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TIMELINE Renaissance & Florence, Italy

1400 1500 1600 Baroque

1454 Gutenberg 1492 First voy- 1543 Copernicus, 1552 Michael
prints Bible age of Columbus De revolutionibus Servetus: early
from movable to America orbium coeles- research in 5530 Penn Avenue
type tium (heliocentric Europe into Pittsburgh, PA 15206

Renaissance Music
A Study Guide to
model) pulmonary 412-361-2048
1543 Vesalius: circulation

French, “rebirth.” 1450-1600

pioneering re-
search into hu- MISSION: Renaissance
man anatomy and Baroque of Pitts-
ARTS burgh has been the
city’s leading presenter RENAISSANCE MUSIC IN A NUTSHELL
1495 Da Vinci, The 1528 Castiglione, 1590 Spenser,
Last Supper The Courtier The Fairie of early music per-
formances since 1969.
Modern society continues to venerate works of the Renaissance
1503 Da Vinci, Mona 1539 English Bi- Queene,
Its mission is to further masters including Michelangelo, Raphael, Shakespeare, and Leo-
Lisa ble adopted Books 1-3
1504 Michelangelo, 1594 Shake- the education of the nardo da Vinci—masters of art, literature, science, and philosophy.
David speare, Romeo community by foster- This period of history was a “rebirth” of humanism, a movement
1514 Machiavelli, and Juliet ing the understanding that revived ancient learning particularly grammar, rhetoric, po-
The Prince and appreciation of etry, history, and moral philosophy. People were asked to judge
1516 Ariosto, David, 1504 the music, arts and
Mona Lisa, 1503 their lives, artworks, customs, and social and political structures by
Orlando Furioso culture of the Renais- the standards of antiquity. They focused on the fulfillment of life in
EUROPE sance and Baroque,
the present moment, and as a result they were optimistic champi-
and to present histori-
1453 End of Hun- 1517 Martin Luther, 95 1552 Second book of
cally informed per-
ons of reform.
dred Years War theses common prayer
formances of music
1464 Piero de’Medici 1519-
1519-56 Charles V, 1553-
1553-58 Mary I, restores As can be imagined, the humanistic outlook had a profound impact
succeeds Cosimo Holy Roman Emperor Latin rite and link to from the Medieval
on music. Musicians wanted to reclaim the power of the classical
1467 Charles the 1527 Sack of Rome Rome through the Early Clas-
sical periods.
style in music. They thought the purpose of music was to move the
Bold of Burgundy 1532 Henry VIII breaks 1558-
1558-1603 Elizabeth I,
succeeds Philip II (the with Pope restores Church of Eng- listener and made changes to their compositions accordingly. One
Good) 1545-
1545-1563 Council of land PROGRAM: The musi- example is the importance placed on the words and music fitting
1477 Death of Trent 1572 Massacre of Protes- cians performing on together, or music following the rhythm of natural speech. While
Charles the Bold, tants in Paris the concert series ex-
vocal music was still predominant, 16th century composers wrote
End of the Ducy of 1587 Mary Stuart exe- tend their time in Pitts-
burgh to teach, dem- pieces specifically for instruments (the surviving manuscripts are
Burgundy cuted
1485-1603 Tudor onstrate, lecture, and mostly for keyboard) that were modeled after the vocal style and
Dynasty in England Henry VIII, Elizabeth I, Mary Stuart, perform in schools, often written for a consort of similar instruments. (i.e. a group of
1532 1558 1587 universities, medical viols, a group of recorders).
facilities, and concert
halls. Activities are Another significant development in this time period was the shift of
tailored to fit a
arts patronage from the church to the courts. In Italy princes, oli-
school’s current cur-
riculum. garchies, and churches sponsored musicians, creating a flurry of mu-
sical activity and demand for music. With the invention of the
printing press, the first liturgical books were printed in 1473 and
Study Guide created the first collection of polyphonic music was printed in 1501, making
by Mia Bonnewell
music more readily available.
Finally, countries began to form their own musical SPOTLIGHT ON MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
identities. The rise of national styles led to the ability BUZZ WORDS
to distinguish between Italian, German, and French
LUTE: The most popular
music. (This was not the case in the Middle Ages, MASS SETTINGS household solo instrument.
since most Church music was the same style.) With Choral settings of the various Pear shaped, except for a
the Protestant Reformation sacred music also parts of the Catholic mass. In- Spanish version that is shaped
changed—Calvinists sang psalms, Anglicans sang an- tended for church use and some like a guitar.
thems, and Catholics revamped their polyphony in concert performances: Kyrie, Lute tablature: Notation for
the Counter Reformation. The result was develop- Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Benedic- lute showing where the fin-
ment of the chorale and hymn tunes. tus, Agnus Dei. gers were supposed to be on
COMPOSERS OF NOTE: John Dowland (English, the strings, instead of the
1563-1626), known for his lute songs, Giovanni Pier- MOTET pitch to be played.
luigi da Palestrina (Italian, circa 1525-1594), known A sacred vocal composition that
for his polyphonic choral works. is polyphonic (see below) and
sung in Latin without accompa-
niment. These pieces are often KRUMMHORNS
based on a cantus firmus (a fixed (CRUMHORN): A
line or melody in the piece) and ‘bent horn’ that
sung by trained singers. belongs to the
woodwind family.
This double reed
MADRIGAL instrument pro-
Thomas Tallis A secular vocal composition
duces a strong
Thomas Tallis composed music during what has be- with four or five parts, sung
buzzing sound.
come known as the “Golden Age” of English sacred with one singer to a part. These
music. He is known for his vocal works which include pieces were sung at court festivi-
mass settings, motets, and settings of some vernacular ties, social gatherings, and meet- SHAWMS: Double reed fore-
poems. His career ings of learned societies. Com- runners of the oboe.
spanned four mon- posers were freer to experiment
archs: from the in this form since there were
split from Rome fewer rules about how to write
under Henry VIII, these pieces.
Keyboard instru-
the Protestant rule ment that produces
under Edward VI, POLYPHONY sound by plucking
the reinstatement (From Greek, poly- more than a string when a key
of Catholicism un- one, many; -phony, sound) is pressed. Often
der Queen Mary, and the switch back to the Anglican Music with more than one mel- ornately deco-
Church under Queen Elizabeth. The glorious blending ody sounding at the same time. rated.
of vocal lines in Tallis' work seemingly transcended Each melody has equal emphasis

differences in church matters and expressed the tur- and does not have to start and
moil of the time. Tallis adapted English (Protestant) stop at the same time. (i.e. a
and Latin (mostly Catholic) texts as necessary, and, round of “Row, row, row your SACKBUT: Ancestor of
thanks to his talent, enjoyed royal favor in every boat.”) the modern trombone.
reign while remaining a faithful Catholic.