A NEWSENSORLESS THRUST CONTROL OF LINEAR INDUCTION MOTOR

Hybng-Min Ryu, Jug-Ik H ,and Seung-Ki Sul a
School of Electrical Engineering Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea Phone: +82-2-880-725 1-ext.104, Fax:+82-2-878-1452 E-mail: hmryu@eepel.snu.ac.k, Web http://eepel.snu.ac.kr

Absrraa

- This paper presents the field-oriented thrust control of a linear induction motor without flux or speed sensor. The induction motor is structurally symmetrical but It has the difference of the reluctances between the flux axis and the quadrature axis due to the main flux saturation. This electrical saliency can be utilized to estimate an instantaneous flux angle by high frequency signal injection. In the case of rotary induction motor, it has been verified that this high frequency signal injection method gives reasonable torque controllability at zero or low stator frequency even under heavily loaded condition. In this paper, it is shown that the electrical saliency also exists in the linear induction motor and the comparison with the rotary induction motor is described. I ” this result, ? the sensorless field-oriented thrust control of a linear induction motor in low operating frequency region Is presented and the sensorless control in overall frequency range is implemented by the combination with an adaptive observer.
NOMENCLATURE
Primary value in stationaryreference frame.

Secondary value in stationary reference frame. Primary value in primary synchronous reference frame. Secondary value in primary synchronous reference frame. Primary value in secondary synchronous reference frame. Secondary value in secondary synchronous reference frame. Primary transient inductance. (= L,- L“:/&) Primary current on measurement axis.
I. INTRODUCTION

of linear motor. B t this makes the system size large and u, reduces the over-all system efficiency. Especially the torque ripple due to backlash results in the fundamental limitation of control performance. Recently, the high frequency signal injection method based on electrical saliency at the injected high frequency region has been proposed[3]. The induction motor is structurally symmetrical but it has the difference of the reluctances between the flux axis and the quadrature axis due to the main flux saturation. This electrical saliency results in the difference of high frequency impedance according to the injection angle when high frequency signal is injected. Therefore, an instantaneous flux angle can be estimated using the difference of high frequency impedance. In the case of rotary induction motor, it has been verified that this algorithm gives reasonable torque controllability at zero or low stator frequency even under heavily loaded condition. In this paper, it is shown that the electrical saliency exists also in the linear induction motor and the comparison with the rotary induction motor is described. From this result, the sensorless thrust control of linear induction motor based on high frequency signal injection method is presented and the sensorless thrust control in overall frequency range is implemented by the combination with an adaptive observer[4-5]. If the linear induction motor driven by the proposed method is applied to a linear motion system, the system size can be greatly reduced compared with the system that uses the rotary induction motor and the mechanical transformer. Moreover, the system cost can be reduced because the expensive linear position sensor or the hall sensQr for the detection of flux position is not necessary.

U. ELECTRICAL SALIENCY OF LINEAR INDUCTION MOTOR
Linear induction motor has generally low efficiency and poor power factor compared to rotary induction motor[ 1-21. Moreover, it has nonlinear phenomenon due to the end effect and requires the expensive linear position sensor. The cost of linear position sensor increases proportionally to the length of rail. For these reasons, the rotary motor and the mechanical transformer, which changes from rotary motion to linear motion, have been utilized for linear motion system instead

A. Comparison with Rotary Induction Motor
Fig. 1 explains the difference in high frequency impedance of a linear induction motor in the synchronous d-q axes reference frame due to main flux saturation. Since the teeth of primary core where the main flux passes are easily saturated, the reluctance in teeth of d-axis is greater than that of q-axis. If the high frequency signal is injected at q-axis, the resultant leakage flux will be distributed around d-axis because the q-

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Authorized licensed use limited to: Annamalai University. Downloaded on September 17, 2009 at 06:12 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

Lm L2 (3) where the superscript '' means the secondary flux-oriented s synchronous reference fiame.L& s i n 8 + L&. (iil cos8 .l . The relations between the primary flux and the where the angle 8 is defined as the difference from the primary flux angle to the flux angle.lcos0 .~ . = 0..Primary Core secondary flux in stationary reference frame can be written as followings: 4 4. The leakage flux due to the high frequency signal injection crosses the air-gap and passes along the skin of rotor because the length of air-gap is smaller than the half of one slot length as shown in Fig.2.4 4.I -4if. which is equivalent to the rotor flux oriented control in case of the rotary induction motor. where the subscript 1 means the primary side and the subscript 2 means the secondary side. the difference of the reluctances in the skin of rotor has some effects on the electrical saliency.. L 2 L m (4) Control _. the flux angle compensation is required for secondary flux-oriented control. Electrical saliency of a linear induction motor in high frequency reDon due to the main flux saturation.2= -. which is oriented at secondary flux axis.(i. Therefore.if. In the case of linear induction motor. From the condition of constant flux control. the following equations in secondary synchronous reference fiarne. axis primary winding is located at d-axis. Downloaded on September 17. = . the skin between the air-gap and the rotor bar at d-axis is easily saturated by the main flux. are satisfied. ifi. sin e + il. the length of air-gap is much larger compared to the case of rotary induction motor and there is no ferromagnetic material between the air-gap and the a l u " plate.-OL. Equation (1) in the stationary reference frame can be transformed to the following equations in primary s~chronousreference which is Oriented at the primary flux axis. =m - Backlron Fig I . 2009 at 06:12 from IEEE Xplore.. (2) F i g 2 Electrical saliency of a rotary induction motor.i.. Therefore. From (3) and rotary transformation. = L.(z'..1. the high frequency impedance in q-axis is smaller than that in d-axis.:lcos8 . = -( 4 1 . sin0 = L. cos e).i. Therefore. B.i12sin 0) cos0 = L. Restrictions apply.isl sin e)+ L. Flux Angle Compensation for Secondary Flux-Oriented where the superscript 'p' means the primary flux-oriented synchronous reference frame.l). the electrical saliency is only due to the difference of the reluctances in primary core. he tangent of the angle 0 can be terms of the thrust-producingcurrentas: merefore. - Since the estimated flux angle corresponds to the primarY flux angle. if. (2) can be written only in terms of primary currents in secondary synchronous reference fiame as: A:. . Lm (1) jlr12 =%. In the case of rotary induction motor. in 1656 Authorized licensed use limited to: Annamalai University.

' %.h)1 2 juh (L. the resistance is sufficiently small compared to the impedance due to the leakage inductance at the injection frequency of some hundreds Hz. Therefore. Downloaded on September 17. where z . the linear relation between the flux angle error and the thrust-producing current can be obtained as followings: e* Ldh Lq. where the d" and q" -axis are the angles lagging behind and leading to the estimated d-axis by nI4 radians respectively. Restrictions apply.3 shows the implementation of flux angle compensator..t is injected. the high fluctuating frequency voltage signal is injected on the estimated d-axis and then the currents are measured on the orthogonal measurement axes. 2009 at 06:12 from IEEE Xplore.5 represents the relation between the real flux angle and the estimated flux angle in the synchronous reference frame.&+ Lf. High frequency voltage injection and currents measurement. For tracking of flux angle..4. 9 (7) In high frequency region. % j q (L. + z = . the high frequency currents are not same and the polarity in the difference of high frequency currents indicates the direction of real flux angle. the high frequency currents on both measurement axes will have the same magnitude.. . The df' is the estimated primary flux angle and the 8 is the : estimated secondary flux angle.3. 111..(e)z.. The high frequency impedance can be expressed in terms of the electrical angle 0 like the following.l. Therefore.h .h) 2 1 9 and 0. + mcL. If not. the difference of high frequency currents implies the information about the difference of high frequency impedances. --4 d" (measurement axis) FigS. Flux angle compensator for secondaty flux-oriented control. Equivalent circuit of linear induction motor in high frequency region. 3 (8) zh.Lf. the high fiequency currents at the d" and q"' -axis are written as: 1657 Authorized licensed use limited to: Annamalai University. SENSORLESS THRUST CONTROL A .. . -o.p)i. the equivalent circuit in high frequency region can be regarded as the simple circuit of the leakage inductance as shown in Fig. . &.4. the cross-coupling terms due to back-emf can be neglected in the case of low speed operation. Fig. .il. corresponds to the flux angle(d-axis). the primary voltage equations in the synchronous reference frame can be expressed as: 4 =(R. . d' (injection axis) d' lfrwaxis) .. h l cos2(e -eo) .-t Fig. In addition. The relation between the high frequency current error and the estimated flux angle error can be derived as follows. the currents measured at the d" and q" -axis can be utilized to track the flux angle.e - Fig.OL. (5) With assumption that the angle 6 is sufficiently small in ( 5 ) . If the estimated flux angle is equal to the real one..il. Since the same high frequency voltage is injected on the d"and q"-axis respectively. If Vhsinw.+ 4 P ) i . 1 = (RI + oL. High Frequency Signal Injection Method[2] Under the condition of constant flux control. U Fig.

..6.... stray loss.....7. the difference of square of the magnitudes of the high frequency currents is derived as: where K.. ...... As shown in Fig. the voltage margin of the inverter is a necessary condition for the signal injection.. (16 B. F%-hurter - __I_.. ..... J Fig... additional copper loss..... Errlm can be obtained from the measured currents using the bandpass filter(BPF) and the lowpass fdter(LPF)........ Downloaded on September 17..... (1 1) LIM : .... is the real flux angle and 6 is the estimated one... The bandwidth of the feedback controller is inherently limited by the signal injection.. the transfer function from the real flux angle to the estimated flux angle can be expressed as: Fig. Simplified block diagram of flux angle estimator.... and so on. hysteresis loss.... the estimated flux angular velocity can be obtained as the output and the flux angle 6.... If the time delay in signal process is neglected...8.. z.. 2009 at 06:12 from IEEE Xplore.... The field-oriented thrust control of linear induction motor based on the high frequency signal injection method can be implemented as shown in Fig..__ I I i ! Therefore....8.... i . can be estimated by integration.6.... 1 1' = AV.. g Then.. Pre-processor and correction controller... Combination with Adaptive Observer for Operation in Overall Frequency Range The injected signal results in eddy current loss... 1658 Authorized licensed use limited to: Annamalai University. Restrictions apply...........' %(8-0 ) = K(0 . if ErrZm is used as the input of a proportional controller..... This If the flux angle error is assumed to be sufficiently small.. - ... CO5nI.Fig.Fieldsriented thrust control of linear induction motor based on the high frequency signal injection.7 represents the simplified block diagram of flux angle estimator.l Cemafon CDnmlln . the above equation can be linearized like the following.-.....-..... EwIm = IC!" 1' -'" ..e). Fig.. Especially. is the gain of proportional controller.. where . .

. .......... They are measured using the fluctuating signal in the synchronous reference frame... V</t...9 shows the block diagram of adaptive observer. the difference of high frequency impedance in linear induction motor is examined. Measurement of High Frequency Impedance At the high frequency... The measurement of high frequency impedance according to the various thrust levels is performed under locked condition... The spatial difference of the terminal impedance is measured under various conditions. The high frequency impedance on the primary flux axis is higher than that on any other axis......10.10................... 11. the higher flux level makes the high frequency impedance smaller because of the flux saturation...... The proposed control scheme is implemented by a TMS320C31 DSP...order to get the sufficient signal processing time in the preprocessor. For the overall frequency range operation. Restrictions apply.. PreL ....... As shown in Fig... IV....... The detailed description of sensorless control by the adaptive observer is in [4-51. the tracking scheme based on electrical saliency due to the main flux saturation enables the zero or low frequency operation and the adaptive observer is utilized for high frequency operation... o Fig........... EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS e In the experiments the single-sided linear induction motor and digitally controlled voltage-fed PWM(Pu1se Width Modulation) IPM(Intel1igent Power Module) inverter are used....... Adaptive Observer ............. &/ 1 i .... J i Low Frequency Region i lcjcl Fig......... especially under the loaded condition.. Block diagram of adaptive observer.. Downloaded on September 17.... the estimated flux angle is linearly mixed in order to minimize the transient state and the hysteresis band is used to prevent the chattering.. which has good performance in the region except the low operating frequency.. 1659 Authorized licensed use limited to: Annamalai University................9.... Hence..12 shows that the position of maximum high frequency impedance moves to the right side of the secondary flux position(zer0 degree) as the thrust level increases.......... This may cause a model uncertainty and then increases the possibility of instability... not in secondary.. This result confirms that the electrical saliency in linear induction motor is due to the reluctance difference in primary... Combination method with the adaptive observer....... * t k / l ' T Z ............. 2009 at 06:12 from IEEE Xplore......... the proposed smooth transition method between the high frequency signal lnjection method and the adaptive observer is used...... In this paper.. Hence.I High Frequency Region ........ so does the variation rate of mjection angle. The change between both algorithms occurs at 5Hz of primary frequency................................. Sensorless Thrust Control The machine is operated at the rated flux level and the injected high frequency voltage has the amplitude of m a x i " 60Volts and the frequency of 500Hz.. Fig.......... voltage margin may be a limiting condition to use the signal injection method near the rated frequency and in the fieldweakenlng region of the motor.. A.... The high frequency signal must be injected before the transition in B............. the sensorless field-oriented control is augmented by the adaptive observer........ the signal injection scheme cannot be applied to the high-speed operation and must be supplemented with other scheme... .......... where the voltage margin of the inverter is not available........... In corporated sensorless flux angle estimation. Fig....... As shown in Fig...... the compensation angle propotional t the torque-producing current must be used... The electrical saliency is the physical phenomenon with high nonlinearity because this varies according to the operating point...... .... As the flux angular velocity increases.........

( 1 H. “Linear Induction Drives”.Kubota.14. Downloaded on September 17.13._-I . the thrust reference changes from 75nt to Ont under locked condition. SeptembedOctober.1993. __ . it n reveals that the flux angle tracking by high frequency signal mjection works well under step change of thrust reference. IEEE Trans. REFERENCES V. The ‘Mode’ represents the operating mode: the low operating frequency region using the signal injection(Mode l). Transition between high frequency signal injection method and adaptive observer.2. Gieras.A. 1994. “- - Fig 1 1 High frequency impedance at various flux levels. linear mixing region(Mode 2). fEEE oo Trans. no.. “DSP-based speed adaptive flux 4 observer of induction motor”.K. Fig. on I A . Clarendon Press. 1999. The experimental result has shown that the transition between both algorithms is smooth and then this enables the stable sensorless control in overall frequency range. 4 HQh Frequency Impedance p h m ] 1 I Flux Angle kfl4 240 180 reference *fiW 1 I’ I 1 I .Matsuse and T. Flux Angle Pfl4 -4 4 -BO 0 DO __ J Mode Fig. 1660 Authorized licensed use limited to: Annamalai University. K. The measured thrust is delayed because of the limited bandwidth of load cell and the thrust ripple with frequency that corresponds to two times of fundamental frequency is due to the end effect of the linear induction motor. From this phenomenon. vo1. has been presented. For overall frequency range operation.35 no.“Sensorless field orientation control of an induction machine by high frequency signal injection”. which has good performance in the region [I] Jacek F. vo1. IEEE Trms. the sensorless fieldoriented thrust control of linear induction motor by the high frequency signal injection has been presented and verified by experiments.29. .Boldea. and the high operating frequency region using the adaptive observer(Mode 3).12 High frequency impedance under various thrust references. .-1 Fl -8- 0 Time[sec] 0. This control scheme gives reasonable torque controllability at zero or low operating frequency.pp. on IA. 1976. except the low operating frequency.Nakano. pp. the combination method w t an ih adaptive observer.I. The estimated thrust is calculated from the electrical model of linear induction motor and the load cell is used to measure the real thrust. Dynamic response of thrust control: Step change of thrust reference from rated value to zero.Nasar and I. [3] J. I I -4 To show the thrust controllability of high fiequency signal injection method.. 2009 at 06:12 from IEEE Xplore.CONCLUSION This paper has shown that the electrical saliency due to the flux saturation exists in the linear induction motor and the comparison with the rotary induction motor has been described.Sul. [5] Hisao Kubota and Kouki Matsuse. pp.344348. “Linear Motion Electric Machines”.13.Ha and S. “Speed Sensorless Field-Oriented Control of Induction M t r with Rotor Resistance Adaptation”.5 Fig. Mensured Thrust 100 inti -100 -. on I A . John W l y nnd Sons. 100 -4 I I BO 0 -0° Inbctbn Angle pegme] eo -. I Fig.l. Restrictions apply. no. ie [2] S. 14 shows that the smooth transition between the high frequency signal injection method and the adaptive observer according to the primary frequency is operating when the thrust reference increases linearly under locked condition.5.1219-1224. vo1.I 1: .45-51 . 1994. Mensured -100 100 Thrust I I 0 Time[sec] I 2 lntl -100 Fig.30. 4 100% .

Downloaded on September 17. 2009 at 06:12 from IEEE Xplore. .APPENDIX TABLE I ELECTRICAL RATINGS OF THE LINEAR INDUCllON MOTOR UNDER 'S @T I I Number of phase/uoles VoltagelFrequency Current Thrust Slip frequency SDeed Flux 1 I I 3 220VI60Hz SA I 75 nt 15 Hz I 4. Restrictions apply.4 Ohm Primary Inductance 112 mH Secondary Inductance Mutual Inductance 100 mH 1661 Authorized licensed use limited to: Annamalai University.5 Wb I TABLE 11 MOTOR PARAMETERS OF LINEAR INDUCTION MOTOR Primary Resistance 8.67 mlsec 0.1 Ohm Secondary Resistance 17.

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