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Problem 10.

24 A prismatic bar with length L = 6 m


and a circular cross section with diameter D = 0.02 m
is subjected to 20-kN compressive forces at its ends.
The length and diameter of the deformed bar are mea-
sured and determined to be L = 5.940 m and D =
0.02006 m. What are the modulus of elasticity and Pois-
son’s ration of the material?

Solution:
The strain in the bar is:
L − L 5.94 m − 6.0 m
ε= = = −0.01
L 6.0 m
The compressive stress in the bar is:
P −20, 000 N
σ= = = −63.7 MPa
A π(0.01 m)2
The modulus of elasticity for the material is:
σ 63.7 MPa
E= =
ε 0.01
ANS: E = 6.37 GPa
Poison’s ration for the material is:
−εLAT (D  −D)/D −(0.02006 m−0.02 m)/0.02 m
υ= ε
= ε
= −0.01

υ = 0.3

Problem 10.25
The bar has modulus of elasticity E = 30 × 106 psi and
Poisson’s ration ν = 0.32. It has a circular cross section
with diameter D = 0.75 in. What compressive force
would have to be exerted on the right end of the bar to
increase its diameter to 0.752 in?

Solution:
From the definition of Poisson’s ratio:
−(0.752 in − 0.75 in)/0.75 in
0.32 =
ε
The strain which will be produced by the applied load is:
  
σ P 1
ε= = 2 2
E π(0.375 in) 6
30 × 10 lb/in
Substituting the above expression for the strain into the expression for
Poisson’s ratio:
−(0.752 in − 0.75 in)/0.75 in
0.32 =  
(P/(π(0.375 in)2 )) 30×1061 lb/in2

ANS: P = 110.4 kip


Problem 11.1 A cube of material is subjected to a pure
shear stress τ = 9 MPa. The angle β is measured ad
determined to be 89.98◦ . What is the shear modulus G
of the material?
Diagram:

Solution:
Converting the shear strain angle into radians:
(90◦ − 89.98◦ )
γ= π = 3.49 × 10−4 radians
180◦
Using the definition of the shear modulus:
τ 9 × 106 N/m2
G= =
γ 3.49 × 10−4
ANS: G = 25.8 GPa

Problem 11.2 If the cube in Problem 11.1 consists of


material with shear modulus G = 4.6 × 106 psi and the
shear stress τ = 8000 psi, what is the angle β in degrees?
Free Body Diagram:

Solution:
The shear strain will be:
τ 8, 000 lb/in2
γ= = = 1.739×10−3 radians = 0.0996◦
G 4.6 × 106 lb/in2
The angle β is:

β = 90◦ − γ = 90◦ − 0.0996◦


ANS: β = 89.9◦

Problem 11.3 If the cube in Problem 11.1 consists of


aluminum alloy that will safely support a pure stress of
270 MPa and G = 26.3 GPa, what is the largest shear
strain to which the cube can safely be subjected?

Solution:
The shear strain will be:
τ 270 × 106 N/m2
γ= = = 0.010266
G 26.3 × 109 N/m2
ANS: γ = 0.0103
Problem 11.13 The bar has a circular cross section
with 15-mm diameter and the shear modulus of the ma-
terial is G = 26 GPa. If the torque T = 10 N − m, de-
termine (a) the magnitude of the maximum shear stress
in the bar; (b) the angle of twist of the end of the bar in
degrees.
Free Body Diagram:

Solution:
The polar moment of inertia for the shaft is:
J = π2 c4 = π2 (0.0075m)4
J = 4.97 × 10−9 m4
Maximum shear stress in the bar is:
Tρ (10 N − m) (0.0075 m)
τMAX = =
J 4.97 × 10−9
ANS: (a) τ MAX = 15.1 × 106 N/m2
The angle of twist for the bar is:
LT (0.8m)(10 N − m)
φ= =
JG (4.97 × 10−9 m4 )(26 × 109 N/m2 )
ANS: φ = 0.0619 rad = 3.547◦

Problem 11.14 If the bar in Problem 11.13 is subjected Free Body Diagram:
to a torque T that causes the end of the bar to rotate 4◦ ,
what is the magnitude of the maximum shear stress in
the bar?

Solution:
The polar moment of inertia for the cross section is:
π π
J = c4 = (0.0075)4 = 4.97 × 10−9
2 2
Using the angle of rotation at the end of the bar to determine the applied
torque:
 ◦ 
4 TL (0.8 m)(T )
(π) rad = = → T = 11.27 N − m
180◦ JG (4.97 × 10−9 m4 )(26 × 109 N/m2 )
Maximum shear stress in the cross section is:
Tc (11.27 N − m)(0.0075 m)
τMAX = =
J 4.97 × 10−9 m4
ANS: τ MAX = 17.01 MPa
Problem 11.17 Consider the solid circular shaft in
Problem 11.16. The shear modulus of the material is
G = 80 GPa. What angle of twist per unit meter of
length is caused by the 2-MN-m torque?
Free Body Diagram:

Solution:
The polar moment of inertia for the shaft is:
π π
J = c4 = (0.4 m)4 = 0.0402 m4
2 2
The angle of twist per meter of length is:
φ T 2 × 106 N − m
= =
L JG (0.0402 m4 )(80 × 109 N/m2 )
φ
ANS: L
= 0.00062 rad/m = 0.0356 degrees/m

Problem 11.18 If the shaft in Problem 11.16 has a


hollow circular cross section with 0.5-m outer radius and
0.3-m inner radius, what is the maximum shear stress?
Free Body Diagram:

Solution:
The polar moment of inertia for the hollow shaft is:
π π 
J = (ro − ri ) = (0.5 m)4 − (0.3 m)4
2 2

J = 0.0855 m4
Maximum shear stress in the shaft is:
 
Tρ 2 × 106 N − m (0.5 m)
τMAX = =
J 0.0855 m4
ANS: τ MAX = 11.7 MPa
Problem 11.19 The propeller of the wind generator is
supported by a hollow circular shaft with 0.4-m outer
radius and 0.3-m inner radius. The shear modulus of the
material is G = 80 GPa. If the propeller exerts an 840-
kN-m torque on the shaft, what is the resulting maximum
shear stress?
Free Body Diagram:

Solution:
The polar moment of inertia for the shaft is:
 
J = π2 (0.4 m)4 − (0.3 m)4
J = 0.0275 m4
Maximum shear stress in the shaft is:
Tc (840, 000 N − m) (0.4 m)
τMAX = =
J 0.0275 m4
ANS: τ MAX = 12.2 MPa

Problem 11.20 In Problem 11.19, what is the angle of


twist of the propeller shaft per meter of length?
Free Body Diagram:

Solution:
The polar moment of inertia for the shaft is:
 
J = π2 (0.4 m)4 − (0.3 m)4
J = 0.0275 m4
Angle of twist for the shaft is:
LT (1 m) (840, 000 N − m)
φ= =
JG (0.0275 m4 ) (80 × 109 N/m2 )
ANS: φ = 0.000382 rad = 0.0219◦
Problem 11.21 In designing a new shaft for the wind
generator in Problem 11.19, the engineer wants to limit
the maximum shear stress in the shaft to 10 MPa, but de-
sign constraints require retaining the 0.4-m outer radius.
What new inner radius should she use?

Solution:
The polar moment of inertia for the shaft is:
 
J = π2 (0.4 m)4 − (ri )4
J = 0.0402 − 1.571ri4
Maximum shear stress in the shaft is:
Tc (840, 000 N − m) (0.4 m)
τMAX = = = 10 × 106 N/m2
J (0.0402 − 1.571ri4 )

ANS: ri = 0.2546 m

Problem 11.22 The bar has a circular cross section


with 1-in. diameter and the shear modulus of the material
is G = 5.8 × 106 psi. If the torque T = 1000 in − lb,
determine (a) the magnitude of the maximum shear stress
in the bar; (b) the magnitude of the angle of twist of the
right end of the bar relative to the wall in degrees.
Free Body Diagram:

Solution:
Maximum torque in the shaft is 1,000 in-lb.
The polar moment of inertia for the shaft is:

J = π2 (0.5 in)4
J = 0.0982 in4
(a) Maximum shear stress in the shaft is:
TC (1, 000 in − lb) (0.5 in)
τMAX = =
J 0.0982 in4
ANS: τMAX = 5092.958 lb/in2
(b) The angle of twist in the 8-inch section of the bar is:
(8 in)(500 in−lb))
φ8 in =
(0.0982 in4 )(5.8×106 in4 )
φ8 in = 0.00702 rad = 0.402◦
The angle of twist in the 6-inch section of the bar is:
(6 in)(1,000 in−lb)
φ6 in =
(0.0982 in4 )(5.8×106 lb/in2 )
φ6 in = 0.0105 rad = 0.604◦
Total angle of twist for the bar is:

φ = φ8 in + φ6 in = 0.402◦ + 0.604◦
ANS: φ = 1.006◦
Problem 11.23 For the bar in Problem 11.22, what
value of the torque T would cause the angle of twist of
the end of the bar to be zero?
Free Body Diagram:

Solution:
The torque in the 8-inch section of the bar is (T − 500 in − lb).
The torque in the 6-inch section of the bar is T .
The equation for total angle of twist for the bar is:
L8 in T8 in L6 in T6 in (8 in) (T − 500 in − lb) (6 in) T
0= + = +
JG JG JG JG
Solving the equation for T :
ANS: T = 286 in − lb

Problem 11.24 Part A of the bar has a solid cir-


cular cross section and Part B has a hollow circular
cross section. The shear modulus of the material is
G = 3.8 × 106 psi. Determine the magnitudes of the
maximum shear stresses in parts A and B of the bar.
Free Body Diagram:

Solution:
The torque in the solid section of the bar is 250,000 in-lb. The torque
in the hollow section of the bar is 100,000 in-lb. Polar moment of
inertia for the solid section of the bar is:
π
JS = (2 in)4 = 25.13 in4
2
Polar moment of inertia for the hollow section of the shaft is:
π 
JH = (2 in)4 − (1 in)4 = 23.56 in4
2
Maximum shear stress in the solid section of the bar is:
TS cS (250, 000 in − lb) (2 in)
(τMAX )S = =
JS 25.13 in − lb
ANS: (τMAX )S = 19, 896.54 lb/in2 = 19.89 ksi
Maximum shear stress in the hollow section of the bar is:
TH cH (100, 000 in − lb) (2 in)
(τMAX )H = =
JH 23.56 in4
ANS: (τMAX )H = 8, 488.96 lb/in2 = 8.49 ksi
Problem 11.25 For the bar in Problem 11.24, deter- Free Body Diagram:
mine the magnitude of the angle of twist of the end of
the bar in degrees.

Solution:
The torque in the solid section of the bar is 250,000 in-lb. The torque
in the hollow section of the bar is 100,000 in-lb. Polar moment of
inertia for the solid section of the bar is:
π
JS = (2 in)4 = 25.13 in4
2
Polar moment of inertia for the hollow section of the shaft is:
π 
JH = (2 in)4 − (1 in)4 = 23.56 in4
2
The angle of twist for the solid section of the shaft is:
LS TS (7 in) (250, 000 in − lb)
φ= =   
JS GS 25.13 in4 3.8 × 106 lb/in2

φS = 0.0183 rad = 1.05◦


The angle of twist for the hollow section of the shaft is:
LH TH (14 in) (100, 000 in − lb)
φ= =   
JH GH 23.56 in4 3.8 × 106 lb/in2

φH = 0.0156 rad = 0.896◦


Total angle of twist for the shaft is:

φt = φS + φH = 1.05◦ + 0.896◦
ANS: φ = 1.95◦

Problem 11.26 For the bar in Problem 11.24, deter- Free Body Diagram:
mine the magnitude of the maximum shear stresses in
parts A and B of the bar and the magnitude of the angle
of twist of the end of the bar in degrees if the 150 in-kip
couple acts in the opposite direction.

Solution:
Polar moments of inertia for the two sections of the bar are:
π π 
JA = (2in)4 = 25.13 in4 JB = (2in)4 − (1in)4 = 23.56 in4
2 2
From the FBD we see that the torque in the sections of the bar is:

TA = −50, 000 in − lb TB = 100, 000 in − lb


Maximum shear stresses in the sections of the bar are:
(50, 000 in − lb)(2 in) (100, 000 in − lb)(2 in)
(τA )MAX = (τB )MAX =
25.13 in4 23.56 in4
ANS: (τA )MAX = 3, 980 lb/in2 (τB )MAX = 8, 488.96 lb/in2 ≈ 8.49 ksi
The angles of twist in each of the sections of the bar are:
(50, 000 in − lb)(7 in) (100, 000 in − lb)(14 in)
φA = − φB =
(25.13 in4 )(3.8 × 106 lb/in2 ) (23.56 in4 )(3.8 × 106 lb/in2 )

φA = −0.00367 radians φB = 0.01564 radians


Total angle of twist is:

φ = φA + φB = −0.00367 rad + 0.01564 rad


ANS: φ = 0.01197 rad = 0.686◦
Problem 7.26 Determine the y coordinate of the cent-
roid of the area in Problem 7.25.

Solution: Let y in Equation (7.7) be the height of the midpoint


of a vertical strip: y
  R  
1 2
y dA (R − x2 )1/2 (R2 − x2 )1/2 dx
2
y = A = h  . h
dA dA
A A y = ½(R2 – x2)½
x
The upper integral is
 R R x dx
1 2 1 x3
(R − x2 ) dx = R2 x −
h 2 2 3 h From the solution of Problem 7.25,
3

1/2

1 2R h3 
= − R2 h + . R πR h2 h
2 3 3 A = dA = −h 1− 2 − R arcsin .
A 2 2 R R
3 3

1 2R
The centroid is y = 2A 3
− R2 h + h3

Problem 7.27 Determine the coordinates of the cen-


troids. y

Solution: Let us solve this by parts.

40 mm
b = 60 mm
h l = 40 mm
A1 A2 x
h = 40 mm
60 mm 40 mm

b l

y
b = 60 mm
l = 40 mm
h = 40 mm
1 1
A1 = bh = (60)(40) = 1200 mm2
2 2 40 mm
2
A2 = lh = (40)(40) = 1600 mm
A1 + A2 = 2800 mm2 x
60 mm 40 mm
From the tables and inspection
2
x1 = b x2 = b + l/z
3
1 1
y1 = h y2 = h
3 2

x1 = 40 mm x2 = 80 mm
y1 = 13.33 mm y2 = 20 mm
For the composite, substituting,
x1 A1 + x2 A2
x = = 62.9 mm
A1 + A2
y1 A1 + y2 A2
y = = 17.1 mm
A1 + A2
Problem 7.28 Determine the coordinates of the cen-
troids. y

20 mm

60 mm

x
30 mm

70 mm

Solution: Let us solve this problem by using symmetry and by


breaking the composite shape into parts.

l1
20 mm
20 mm y A1 h1

l1 = 70 mm
A2 h1 = 70 mm 60 mm
h2 l2 = 70 mm
60 mm
h2 = 70 mm

x
l2 x 30 mm

70 mm
l1 = 70 mm
h1 = 20 mm
l2 = 30 mm
h2 = 60 mm

A1 = l1 h1 = 1400 mm2
A2 = l2 h2 = 1800 mm2
By symmetry,
x1 = 0 x2 = 0
y1 = 70 mm y2 = 30 mm
For the composite,
x1 A1 + x2 A2 0+0
x = = =0
A1 + A2 320 mm2
y1 A1 + y2 A2
y =
A1 + A2
(70)(1400) + (30)(1800) 152000
y = =
3200 3200
y = 47.5 mm
x =0