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LESSON  5

5.1 DIALOGUE

AT THE CUSTOMS

                              E:  English person returning home                    C: Customs Officer

C - Have you anything to declare?


E - No, nothing.
C - Are you sure about that?
E - Yes I am. I’ve only got the official allowance.
C - Which is?
E - Two hundred cigarettes and a few bottles of whisky.
C - You do know, of course, that you are only allowed to bring one litre of duty-free spirits into the
country!
E - But I’m sure it said three litres on the boat!
C - I’m afraid you are mistaken, sir. The limit is one litre for spirits and two for wine... Could you step
aside while we take a look at your luggage?
E - I assure you it wasn’t intentional.
C - Intentional or not, it’s against the law, and the law is the same for everybody. It’s no use pleading
ignorance, there will be duty to pay.
E - Do you know how much?
C - We’ll work that out later. Let’s start with the large suitcase... I see you’ve got a rather nice camera.
Did you buy it in the U.K. or abroad?
E - In England!
C - Well, you will have no problem in producing the receipt then, will you?
E - But it’s at home! Who carries receipts with them when they go on holiday?
C - Well, you are supposed to, if you are taking any foreign-made electrical or photograhic
appliances out of the country with a value of over thirty pounds. I’m afraid you’ll have to pay duty on
that, too.
E - I don’t think it’s fair play at all!
Vocabulary

customs = vama
customs officer = vames
to declare = a declara
official allowance = autorizare vamala
duty-free = fara taxe
spirits = bauturi alcoolice, spirtoase
to be mistaken = a se insela, a gresi
luggage = bagaje (nu se foloseste niciodata la plural)
against the law = ilegal; impotriva legii
intentional = intentionat
to plead = a pleda
to pay customs duty = a plati taxe vamale
to work out = a calcula
suitcase = geamantan
camera = aparat foto
abroad = strainatate
a receipt = chitanta
electrical appliances = aparate electrice
fair play = joc cinstit, corect
goods = bunuri
Excise Duty = accize, taxe indirecte
VAT (Value Added Tax) = TVA
notice = nota(de informare), aviz
to issue = a emite
on condition that = cu conditia ca
importer = importator
to complete = a incheia, a termina
solely = exclusiv, numai
residence permit = permis de rezidenta
work permit = permis de munca
out of date = expirat
border = frontiera, granita

EXTRA VOCABULARY

Common Market = Piata Comuna


customs formalities = formalitati vamale
embassy = ambasada
foreigner = cetatean strain
in transit = in tranzit
smuggler = contrabandist
to be refused entry = a nu fi lasat sa treaca frontiera
to cross the border = a trece frontiera
to export = a exporta
to import = a importa
to seize = a prinde
to smuggle = a face contrabanda
5.2  Grammar Present  Perfect

Forma
Prezentul Perfect se formeaza din prezentul verbului “to have” si participiul trecut
(forma a 3-a) al verbului.
Exemplu:
            I  have  drunk                             Have you read?          I have not read
           He/She/It has drunk                    Has he read?             He has not read

Intrebuintare
Prezentul perfect exprima:
1. O actiune terminata intr-un moment (a. neprecizat sau b. vag precizat) din
trecut, actiune strans legata de prezent prin rezultatul ei vizibil in prezent.
a) Moment neprecizat ( Rezultat vizibil in prezent).
Exemple:
             I’ve  washed my hands. ( They are clean now.)
            I’ve  read  Hamlet. ( Now I know the play.)

b) Moment vag precizat cu ajutorul adverbelor de timp just, yet si already.


(Rezultat vizibil in prezent.)
Exemple:
          - Have you translated that text yet?
          - Yes, I’ve just  translated it. /  No, I  haven’t  translated  yet.

          - Haven’t  you translated  that  easy  text  yet ?


          - Why, I’ve already  translated  three texts.
            sau:  “Why, I’ve translated  three texts already.  

Nota !  Din exemplele de mai sus rezulta urmatoarele:


just  se intrebuinteaza numai la afirmativ si se aseaza intre auxiliar si participiul
trecut al verbului de conjugat.
yet   se intrebuinteaza atat la interogativ cat si la negativ si se aseaza intotdeauna
la sfarsitul propozitiei.
already  se intrebuinteaza de regula numai la afirmativ si se aseaza fie intre
auxiliar si participiul trecut al verbului de conjugat, fie la sfarsitul propozitiei.

2. O actiune terminata intr-un moment din trecut, moment care apartine unei
perioade de timp neterminate. Aceasta perioada de timp se exprima de obicei cu
ajutorul adverbului de timp today si al locutiunilor adverbiale this morning, this
afternoon, this evening, this week, this month, this year  asezate la inceputul sau
sfarsitul propozitiei.
Exemple:
        Now it’s 10 a.m. I’ve (already) smoked five cigarettes this morning.
        (Dimineata nu a trecut si s-ar putea sa mai fumez).
         Now it’s 6 p.m. I  smoked five cigarettes this morning.
        (dimineata a trecut)
       dar:
        but I  haven’t smoked  any cigarettes this afternoon
        ( dupa-amiaza nu a trecut, asa ca s-ar putea sa fumez).

        (Ora 11 dimineata)  This morning I’ve translated two texts into English,
         I’ve done all my exercises and I’ve also washed my car .
         (dimineata nu a trecut si s-ar putea sa mai fac si alte lucruri).

3. O actiune inceputa in trecut si care continua pana in prezent (si e posibil sa


continue si in viitor). Aceasta perioada poate fi indicata : a) vag sau b) precis.
a) Perioada precizata vag este indicata cu ajutorul adverbelor de timp ever, never
(care se aseaza intre auxiliar si participiul trecut al verbului), lately (care se aseaza
de obicei la inceputul propozitiilor afirmative), cu ajutorul locutiunilor adverbiale
so far (plasata de regula la sfarsitul propozitiilor afirmative), up to now, up till now,
all this time (la inceputul sau sfarsitul propozitiei), for some time past/now, in
recent years, in/over the last/past few years/months (plasate la inceputul, mijlocul -
intre auxiliar si participiul trecut - sau sfarsitul propozitiilor afirmative si negative.
Exemple:
           - Have  you ever  been to England?
           - No, I’ve never been to England.
           - Yes, I’ve  been to England three times so far.  

           - Have you seen Tom lately?


           - No, I  haven’t seen him lately.

b) Perioada indicata precis se realizeaza cu ajutorul prepozitiilor  for, since si al


locutiunilor adverbiale these ... weeks/months, etc.
Exemple:
            I haven’t seen Tom  for  three weeks.
            I  haven’t been to a film since June.
            I  have been there regularly these three weeks.

Nota! “For” indica lungimea unei perioade de timp (din trecut pana in prezent)
exprimata numeric.
“Since” indica inceputul unei perioade de timp (din trecut pana in prezent)
exprimata mai ales cu ajutorul datelor.
Exemple:
           I  haven’t seen Tom  since Friday.
           I  haven’t seen Tom  for  a long time.

Prezentul perfect este folosit adesea in scrisori.


Exemplu:
             I am sorry I haven’t  written before but I’ve been very busy lately
             as Tom has been away.  
GRAMMAR EXERCISES

1. Puneti verbele din paranteze la prezentul perfect simplu:

 1) Where you (be)?


 2) Dana (not see) her brother for two whole years.
 3) Dan (not see) his wife since he (work) in Germany.
 4) The children (come) yet?
 5) I (not finish) reading “Tess”; may I keep it one more week?
 6) You can stop looking for my glasses, I just (find) them.
 7) You (see) “The Titanic”?
 8) Take it easy: since we (not have) any trouble so far, everything is going
to be OK.
 9) Laura (not call) since she got married.
10) Nothing (change) up to the present, I’m afraid.

2. Completati spatiile libere cu  FOR  sau  SINCE:

1) Nick has been here .......... an hour.


2) We haven’t seen the Martins .......... July.
3) Have you been here ............ a long time?
4) We have been quite busy ....... the last month redecorating the house.
5) What have you been doing .............. yesterday?
6) Tom and John have not spoken to each other .......... they quarrelled.
7) Celia has been working for the firm ........... two years.

3. Completati spatiile libere cu SINCE  sau  FOR. Folositi SINCE  pentru a


indica inceputul perioadei de timp (ex: December, 1950, yesterday, Friday,
etc.) si  FOR  pentru a indica intreaga perioada pana in prezent (ex: two
months, twenty years, a week, three days, a long time):

Model:  The weather has been cold ............ a) December.


                                                         ............ b) a month ago.
             The weather has been cold since December.
             The weather has been cold  for a month ago.

1) The baby has been asleep ............ a) two hours.


                                             ............. b) eight o’clock.
2) I haven’t had a headache ............ a) I changed my glasses.
                                            ............. b) about half a year.
3) Mr. Taylor has worked in the same office ........... a) 1960.
                                                                       ............ b) he was 30 years
old.
4) Mr. Barton hasn’t travelled by train ............. a) three weeks.
                                                              ............. b) he bought a car.
5) Helen has written to us regularly ............. a) a long time.
                                                        ............. b) six years.
6) She hasn’t said anything about it ............. a) lunch.
                                                        .............. b) two hours.
7) I’ve tried to phone him ............ a) the last twenty minutes.
                                         ............. b) I came home.
8) The children haven’t had a swim .............. a) last summer.
                                                         ............... b) almost a year.
9) It has been very cold ........... a) I went out.
                                                  b) early morning.
10) I’ve known that ........... a) ages.
                                ........... b) the last twelve years. 

4. Traduceti in limba engleza, folosind timpul prezent perfect simplu:

1) - Ai platit telefonul?
   - Nu, nu l-am platit inca. / Da, l-am platit ieri.
2) - Ce piese ai mai vazut in ultima vreme?
   - N-am mai vazut nici o piesa din martie. / Am vazut “Hamlet” in
februarie
     trecut.
3) George tocmai a plecat. A plecat cam acum cinci minute.
4) Baietelul Anei a crescut foarte mult de cand nu l-am mai vazut.
5) Familia ei a cumparat o casa in Hammersmith acum trei ani. De atunci
ea locuieste acolo.
6) Cineva mi-a baut cafeaua si mi-a mancat prajitura. 

Loading Present
 Perfect /vs/  Past
Tense...
5.3  PRESENT  PERFECT /VS/  PAST TENSE

1. Completati spatiile libere cu verbe la trecutul simplu sau la prezent perfect


simplu:

Model: (speak)  a) I spoke to Brenda a few days ago.


                          b) I  have spoken to the form teacher about it.

1) (be)  a) We .............. at the theatre two days ago.


            b) We ............... to the circus twice so far.
2)  (have)  a) The children ................. a good time at the school festival last
                     Saturday.
                 b) I ............ just ............ breakfast.
3)  (make)  a) They ............... an interesting experiment.
                  b) We .................. a lot of puppets for a puppet show when we were
                      in the 8th form.
4)  (take)   a) I .................. an umbrella with me.
                 b) It ................ John one hour to get to the centre of the city last
                     night.  
5)  (do)     a) The earthquake .............. a lot of damage to the buildings.
                 b) The trip to the mountains last summer ............... the children a
                     lot of good.
6)  (come) a) My parents .............. to Bucharest in 1960.
                 b) Everyone ................. to the meeting.  

2. Completati spatiile libere cu verbe la trecutul simplu (cand perioada de


timp este terminata) sau la prezentul perfect simplu (cand perioada de timp
nu este terminata):

1)  (be)  Alice .............. ill three times last year. She .................. ill three times  
     this year, too.
2)  (spend)  We ................ our holiday at the seaside this summer.
     Last summer we ............... our holiday in the mountains.
3)  (phone)  Mary ................ her friends this afternoon.
     She ................. them between two and four.
4)  (listen)  I last ................. to this song a month ago.
     I  .............. not .............. to it this month.
5)  (ask)  The pupils .................. the teacher a lot of questions this morning.
     They also ................ a lot of questions yesterday morning.
6)  (do)  We ............ a lot of work at school last term.
    We ................. a lot of work this term, too.
7)  (read)  I first .............. this novel three years ago.
     I  ................. it again during my last holiday.
     This week my sister .................. it.  
8)  (give)  The English teacher ................. us two tests this month.
     He ............... the first test two weeks ago. He .............. the second
     yesterday.
9)  (learn)  Peter ................. to swim in July.  I  ......................... to swim this
     month. 
3. Puneti verbele din paranteza la trecutul simplu sau la prezentul perfect
simplu:

1) “You (meet) Ann?” “Yes, we (meet) at the school festival two weeks ago.”
2) Mr Barton is not here. He (go) out of town for the weekend.
3) This famous writer (write) several novels and last year he (write) a
successful play.
4) The guests (have) a good time ever since their arrival. They (arrive) by plane
three days ago.
5) The students (start) the exercise at 8 o’clock. They (not finish) it yet.
6) I (take) a lot of photographs this holiday but they are not as good as those I
(take) last holiday.
7) Margaret (buy) a pretty dress for her birthday party. She (buy) it at the
“Unirea” department store.
8) I’m sorry. I (forget) his telephone number.
9) Up to now I (understand) every lesson in the book.
10) No one (find) Barbara’s glasses yet. She (lose) them during the Physical
Education lesson.
11) We (receive) his telegram at six o’clock yesterday. We (already, send) him a
special delivery reply.

4. Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza folosind prezentul


perfect simplu acolo unde este necesar:

1) Unde ai fost?
2) Nu l-am vazut pe Dan in ultima vreme.
3) Doris nu poate sa mearga la plimbare acum. Nu si-a facut inca lectiile.
4) De cand esti aici?
5) Ai calatorit vreodata cu avionul?
6) Alice tocmai a plecat.
7) Aceasta este cea mai buna piesa pe care am vazut-o vreodata.
8) N-am mancat niciodata icre negre.
9) - De ce nu porti ochelarii? - I-am pierdut.
10) Nu mai e nimeni aici. Toti au plecat.
11) Ce filme ai mai vazut in ultima vreme?
12) Ati luat micul dejun?