requirements.
 Growing personal assessment expertise through further training and by engaging with
new and varied assessment experiences.

Nature of the relationship


There must be an active working relationship between ASEAN national Assessors and
Trainers.
The relationship needs to be characterised by:
 Openness – both must communicate honestly
 Fact-based communication – there needs to be total truth in all exchanges between both
parties
 Cooperation – both individuals need to work together and be willing to ‘do whatever it
takes’ for the benefit of the learner
 Collaboration – there will be times when Trainers and Assessors need to alter their
plans, or the individual practices and procedures to accommodate the needs of the other
or the identified/emerging needs of the student
 Harmony – there should be no tension, mistrust or negative feelings between the two
individuals

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 Mutual learning – the relationship (see below) is rich with opportunities for both Trainer
and Assessor to learn from what the other can contribute to the association.

Importance of the relationship


The relationship between ASEAN national
Assessors and Trainers is important because:
 The student/learner is reliant on both the Trainer
and the Assessor for their outcomes
 The Assessor must understand/know what the
learner is being taught – so there should always
be a pre-training meeting between the two to:
 Discuss the Competency Standard
 Share ideas regarding training delivery and assessment
 Get an idea of what the other person is thinking in relation to their intended practices
(that is, their intended ways of delivering training, and their intended ways of
conducting assessment) including rationale for same
 Share the training plan and program
 The Assessor must only assess what the learner has been taught in accordance with the
requirements of the nominated Competency Standard
 The Assessor will always need to plan their assessments based on the delivery schedule
established by the Trainer – training needs to precede assessment and there needs to
be discussion regarding the timing of assessments
 Sometimes the focus of vocational training requires the Trainer to contextualise the
content of delivery to reflect/match identified employer, industry or workplace need and
the Assessor needs to adjust their assessment to accommodate this
 There will often be situations where the Trainer and the Assessor need to use the same
equipment, resources and/or space so they need to organise or negotiate a mutually
satisfactory outcome to this which does not disadvantage the learner/candidate
 There needs to be feedback between the Trainer and the Assessor – for example:
 The Assessor can advise the Trainer of areas (topics, Elements, Performance
Criteria) where students have not performed well and this information can cause the
Trainer to revise their approach to this content in the future
 The Assessor needs to communicate the outcomes of assessments with the Trainer
– so the Trainer can:
– Update their training records
– Determine follow-up action required to convert ‘NYC’ outcomes to ‘C’ results
 The Trainer may be told by learners about ‘good’ and ‘bad’ aspects of, or thoughts
about, their assessment experiences which can be shared with the Assessor so
future assessments take these comments into account
 The Trainer needs to inform the Assessor when topics have been covered and when
assessment can take place.

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Ways to achieve the required relationship


ASEAN national Trainers and Assessors can create and
maintain the necessary relationship by:
 Communicating regularly – this is the real key to the
relationship: it is the Golden Rule for an effective
partnership.
 Trainers and Assessors must be in contact on a
regular basis
 Sometimes contact every week is sufficient;
sometimes it is required on a daily basis; sometimes it is necessary several times per
day
 Most problems in the relationship have their roots in failing to do this
 Communication may be via email, phone or in-person/face-to-face
 Face-to-face contact is always the most effective and mutually beneficial
 Setting a meeting schedule – this means planning times, dates and venues for meetings
in advance
 When these times/dates have been set they must be a priority for both parties to
honour
 Not attending scheduled meetings immediately de-values the relationship and
damages the bond which needs to be fostered
 Sharing information – a full and open sharing of information (with attention paid to being
sensitive and supportive when the need to be so arises) is another critical factor in a
positive relationship
 This approach not only builds trust but helps give a reason for and purpose to the
meetings, exchanges and the overall relationship
 Having an open door policy in relation to working cooperatively with the other person –
this means:
 Being prepared to take unscheduled telephone calls
 Being ready to respond promptly to unexpected emails
 Being prepared to attend unplanned meetings to discuss and/or resolve issues
arising
 Acknowledging what the other person does – by verbally and sincerely thanking and
complimenting them on their work as opposed to ignoring their effort and taking for
granted all the good things they do.

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1.4 Detail structure of vocational training using


ASEAN Toolboxes
Introduction
In order to effectively implement the Common ASEAN Tourism Curriculum there is a need to
know the component elements of vocational training provided for using the ASEAN
Toolboxes.
Tis section identifies the Labour Divisions to which the Toolboxes apply, presents Unit Titles
for which Toolboxes have been developed, lists and describes the qualifications available
under the ASEAN Regional Qualifications Framework and Skills Recognition System and
explains the Packaging Rules to develop ASEAN qualifications.

Labour Divisions
Project development and consultation was based on a suite of Competency Standards that
were provided to the project as the building blocks for the final product.
Competency Standards were provided for:
 Hotel Services – Restaurant Services
 Hotel Services – Front Office and Housekeeping
 Travel – Travel and Tour Services.
The proposed Curriculum Framework was required to be structured across six Labour
Divisions:
 Food Production
 Food and Beverage Service
 Front Office
 Housekeeping
 Tour Operation
 Travel Agencies.

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Indicative content of each Labour Division


The information below provides an overview of the content contained in each Labour
Division – it is intended to be indicative only and designed to provide a general
understanding of the context for each.
Food Production
This Labour Division addresses competencies relating to:
 Food hygiene and food safety
 Workplace health and safety
 First aid
 Product knowledge
 Food preparation
 Cooking
 Food presentation and service
 Food service operations and catering
 Cleaning
 Business and staff management
 English language.
Food and Beverage Service
This Labour Division addresses competencies relating to:
 Safe food and beverage handling
 Workplace health and safety
 First aid
 Product knowledge
 Drinks preparation
 Service of food and beverages
 Customer relations
 Bar and dining facility operations
 Cleaning
 Business and staff management
 English language.

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Front Office
This Labour Division addresses competencies relating to:
 Product knowledge
 Workplace health and safety
 First aid
 Customer relations and service
 Communication skills
 Bookings and reservations management
 Night audit
 Business and staff management
 English language.
Housekeeping
This Labour Division addresses competencies relating to:
 Product knowledge
 Workplace health and safety
 First aid
 Customer relations and service
 Communication skills
 Room preparation, service and cleaning
 Valet
 Laundry
 Security
 Business and staff management
 English language.

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Tour Operation
This Labour Division addresses competencies relating to:
 Product knowledge
 Workplace health and safety
 First aid
 Customer relations and service
 Communication skills
 Bookings/reservations and information
management
 Tour guiding and conducting tours
 Driving and vehicle maintenance and repairs
 Camping and on-tour catering
 Security and risk management
 Sensitivity and respect for local cultures
 Business and staff management
 English language.
Travel Agencies
This Labour Division addresses competencies relating to:
 Product knowledge
 Workplace health and safety
 First aid
 Customer relations and service
 Communication skills
 Processing bookings/reservations
 Billing and settlement plans
 Information management
 Domestic and international ticketing
 Marketing and sales
 Business and staff management
 English language.

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Unit Titles
A total of 242 Toolboxes (plus one for Master Trainer and one for Master Assessor, and one
for National Trainer and one for National Assessor) have been developed.
The list below shows:
 Names of each Unit
 The Labour Divisions to which each Unit applies:
 FP = Food Production
 FB = Food and Beverage Service
 FO = Front Office
 HK = Housekeeping
 TA = Travel Agencies
 TO = Tour Operation.
The list (and all resources) can be accessed through www.ATPRS.org.

UNIT NAME FP FB FO HK TA TO

1. Access and retrieve computer-based data X X X X X X

2. Apply standard safety procedures for handling X X


foodstuffs
3. Clean and maintain kitchen equipment and X X
utensils
4. Communicate on the telephone X X X X X X

5. Comply with workplace hygiene procedures X X X X X

6. Develop and update local knowledge X X X X X X

7. Implement occupational safety and health X X X X X X


procedures
8. Maintain hospitality industry knowledge X X X X

9. Manage and resolve conflict situations X X X X X X

10. Organise and prepare food products and services X X

11. Perform clerical procedures X X X X X X

12. Perform basic First Aid procedures X X X X X X

13. Read and interpret basic instructions, directions X X X X


and/or diagrams
14. Receive and resolve customer complaints X X

15. Receive and store kitchen supplies and food stock X X

16. Work effectively with colleagues and customers X X X X X X

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UNIT NAME FP FB FO HK TA TO

17. Work in a socially diverse environment X X X X X X

18. Apply basic techniques of commercial cookery X

19. Establish and maintain quality control in food X


production
20. Identify and prepare various meats X

21. Maintain strategies for safe food storage X

22. Organise food service operations X

23. Plan and manage menu-based catering X

24. Plan, prepare and display a buffet service X

25. Prepare a variety of sandwiches X

26. Prepare and cook poultry and game meats X

27. Prepare and cook seafood X

28. Prepare and store foods X

29. Prepare appetizers and salads X

30. Prepare hot, cold and frozen dessert dishes X

31. Prepare portion-controlled meat cuts X

32. Prepare soups X

33. Prepare stock and sauces X

34. Prepare vegetables, eggs and farinaceous dishes X

35. Present and display food products X

36. Select, prepare and serve special cuisines X

37. Select, prepare and serve various cheeses X

38. Apply catering control principles and procedures X

39. Design a concept for a major event or function X

40. Design meals to meet specific dietary or cultural X


needs
41. Design meals to meet specific market X
requirements
42. Operate a fast food outlet X

43. Prepare tenders for catering contracts X

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UNIT NAME FP FB FO HK TA TO

44. Select catering systems X

45. Manage and operate a coffee shop X

46. Prepare and display petits fours X

47. Prepare and display sugar work X

48. Prepare and model marzipan X

49. Prepare chocolate and produce chocolate X


products
50. Present desserts X

51. Prepare and present gateaux, torten and cakes X

52. Prepare and produce cakes and pastries X

53. Prepare and produce yeast goods X

54. Prepare bakery products for patisserie X

55. Clean and tidy beverage and food service areas X

56. Develop and maintain food & beverage product X


knowledge
57. Manage responsible service of alcohol X

58. Operate a bar facility X

59. Operate a cellar system X

60. Prepare and serve cocktails X

61. Prepare and serve non-alcoholic beverages X

62. Process liquor sales at a bar facility X

63. Provide a link between kitchen and service area X

64. Provide advice to patrons on food and beverage X


services
65. Provide gueridon service X

66. Provide food and beverage services X

67. Provide room service X

68. Provide silver service X

69. Serve a range of wine products X

70. Take food orders and provide table service X

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UNIT NAME FP FB FO HK TA TO

71. Develop a marketing strategy and coordinate X X X X X X


sales activities
72. Establish and maintain a business relationship X X X X X X

73. Maintain quality customer/guest service X X X X X X

74. Develop and implement a business plan X X X X X X

75. Develop new products and services X X

76. Produce documents, reports and worksheets on a X X X X X X


computer
77. Gather and present product information X X X X

78. Maintain a paper-based filing and retrieval system X X X X

79. Manage and implement small projects X X X X

80. Monitor and maintain a business computer system X X X X X X

81. Plan and establish systems and procedures X X X X X X

82. Plan, manage and conduct meetings X X X X X X

83. Prepare business documents X X X X X X

84. Use common business tools and technology X X X X X X

85. Work cooperatively in a general administration X X X X


environment
86. Develop and implement operational policies X X X X X X

87. Audit financial procedures X X X X X X

88. Maintain financial standards and records X X X X

89. Manage financial performance within a budget X X X X X X

90. Manage payroll records X X X X

91. Monitor catering revenue and costs X X

92. Evaluate the effectiveness of an assessment X X X X


system
93. Manage an assessment system for training X X X X
outcomes
94. Monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of training X X X X
outcomes
95. Plan, conduct and evaluate a staff performance X X X X X X
assessment
96. Plan and implement a series of training events X X X X

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UNIT NAME FP FB FO HK TA TO

97. Prepare and deliver training sessions X X X X X X

98. Develop and supervise operational approaches X X X X

99. Lead and manage people X X X X

100. Manage legal requirements for business X X X X X X


compliance
101. Manage physical assets and infrastructure X X X X X X

102. Manage special events X X X X

103. Manage stock purchases and inventory X X X X X X

104. Manage the effective use of human resources X X X X

105. Monitor staff performance X X X X X X

106. Provide professional support to business X X X X


colleagues
107. Recruit and select staff X X X X X X

108. Roster staff X X X X X X

109. Converse in English at a basic operational level X X X X

110. Respond to instructions given in English X X X X

111. Start conversations and develop good relations X X X X


with guests
112. Communicate in English on a telephone X X X X

113. Use oral English to convey a complex exchange X X X X


of ideas
114. Deliver a short oral presentation in English X X X X

115. Read and write English at an advanced level X X X X X X

116. Read general information texts or media X X X X

117. Write a short message in English X X X X

118. Prepare a business letter in advanced English X X X X

119. Develop and update tourism industry knowledge X X X X

120. Promote products and services to customers X X X X X X

121. Operate a computerised reservation system X X

122. Provide accommodation reception services X

123. Maintain guests’ financial records X

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UNIT NAME FP FB FO HK TA TO

124. Process a financial sale transaction X X X X X X

125. Conduct a night audit X

126. Provide Bell Boy/Porter services X

127. Operate a (PABX) switchboard X

128. Receive and place in-coming phone calls X

129. Facilitate out-going phone calls X

130. Provide information about in-house services X

131. Provide international (IDD) service information X

132. Provide housekeeping services to guests X

133. Clean public areas, facilities and equipment X

134. Clean and prepare rooms for in-coming guests X

135. Maintain and operate an industrial laundry X

136. Launder linen and guests’ clothes X

137. Provide valet services to guests X

138. Clean and maintain industrial work area and X


equipment
139. Establish and maintain a safe and secure X X X X X
workplace
140. Maintain the security of premises and property X X

141. Operate basic security equipment X X

142. Maintain the safety of premises and personnel X X

143. Observe and monitor people X X

144. Provide for the safety of VIPs X X

145. Manage intoxicated persons X X X

146. Escort, carry and store valuable items X X

147. Provide a lost and found facility X X

148. Plan and conduct an evacuation of premises X X

149. Organise functions X X X X

150. Prepare and deliver a presentation X X X X X X

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UNIT NAME FP FB FO HK TA TO

151. Follow safety and security procedures X X

152. Access and interpret product information X

153. Administer a billing and settlement plan X

154. Apply advance airfare rules and procedures X

155. Book and co-ordinate supplier services X

156. Construct and ticket a non-air travel plan X

157. Construct and ticket domestic airfares X

158. Construct and ticket promotional international X


airfares
159. Construct and ticket regular international airfares X

160. Create promotional display stand X

161. Maintain product information inventory X

162. Operate an automated information system X X

163. Produce travel documentation on a computer X

164. Receive and process reservations X X

165. Source and package tourism products and X X


services
166. Source and provide destination information and X
advice
167. Work as a tour guide X

168. Allocate tour resources X

169. Conduct interpretive activities in the field X

170. Conduct pre-departure checks X

171. Co-ordinate and operate a day-tour (or short X


excursions)
172. Demonstrate/observe respect for indigenous X
cultures
173. Drive various types of service vehicles X

174. Establish and maintain safe touring conditions X

175. Lead tour groups in a responsible manner X

176. Maintain contacts with handling agents X

177. Manage and facilitate an extended tour X

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UNIT NAME FP FB FO HK TA TO
experience
178. Plan, develop and evaluate interpretive activities X

179. Plan, trial and implement minimal impact X


operations
180. Prepare and present tour commentaries X

181. Provide arrival and departure assistance X

182. Research and share information on indigenous X


cultures
183. Carry out vehicle maintenance or minor repairs X

184. Clean premises and equipment X

185. Demonstrate climbing skills at a basic level X

186. Develop and implement operational plans X

187. Develop interpretive content for eco-tourism X


activities
188. Drive large tour buses or coaches X

189. Manage and execute a detailed tour itinerary X

190. Manage operational risk X

191. Monitor tourism operations X

192. Maintain tourism vehicles in safe and clean X


operational condition
193. Operate and maintain a 4WD vehicle in safe X
working condition
194. Operate tours in remote areas X

195. Set up and operate a camp site X

196. Provide camp site catering X

197. Apply point of sale handling techniques X X

198. Assess and plan tourism opportunities for local X X


communities
199. Build and maintain a team approach to service X X
delivery
200. Construct and apply tourism product research X X

201. Co-ordinate production of brochures and X X


marketing materials
202. Create, implement and evaluate strategic product X X
initiatives

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UNIT NAME FP FB FO HK TA TO

203. Develop and monitor culturally appropriate X X


tourism activity
204. Develop conference programs X X

205. Develop host community awareness programs X X

206. Develop, implement and evaluate regional tourism X X


plans
207. Develop, implement and evaluate sponsorship X X
plans
208. Develop, manage and evaluate local marketing X X
strategies
209. Develop/monitor ecologically sustainable tourism X X
operations
210. Implement event management systems and X X
procedures
211. Plan and implement sales activities X X X X

212. Prepare and submit quotations X X

213. Promote tourism products and services X X

214. Create and update a tourism website X X

215. Develop and manage business strategies X X

216. Manage and monitor innovative tourism programs X X


and projects
217. Minimize theft X X

218. Receive and store stock X X X X X X

219. Source and present information X X

220. Interpret financial statements and reports X X

221. Maintain a secure financial accounting system X X

222. Manage contractual agreements/commitments X X

223. Manage and control operational costs X X

224. Prepare financial statements X X X X X X

225. Analyse competency requirements X X X X

226. Design and establish a training system X X

227. Develop assessment tools and procedures X X

228. Implement, monitor and evaluate a training and X X X X X X


development program

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UNIT NAME FP FB FO HK TA TO

229. Plan and promote training courses X X

230. Apply industry standards to team supervision X X

231. Lead and manage a development team X X

232. Manage workplace diversity X X X X X X

233. Manage and maintain workplace relations X X X X X V

234. Monitor workplace operations X X X X X X

235. Prepare and monitor budgets X X X X X X

236. Read and write English at a basic operational X X


level
237. Use English at a supervisory level X X

238. Read and write English at a supervisory level X X

239. Coach others in job skills X X X X X X

240. Design, prepare and present various types of X X X X


reports
241. Perform child protection duties relevant to the X X X X X X
tourism industry
242. Develop protective environments for children in X X X X X X
tourism destinations

Identification of qualifications
The following table provides an overview of the qualifications currently provided for under the
Framework matched against Labour Divisions – please note these qualifications were
correct at the time of writing but are subject to change as the Project is implemented:

Cert Cert Cert Diploma Advanced Sub-Total


II III IV Diploma

Food and Beverage 2 2 3 1 1 9


Service
Food Production 2 3 3 1 1 10
Front Office 1 1 1 1 1 5
Housekeeping 1 1 1 1 1 5
Tour Operation 2 3 4 2 1 12
Travel Agencies 3 3 3 1 1 11
Total 52

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Brief description of qualifications at each level


The following is an overview of the level at which each of the six qualifications in the
Framework is pitched.
Certificate II
Certificate II represents a base operational qualification encompassing a range of
functions/activities requiring fundamental operational knowledge and limited practical skills in
a defined context.
Certificate III
Certificate III represents a qualification of the skilled operator who applies a broad range of
competencies within a more varied work context, possibly providing technical advice and
support to a team including having team leader responsibilities.
Certificate IV
Certificate IV represents a qualification based on more sophisticated technical applications
involving competencies requiring increased theoretical knowledge, applied in a non-routine
environment and which may involve team leadership and management and increased
responsibility for outcomes.
Diploma
The Diploma represents a qualification which assumes a greater theoretical base and
consists of specialised, technical or managerial competencies used to plan, carry out and
evaluate work of self and/or team.
Advanced Diploma
The Advanced Diploma represents a qualification involving technical, creative, conceptual or
managerial applications built around competencies of either a broad or specialised base and
related to a broader organisational focus.
Qualification names
This presents the approved and endorsed titles for each of the qualifications which have
been provided for:
Food and beverage service qualifications:
 Advanced Diploma of Food and Beverage
Service (Management)
 Diploma of Food and Beverage Service
(Supervision and Administration)
 Certificate IV in Food and Beverage Service
(Waiting)
 Certificate IV in Food and Beverage Service
(Supervision)
 Certificate IV in Food and Beverage Service (Beverages)
 Certificate III in Food and Beverage Service (Waiting)
 Certificate III in Food and Beverage Service (Beverages)
 Certificate II in Food and Beverage Service (Waiting)
 Certificate II in Food and Beverage Service (Beverages)

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Food production qualifications:


 Advanced Diploma of Food Production
(Management)
 Diploma of Food Production (Supervision and
Administration)
 Certificate IV in Food Production (Cookery)
 Certificate IV in Food Production (Operations)
 Certificate IV in Food Production (Patisserie)
 Certificate III in Food Production (Cookery)
 Certificate III in Food Production (Operations)
 Certificate III in Food Production (Patisserie)
 Certificate II in Food Production (Cookery)
 Certificate II in Food Production (Patisserie)
Front office qualifications:
 Advanced Diploma of Front Office (Management)
 Diploma of Front Office (Supervision and Administration)
 Certificate IV in Front Office (Guest Services Supervision)
 Certificate III in Front Office
 Certificate II in Front Office
Housekeeping qualifications:
 Advanced Diploma of Housekeeping
(Management)
 Diploma of Housekeeping (Supervision and
Administration)
 Certificate IV in Housekeeping (Guest
Services Supervision)
 Certificate III in Housekeeping
 Certificate II in Housekeeping
Tour Operation qualifications:
 Advanced Diploma of Tour Operation
(Management)
 Diploma of Tour Operation (Operations)
 Diploma of Tour Operation (Supervision and
Administration)
 Certificate IV in Tour Operation (Guiding)
 Certificate IV in Tour Operation (Eco Tours)
 Certificate IV in Tour Operation (Sales and Finance)
 Certificate IV in Tour Operation (Reservations and Ticketing)

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 Certificate III in Tour Operation (Guiding)


 Certificate III in Tour Operation (Sales and Finance)
 Certificate III in Tour Operation (Reservations and Ticketing)
 Certificate II in Tour Operation (Guiding)
 Certificate II in Tour Operation (Reservations and Ticketing)
Travel agencies qualifications:
 Advanced Diploma of Travel Agencies
(Management)
 Diploma of Travel Agencies (Supervision and
Administration)
 Certificate IV in Travel Agencies (Operations)
 Certificate IV in Travel Agencies (Sales and
Service)
 Certificate IV in Travel Agencies (Reservations and Ticketing)
 Certificate III in Travel Agencies (Operations)
 Certificate III in Travel Agencies (Sales and Service)
 Certificate III in Travel Agencies (Reservations and Ticketing)
 Certificate II in Travel Agencies (Operations)
 Certificate II in Travel Agencies (Sales and Service)
 Certificate II in Travel Agencies (Reservations and Ticketing)

Packaging Rules to develop ASEAN qualifications


Packaging Rules prescribe requirements for creating a qualification.
They are compulsory requirements – they MUST be adhered to:
they are not optional.
They identify for each qualification:
 The combination of mandatory Core and Generic competencies
– by Unit name
 The Functional competencies from which Units may be chosen
– by Cluster and number of Units from each Cluster.
In all cases the Functional competencies selected must reflect
intended Job Title, local industry requirements and Certificate
level.

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Operational imperatives
In general terms Packaging Rules operate on the basis of the following:
 Higher level qualifications require students to complete more Units
 Higher level qualifications give access to more ‘management’-oriented Units
 Lower level qualifications give less choice of Clusters and focus on ‘operational’
competencies
 Students can enter the Qualifications at any level from Certificate II to Advanced Diploma
– there is no need/requirement for students to start at Certificate II and work up through
each level
 Students can switch study from one qualification to another – with ease:
 Given commonality of many Units/competencies
 To respond to changing workplace/career needs.
These changes can be made within the same Labour Division or movement can be
to a different Labour Division.
 Students are free to select the Functional competencies they want to comprise their
qualification – providing:
 They are within the nominated Clusters
 Training providers are willing and able to deliver them.
 In-keeping with CBT principles qualifications are not time-based – a legitimate
qualification of the same type may be of different ‘lengths’ depending on:
 Individual students and/or their needs or preferences for studying
 Delivery methods and timetables of training providers.
 It is possible each qualification of the same type will consist of different
Units/competencies – to reflect:
 Individual need/preferences and proposed work career path
 Industry/employer need
 Local need/demand.

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Clusters
Clusters form the basis of determining which Competency Standards can be used when
applying the Packaging Rules to create a qualification which meets the needs of the
individual student and aligns with the requirements of the Qualifications Framework.
Each of the 242 Units has been allocated into one or more Clusters within three Competency
Standards Menus.
Where a Competency Standard has more than one Unit Number this means it has been
listed in more than one Cluster.
HOTEL SERVICES (RESTAURANT SERVICES)

CLUSTER 1 RESTAURANT SERVICES - COMMON CORE


D1.HRS.CL1.01 Access and retrieve computer-based data
D1.HRS.CL1.02 Apply standard safety procedures for handling foodstuffs
D1.HRS.CL1.03 Clean and maintain kitchen equipment and utensils
D1.HRS.CL1.04 Communicate on the telephone
D1.HRS.CL1.05 Comply with workplace hygiene procedures
D1.HRS.CL1.06 Develop and update local knowledge
D1.HRS.CL1.07 Implement occupational health and safety procedures
D1.HRS.CL1.08 Maintain hospitality industry knowledge
D1.HRS.CL1.09 Manage and resolve conflict situations
D1.HRS.CL1.10 Organise and prepare food products and services
D1.HRS.CL1.11 Perform clerical procedures
D1.HRS.CL1.12 Perform basic First Aid procedures
D1.HRS.CL1.13 Promote products and services to customers
D1.HRS.CL1.14 Read and interpret basic instructions, directions and/or diagrams
D1.HRS.CL1.15 Receive and resolve customer complaints
D1.HRS.CL1.16 Receive and store kitchen supplies and food stock
D1.HRS.CL1.17 Converse in English at a basic operational level
D1.HRS.CL1.18 Work effectively with colleagues and customers
D1.HRS.CL1.19 Work in a socially diverse environment
D1.HRS.CL1.20 Perform child protection duties relevant to the tourism industry
D1.HRS.CL1.21 Develop protective environments for children in tourism destinations

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CLUSTER 2 COMMERCIAL COOKERY


D1.HCC.CL2.01 Apply basic techniques of commercial cookery
D1.HCC.CL2.02 Establish and maintain quality control in food production
D1.HCC.CL2.03 Identify and prepare various meats
D1.HCC.CL2.04 Maintain strategies for safe food storage
D1.HCC.CL2.05 Organise food service operations
D1.HCC.CL2.06 Plan and manage menu-based catering
D1.HCC.CL2.07 Plan, prepare and display a buffet service
D1.HCC.CL2.08 Prepare a variety of sandwiches
D1.HCC.CL2.09 Prepare and cook poultry and game meats
D1.HCC.CL2.10 Prepare and cook seafood
D1.HCC.CL2.11 Prepare and store foods
D1.HCC.CL2.12 Prepare appetizers and salads
D1.HCC.CL2.13 Prepare chocolate and produce chocolate products
D1.HCC.CL2.14 Prepare hot, cold and frozen dessert dishes
D1.HCC.CL2.15 Prepare portion-controlled meat cuts
D1.HCC.CL2.16 Prepare soups
D1.HCC.CL2.17 Prepare stock and sauces
D1.HCC.CL2.18 Prepare vegetables, eggs and farinaceous dishes
D1.HCC.CL2.19 Present and display food products
D1.HCC.CL2.20 Select, prepare and serve special cuisines
D1.HCC.CL2.21 Select, prepare and serve various cheeses

CLUSTER 3 COMMERCIAL CATERING


D1.HCA.CL3.01 Apply catering control principles and procedures
D1.HCA.CL3.02 Design a concept for a major event or function
D1.HCA.CL3.03 Design meals to meet specific dietary or cultural needs
D1.HCA.CL3.04 Design meals to meet specific market requirements
D1.HCA.CL3.05 Operate a fast food outlet
D1.HCA.CL3.06 Prepare tenders for catering contracts
D1.HCA.CL3.07 Select catering systems

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CLUSTER 4 PATISSERIE
D1.HPA.CL4.01 Manage and operate a coffee shop
D1.HPA.CL4.02 Prepare and display petits fours
D1.HPA.CL4.03 Prepare and display sugar work
D1.HPA.CL4.04 Prepare and model marzipan
D1.HPA.CL4.05 Prepare chocolate and produce chocolate products
D1.HPA.CL4.06 Present desserts
D1.HPA.CL4.07 Prepare and present gateaux, torten and cakes
D1.HPA.CL4.08 Prepare and produce cakes and pastries
D1.HPA.CL4.09 Prepare and produce yeast goods
D1.HPA.CL4.10 Prepare bakery products for patisserie

CLUSTER 5 FOOD AND BEVERAGE SERVICE


D1.HBS.CL5.01 Clean and tidy beverage and food service areas
D1.HBS.CL5.02 Develop and maintain food and beverage product knowledge
D1.HBS.CL5.03 Manage responsible service of alcohol
D1.HBS.CL5.04 Operate a bar facility
D1.HBS.CL5.05 Operate a cellar system
D1.HBS.CL5.06 Prepare and serve cocktails
D1.HBS.CL5.07 Prepare and serve non-alcoholic beverages
D1.HBS.CL5.08 Process liquor sales at a bar facility
D1.HBS.CL5.09 Provide a link between kitchen and service area
D1.HBS.CL5.10 Provide advice to patrons on food and beverage services
D1.HBS.CL5.11 Provide gueridon service
D1.HBS.CL5.12 Provide food and beverage services
D1.HBS.CL5.13 Provide room service
D1.HBS.CL5.14 Provide silver service
D1.HBS.CL5.15 Serve a range of wine products
D1.HBS.CL5.16 Take food orders and provide table service
D1.HBS.CL5.17 Manage intoxicated persons

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CLUSTER 6 CUSTOMER SERVICE, SALES AND MARKETING


D1.HCS.CL6.01 Develop a marketing strategy and coordinate sales activities
D1.HCS.CL6.02 Establish and maintain a business relationship
D1.HCS.CL6.03 Maintain quality customer/guest service
D1.HCS.CL6.04 Organise functions
D1.HCS.CL6.05 Develop and implement a business plan
D1.HCS.CL6.06 Prepare and deliver a presentation
D1.HCS.CL6.07 Develop new products and services

CLUSTER 7 GENERAL ADMINISTRATION


D1.HGE.CL7.01 Design, prepare and present various types of reports
D1.HGE.CL7.02 Gather and present product information
D1.HGE.CL7.03 Maintain a paper-based filing and retrieval system
D1.HGE.CL7.04 Manage and implement small projects
D1.HGE.CL7.05 Monitor and maintain a business computer system
D1.HGE.CL7.06 Manage stock purchases and inventory
D1.HGE.CL7.07 Plan and establish systems and procedures
D1.HGE.CL7.08 Plan, manage and conduct meetings
D1.HGE.CL7.09 Prepare business documents
D1.HGE.CL7.10 Produce documents, reports and worksheets on a computer
D1.HGE.CL7.11 Receive and store stock
D1.HGE.CL7.12 Use common business tools and technology
D1.HGE.CL7.13 Work cooperatively in a general administration environment
D1.HGE.CL7.14 Develop and implement operational policies

CLUSTER 8 FINANCIAL ADMINISTRATION


D1.HFI.CL8.01 Audit financial procedures
D1.HFI.CL8.02 Maintain financial standards and records
D1.HFI.CL8.03 Manage financial performance within a budget
D1.HFI.CL8.04 Manage payroll records
D1.HFI.CL8.05 Prepare and monitor budgets
D1.HFI.CL8.06 Prepare financial statements
D1.HFI.CL8.07 Process a financial sale transaction
D1.HFI.CL8.08 Monitor catering revenue and costs

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CLUSTER 9 HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT


D1.HRD.CL9.01 Coach others in job skills
D1.HRD.CL9.02 Plan, conduct and evaluate a staff performance assessment
D1.HRD.CL9.03 Implement, monitor and evaluate a training and development
program
D1.HRD.CL9.04 Prepare and deliver training sessions
D1.HRD.CL9.05 Plan and implement a series of training events
D1.HRD.CL9.06 Monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of training outcomes
D1.HRD.CL9.07 Evaluate the effectiveness of an assessment system
D1.HRD.CL9.08 Manage an assessment system for training outcomes

CLUSTER 10 MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP (HRM)


D1.HML.CL10.01 Develop and supervise operational approaches
D1.HML.CL10.02 Establish and maintain a safe and secure workplace
D1.HML.CL10.03 Lead and manage people
D1.HML.CL10.04 Monitor and maintain a business computer system
D1.HML.CL10.05 Manage legal requirements for business compliance
D1.HML.CL10.06 Manage physical assets and infrastructure
D1.HML.CL10.07 Maintain quality customer/guest service
D1.HML.CL10.08 Manage special events
D1.HML.CL10.09 Manage stock purchases and inventory
D1.HML.CL10.10 Manage the effective use of human resources
D1.HML.CL10.11 Manage workplace diversity
D1.HML.CL10.12 Monitor workplace operations
D1.HML.CL10.13 Monitor staff performance
D1.HML.CL10.14 Provide professional support to business colleagues
D1.HML.CL10.15 Recruit and select staff
D1.HML.CL10.16 Roster staff
D1.HML.CL10.17 Manage and maintain workplace relations

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CLUSTER 10/11 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY


Speaking and Listening
D1.LAN.CL10.01 Respond to instructions given in English
D1.LAN.CL10.02 Start conversations and develop good relations with guests
D1.LAN.CL10.03 Communicate in English on a telephone
D1.LAN.CL10.04 Use oral English to convey a complex exchange of ideas
D1.LAN.CL10.05 Deliver a short oral presentation in English
D1.LAN.CL10.06 Read and write English at an advanced level
Reading
D1.LAN.CL10.07 Read general information texts or media
Writing
D1.LAN.CL10.09 Write a short message in English
D1.LAN.CL10.10 Prepare a business letter in advanced English

HOTEL SERVICES (FRONT OFFICE AND HOUSEKEEPING)

CLUSTER 1 COMMON CORE COMPETENCIES


D1.HOT.CL1.01 Work effectively with colleagues and customers
D1.HOT.CL1.02 Work in a socially diverse environment
D1.HOT.CL1.03 Implement occupational health and safety procedures
D1.HOT.CL1.04 Comply with workplace hygiene procedures
D1.HOT.CL1.05 Perform clerical procedures
D1.HOT.CL1.06 Access and retrieve computer-based data
D1.HOT.CL1.07 Communicate on the telephone
D1.HOT.CL1.08 Maintain hospitality industry knowledge
D1.HOT.CL1.09 Develop and update tourism industry knowledge
D1.HOT.CL1.10 Promote products and services to customers
D1.HOT.CL1.11 Manage and resolve conflict situations
D1.HOT.CL1.12 Perform basic First Aid procedures
D1.HOT.CL1.13 Perform child protection duties relevant to the tourism industry
D1.HOT.CL1.14 Develop protective environments for children in tourism destinations
D1.HOT.CL1.15 Converse in English at a basic operational level

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CLUSTER 2 HOTEL FRONT OFFICE


D1.HFO.CL2.01 Receive and process reservations
D1.HFO.CL2.02 Operate a computerised reservation system
D1.HFO.CL2.03 Provide accommodation reception services
D1.HFO.CL2.04 Maintain guests’ financial records
D1.HFO.CL2.05 Process a financial sale transaction
D1.HFO.CL2.06 Conduct a night audit
D1.HFO.CL2.07 Provide Bell Boy/Porter services
D1.HFO.CL2.08 Operate a (PABX) switchboard
D1.HFO.CL2.09 Receive and place in-coming phone calls
D1.HFO.CL2.10 Facilitate out-going phone calls
D1.HFO.CL2.11 Provide information about in-house services
D1.HFO.CL2.12 Provide international (IDD) service information

CLUSTER 3 HOUSEKEEPING
D1.HHK.CL3.01 Provide housekeeping services to guests
D1.HHK.CL3.02 Clean public areas, facilities and equipment
D1.HHK.CL3.03 Clean and prepare rooms for in-coming guests
D1.HHK.CL3.04 Maintain and operate an industrial laundry
D1.HHK.CL3.05 Launder linen and guests’ clothes
D1.HHK.CL3.06 Provide valet services to guests
D1.HHK.CL3.07 Clean and maintain industrial work area and equipment

CLUSTER 4 SECURITY SERVICES


D1.HSS.CL4.01 Establish and maintain a safe and secure workplace
D1.HSS.CL4.02 Maintain the security of premises and property
D1.HSS.CL4.03 Operate basic security equipment
D1.HSS.CL4.04 Maintain the safety of premises and personnel
D1.HSS.CL4.05 Observe and monitor people
D1.HSS.CL4.06 Provide for the safety of VIPs
D1.HSS.CL4.07 Manage intoxicated persons
D1.HSS.CL4.08 Escort, carry and store valuable items
D1.HSS.CL4.09 Provide a lost and found facility
D1.HSS.CL4.10 Plan and conduct an evacuation of premises

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CLUSTER 5 CUSTOMER SERVICE, SALES AND MARKETING


D1.HSM.CL5.01 Organise functions
D1.HSM.CL5.02 Plan and implement sales activities
D1.HSM.CL5.03 Develop a marketing strategy and coordinate sales activities
D1.HSM.CL5.04 Develop and update local knowledge
D1.HSM.CL5.05 Prepare and deliver a presentation
D1.HSM.CL5.06 Establish and maintain a business relationship
D1.HSM.CL5.07 Develop and implement a business plan

CLUSTER 6 GENERAL ADMINISTRATION


D1.HGA.CL6.01 Plan and establish systems and procedures
D1.HGA.CL6.02 Work cooperatively in a general administration environment
D1.HGA.CL6.03 Maintain a paper-based filing and retrieval system
D1.HGA.CL6.04 Gather and present product information
D1.HGA.CL6.05 Plan, manage and conduct meetings
D1.HGA.CL6.06 Prepare business documents
D1.HGA.CL6.07 Produce documents, reports and worksheets on a computer
D1.HGA.CL6.08 Design, prepare and present various types of reports
D1.HGA.CL6.09 Manage stock purchases and inventory
D1.HGA.CL6.10 Receive and store stock
D1.HGA.CL6.11 Manage and implement small projects
D1.HGA.CL6.12 Use common business tools and technology
D1.HGA.CL6.13 Develop and implement operational policies

CLUSTER 7 FINANCIAL ADMINISTRATION


D1.HFA.CL7.01 Process a financial sale transaction
D1.HFA.CL7.02 Manage financial performance within a budget
D1.HFA.CL7.03 Maintain financial standards and records
D1.HFA.CL7.04 Prepare financial statements
D1.HFA.CL7.05 Audit financial procedures
D1.HFA.CL7.06 Manage payroll records
D1.HFA.CL7.07 Prepare and monitor budgets

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CLUSTER 8 HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT


D1.HHR.CL8.01 Plan, conduct and evaluate a staff performance assessment
D1.HHR.CL8.02 Implement, monitor and evaluate a training and development
program
D1.HHR.CL8.03 Coach others in job skills
D1.HHR.CL8.04 Prepare and deliver training sessions
D1.HHR.CL8.05 Plan and implement a series of training events
D1.HHR.CL8.06 Manage an assessment system for training outcomes
D1.HHR.CL8.07 Monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of training outcomes
D1.HHR.CL8.08 Evaluate the effectiveness of an assessment system

CLUSTER 9 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT


D1.HRM.CL9.01 Manage the effective use of human resources
D1.HRM.CL9.02 Manage workplace diversity
D1.HRM.CL9.03 Monitor workplace operations
D1.HRM.CL9.04 Monitor staff performance
D1.HRM.CL9.05 Provide professional support to business colleagues
D1.HRM.CL9.06 Maintain quality customer/guest service
D1.HRM.CL9.07 Manage special events
D1.HRM.CL9.08 Develop and supervise operational approaches
D1.HRM.CL9.09 Roster staff
D1.HRM.CL9.10 Recruit and select staff
D1.HRM.CL9.11 Manage physical assets and infrastructure
D1.HRM.CL9.12 Manage stock purchases and inventory
D1.HRM.CL9.13 Monitor and maintain a business computer system
D1.HRM.CL9.14 Manage legal requirements for business compliance
D1.HRM.CL9.15 Manage and maintain workplace relations

CLUSTER 10 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY


D1.LAN.CL10.01 Respond to instructions given in English
D1.LAN.CL10.02 Start conversations and develop good relations with guests
D1.LAN.CL10.03 Communicate in English on a telephone
D1.LAN.CL10.04 Use oral English to convey a complex exchange of ideas
D1.LAN.CL10.05 Deliver a short oral presentation in English
D1.LAN.CL10.06 Read and write English at an advanced level

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Reading
D1.LAN.CL10.07 Read general information texts or media
D1.LAN.CL10.08 Read and interpret basic instructions, directions and/or diagrams
Writing
D1.LAN.CL10.09 Write a short message in English
D1.LAN.CL10.10 Prepare a business letter in advanced English

TRAVEL SERVICES

CLUSTER 1 COMMON CORE COMPETENCIES


D2.TCC.CL1.01 Work effectively with colleagues and customers
D2.TCC.CL1.02 Work in a socially diverse environment
D2.TCC.CL1.03 Implement occupational health and safety procedures
D2.TCC.CL1.04 Follow safety and security procedures
D2.TCC.CL1.05 Communicate on the telephone
D2.TCC.CL1.06 Manage and resolve conflict situations
D2.TCC.CL1.07 Develop and update tourism industry knowledge
D2.TCC.CL1.08 Promote products and services to customers
D2.TCC.CL1.09 Perform clerical procedures
D2.TCC.CL1.10 Access and retrieve computer-based data
D2.TCC.CL1.11 Converse in English at a basic operational level
D2.TCC.CL1.12 Process a financial sale transaction
D2.TCC.CL1.13 Use common business tools and technology
D2.TCC.CL1.14 Perform child protection duties relevant to the tourism industry
D2.TCC.CL1.15 Perform basic First Aid procedures
D2.TCC.CL1.16 Develop protective environments for children in tourism destinations

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CLUSTER 2 TRAVEL AGENCY – TICKETING


D2.TTA.CL2.01 Access and interpret product information
D2.TTA.CL2.02 Administer a billing and settlement plan
D2.TTA.CL2.03 Apply advance airfare rules and procedures
D2.TTA.CL2.04 Book and co-ordinate supplier services
D2.TTA.CL2.05 Construct and ticket a non-air travel plan
D2.TTA.CL2.06 Construct and ticket domestic airfares
D2.TTA.CL2.07 Construct and ticket promotional international airfares
D2.TTA.CL2.08 Construct and ticket regular international airfares
D2.TTA.CL2.09 Develop a marketing strategy and coordinate sales activities
D2.TTA.CL2.10 Create promotional display stand
D2.TTA.CL2.11 Develop and update local knowledge
D2.TTA.CL2.12 Maintain product information inventory
D2.TTA.CL2.13 Operate a computerised reservation system
D2.TTA.CL2.14 Operate an automated information system
D2.TTA.CL2.15 Produce travel documentation on a computer
D2.TTA.CL2.16 Prepare and submit quotations
D2.TTA.CL2.17 Receive and process reservations
D2.TTA.CL2.18 Source and package tourism products and services
D2.TTA.CL2.19 Source and provide destination information and advice

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CLUSTER 3 TOUR GUIDE SERVICES


D2.TTG.CL3.01 Work as a tour guide
D2.TTG.CL3.02 Allocate tour resources
D2.TTG.CL3.03 Conduct interpretive activities in the field
D2.TTG.CL3.04 Conduct pre-departure checks
D2.TTG.CL3.05 Co-ordinate and operate a day-tour (or short excursions)
D2.TTG.CL3.06 Demonstrate/observe respect for indigenous cultures
D2.TTG.CL3.07 Develop and monitor culturally appropriate tourism activity
D2.TTG.CL3.08 Develop and update local knowledge
D2.TTG.CL3.09 Drive various types of service vehicles
D2.TTG.CL3.19 Establish and maintain a safe and secure workplace
D2.TTG.CL3.10 Establish and maintain safe touring conditions
D2.TTG.CL3.11 Lead tour groups in a responsible manner
D2.TTG.CL3.12 Maintain contacts with handling agents
D2.TTG.CL3.13 Manage and facilitate an extended tour experience
D2.TTG.CL3.14 Plan, develop and evaluate interpretive activities
D2.TTG.CL3.15 Plan, trial and implement minimal impact operations
D2.TTG.CL3.16 Prepare and present tour commentaries
D2.TTG.CL3.17 Provide arrival and departure assistance
D2.TTG.CL3.18 Research and share information on indigenous cultures

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CLUSTER 4 TOUR OPERATION


D2.TTO.CL4.01 Allocate tour resources
D2.TTO.CL4.02 Carry out vehicle maintenance or minor repairs
D2.TTO.CL4.03 Clean premises and equipment
D2.TTO.CL4.04 Conduct pre-departure checks
D2.TTO.CL4.05 Demonstrate climbing skills at a basic level
D2.TTO.CL4.06 Develop and implement operational plans
D2.TTO.CL4.07 Develop interpretive content for eco-tourism activities
D2.TTO.CL4.08 Drive large tour buses or coaches
D2.TTO.CL4.09 Manage and execute a detailed tour itinerary
D2.TTO.CL4.10 Comply with workplace hygiene procedures
D2.TTO.CL4.11 Manage operational risk
D2.TTO.CL4.12 Monitor tourism operations
D2.TTO.CL4.13 Maintain tourism vehicles in safe and clean operational condition
D2.TTO.CL4.14 Operate and maintain a 4WD vehicle in safe working condition
D2.TTO.CL4.15 Operate tours in remote areas
D2.TTO.CL4.16 Set up and operate a camp site
D2.TTO.CL4.17 Plan and implement sales activities
D2.TTO.CL4.18 Provide camp site catering

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CLUSTER 5 CUSTOMER SERVICE, SALES AND MARKETING


D2.TCS.CL5.01 Apply point of sale handling techniques
D2.TCS.CL5.02 Assess and plan tourism opportunities for local communities
D2.TCS.CL5.03 Build and maintain a team approach to service delivery
D2.TCS.CL5.04 Construct and apply tourism product research
D2.TCS.CL5.05 Develop a marketing strategy and coordinate sales activities
D2.TCS.CL5.06 Co-ordinate production of brochures and marketing materials
D2.TCS.CL5.07 Create, implement and evaluate strategic product initiatives
D2.TCS.CL5.08 Develop and monitor culturally appropriate tourism activity
D2.TCS.CL5.09 Develop conference programs
D2.TCS.CL5.10 Develop host community awareness programs
D2.TCS.CL5.11 Develop, implement and evaluate regional tourism plans
D2.TCS.CL5.12 Develop, implement and evaluate sponsorship plans
D2.TCS.CL5.13 Develop, manage and evaluate local marketing strategies
D2.TCS.CL5.14 Develop/monitor ecologically sustainable tourism operations
D2.TCS.CL5.15 Establish and maintain a business relationship
D2.TCS.CL5.16 Implement/monitor event management systems and procedures
D2.TCS.CL5.17 Maintain quality customer/guest service
D2.TCS.CL5.18 Plan and implement sales activities
D2.TCS.CL5.19 Prepare and deliver a presentation
D2.TCS.CL5.20 Prepare and submit quotations
D2.TCS.CL5.21 Promote tourism products and services
D2.TCS.CL5.22 Source and package tourism products and services

CLUSTER 6 GENERAL ADMINISTRATION


D2.TGA.CL6.01 Create and update a tourism website
D2.TGA.CL6.02 Produce documents, reports and worksheets on a computer
D2.TGA.CL6.03 Manage and monitor innovative tourism programs and projects
D2.TGA.CL6.04 Manage stock purchases and inventory
D2.TGA.CL6.05 Minimise theft
D2.TGA.CL6.06 Operate an automated information system
D2.TGA.CL6.07 Plan, manage and conduct meetings
D2.TGA.CL6.08 Plan and establish systems and procedures
D2.TGA.CL6.09 Prepare business documents
D2.TGA.CL6.10 Develop and implement operational policies
D2.TGA.CL6.11 Receive and store stock
D2.TGA.CL6.12 Source and present information

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CLUSTER 7 FINANCIAL ADMINISTRATION


D2.TFA.CL7.01 Audit financial procedures
D2.TFA.CL7.02 Interpret financial statements and reports
D2.TFA.CL7.03 Maintain a secure financial accounting system
D2.TFA.CL7.04 Manage contractual agreements/commitments
D2.TFA.CL7.05 Manage and control operational costs
D2.TFA.CL7.06 Prepare financial statements

CLUSTER 8 HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT


D2.TRD.CL8.01 Analyse competency requirements
D2.TRD.CL8.02 Coach others in job skills
D2.TRD.CL8.03 Plan, conduct and evaluate a staff performance assessment
D2.TRD.CL8.04 Prepare and deliver training sessions
D2.TRD.CL8.05 Design and establish a training system
D2.TRD.CL8.06 Plan and promote training courses
D2.TRD.CL8.07 Develop assessment tools and procedures
D2.TRD.CL8.08 Implement, monitor and evaluate a training and development program
D2.TRD.CL8.09 Monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of training outcomes

CLUSTER 9 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT


D2.TRM.CL9.01 Apply industry standards to team supervision
D2.TRM.CL9.02 Develop and implement a business plan
D2.TRM.CL9.03 Develop and manage business strategies
D2.TRM.CL9.04 Establish and maintain a safe and secure workplace
D2.TRM.CL9.05 Lead and manage a development team
D2.TRM.CL9.06 Lead and manage people
D2.TRM.CL9.07 Manage legal requirements for business compliance
D2.TRM.CL9.08 Manage stock purchases and inventory
D2.TRM.CL9.09 Manage financial performance within a budget
D2.TRM.CL9.10 Manage and monitor innovative tourism programs and projects
D2.TRM.CL9.11 Manage physical assets and infrastructure
D2.TRM.CL9.12 Maintain quality customer/guest service
D2.TRM.CL9.13 Manage workplace diversity
D2.TRM.CL9.14 Manage and maintain workplace relations
D2.TRM.CL9.15 Monitor and maintain a business computer system
D2.TRM.CL9.16 Monitor staff performance
D2.TRM.CL9.17 Monitor workplace operations

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D2.TRM.CL9.18 Prepare and monitor budgets


D2.TRM.CL9.19 Provide professional support to business colleagues
D2.TRM.CL9.20 Recruit and select staff
D2.TRM.CL9.21 Roster staff

CLUSTER 10 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY


D2.LAN.CL10.01 Use English at a supervisory level
D2.LAN.CL10.02 Read and write English at a basic operational level
D2.LAN.CL10.03 Read and write English at a supervisory level
D2.LAN.CL10.04 Read and write English at an advanced level.

Benefits of the Packaging Rules


The Packaging Rules provide:
 Flexibility for students to select the Units or qualification they want – as opposed to them
being ‘forced’ to undertake training they do not see as being relevant or beneficial to their
career
 Flexibility for employers – to select Units needed by their staff to support/enable the most
effective and efficient operation of their business.
 A structure to, and distinct pathway for, qualifications – enabling students to build to
higher (management) qualifications if required
 For the delivery of industry-based training – as the training is
based on Competency Standards endorsed by ASEAN
Member States
 Guidance (which is not compulsory) about the Functional
Units/competencies suitable for different levels of
qualifications across a range of Job Titles – to assist in
creating relevant qualifications for job positions
 Additional ‘content’ can be added to any Competency
Standard but nothing can be removed – this allows providers
to ‘contextualise’ training for individual employers, regions or areas.

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Sample Packaging Rules


A selection of Packaging Rules is provided below to illustrate
what they look like, what they contain and how they ‘grow’ as the
qualification level increases.
Note: the Packaging Rules provided below were correct at the
time of writing but are always subject to change by Authorities.
Packaging Rules – Tour Operation

Certificate III in Tour Operation (Guiding)


Core and Generic Competencies
D2.TCC.CL1.01 Work effectively with colleagues and customers
D2.TCC.CL1.02 Work in a socially diverse environment
D2.TCC.CL1.04 Follow safety and security procedures
D2.TCC.CL1.05 Communicate on the telephone
D2.TCC.CL1.07 Develop and update tourism industry knowledge
D2.TCC.CL1.10 Access and retrieve computer-based data
D2.TCC.CL1.11 Converse in English at a basic operational level
D2.TCC.CL1.13 Use common business tools and technology
D2.TCC.CL1.14 Perform child protection duties relevant to the tourism industry
D2.TCC.CL1.15 Perform basic First Aid procedures
D2.TTG.CL3.01 Work as a tour guide
D2.TTG.CL3.03 Conduct interpretive activities in the field
D2.TTG.CL3.04 Conduct pre-departure checks
D2.TTG.CL3.05 Co-ordinate and operate a day-tour (or short excursions)
D2.TTG.CL3.08 Develop and update local knowledge
D2.TTG.CL3.10 Establish and maintain safe touring conditions
D2.TTG.CL3.11 Lead tour groups in a responsible manner
Functional Competencies
In addition to the above Core and Generic Competencies fourteen (14) competencies
from the Travel Services Competency Standards Menu with at least ten (10) from the
Cluster:
 Tour Guide Services
And
At least two (2) competencies from one or more of the following Clusters:
 Common Core Competencies
 Customer Service, Sales and Marketing
 Tour Operation
 Travel Agency – Ticketing
In all cases selection of Functional Competencies must reflect the intended Job Title,
local industry requirements and the Certificate level.

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Certificate IV in Tour Operation (Guiding)


Core and Generic Competencies
D2.TCC.CL1.01 Work effectively with colleagues and customers
D2.TCC.CL1.02 Work in a socially diverse environment
D2.TCC.CL1.04 Follow safety and security procedures
D2.TCC.CL1.05 Communicate on the telephone
D2.TCC.CL1.07 Develop and update tourism industry knowledge
D2.TCC.CL1.09 Perform clerical procedures
D2.TCC.CL1.10 Access and retrieve computer-based data
D2.TCC.CL1.11 Converse in English at a basic operational level
D2.TCC.CL1.13 Use common business tools and technology
D2.TCC.CL1.14 Perform child protection duties relevant to the tourism industry
D2.TCC.CL1.15 Perform basic First Aid procedures
D2.TTG.CL3.01 Work as a tour guide
D2.TTG.CL3.03 Conduct interpretive activities in the field
D2.TTG.CL3.04 Conduct pre-departure checks
D2.TTG.CL3.05 Co-ordinate and operate a day-tour (or short excursions)
D2.TTG.CL3.08 Develop and update local knowledge
D2.TTG.CL3.10 Establish and maintain safe touring conditions
D2.TTG.CL3.11 Lead tour groups in a responsible manner
Functional Competencies
In addition to the above Core and Generic Competencies eighteen (18) competencies
from the Travel Services Competency Standards Menu
with at least fourteen (14) from the Cluster:
 Tour Guide Services
And
At least two (2) competencies from one or more of the following Clusters:
 Common Core Competencies
 Customer Service, Sales and Marketing
 Tour Operation
 Travel Agency – Ticketing
 General Administration
 Resource Management
And
At least one (1) competency from the Cluster:
 English Language Proficiency
In all cases selection of Functional Competencies must reflect the intended Job Title,
local industry requirements and the Certificate level.

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Packaging Rules – Travel Agencies


Certificate III in Travel Agencies (Reservations and Ticketing)
Core and Generic Competencies
D2.TCC.CL1.01 Work effectively with colleagues and customers
D2.TCC.CL1.02 Work in a socially diverse environment
D2.TCC.CL1.04 Follow safety and security procedures
D2.TCC.CL1.05 Communicate on the telephone
D2.TCC.CL1.07 Develop and update tourism industry knowledge
D2.TCC.CL1.08 Promote products and services to customers
D2.TCC.CL1.09 Perform clerical procedures
D2.TCC.CL1.10 Access and retrieve computer-based data
D2.TCC.CL1.11 Converse in English at a basic operational level
D2.TCC.CL1.13 Use common business tools and technology
D2.TCC.CL1.14 Perform child protection duties relevant to the tourism industry
D2.TCC.CL1.15 Perform basic First Aid procedures
Functional Competencies
In addition to the above Core and Generic Competencies fourteen (14) competencies
from the Travel Services Competency Standards Menu with at least nine (9) from the
Cluster:
 Travel Agency – Ticketing
And
At least four (4) competencies from one or more of the following Clusters:
 Common Core Competencies
 Customer Service, Sales and Marketing
 General Administration
 Tour Operation
 Financial Administration
 Human Resource Development
 Resource Management
In all cases selection of Functional Competencies must reflect the intended Job Title,
local industry requirements and the Certificate level.

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Advanced Diploma of Travel Agencies (Management)


Core and Generic Competencies
D2.TCC.CL1.01 Work effectively with colleagues and customers
D2.TCC.CL1.02 Work in a socially diverse environment
D2.TCC.CL1.03 Implement occupational health and safety procedures
D2.TCC.CL1.04 Follow safety and security procedures
D2.TCC.CL1.05 Communicate on the telephone
D2.TCC.CL1.06 Manage and resolve conflict situations
D2.TCC.CL1.07 Develop and update tourism industry knowledge
D2.TCC.CL1.08 Promote products and services to customers
D2.TCC.CL1.09 Perform clerical procedures
D2.TCC.CL1.10 Access and retrieve computer-based data
D2.TCC.CL1.11 Converse in English at a basic operational level
D2.TCC.CL1.12 Process a financial sale transaction
D2.TCC.CL1.13 Use common business tools and technology
D2.TCC.CL1.14 Perform child protection duties relevant to the tourism industry
D2.TCC.CL1.15 Perform basic First Aid procedures
D2.TCC.CL1.16 Develop protective environments for children in tourism destinations
Functional Competencies
In addition to the above Core and Generic Competencies twenty-eight (28)
competencies from the Travel Services Competency Standards Menu
with at least six (6) from the Cluster:
 Financial Administration
And
At least fourteen (14) competencies from one or more of the following Clusters:
 General Administration
 Human Resource Development
 Travel Agency - Ticketing
 Tour Operation
 Tour Guide Services
And
At least three (3) competencies from the following Cluster:
 Resource Management – two (2) of which must be:
o D2.TRM.CL9.06 Lead and manage people
o D2.TRM.CL9.17 Monitor workplace operations
And
At least three (3) competencies from the Cluster:
 English Language Proficiency
In all cases selection of Functional Competencies must reflect the intended Job Title,
local industry requirements and the Certificate level.

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1.5 Describe assessment-related elements of an


ASEAN Toolbox
Introduction
All ASEAN toolboxes are made up of five key elements:
 Competency Standard
 Trainee Manual
 PowerPoint slides
 Trainer Guide
 Assessment Manual.
This section identifies and unpacks the Competency Standard and the Assessment Manual.

Competency Standard
Competency is a combination of the skill, knowledge and attitude required to perform a task
or job to the standard expected in the workplace.

If a person can do a job to the required standard they are deemed to be ‘competent’.

A Competency Standard is a description of the skills and knowledge required to perform a


task to defined standards.

They can be used within different contexts:

 By an individual enterprise
 By an industry
 By government.
Endorsed Competency Standards form the basis which underpins all Competency Based
Training and Assessment – that is, all activities undertaken by the Trainer and Assessor
must refer back to and relate directly to the relevant Competency Standard.

Competency Based Training and Assessment are processes that focus on the transfer and
validation of the competency standard.

Uses of competency based standards


Competency based standards can be used for:

 Job design
 Job descriptions
 Performance appraisal
 Selection criteria
 Career path development
 Identification of training needs

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 Development of training programs


 Certification.
The above activities in combination aim to increase customer satisfaction through better
employee performance.

About the Competency Standards which have been created


The ASEAN Competency Standards:

 Are written in a format which has been endorsed by representatives from all ASEAN
Member States
 Have been reviewed by, revised as necessary, and endorsed by all ASEAN Member
States
 Provide the basis for the delivery and assessment of all Units under the Qualifications
Framework
 Contain information and detail to help users (students, employers training providers)
select Units under Packaging Rules to create a qualification
 Are all presented using the same structure
 Can be located at www.ATPRS.org.
Elements of Competency Standards
All Competency Standards comprise:
 Unit Title
 Unit Number
 Nominal Hours
 Unit Descriptor
 Elements
 Performance Criteria
 Unit Variables
 Assessment Guide
 Linkages to other Units
 Critical Aspects of Assessment
 Context of Assessment
 Resource Implications
 Assessment Methods
 Key Competencies for the Unit.

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Unit Title
The Unit Title is the name of the competency.
It is written in such a way it indicates the general content of the competency.
The titles for all Units begin with a verb to reflect the nature of competency based training.
It is a statement about what is to be done in workplace.
There is no standard length for Unit titles – they may be short or long: length of the title
bears no relationship to complexity of the Unit or Nominal Hours for the Unit.

Unit Number
Every Unit has an identifying number.
Where a Unit is allocated to more than one Labour Division it will have more than one Unit
Number which will change to reflect its location in the various Clusters.
Each Unit Title comprises four parts:
1. D1 refers to all the Units in the Hotel Services classifications

D2 refers to all the Units in the Travel Services classifications


2. The three letter code indicates the type/nature/classification of the Cluster to which the
Unit belongs:
 HRS = Hotel Services, Restaurant services Common Core
 HCC = Hotel Services, Restaurant services Commercial Cookery
 HCA = Hotel Services, Restaurant services Commercial Catering
 HPA = Hotel Services, Restaurant services
Patisserie
 HBS = Hotel Services, Restaurant services Food
and Beverage Service
 HCS = Hotel Services, Restaurant services
Customer Service, Sales and Marketing
 HGE = Hotel Services, Restaurant services
General Administration
 HFI = Hotel Services, Restaurant services Financial Administration
 HRD = Hotel Services, Restaurant services Human Resource Development
 HML = Hotel Services, Restaurant services Management and Leadership
 LAN = English Language Proficiency
 HOT = Hotel Services, Front Office and Housekeeping, Common Core
 HFO = Hotel Services, Front Office and Housekeeping, Hotel Front Office
 HHK = Hotel Services, Front Office and Housekeeping, Housekeeping
 HSS = Hotel Services, Front Office and Housekeeping, Security Services
 HSM = Hotel Services, Front Office and Housekeeping, Customer Service, Sales and
Marketing

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 HGA = Hotel Services, Front Office and Housekeeping, General Administration


 HFA = Hotel Services, Front Office and Housekeeping, Financial Administration
 HHR = Hotel Services, Front Office and Housekeeping, Human Resource
Development
 HRM = Hotel Services, Front Office and Housekeeping,
Resource Management
 TCC = Travel Services, Common Core
 TTA = Travel Services, Travel Agency – Ticketing
 TTG = Travel Services, Tour Guide Services
 TTO = Travel Services, Tour Operation
 TCS = Travel Services, Customer Service, Sales and
Marketing
 TTO = Travel Services, Tour Operation
 TGA = Travel Services, General Administration
 TFA = Travel Services, Financial Administration
 TRD = Travel Services, Human Resource Development
 TRM = Travel Services, Resource Management

3. The CL number refers to the Cluster Number the Unit is listed under. Every Cluster has a
number under each individual Competency Standards Menu.
4. The final two-digit number indicates the position of the Unit within the Cluster.

Nominal Hours
This figure represents indicative time required to deliver and assess the Unit.
It is not mandatory: CBT is not time-based.
A Unit may be delivered in less time than shown as the Nominal Hours, or in more time.
Primary uses of the Nominal Hours figure are:
 As the basis for allocating funding – which may be based, for example, on the number of
face-to-face or ‘contact’ hours per Unit
 To assist with rostering of staff
 To enable scheduling/time-tabling of classes.
The time for each Unit was calculated based on:
 Amount of content
 Complexity of the Unit
 Time allocated to similar Units under other vocational training Frameworks
 Advice of experienced trainers and assessors who have delivered and assessed similar
Units.

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Unit Descriptor
This section provides a brief description Unit giving insight into context and content.
This section of the Competency Standard is often used by training providers to describe
Units they offer in:
 Media advertisements they create to promote their courses
 Internal Student Handbooks or other internal course promotional materials/brochures.
Elements
All Competency Standards comprise a number of
Elements.
There is no fixed, set or ‘required’ number of Elements
per Unit.
There is always more than one and three to five is a
common range.
They identify and describe:
 The key tasks or activities which make up the Competency
 The major building blocks of the Competency
 A sequential approach to the required tasks.
Performance Criteria
All Elements comprise a number of Performance Criteria.
There is no fixed, set or ‘required’ number of Performance Criteria per Element.
There is always more than one and five to eight is a common range.
They are sub-sets of an Element and prescribe action needed for competency in the
Element.
Parts of the Performance Criteria may be written in italics meaning this part is addressed
under the Unit Variables section (see below) of the Competency Standard.
Unit Variables
This section of the Competency Standard:
 Provides advice to interpret the scope and context of the Unit of competence, allowing
for differences between enterprises and workplaces
 Relates to the Unit as a whole and facilitates holistic assessment
 Identifies the Labour Division/s to which the Unit applies
 Gives detail of and presents key points relating to italicised parts of Performance Criteria
which the Trainer should cover when training delivery takes place.
Assessment Guide
This aspect of the Competency Standard lists the skills and knowledge which must be
assessed as part of this Unit.

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Linkages to other Units


This is a reference section for Trainers and shows them Titles of Units which are related to
the Competency Standard.
Trainers can refer to these Competency Standards (and the resources developed to support
them) when preparing their training in order to gain extra information relating to the Unit
being delivered.
The Units listed in this section are not pre-requisites or co-requisites for the Unit in question.
Critical aspects of assessment
Shows the evidence which is deemed essential (that is, should be captured as part of the
assessment process) in order for the Assessor to determine whether or not the candidate is
‘Pass Competent’ or ‘Not Yet Competent’.
It supports the Assessment Guide and gives it more context.
It is useful to the Trainer also as it indicates and specifies additional inclusions the training
must address.
Context of assessment
This segment of the Competency Standard provides a framework and perspective regarding
how, when and where assessment may be undertaken.
The emphasis is on Competency Based Assessment with candidates needing to
demonstrate competency in a real-life situation or under relevant simulated/mock conditions
(such as in a classroom or via a role play).
Resource Implications
Listed in this subdivision of the Competency Standard is advice regarding physical and other
resources which will be required and must be available/used to effectively deliver and
assess the Unit.
This list is supplemented in every Trainer Guide for every Unit by the ‘Recommended
Training Equipment’ which provides a list of required/recommended resources in more
detail.
Assessment Methods
This area of the Competency Standard presents a range
of options for the Assessor which may be used to capture
evidence and determine the ‘Pass Competent’ or ‘Not Yet
Competent’ decision.
The Assessment Methods presented are suggestions –
they are not mandatory requirements.
Assessors can elect use whatever assessment
techniques/tools they wish as appropriate to the individual
candidate, workplace or Unit.

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Key Competencies for the Unit


Every Competency Standard presents a set of seven agreed Key Competencies which detail
the type and level of ‘key competencies’ needed by successful candidates to perform the
requirements of the Competency Standard in a workplace. They can be used to judge the
level of complexity and difficulty of a Unit.
The seven Key Competencies are:
 Collecting, organising and analysing information
 Communicating ideas and information
 Planning and organising activities
 Working with others and in teams
 Using mathematical ideas and techniques
 Solving problems
 Using technology.
Each of the above seven Key Competencies is ranked Level 1, 2 or 3 with:
 Level 1 = competence to undertake tasks effectively
 Level 2 = competence to manage tasks
 Level 3 = competence to use concepts for evaluating.
In some cases, with some Competency Standards in some of the Key Competency areas no
Level is shown indicating the Key Competency is deemed as not applying.

Assessor Manual
Every Unit has an Assessor Manual.
The Assessor Manual:
 Is intended for use only by the Assessor – and not intended for release to students
 Should be used by Assessors when planning and
preparing assessment
 May be released to Trainers – to support the positive
relationship which should exist between Assessors
and Trainers
 Should be given to Assessors by the Training
Provider when they are allocated a Unit to assess
 Is available at www.ATPRS.org

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Inclusions in the Assessor Manual


Every Assessor Manual uses the same format:
Competency Based Assessment
This is an overview of CBA for Assessors giving information in relation to:
 Suggested assessment methods
 Alternative assessment methods
 Selection of assessment methods
 Assessing competency
 Regional Qualifications Framework and Skills Recognition System
 Recognition of Prior Learning
 Code of Practice for Assessors
 Instructions and Checklists for Assessors
 Instructions for recording competency
 Instructions for different assessment methods.
Competency Standard
The endorsed Competency Standard for the Unit is provided in full so Assessors have ready
access to the source document which must be used as the basis for assessment with
reference to:
 Content covered by the Unit
 Assessment Guide
 Critical Aspects of Assessment.
Oral Questions
These are questions which Assessors may use as part of their evidence gathering to
determine the Pass Competent or Not Yet Competent decision.
There is at least one Oral Question for every Performance Criteria.
The allocation of Oral Questions to Performance Criteria is shown in the Assessment Matrix
at the start of the Trainee Manual.
Oral Questions are not mandatory – Assessors may choose to:
 Use all of them – as presented, in their entirety
 Use none of them
 Use some of them – to capture additional evidence where
required on certain Performance Criteria
 Develop their own series of Oral Questions
 Use them as non-assessable exercises or in-class activities –
rather than as formal assessment activities to capture evidence
on which the Pass Competent/Not Yet Competent decision will
be made

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 Convert Oral Questions to Written Questions.


Space is provided for assessors to:
 Enter student name
 Enter assessor name
 Enter location where assessment was done
 Record answers provided by trainee – in short-hand form
 Record the Pass Competent/Not Yet Competent decision for each question.
Model answers are not provided for Oral Questions as most answers will depend on the
experience of the candidates and the examples they provide in response to the questions
asked.
A section titled ‘Specifications for Oral Question Assessment’ is contained at the start of
every Assessor Manual.
Written Questions
This is a set of questions designed to be distributed to students for them to answer in writing
and submit for marking.
Assessors may use these as part of their evidence gathering to determine the Pass
Competent or Not Yet Competent decision.
There is at least one Written Question for every Performance
Criteria.
The allocation of Written Questions to Performance Criteria is
shown in the Assessment Matrix at the start of the Trainee
Manual.
Written Questions are not mandatory – Assessors may
choose to:
 Use all of them – as presented, in their entirety
 Use none of them
 Use some of them – to capture additional evidence where required on certain
Performance Criteria
 Develop their own series of Written Questions
 Use them as the basis for a non-assessable exercise or in-class activity – rather than as
formal assessment to capture evidence on which the Pass Competent/Not Yet
Competent decision will be made
 Convert Written Questions to Oral Questions.
A section titled ‘Specifications for Written Question Assessment’ is contained at the start of
every Assessor Manual.

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Answers to Written Questions


This section provides model answers for the Written Questions provided in the Assessor
Manual.
Assessors:
 May use these to assist them mark the responses to Written Questions provided by
students
 Must use common sense when using/referring to them – the answers provided are
indicative only and discretion must be used to determine the acceptability of an answer
which has been provided.
Observation Checklist
The Observation Checklist is provided for Assessors (only) to record observations of actual
candidate performance of the required competencies for the Unit as described by the
Competency Standard.
The document is used to capture evidence of practical competency which is used to help
make the Pass Competent/Not Yet Competent decision.
In relation to this document:
 Name of student and Assessor must be entered
 Location/venue where observation occurred must be entered
 Dates on which observations occurred must be entered – multiple observations are
required to ensure consistency of competency
 The Elements and Performance Criteria for the Competency Standard are reproduced
on the form to facilitate and focus the observation
 Space is provided to assist in recording evidence
 Space is provided to enable feedback
 Space is provided for both Assessor and student to sign the document:
 The Assessor signs to authenticate the observations
 The student signs to acknowledge they have received the feedback as a result of the
observations.
A section titled ‘Specifications for Observation Checklist’ is contained at the start of every
Assessor Manual.
Third Party Statement
This form is provided for distribution to a designated and appropriate person in a workplace
who will use the document to provide evidence which can be used by an Assessor as part of
the evidence they use to make the Pass Competent/Not Yet Competent decision.
An ‘appropriate person’ could be a supervisor, manager, business owner or other suitable
senior/experienced person in the workplace.
The ‘appropriate person’ must:
 Agree to provide the required information
 Have the requirements of completing the Third Party Statement explained to them

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 Be supported by the Assessor in their efforts and with any questions or difficulties they
may have.
Space exists on the Third Party Statement to:
 Enter student name and name of authorised/approved Third Party
 Contact number for the Third Party – to facilitate contact by the Assessor if there is a
query or of follow-up information is required
 Indicate the relationship between the candidate the Third party competing the Statement
 Room for them to indicate their opinion (‘Yes’, ‘No’, ‘Not Sure’) regarding the competency
of the candidate for the Elements and Performance Criteria – in many cases
Performance Criteria have been combined in this document to make it easier and
quicker for workplace Third Party personnel to compete the form
 Space for the Third Party to provide more detailed/written feedback regarding candidate
performance – if the Third Party wishes to do so
 Space for the Third Party to sign to authenticate the document/their contributions.
A section titled ‘Specifications for Third Party Statement’ is contained at the start of every
Assessor Manual.
Competency Recording Sheet
The final document in the assessor manual is the Competency Recording Sheet.
One Competency Recording Sheet needs to be prepared by the
Assessor for every candidate for every Unit.
This document:
 Is provided in the same format for all Competencies
 Provides a central location for the evidence captured during
assessments to be recorded
 Is the main reference point for making the final Pass
Competent/Not yet Competent decision
 Contains room to enter:
 Student and Assessor name
 Dates assessment commenced and was completed
 Follow-up action required by student in the event they initially failed to achieve
competency
 Observations made by the Assessor about the candidate and/or the assessment
process – if deemed necessary/appropriate
 Indication of the types of assessment used to capture evidence on a Performance
Criteria-by- Performance Criteria basis
 Signatures (with dates) of:
– Assessor – to authenticate the document
– Candidate – to verify their assessment has been given to and explained to them.
A section titled ‘Instructions for Recording Competency’ is contained at the start of every
Assessor Manual.

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Work Projects
It is a requirement of this Unit you complete Work Projects as advised by your Trainer. You
must submit documentation, suitable evidence or other relevant proof of completion of the
project to your Trainer by the agreed date.

1.1 Prepare and present a 15 – 20 minute verbal presentation which identifies vocational
training using ASEAN Toolboxes and supporting structures.

Presentation may be made ‘live’ to Assessor or recorded for playback.

Presentation must address all of the following:

 Identification and description of the elements underpinning the Toolbox project


 Definition and explanation of Competency Based Training and Competency Based
Assessment
 Identification of the Labour Divisions to which the CATC applies giving an overview
of the nature of the competencies provided for under each Labour Division
 Explanation of how a new Assessor can identify/access the names of all the
competency standards under the CATC giving several example of titles of
competency standards which exist
 An overview of the qualifications which exist under the Framework explaining the
structure of the Framework as well as names of each qualification level
 Description of the role of Packaging Rules using knowledge of these Packaging
Rules to describe the requirements for creating a qualification under the Framework

1.2. Select one competency standard under the ASEAN Qualifications Framework/CATC
and for that unit/toolbox:

 Interpret the Competency Standard


 Identify the contents of the Assessor Manual

1.3 Prepare a written paper which:

 Describes the roles and responsibilities of an ASEAN national assessor


 Explains the nature of the relationship between ASEAN national assessors and
trainers highlighting why such a relationship is necessary

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Summary
: Review essentials of vocational training delivery using ASEAN Toolboxes

When reviewing essentials of vocational training delivery using ASEAN Toolboxes:


 Appreciate the background and rationale for MRA-TP
 Know the objectives and key elements of the MRA-TP
 Support and promote ATPRS and the Regional Secretariat for the Implementation of the MRA-TP
 Use the CATC and the 242 Competency Standards as the basis for explanation of courses
 Refer to the Qualifications available under the RQFSRS
 Ensure the legitimacy of RPL is addressed
 Explain and stress the principles attached to and the value of Competency Based Training and
Assessment in the delivery of vocational training
 Discuss the roles and responsibilities of national Assessors and Trainers
 Emphasise the nature and importance of the relationship that must exist between national
Assessors and Trainers
 Specify the Labour Divisions covered by the initiative and recognise the allocation of Units to each
 Incorporate requirements of Packaging Rules and the concept of Clusters
 Detail the component elements of Competency Standards and Assessor Manuals.

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Element 2:
Implement assessment of an ASEAN
Competency Standard
2.1 Detail competency standard assessment
requirements
Introduction
It is essential for all Assessors to have a sound understand of competency standard
assessment requirements.
This section adds to previous information presented in section 1.2 on competency based
assessment.

Principles of CBA
CBA operates under the following principles:
 Fairness – assessment:
 Must be equitable to all groups of learners
 Procedure and criteria must be made clear to all learners before
 Must be mutually developed
 Must be able to be challenged.
 Reasonable Adjustment – this requires:
 Measures or actions taken to provide a student with a disability the same educational
opportunities as everyone else.
 Reasonable adjustments must be appropriate for the person and must not create
undue hardship.
 Reliability – meaning assessment:
 Must be consistent
 Techniques must be consistent in the results they give
 Must be regularly reviewed to ensure all assessors are making decisions in a
consistent manner.
 Flexibility - assessment:
 Must provide for the recognition of knowledge and skills regardless of how they have
been acquired
 Must be made accessible to learners through a variety of delivery modes.
 Validity - assessment:
 Must assess the range of skills and knowledge needed to demonstrate competency
 Be based on evidence drawn from a number of occasions.
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Types of assessment
Assessment under the CATC training system is quite different from the formal examinations
and tests most people remember from their school days.
Evidence is gathered to demonstrate competence
in the skills and knowledge required by the units
of competency.
There are five types of assessment to consider:
 Diagnostic – undertaken before learning takes
place to evaluate/determine (‘diagnose’) level
of learner and to help identify their training
needs. Includes actions such as TNAs and
trade tests
 Formative – ongoing assessment throughout the period of practice/learning
 Summative – assessment of performance which occurs at the end of the period of
practice/learning
 Holistic – an assessment approach that covers, in an integrated way, multiple elements
and/or units from the Competency Standards.

Working with others

Managing Knowledge
Attitude
the
Work Skill
flow
Transfer
Problem Solving

 Recognition of prior/current learning/competency – see immediately below.

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RPL
RPL stands for Recognition of Prior Learning.
RPL is the process that gives current industry professionals who do not have a formal
qualification, the opportunity to benchmark their skills and experience against the standards
set out in each Competency Standard.
This process is a learning and assessment pathway which encompasses:
 Recognition of Current Competencies (RCC)
 Skills auditing
 Gap analysis and training
 Credit transfer.
RPL acknowledges skills and knowledge can be acquired in a variety of ways other than via
formal training and gives applicants for RPL a chance to have their skills and knowledge
formally accepted and acknowledged regardless of how they were obtained.
Successful application for RPL will give a person ‘advanced standing’ towards Qualifications
they are seeking to attain.

Evidence rules
Evidence/proof which is captured and used as the basis for
making the ‘Pass Competent’/’Not Yet Competent’ decision
must conform to the following rules – it must be:
 Valid – that is, the evidence must:
 Assess only the Elements and Performance Criteria of
the competency
 Reflect only the skills knowledge and context of the
competency
 Reflect demonstration and application of the standard
 Reflect the Qualification level being assessed.
 Sufficient – that is, the evidence must:
 Be enough to enable the ‘Pass Competent’/’Not Yet Competent’ decision to be made
 Be demonstrated over a period of time
 Cover all aspects of the competency.
 Authentic – that is, the evidence must:
 Be the trainee’s own work
 Be able to be verified as genuine.
 Current – that is, the evidence must:
 Reflect candidate ability at this point in time
 Demonstrate current skills and knowledge used in the workplace
 Reflect skills and knowledge which comply with current standards.

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Types of evidence
Evidence may be seen as being:
 Direct evidence – this is evidence/proof gained through first-hand observation by the
Assessor
 Indirect evidence – this is evidence/proof obtained through other assessment activities
such as role plays, projects, assignments simulations, and third party reports
 Supplementary evidence – this is evidence/proof gathered (such as through third party
questions both oral and written) where additional information is required to make the
‘Pass Competent’/’Not Yet Competent’ decision.

Assessment methods
There are a variety of assessment methods to choose from. The assessment methods
selected:
 Must enable the required evidence to be generated and captured to support or enable
the ‘Pass Competent’/’Not Yet Competent’ decision to be made
 Must combine to collect sufficient evidence the candidate can perform the action/s
required to the required standard
 Refers to what the candidate will be doing to demonstrate competency
 Will be entered into the Assessment Matrix against the relevant content
 Will dictate the assessment tool/instrument to be used in the assessment process.
Examples of assessment methods
Practical skills assessed through the following:
 Real work – observation, using:
 Checklists
 Projects
 Project teams
 On-the-job practical tasks.
 Simulated work/demonstrations – observation, using:
 Checklists
 Projects
 Assignments
 Role Plays.

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Knowledge which may be assessed using:


 Written format – such as:
 Multiple choice questions
 Short answer questions
 Assignments
 Projects
 Essays
 True/False questions.
 Oral format – such as:
 Oral questions
 Role plays
 Interviews
 Presentations by the learner
 Discussion groups
 On- and off-the-job questions.

Developing an assessment matrix


The Assessment Matrix identifies:
 The Competency Standard being assessed – presenting it by Element and Performance
Criteria
 The name of the student being assessed
 The various methods of assessment which will be used to capture the evidence which
has been identified as being necessary to support the ‘Pass Competent/Not Yet
Competent’ decision.

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ASSESSMENT MATRIX
Method of Assessment for:
Unit Name: _____________________________
Student:________________________________

Oral Third party Case study Other Observation Written


questions reports Checklist test

Element

Performance
Criteria 1.1

Performance
Criteria 1.2

Performance
Criteria 1.3

Performance
Criteria 1.4

Performance
Criteria 1.5

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Developing an assessment strategy


An assessment strategy describes how the students will be assessed for a qualification.
It is used by the assessor to guide their assessment of the student, and is a unique
document developed on a one-off basis for every student who is to be assessed.
The assessment strategy should address the following:
 Name and description of the qualification
 Details showing the packaging Rules for the qualification have been accessed and
complied with
 Details of all the competency standards that comprise the qualification
 Evidence of having interpreted the assessment-related requirements of all competency
standards for the specific situation/context
 Coverage of how RPL/RCC will be included in this assessment
 List of assessment methods to be used
 Specification of assessment tools to be used on a unit-by-unit basis
 Details of resources required for the assessments.

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2.2 Plan and prepare for assessment of an ASEAN


Competency Standard
Introduction
Implementation of assessment of an ASEAN Competency Standard requires significant
planning and preparation.
This section reviews and recaps the concept of CBA and considers and discusses the wide
range of activities required in this phase of the assessment process.

Competency Based Assessment


In addition to the information provided in Section 1.2 it is
important to note the following to assist in developing a full
and proper understanding of Competency Based
Assessment:
Competency
The word competency represents an expansion of the
term skill.
Competency is a combination of the knowledge, manual
and attitudinal requirements and their application to the standard expected in the workplace.
For example in relation to a person pouring wine from a bottle to a guest’s glass:
 Attitude = accepting the need to be courteous to the guest when pouring the wine
 Knowledge = the ability to state the characteristics of the different wine varieties
 Skill = pouring the wine from bottle to glass.
CBA defined
Competency based assessment is a process of systematically collecting evidence and
making a judgement of a person performance against the prescribed competency standard.
To be assessed as competent this also means the Trainee is able to:
 Perform at an acceptable level of skill
 Organise the required tasks
 Respond and react appropriately when things go wrong
 Fulfil a role in the scheme of things at work
 Transfer skills and knowledge to new situations
CBA seeks evidence/proof of trainee competency, in relation to the endorsed Industry
Competency Standards against which they are being assessed.
This evidence may be obtained by:
 Observing their work – in the workplace or in a simulated setting
 Obtaining reports of their competence from supervisors, co-workers and customers
 Sighting samples of work they have done.

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Competent performance
Competent performance comprises five key elements:
 Task skills – which relates to performing at an acceptable level of skills.
For example, in a Front Office situation it can refer to all the tasks which have to be
undertaken to handle a reservation.
 Task management skills – which relates to managing a range of different tasks.
For example, in the Front Office situation it can refer to
answering a phone which is ringing, while dealing face-to-
face with a guest and checking someone in.
 Contingency management skills – which refers to
responding appropriately when things go wrong.
For example, in the Front Office situation it looks at being
able to handle/deal with a situation where there is a
double booking for the same room.
 Job/role environment skills – involving fulfilling the
responsibilities and expectations of the workplace.
For example, in the Front Office situation it may include coordinating with other staff to
ensure rooms are ready to sell.
 Transfer skills – which look at passing on knowledge, skills and attitudes to others.
In the Front Office this can include teaching a new staff member how to operate the
reservation system for the property.
Hospitality and Tourism performance considerations
In the industry there are five key considerations to take into account when assessing
competent performance – that is, has the task been performed:
 In a hygienic manner?
 Safely?
 With due regard to customer courtesy?
 In a logical and appropriate manner?
 Can the individual respond appropriately when a mistake is made?

Review of Competency Standard


Before beginning the planning of any assessment there must be a full understanding of the
Competency Standard to be assessed. This is the starting point of any assessment process.
Trainers need to review the Competency Standard before they start their training, and
Assessors need to do the same.
A key way to gain this knowledge is to review the standard by reading and analysing it.

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Rationale
There is a need to do this in order to:
 Find out exactly what the Unit is about – learn about the details and content contained in
the Competency Standard
 Become familiar with all relevant assessment-related requirements for the Competency
Standard – as listed in the Standard
 Make sure a copy of the Competency Standard is at hand – to refer to throughout the
planning process
 Ensure all aspects of the Competency Standard are assessed – as required
 Determine whether or not any assessments can be grouped together – to save time and
money and make the process more efficient.
Keys to the review process
Essential activities include:
 Obtain a:
 Soft copy of the Competency Standard – which can
be obtained from:
 Hard copy – it is always good to have a paper-
based copy to refer to.
Copies can be obtained from:
 The Assessor Manual
 The Trainer Guide
 www.ATPRS.org
 The training provider.
 Read the document:
 Allocate sufficient time to do this free from interruptions
 Take notes of things which come to mind as the document is read:
– Questions/issues which need to be followed up/clarified
– Thoughts which immediately come to mind regarding possible assessment
techniques/methods/options
– Possibilities for locations/venues for undertaking assessment
– Ideas which occur in relation to timing of assessments.
 Re-read it – something more will always be gained from a second and third reading
 Take the time to:
 Note the correct name of the Unit/Competency Standard
 Record the Unit Number/s
These will be needed for completion of assessment records
as well as (possibly) for internal reporting requirements.

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 Spend some time looking at the detail provided under Unit Variables – to:
 Gain appreciation for how they align with Performance Criteria and Elements.
 Pay special attention to requirements and suggestions listed – under:
 Assessment Guide
 Critical Aspects of Assessment
 Context of Assessment
 Assessment Methods.
Contents
The following is a brief overview of the generic contents of a Competency Standard:
Unit Title: Statement about what is to be done in workplace
Unit Number: Unique number identifying the competency
Unit Descriptor: General information describing the competency
Element: What has to be achieved (there are often several)
Performance Criteria: Level of performance to be demonstrated for each element within
the unit of competency
Unit Variables: A guide to different situations and the context in which the performance
criteria applies in the workplace
Assessment Guide: Specifies the skills and knowledge required to be competent in the
unit
Linkage to other units: Identifies other units which have relevance to the unit
Critical aspects of assessment: Summary of the assessment outcome
Context of Assessment: Defines the where, how and what
of assessment
Resource implications: General advice regarding the
resources needed to deliver training (and hence to conduct
assessment)
Assessment methods: Suggestions as to how assessment
may be conducted
Key Competencies: Gives type and level of key
competencies needed to perform the competency. In some
standards this information is listed separately.
Keys/questions to answer as a result of reviewing the Competency Standard
As an Assessor it is important information/answers to all the following are understood as
they form the basis of necessary preparation activities underpinning the planning for
assessments:
 What is a description of the work activity/duty?
 What does the work involve?
 What are the parts that make up this duty?

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 How is performance of this work measured?


 What are the conditions under which the work is performed?
 What are the skills and knowledge needed to perform this work activity?
 What evidence is needed to prove the work has been performed as required?
 Where and/or when should evidence of competency be gathered?
 What resources are required to gather the evidence?
Follow-up
When the review has taken place it is essential to:
 Talk to the Training Provider:
 About their expectations relating to assessments
 About budgets for assessment – for materials/consumables
 Regarding time allocations – for preparing, conducting and post-assessment
activities
 To identify any requirements or preferences for where assessments need to be
conducted
 To determine any requirements or preferences for the timing and/or duration of
assessments
 So they can provide names and contact details of relevant Trainers and
other/previous Assessors
 To identify if there are any existing assessment resources/materials available.
 Meet with:
 The Trainer/s for the Unit – to:
– Initiate the necessary relationship
– Exchange contact details
– Learn about content to be delivered
– Share and exchange ideas about assessment.
 Previous Assessors – to:
– Talk to them
– Learn from their experience
– Obtain tips and advice
– Obtain resources and materials which can be used.

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Determination of assessment approach


The approach to assessment can be determined using the Assessment Checklist:
 Review Competency standard
 Consult the critical aspects of assessment – as listed in the Competency Standards to
identify what is important for the assessment decision
 Identify and align the Elements/Performance Criteria to the domains of knowledge and
skill – which need to be assessed
 Develop an assessment matrix
 Select the appropriate mix of assessment methods from the matrix – to ensure the
necessary/identified evidence is captured as a result of the assessment process
 Acquire or design the assessment tools – the Toolbox provides several assessment tools
but there is always opportunity (and sometimes a need) to develop others
 Test the assessment tools – to ensure they meet the rules of evidence.

Preparation of assessment plan


The Assessment Plan may contain/combine:
 Name/title of Competency Standard being
assessed
 Determination of types of assessment required –
diagnostic, formative, summative, holistic, RPL
 Identification of the assessment methods and
tools to be used – as identified in the
Assessment Matrix
 Development of an Assessment Decision Grid
 Identification of the time, date and venue for the assessment
 Communication of assessment arrangements with candidates – and negotiation of
‘reasonable adjustment’.
There will always be a need to liaise with the Trainer to finalise this stage of the assessment
process.

Assessment tools
To collect evidence ‘assessment tools’ will need to be used.
These tools are used to collect and interpret evidence of competence
Assessment tools can be used in combination or by themselves provided that they ‘test,
measure’ the competency.
Assessment tools will reflect the nature of the assessment method/s to be used – for
example:
 If doing an ‘Interview’ a Questionnaire might be used
 If conducting an observation of learner actions, a Checklist could be used
 If watching a demonstration, a Checklist would be suitable

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 If asking Oral Questions a sheet listing the questions and able to capture answers would
be used.
Toolbox assessment tools
All Toolboxes contain:
 Oral questions
 Written Questions
 Work projects
 Observation checklists
 Third party statements.
There is no compulsion to use any or all of the above assessment tools.
Developing simple assessment tools
The following are important considerations when developing alternate simple assessment
tools to use:
 The format can vary to suit individual (Assessor, candidate, Competency Standard)
requirements
 It is critical the tool reflects authentic workplace activities or relevant current knowledge
 The tool should include instructions for the trainee
 The tool should Include how the assessment is to be conducted and recorded
 Assessment Criteria should be developed
 Model answers should be provided.

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Assessment Decision Grid


The Assessment Decision Grid may be developed to assist with/help demonstrate the
‘Critical evidence required’ has been obtained and the ‘Evidence collected’ meet the ‘Rules
of Evidence’.

ASSESSMENT DECISION GRID

The competency standard being assessed:


__________________________________________

Critical Evidence Does it relate Is there enough Is it up to Is it the


evidence collected to the of it? (Is it date? (Is it candidate’s
required standards Sufficient?) Current?) own work? (Is
being it Authentic?)
assessed? (Is
it Valid?)

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Scheduling of assessment activities


Planning and preparing for assessment of an ASEAN Competency Standard must address
scheduling (time-tabling’) of each selected assessment method for every candidate and
needs to:
 Ensure the assessment time is suitable – for the candidate so they can attend the
assessment
 Verify required equipment is available – at the time and at the place where the
assessment is to occur.
Many assessment areas and/or resources (plant, machinery, equipment, systems,
technology and utensils) are used by multiple other users for training and for other
assessments
 Fall within any budgeted constraints which might apply to the conduct of assessments.

Liaison with trainer


Planning/preparing for assessments must include communication with the Trainer who has
delivered the training for which assessment is to be conducted.
This may be done in order to:
 Gain input/suggestions from the Trainer
regarding relevant assessment methods which
could/should be used
 Verify the methods proposed for assessment
arte legitimate in terms of determining
competency for the individual Competency
Standard
 Make sure conditions and criteria incorporated
into assessments are valid and match content
which has been delivered/is applicable in the
workplace
 Check the content being assessed aligned with the material/content which was actually
delivered in the training
 Identify materials (resources, consumables, equipment) which are available to use in the
assessments to be conducted
 Arrange Assessor attendance at training sessions – so they can:
 Gain a better understanding/appreciation of the skills being taught
 Meet the learners/candidates
 Explain assessment requirements (methods, schedules) to candidates.

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Organisation of assessment environment


Most assessment activities require assessors to take some form of action to organise the
assessment environment.
Generally speaking more action is required to organise the environment where a practical
skill is being assessed.
Organisational requirements may include:
 Booking the room/area – so there are no clashes between use of the location for
assessment and any other activity
 Ordering consumables required for the assessment
tasks to be undertaken – and:
 Making sure they have been delivered/are
available as ordered
 Checking to make sure they are sufficient and
suitable to be used for the assessment tasks to
be applied
 Laying them out ready for use by the candidate.
 Preparing assessment tools as required for the assessment – and ensuring they are
available for use in sufficient numbers as required
 Cleaning the area – if required
 Setting-up equipment and other items – especially where practical tasks are being
assessed there can be a need for the Assessor to prepare items to be used so they are
ready for use by the candidate
 Taking action to ensure:
 Distractions are eliminated – to the best extent possible
 Privacy is optimised – for the candidate
 Access to the areas by others is restricted
 Safety is guaranteed – which will require checking equipment/machinery and the
environment itself.

Communication and confirmation of assessment requirements


When all arrangements for assessment/s have been finalised there is a need to
communicate and confirm these with relevant others.
Relevant others
In this context ‘relevant others’ can include:
 The candidates
 Trainers
 Other Assessors/Co-assessors
 Employers
 Nominated personnel within the Training Provider organisation.

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Ways to communicate
The following are all acceptable ways of notifying relevant others regarding final assessment
arrangements:
 Meeting face-to face – at scheduled meetings
 Using hard copy advice/notification
 Using emails.
Information to be communicated
These notifications need to address:
 Names of candidates to be assessed
 Details of the Competency Standard to be
assessed – including details of:
 Elements and/or Performance Criteria as appropriate
 Other Competency Standards to be assessed/co-assessed at the same time
 Assessment venue, date and time
 Expected duration of assessment.
 Identification of materials/items candidates are required to bring with them
 Description and details of the assessment method/task
 Explanation of relevant conditions and criteria which will form the basis of the
assessment.

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2.3 Conduct assessment of an ASEAN Competency


Standard
Introduction
When the assessments have been prepared they need
to be implemented/applied as planned.
This section highlights the need to gather quality
evidence during assessment (with reference to the
Principles of CBA and the Rules of Evidence for CBA)
emphasises the need to support candidates during their
assessment, looks at the use of assessment
methods/tools contained in the Toolboxes and
discusses the making of the assessment decision.

Verification of assessment with candidate/s


Before assessment commences there is a need to prepare the candidates for the
assessment and this may require the Assessor to:
 Make candidate feel ‘at home’ in the assessment location – because many learners feel
threatened/uneasy about being assessed
 Confirm candidate is ready to be assessed
 Advise candidate of applicable Appeals Processes
available to them as developed by the Training
Provider
 Explain the assessment – in relation to:
 What is to be assessed
 How it will be achieved
 Why the assessment is being done/why the candidate is being assessed.
 Provide the candidate with the standard against which they will be assessed – this will
help prove to them their assessment is going to reflect exactly what they have been
taught
 Explain the concept of ‘evidence’
 Outline any other persons who may be involved in the assessment process – so
candidates fully understand who is to be involved and what everyone is doing in relation
to the assessment
 Give them confidence for the assessment process
 Allow the candidate to ask questions about the assessment
 Help set the scene for the assessment – and discuss the assessment process
 Begin/develop the process of creating a relationship/rapport between the candidate and
the Assessor.

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The need to gather quality evidence


Principles of CBA
It is necessary to ensure assessment conforms with the five principles of Competency Based
Assessment.
It is useful to refresh what they are.
Fairness
 Assessments applied must be equitable to all groups of learners
 Assessment procedure and criteria must be made clear to all learners before
assessments are undertaken
 Assessments must be mutually developed
 Assessment must be able to be challenged.
Reasonable Adjustment
 Refers to measures or actions taken to
provide a student with a disability the same
educational opportunities as everyone else.
 To be reasonable, adjustments must be
appropriate for that person, must not create
undue hardship.
Reliability
 Means the results/outcomes (evidence)
must be consistent
 Techniques must be consistent in the results they give
 Activities/assessments must be regularly reviewed to ensure all assessors are making
decisions in a consistent manner.
Flexibility
 Must provide for the recognition of knowledge and skills regardless of how they have
been acquired
 Must be made accessible to learners through a variety of modes/options.
Validity
 Must assess the range of skills and knowledge needed to demonstrate competency
 Must provide evidence drawn from a number of occasions.

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Rules of Evidence revisited


It is also useful to refresh the Rules of Evidence.

Evidence gathered as part of the assessments must comply


with the four Rules of Evidence – that is, evidence must be:

 Valid
 Sufficient
 Authentic
 Current.
Assessment under the CATC training system is quite different from the formal examinations
and tests most people remember from their school days.

Evidence is gathered to demonstrate competence in the skills and knowledge required by


the units of competency.

 Valid – that is, the evidence must:


 Assess only the Elements and Performance Criteria of the competency
 Reflect only the skills knowledge and context of the competency
 Reflect demonstration and application of the standard
 Reflect the Qualification level being assessed.
 Sufficient – that is, the evidence must:
 Be enough to enable the ‘Pass Competent’/’Not Yet Competent’ decision to be made
 Be demonstrated over a period of time
 Cover all aspects of the competency.
 Authentic – that is, the evidence must:
 Be the trainee’s own work
 Be able to be verified as genuine.
 Current – that is, the evidence must:
 Reflect candidate ability at this point in time
 Demonstrate current skills and knowledge used in the workplace
 Reflect skills and knowledge which comply with current standards.

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Need to support candidates


Assessors are expected to support candidates who are being assessed.
This means:
 It is acceptable to communicate with candidates during the assessment process – such
as:
 Verbally giving feedback – “Yes, that’s correct”, or “You are doing well”
 Providing non-verbal feedback – by way of nodding or smiling.
 It is acceptable to give candidates a break during their assessment – if they ask for one
or if it seems appropriate to do so
 It may be necessary to take action to maintain safety – such as adjusting the
environment (temperature, lighting, noise) or helping the individual (by getting them a
drink of water, a tissue)
 It could be necessary to remind candidates they have more opportunities to demonstrate
competency/undertake assessments – thereby removing perceived pressure they ‘must
succeed’.

Use of Work Projects


At the end of each Element there are Work Projects.
These:
 Are suggested/optional assessment items for the Element – they are not mandatory and
Trainers/Assessors can elect:
 Not to use them at all – and advise students of
this in order learners do not assume they are
requirements for the course
 To use only some of them – and incorporate them
as necessary in their Assessment Matrix
 To re-word or change them in any way deemed
appropriate – for the needs of learners, workplaces and/or the focus of other
assessments.
 May be used as non-assessable exercises or in-class activities – rather than as formal
assessment activities to capture evidence on which the Pass Competent/Not Yet
Competent decision will be made.
The allocation of Work Projects to Performance Criteria is shown in the Assessment Matrix
at the start of the Trainee Manual.

Use of Assessor Manual and implementation of selected


assessment items
Oral Questions
These are questions which Assessors may use as part of their evidence gathering to
determine the Pass Competent or Not Yet Competent decision.
There is at least one Oral Question for every Performance Criteria for each Unit.

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The allocation of Oral Questions to Performance Criteria is shown in the Assessment Matrix
at the start of the Trainee Manual.
Oral Questions are not mandatory – Assessors may choose to:
 Use all of them – as presented, in their entirety
 Use none of them
 Use some of them – to capture additional evidence where required on certain
Performance Criteria
 Develop their own series of Oral Questions
 Use them as non-assessable exercises or in-class activities – rather than as formal
assessment activities to capture evidence on which the Pass Competent/Not Yet
Competent decision will be made
 Convert Oral Questions to Written Questions.
Space is provided for assessors to:
 Enter student name
 Enter assessor name
 Enter location where assessment was done
 Record answers provided by trainee – in short-hand form
 Record the Pass Competent/Not Yet Competent decision for each question.
Model answers are not provided for Oral Questions as most answers will depend on the
experience of the candidates and the examples they provide in response to the questions
asked.
A section titled ‘Specifications for Oral Question Assessment’ is contained at the start every
Assessor Manual.
Written Questions
This is a set of questions designed to be distributed to students for them to answer in writing
and submit for marking.
Assessors may use these as part of their evidence gathering to determine the Pass
Competent or Not Yet Competent decision.
There is at least one Written Question for every Performance
Criteria.
The allocation of Written Questions to Performance Criteria is
shown in the Assessment Matrix at the start of the Trainee
Manual.
Written Questions are not mandatory – Assessors may choose
to:
 Use all of them – as presented, in their entirety
 Use none of them
 Use some of them – to capture additional evidence where
required on certain Performance Criteria
 Develop their own series of Written Questions

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 Use them as the basis for a non-assessable exercise or in-class activity – rather than as
formal assessment to capture evidence on which the Pass Competent/Not Yet
Competent decision will be made
 Convert Written Questions to Oral Questions.
A section titled ‘Specifications for Written Question Assessment’ is contained at the start
every Assessor Manual.
Answers to Written Questions
This section provides model answers for the Written Questions provided in the Assessor
Manual.
Assessors:
 May use these to assist them mark the responses to Written Questions provided by
students
 Must use common sense when using/referring to them – the answers provided are
indicative only and discretion must be used to determine the acceptability of an answer
which has been provided.
Observation Checklist
The Observation Checklist is provided for Assessors (only) to
record observations of actual candidate performance of the
required competencies for the Unit as described by the
Competency Standard.
The document is used to capture evidence of practical
competency which is used to help make the Pass
Competent/Not Yet Competent decision.
In relation to this document:
 Name of student and Assessor must be entered
 Location/venue where observation occurred must be entered
 Dates on which observations occurred must be entered – multiple observations are
required to ensure consistency of competency
 The Elements and Performance Criteria for the Competency Standard are reproduced
on the form to facilitate and focus the observation
 Space is provided to assist in recording evidence
 Space is provided to enable feedback
 Space is provided for both Assessor and student to sign the document:
 The Assessor signs to authenticate the observations
 The student signs to acknowledge they have received the feedback as a result of the
observations.
A section titled ‘Specifications for Observation Checklist’ is contained at the start every
Assessor Manual.

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Third Party Statement


This form is provided for distribution to a designated and appropriate person in a workplace
who will use the document to provide evidence which can be used by an Assessor as part of
the evidence they use to make the Pass Competent/Not Yet Competent decision.
An ‘appropriate person’ could be a supervisor, manager, business owner or other suitable
senior/experienced person in the workplace.
The ‘appropriate person’ must:
 Agree to provide the required information
 Have the requirements of completing the Third Party
Statement explained to them
 Be supported by the Assessor in their efforts and with any
questions or difficulties they may have.
Space exists on the Third Party Statement to:
 Enter student name and name of authorised/approved Third Party
 Contact number for the Third Party – to facilitate contact by the Assessor if there is a
query or of follow-up information is required
 Indicate the relationship between the candidate the Third party competing the Statement
 Room for them to indicate their opinion (‘Yes’, ‘No’, ‘Not Sure’) regarding the competency
of the candidate for the Elements and Performance Criteria – in many cases
Performance Criteria have been combined in this document to make it easier and
quicker for workplace Third Party personnel to compete the form
 Space for the Third Party to provide more detailed/written feedback regarding candidate
performance – if the Third Party wishes to do so
 Space for the Third Party to sign to authenticate the document/their contributions.
A section titled ‘Specifications for Third Party Statement’ is contained at the start every
Assessor Manual.

Recognition of Prior Learning


Legitimate assessment includes use of RPL.
Recognition of Prior Learning (or Recognition of Current Competency) is an assessment
method requiring a candidate to provide evidence that through life, education and/or work
experience they can demonstrate the requirements of the competency.
For the Assessor RPL can be seen as comprising five steps:
 Determine the information required
 Determine types of evidence required
 Review evidence presented against the Rules of
Evidence
 Develop RPL competency interview questions
 Determine competence.

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A Case Study will be provided to demonstrate application of RPL as an assessment tool.


RPL
Recognition of Prior Learning involves a formal recognition of the skills and knowledge that a
person has gained through previous studies, work and life experiences.
The assessment determines the extent to which the individual has already achieved some or
all of the required competencies for a particular qualification.
RPL may also be known as ‘Skills Recognition’.
Candidates for RPL may be awarded full or part qualifications on the basis of RPL
assessment.
Candidates/applicants for RPL will have their existing skills and knowledge assessed so
previous studies, work and/or life experiences can count towards all or part of their
qualification and shorten the period of training.
RPL can ‘fast track’ applicants through competencies quickly so they can concentrate on
gaining new skills in other areas avoiding the need to repeat undertaking training for things
they already know/can do.
As part of the assessment the following may be taken into account:
 Work-related training courses
 On-the-job skills and work experience
 Volunteer and community work
 A combination of all of the above.
A cost may apply to RPL applications to cover the cost of time involved in completing the
assessment process.
For RPL to be a useful and/or successful means of assessment/assessment option it needs
to be effectively promoted to students and costs associated with it need to be controlled so
they are kept at affordable rates.

Making the assessment decision


When the assessment has been completed the assessment decision
needs to be made.
This is the decision deciding if the candidate is ‘Pass Competent’ or
‘Not Yet Competent’.
There is a non-negotiable need to ensure and retain the integrity of all
assessment decisions made – to help achieve this it is important when
making the decision to take all of the following into account:
 The decision must be made by a qualified Assessor under the
ASEAN training system – this person can seek input from ‘relevant
others’ when making their decision such as:
 Trainers
 Workplace supervisors and co-workers.

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 The decision must be made on the evidence which was gathered as part of the
assessment process – a key in this decision making process is another Assessor should
be able to:
 View the evidence captured
 Compare it to the requirements of the Competency Standard
 Come to the same conclusion/decision.
 The assessor can defer their decision to capture additional evidence – where there is
uncertainty about the decision/about certain aspects of the candidate’s performance
 An objective decision must be made – Assessors must never allow personal feelings or
bias to influence their interpretation or analysis of the evidence which has been obtained
 The Assessor verifies to themself:
 The Rules of Evidence haven been complied with
 The principles of CBA have been observed.
 The assessment should reflect actual workplace/industry practice or requirements
 The ‘Competent’ decision can only be made when the candidate has provided evidence
all aspects of the Competency Standard are held and can be demonstrated/applied in an
industry context
 The decision must be communicated – to:
 The Trainer
 The Candidate.
 When communicating ‘Not Yet Competent’ decisions to candidates – this process should
include:
 Discussing, identifying and organising follow-up additional training
 Deciding and arranging on additional assessment required
 Accessing and reviewing the assessments which were undertaken and the evidence
obtained as a result
 Notifying the candidate of any Appeals Process the Training Provider has in place
allowing the student to contest/challenge the decision or in the event they have a
complaint about how the assessment was conducted
 Agreeing on the decision made by the Assessor.
 Validation processes (internal meetings between Assessors, Moderation, Engagement
with industry groups and similar other activities) should be established and implemented
– to maintain the quality and consistence of assessment and decisions made
 The decision made must be recorded – and the assessment process/procedures also
need to be reviewed with a view to continual improvement.

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Providing feedback to candidates


After assessments have been undertaken it is standard practice for the Assessor to meet
with each candidate and present and discuss their result.
The following provides a basis for conducting these sessions:
 Welcome the candidate to the session
 Ask the candidate how they feel they performed – those who
achieve a NYC outcome usually know this and asking this
question allows them to acknowledge their deficiencies without
the Assessor having to point them out.
What the candidate says can provide a useful starting point for
the support/discussion which follows – generally speaking, candidates tend to be more
critical about their performances than the evidence suggests.
 Reinforce positive aspects of their performance – it is important for this feedback session
to be a positive experience for the students so it is important Assessors are able to point
to the encouraging and up-beat
 Ask where they think they can improve – again, candidates are often well aware of
where they need extra work, practice, training or study.
The fact the candidate identifies these deficiencies helps invest them in the work
necessary in the process of gaining the competencies still required.
 Discuss specific problem areas – and identify why they are an issue in relation to the
PC/NYC decision and in terms of what is required by industry/workplaces
 If necessary, discuss further evidence required – and negotiate when and how this is to
be obtained
 Inform the candidate of the decision with reference to the evidence which is available –
and gain their agreement or note their comments regarding the decision
 Discuss gaps in relation to the NYC decision – discussing possible training solutions to
address these gaps
 Arrange a training plan – to reflect the agreed/required training
 Review the assessment process with the candidate
 Ask for feedback from the candidate – about issues such as:
 Types of assessment methods used
 Timing of and venues for the assessment activities
 Role of the Trainer and the Assessor
 Any topics deemed relevant by the candidate.
 Close on a positive note – which can entail:
 Mentioning the good work they have demonstrated
 Encouraging them in their future endeavours
 Advising of the action the assessor will take after the meeting to facilitate/enable the
decisions agreed on
 Thanking the candidate for their attendance.

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2.4 Evaluate an ASEAN assessment


Introduction
Assessors need to evaluate their assessments in
order to learn lessons for future reference and to
assist in validation procedures.
This section looks at activities required following
assessment including completion of paperwork,
identifies and discusses the areas which need to be
evaluated and talks about the need to share results
and findings of the evaluation process.

Completion of required assessment records


All assessments require completion of a range of documentation.
Assessors will be required to complete the Competency Recording Sheet and may be
required to complete internal and/or external reports as required by the Training Provider
and/or authorities or employers.
Competency Recording Sheet
The Competency Recording Sheet is the final document provided in every Assessor Manual.
It is used to record the assessment which has been undertaken/completed for each
candidate.
One Competency Recording Sheet needs to be prepared by
the Assessor for every candidate for every Unit. This
document:
 Is provided in the same format for all Competencies
 Provides a central location for the evidence captured
during assessments to be recorded
 Is the main reference point for making the final Pass
Competent/Not yet Competent decision
 Contains room to enter:
 Student and Assessor name
 Dates assessment commenced and was completed
 Follow-up action required by student in the event they initially failed to achieve
competency
 Observations made by the Assessor about the candidate and/or the assessment
process – if deemed necessary/appropriate
 Indication of the types of assessment used to capture evidence on a Performance
Criteria-by- Performance Criteria basis
 Signatures (with dates) of:
– Assessor – to authenticate the document
– Candidate – to verify their assessment has been given to and explained to
them.

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A section titled ‘Instructions for Recording Competency’ is contained at the start every
Assessor Manual.
Internal and/or external documentation
The Training Provider may require completion of internal reports which can ask the Assessor
to provide:
 Numbers of candidates assessed
 Names of the Competency Standards and Qualifications involved
 Names of candidates
 Outcomes of the assessments
 Details of issues/problems encountered as part of the
assessment procedures
 Suggestions to enhance/improve the assessment
process – such as:
 Topics for investigation
 Recommendations for additional/different resources and/or support.
 Details of resources used – which can relate to:
 Time needed by the Assessor for the assessment process (planning, conduct and
post- assessment activities)
 Budget/s
 Consumables.
Attendance rolls
In some cases there may be a need for the Assessor to complete an internal Attendance
Roll showing attendances and/or absences of candidates in relation to scheduled
assessment sessions.
Possible external requirements
External authorities, agencies and/or employers can also require Assessors to provide
information.
The information they require will be similar to the details
identified above with employers often making
enquiries/asking about:
 The attitude, motivation, behaviour of their staff who are
engaged with the training/assessment
 Trainer and Assessor input regarding the suitability of
certain employees for things such as:
 Ongoing work – for example, converting staff from casual to full-time or converting a
staff member from ‘probationary’ to ‘permanent’
 Promotion – to different roles and responsibilities.
 Attendance – in terms of attending for training and for assessments.

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Processing of documents
Completed records may need to be:
 Filed for future reference
 Shared with others – Trainers, other Assessors, administrators, nominated others
 Forwarded to a designated person or department – for their use or processing.

Evaluation of assessment environment used


Assessors should reflect on the assessment environments used by asking a series of
questions such as:
 Did the assessment environment match the training environment?
 Did the assessment environment reflect the workplace environment?
 Was the assessment environment safe?
 Was the location of the assessment environment convenient and accessible?
 Were there any problems accessing assessment environments when required?
 Did the assessment environment provide a secure/private location for the candidate?

Evaluation of resources used


Assessors must also spend time considering the resources they used to conduct the
assessments they applied.
Again the process needs to revolve around a series of relevant questions.
This consideration needs to take into account:
 Were there sufficient resources available to enable the assessment to occur as planned?
 Did Trainers allow Assessors access to resources used as part of the training process?
 Did the resources reflect those used as part of the training process?
 Were the resources reflective of what is used in industry?
 Were the resources safe?
 Was the budget sufficient to support the required level of assessment and, where
necessary, extra training where NYC decisions were made?

Evaluation of personal approach and


orientation
This focuses on the Assessor and their performance in the total
assessment process.
Examination of this aspect must look at:
 Was there sufficient communication with:
 Trainers?
 Other Assessors?
 Employers?

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 Did the Assessor communicate well with candidates and advise them suitable regarding
all relevant elements of the assessment process?
 Did the Assessor create a safe and positive assessment environment for the
assessments which encouraged and supported candidate work?
 Was the Assessor fair, approachable, honest and respectful when dealing with
candidates? Or was the Assessor biased, vindictive or prejudiced in the way they
handled the assessment of and/or dealings with certain candidates?
 Was the Assessor professional in their approach in terms of:
 Did they set up and prepare properly for each assessment?
 Was sufficient time allocated to planning for assessments?
 Did they use professional language when interacting with candidates?
 Was their personal presentation and appearance appropriate and professional?

Evaluation of assessment activities/items and procedures used


Analysis/evaluation should consider:
 Assessment methods used:
 Were they appropriate to what needed to be assessed and the evidence which had
to be obtained in order to make the PC/NYC decision?
 Were the methods cost-effective and time-effective?
 Did the assessment methods used reflect what the candidates were told to expect?
 Did they generate evidence which aligned with the Rules of Evidence and Principles
of CBA?
 What aspects of the items used can be re-used next time or used elsewhere (or
modified) for use in the assessment of other Competency Standards?
 Paper-based resources/assessment tools:
 Were there sufficient copies of tests, written questions, assignments and similar to
ensure all candidates received a copy at the appropriate time?
 Were there spelling mistakes or errors which need attention?
 Did these documents genuinely reflect what the Trainer and Assessor told the
candidates they could expect in relation to the assessment that would be applied to
them?
 Did the documents really assess the requirements of the Competency Standard as
identified in the planning stage of the assessment process?
 Did the resources capture the evidence expected in order to allow/enable the
PC/NYC decision?

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Evaluation of assessment decisions


The evaluation needs to address
 Was the correct decision made? Why, why not?
 Would another Assessor come to the same
decision using the same evidence which was
captured?
 Would the Assessor make the same decision in
12 months’ time when faced with the same
evidence? Why. Why not?
 Is there a need to use alternative assessment strategies/methods to better obtain
evidence of competency on which to make the decision?
 Was the PC/NYC decision communicated in a timely manner to relevant stakeholders?
 Could the PC/NYC decision be justified when challenged/questioned? Why, why not?
 Did employers/Trainers agree with the PC/NYC decision? Why, why not?

Communication of results and findings


Reasons to communicate
Findings and results are shared in order to:
 Advise others of relevant issues identified during the process so:
 Action can be taken to address them
 Lessons can be learned for future reference.
 Avoid making the same mistakes again – it is
imperative any identified deficiency in
assessment is addressed and rectified next time
 Demonstrate professionalism in the process – by
engaging in self-reflection and evaluation of
personal performance which is indicative of
professionalism
 Comply with policies requiring evaluation of assessments – which may be imposed by
the Training Provider or external authorities
 Maintain integrity of the evaluation process:
 By scrutinising it and holding Assessors accountable for their decisions and for their
actions
 In terms of supporting and informing the validation process.
Relevant persons
The results and findings of assessment evaluations may need to be shared with:
 Trainers
 Other Assessors
 Employers.

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The sharing process


Where outcomes and findings need to be communicated the traditional ways of doing this
are:
 Writing/publishing a report – and disseminating among peers
 Talking about the evaluation – at staff and management meetings
 Holding ‘information sessions’ for groups of Assessors – in which:
 The methodology of the evaluation are described
 Outcomes/findings are explained
 Lessons learned as they will/might apply to practice are shared.
 Conducting small group or one-on-one sessions – with interested parties who have a
special interest in the findings or who have expressed interest in learning more and/or
applying what has been learned.

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Work Projects
It is a requirement of this Unit you complete Work Projects as advised by your Trainer. You
must submit documentation, suitable evidence or other relevant proof of completion of the
project to your Trainer by the agreed date.

2.1 For a given ASEAN CATC Toolbox Competency, using provided templates, compile a
National Assessor Assessment Portfolio to include:

1. Copy of the competency or evidence of where to locate a copy of the


competency
2. Evidence that you understand the construction of an ASEAN competency
standard, and can identify what to assess in a competency standard
3. Evidence that you have knowledge of the difference between assessment
methods and an assessment tool
4. Evidence of your knowledge of the principles of assessment
5. Evidence of your Knowledge of the rules of evidence
6. Evidence of your ability to distinguish between Direct, Indirect and
Supplementary evidence
7. Copy of an assessment matrix for a given competency standard
8. A completed assessment strategy map
9. A completed recognition of prior learning (RPL) case study.
10. Evidence that you have conducted an assessment (within a time frame of
between 20-30 minutes) to include:
 A completed Assessment Decision Grid
 Copy of 6 to 8 oral interview questions to be asked of the candidate
 Copy of 6 to 8 written interview questions and answers to be asked of the
candidate
 An Observation Checklist

2.2. For the Competency used as the basis for Work Project 2.1 evaluate the assessment
and provide evidence you have:

 Evaluated the assessment environment used


 Evaluated the resources used
 Evaluated the your personal approach and orientation
 Evaluated the assessment activities/items and procedures used
 Evaluated the assessment decision/s made.

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Summary
Implement assessment of an ASEAN Competency Standard

When implementing assessment of an ASEAN Competency Standard:


 Confirm competency standard assessment requirements
 Obtain, review and learn about the Competency Standard to be assessed
 Confirm the requirements of the Competency Standard to be assessed
 Liaise with the Trainer/s
 Determine the assessment approach to be taken and the assessment methods and tools to be
used
 Develop an Assessment Plan, an Assessment Matrix and an Assessment Decision Grid as
appropriate
 Use the assessment tools provided in the Toolbox or develop suitable alternatives
 Schedule the assessment activities
 Organise the assessment environment
 Communicate and confirm assessment requirements with candidates and Trainers
 Gather quality evidence during assessments
 Observe the principles of CBA
 Abide by the Rules of Evidence for Competency Based Assessment
 Verify assessments with candidates before starting
 Support candidates during assessments
 Follow the Assessment Plan
 Apply RPL where applicable
 Make the assessment decision based on objective evidence
 Capture additional evidence if required
 Communicate and discuss the assessment decision providing feedback to candidates
 Evaluate the assessment process and share the findings to learn lessons for future reference,
support validation processes and avoid repetition of previous mistakes.

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Presentation of written work

Presentation of written work


1. Introduction
It is important for students to present carefully prepared written work. Written presentation
in industry must be professional in appearance and accurate in content. If students
develop good writing skills whilst studying, they are able to easily transfer those skills to
the workplace.

2. Style
Students should write in a style that is simple and concise. Short sentences
and paragraphs are easier to read and understand. It helps to write a plan
and at least one draft of the written work so that the final product will be
well organised. The points presented will then follow a logical sequence
and be relevant. Students should frequently refer to the question asked, to
keep ‘on track’. Teachers recognise and are critical of work that does not
answer the question, or is ‘padded’ with irrelevant material. In summary,
remember to:
 Plan ahead
 Be clear and concise
 Answer the question
 Proofread the final draft.

3. Presenting Written Work


Types of written work
Students may be asked to write:
 Short and long reports
 Essays
 Records of interviews
 Questionnaires
 Business letters
 Resumes.

Format
All written work should be presented on A4 paper, single-sided with a left-hand margin. If
work is word-processed, one-and-a-half or double spacing should be used. Handwritten
work must be legible and should also be well spaced to allow for ease of reading. New
paragraphs should not be indented but should be separated by a space. Pages must be
numbered. If headings are also to be numbered, students should use a logical and
sequential system of numbering.

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Presentation of written work

Cover Sheet
All written work should be submitted with a cover sheet stapled to the front that contains:
 The student’s name and student number
 The name of the class/unit
 The due date of the work
 The title of the work
 The teacher’s name
 A signed declaration that the work does not involve plagiarism.

Keeping a Copy
Students must keep a copy of the written work in case it is lost. This rarely happens but it
can be disastrous if a copy has not been kept.

Inclusive language
This means language that includes every section of the population. For instance, if a
student were to write ‘A nurse is responsible for the patients in her care at all times’ it
would be implying that all nurses are female and would be excluding male nurses.
Examples of appropriate language are shown on the right:

Mankind Humankind

Barman/maid Bar attendant

Host/hostess Host

Waiter/waitress Waiter or waiting staff

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Recommended reading

Recommended reading
NCVER PUBLICATIONS
The following are available from the National Centre for Vocational Education Research at
NCVER, All publications, 2014,
http://www.ncver.edu.au/wps/portal/vetdataportal/pubs/menu/search/!ut/p/a1/04_Sj9CPykssy
0xPLMnMz0vMAfGjzOI9DY2cPTxMDLwszB3NDDzNTQ1DDQIMDAxCTYEKIoEKAjzczYyc
QAo8fA0MPP2Cg9x8XYONDQzMiNNvgAM4GhDSH64fBVaCywVm5lAFuMzwNSVgAsgPY
AV4HFmQGxphkOmZDgCzBoES/dl5/d5/L2dBISEvZ0FBIS9nQSEh/?hitstart=682&term=all
viewed 27th of May, 2014
See also www.ncver.edu.au/.
(1) Competency Based Training

Structures in tertiary education and training: a kaleidoscope or merely fragments?


Research readings 24 Jun 2013

In this eclectic collection of papers, 13 essayists and four high-profile discussants consider
the complexity of the tertiary education system and its underlying structures.

VET and the diffusion and implementation of innovation in the mining, solar energy
and computer games sectors 30 Aug 2011

This report examines the linkages between innovation and skills development in vocational
education and training (VET) across three industry sectors: mining, solar energy and
computer gaming.
Using a case study approach, the research finds that each of the industry sectors differs in
their relationship between innovation and the education and training system. However, the
formal VET system is seen as being very important in teaching the underlying skills and
knowledge of a vocation.
In contrast, informal on-the-job learning imparts the actual skills for innovation, but based on
what was learnt formally. The VET system is seen as being slow in responding to new skills
needs; however, whether this represents a bad thing is debatable.

Responding to changing skill demands: training packages and accredited courses 2


Dec 2010

This report looks at whether vocational education and training (VET) is equipped to meet the
changing needs of the modern workplace.

Some ideas from England: A practitioner's perspective 9 Jul 2009

This paper was presented by Robin Shreeve at the NCVER Research on Toast seminar in
March 2009.
It briefly compares the vocational education and training (VET) sector in Australia with its
equivalent in England, which is known as the skills or further education sector.
The paper then outlines two key aspects of the English VET sector which might be of use to
Australia: using course completion rates as a key performance measure at all levels of the

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Recommended reading

VET sector; and using vocational 'foundation degrees' as a way for students to articulate
between the VET and higher education sectors

Competence and competency-based training: What the literature says 12 Jun 2009

This literature review provides a historical account of the development of competency-based


training in Australia and summarises the issues arising from the range of reviews conducted
on elements of the national training system.
The review was commissioned by the National Quality Council and originally published on its
website.

Employer engagement with the vocational education and training system in


Australia 9 Apr 2009

This paper is a review of literature on employer engagement with vocational education and
training (VET).
The main conclusion is that the major form of engagement is through the competency-based
training system, which is manifested through training packages. Another way employers are
encouraged to engage with VET is through competition amongst training providers. This
provides employers with greater responsiveness and choice.

Getting the knowledge-skills mix right in high-level vocational education and training
qualifications 12 Feb 2009

This paper aims to contribute to the discussion on the quality and accessibility of
underpinning knowledge in competency-based training. It uses the Vocational Graduate
Certificate and the Vocational Graduate Diploma in Education Design in a Queensland TAFE
institute to examine how the 'traditional' knowledge and theory associated with higher-level
qualifications can be accommodated within the framework of competency-based training and
assessment.
The paper raises some interesting, and provocative, questions about the status and value of
these qualifications by comparison with their university counterparts.

Creating place: Design education as vocational education and training 16 Sep 2008

Design is an increasingly important component of our world-at-work. This project reveals the
views of design educators working within vocational education and training (VET).
Research participants called for a review of design education teaching methods in the VET
context, with a particular focus on promoting innovation and creativity in diploma level
programs.

Accelerated apprenticeships: Apprentice, employer and teaching staff perceptions 8


May 2008

This research examined recent pilots of accelerated apprenticeships in the automotive


industry in Queensland.
Interviews with apprentices, employers and teachers showed that the traditional model is still
well regarded. It is not failing, but does require evolutionary change.

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Effective models of employment-based training 8 May 2008

Australia needs highly skilled workers to sustain a healthy economy. Current employment-
based training models have limitations in meeting the demands for highly skilled labour
supply.
The research explored current and emerging models of employment-based training to
propose more effective models at higher VET qualifications that can maintain a balance
between institution and work-based learning.
(2) Competency Based Assessment

Lessons and challenges: Vocational education in schools - Research overview 21 Dec


2005

A stocktake of issues and activities in vocational education and training in schools through
the perspectives of the published literature and policy documentation between 1997 and
2003 is the subject of this report.
It identifies progress made and concludes that vocational programs in schools are meeting
expectations and have achieved a legitimate place in the school curriculum, but that several
implementation issues remain

Assessing and certifying generic skills: What is happening in vocational education


and training? 5 Sep 2003

Assessing generic skills in a selection of training packages is the focus of this report. Based
on case studies, the authors also examine how these skills are understood by trainers and
learners. The report contains a comprehensive literature review of assessment of generic
skills.

The development of quality online assessment in vocational education and training:


Volume 1 13 May 2003

The use and potential of online assessment is investigated in this report. It identifies: *the
principles of quality assessment *assessment practices that can be supported with online
technologies *methods and tools that work *factors that influence choice and design on
online assessment methods.
The report is published in two volumes. Volume 1 is the main report and volume 2 contains
the appendices and is available in PDF format only.

Graded assessment in vocational education and training: An analysis of national


practice, drivers and areas for policy development 14 Jan 2003

Graded assessment in Australian vocational education and training has developed a range
of practices.
This study examines the current practice for graded assessment and identifies policy issues
that need to be addressed. Areas studied include validity, reliability and consistency,
associated costs, and cross-sectoral concerns.

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Improving the validity of competency-based assessment 15 Aug 2001

This study considers the status of validity in the context of the assessment of VET in
Australia.
The project has involved reviewing the literature, reporting the outcomes of case studies,
presenting the key findings and developing a diagnostic tool to guide assessors.

The changing role of staff development for teachers and trainers in vocational
education and training 5 Jul 2001

This report analyses the changing parameters of staff development that are emerging from
the changing environment of VET in Australia.
It illuminates the changed structure of the VET workforce and the differentiation of the roles
of practitioners across different types of registered training organisations and it identifies the
implications of such changes for the future design of staff development.

Not just falling over the line? A snapshot of competency-based assessment 11 Jun
1999

This report explores whether competency-based assessment is meeting the needs of its
users. The researchers found that a number of issues were raised by those consulted in the
project.
These included grading (the need to bridge the gap between competence and excellence),
the quality of competency standards and their treatment of underpinning knowledge, who are
appropriate assessors, and what resources are needed to support assessment. The report
puts forward strategies to improve competency-based assessment. These strategies are
directed at policy-makers, ITABs and registered training organisations.

Assessing in VET: Issues of reliability and validity - Review of research 11 Jun 1999

This review of research reviews both the Australian discussion papers on reliability and
validity of competency-based assessment as well as international empirical research in this
field.
The review discusses two types of competency-based assessment - paper-based objective
testing techniques and performance assessments as well as the implications for validity and
reliability of each type of assessment. The review includes guidelines for establishing
procedures to enhance reliability and validity.

The 'grade' debate: Should we grade competency-based assessment? 11 Jun 1996

Deals with the pros and cons of 'grading', that is, assessing and reporting levels of
performance in competency-based VET.
Existing policies and practices are examined in the light of current practices. A must for all
those involved in competence-based assessment.

Key aspects of competency-based assessment 11 Jun 1995

A collection of papers for a wide audience within the VET sector who are tackling the issue
of assessment and RPL in the workplace.
Includes: research in competency-based assessment (CBA); assessment of knowledge,
attitudes and values; peer; self- assessment; and needs of special workers.

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OTHER RESOURCES
http://lrrpublic.cli.det.nsw.edu.au/lrrSecure/Sites/Web/13289/resources/competency_based.h
tm - Containing lists and links of useful publications and websites
http://www.dhs.vic.gov.au/funded-agency-channel/management-toolkit/workforce/education-
and-training/types/competency-based-training-and-assessment - What is Competency
Based Training? What is a unit of competency? What is Competency Based Assessment?
http://www.training.qld.gov.au/resources/employers/pdf/competency-based-guide.pdf -
Competency Based Training and assessment: A guide for employers, apprentices and
trainees
http://www.education.vic.gov.au/training/employers/apprentices/pages/competencyfaq.aspx -
Competency Based Completion: FAQs
http://www.avetra.org.au/abstracts_and_papers_2000/rb_full.pdf - Abstracts and papers on
CBT and CBA
Rothwell, W.J., & Graber, J.M., 2010, Competency-Based Training Basics, ASTD Press,
Alexandria, VA.

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Trainee evaluation sheet

Trainee evaluation sheet


Train the Trainer – ASEAN National Assessor
The following statements are about the competency you have just completed.

Don’t Do Not Does Not


Please tick the appropriate box Agree
Know Agree Apply

There was too much in this competency to cover


without rushing.

Most of the competency seemed relevant to me.

The competency was at the right level for me.

I got enough help from my trainer.

The amount of activities was sufficient.

The competency allowed me to use my own


initiative.

My training was well-organised.

My trainer had time to answer my questions.

I understood how I was going to be assessed.

I was given enough time to practice.

My trainer feedback was useful.

Enough equipment was available and it worked well.

The activities were too hard for me.

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Trainee evaluation sheet

The best things about this unit were:

___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

The worst things about this unit were:

___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

The things you should change in this unit are:

___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

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Trainee self-assessment checklist

Trainee self-assessment checklist


As an indicator to your Trainer/Assessor of your readiness for assessment in this unit
please complete the following and hand to your Trainer/Assessor.

Train the Trainer – ASEAN National Assessor

Yes No*

Element 1: : Review essentials of vocational training delivery using ASEAN Toolboxes

1.1 Identify elements underpinning the Toolbox project

Define Competency Based Training and Competency Based


1.2
Assessment

1.3 Characterise role of ASEAN national trainers and assessors

1.4 Detail structure of vocational training using ASEAN Toolboxes

1.5 Describe assessment-related elements of an ASEAN Toolbox

Element 2: Implement assessment of an ASEAN Competency Standard

2.1 Detail competency standard assessment requirements

2.2 Plan and prepare for assessment of an ASEAN Competency Standard

2.3 Conduct assessment of an ASEAN Competency Standard

2.4 Evaluate an ASEAN assessment

Statement by Trainee:
I believe I am ready to be assessed on the following as indicated above:

Signed: _____________________________ Date: ____________

Note:
For all boxes where a No* is ticked, please provide details of the extra steps or work you
need to do to become ready for assessment.

© ASEAN 2016
Trainee Manual 125
Train the Trainer – ASEAN National Assessor
Trainee self-assessment checklist

© ASEAN 2016
126 Trainee Manual
Train the Trainer – ASEAN National Assessor