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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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and a circular cross section with diameter D = 0.02 m

is subjected to 20-kN compressive forces at its ends.

The length and diameter of the deformed bar are mea-

sured and determined to be L = 5.940 m and D =

0.02006 m. What are the modulus of elasticity and Pois-

son’s ration of the material?

Solution:

The strain in the bar is:

L − L 5.94 m − 6.0 m

ε= = = −0.01

L 6.0 m

The compressive stress in the bar is:

P −20, 000 N

σ= = = −63.7 MPa

A π(0.01 m)2

The modulus of elasticity for the material is:

σ 63.7 MPa

E= =

ε 0.01

ANS: E = 6.37 GPa

Poison’s ration for the material is:

−εLAT (D −D)/D −(0.02006 m−0.02 m)/0.02 m

υ= ε

= ε

= −0.01

υ = 0.3

Problem 10.25

The bar has modulus of elasticity E = 30 × 106 psi and

Poisson’s ration ν = 0.32. It has a circular cross section

with diameter D = 0.75 in. What compressive force

would have to be exerted on the right end of the bar to

increase its diameter to 0.752 in?

Solution:

From the deﬁnition of Poisson’s ratio:

−(0.752 in − 0.75 in)/0.75 in

0.32 =

ε

The strain which will be produced by the applied load is:

σ P 1

ε= = 2 2

E π(0.375 in) 6

30 × 10 lb/in

Substituting the above expression for the strain into the expression for

Poisson’s ratio:

−(0.752 in − 0.75 in)/0.75 in

0.32 =

(P/(π(0.375 in)2 )) 30×1061 lb/in2

Problem 11.1 A cube of material is subjected to a pure

shear stress τ = 9 MPa. The angle β is measured ad

determined to be 89.98◦ . What is the shear modulus G

of the material?

Diagram:

Solution:

Converting the shear strain angle into radians:

(90◦ − 89.98◦ )

γ= π = 3.49 × 10−4 radians

180◦

Using the deﬁnition of the shear modulus:

τ 9 × 106 N/m2

G= =

γ 3.49 × 10−4

ANS: G = 25.8 GPa

material with shear modulus G = 4.6 × 106 psi and the

shear stress τ = 8000 psi, what is the angle β in degrees?

Free Body Diagram:

Solution:

The shear strain will be:

τ 8, 000 lb/in2

γ= = = 1.739×10−3 radians = 0.0996◦

G 4.6 × 106 lb/in2

The angle β is:

ANS: β = 89.9◦

aluminum alloy that will safely support a pure stress of

270 MPa and G = 26.3 GPa, what is the largest shear

strain to which the cube can safely be subjected?

Solution:

The shear strain will be:

τ 270 × 106 N/m2

γ= = = 0.010266

G 26.3 × 109 N/m2

ANS: γ = 0.0103

Problem 11.13 The bar has a circular cross section

with 15-mm diameter and the shear modulus of the ma-

terial is G = 26 GPa. If the torque T = 10 N − m, de-

termine (a) the magnitude of the maximum shear stress

in the bar; (b) the angle of twist of the end of the bar in

degrees.

Free Body Diagram:

Solution:

The polar moment of inertia for the shaft is:

J = π2 c4 = π2 (0.0075m)4

J = 4.97 × 10−9 m4

Maximum shear stress in the bar is:

Tρ (10 N − m) (0.0075 m)

τMAX = =

J 4.97 × 10−9

ANS: (a) τ MAX = 15.1 × 106 N/m2

The angle of twist for the bar is:

LT (0.8m)(10 N − m)

φ= =

JG (4.97 × 10−9 m4 )(26 × 109 N/m2 )

ANS: φ = 0.0619 rad = 3.547◦

Problem 11.14 If the bar in Problem 11.13 is subjected Free Body Diagram:

to a torque T that causes the end of the bar to rotate 4◦ ,

what is the magnitude of the maximum shear stress in

the bar?

Solution:

The polar moment of inertia for the cross section is:

π π

J = c4 = (0.0075)4 = 4.97 × 10−9

2 2

Using the angle of rotation at the end of the bar to determine the applied

torque:

◦

4 TL (0.8 m)(T )

(π) rad = = → T = 11.27 N − m

180◦ JG (4.97 × 10−9 m4 )(26 × 109 N/m2 )

Maximum shear stress in the cross section is:

Tc (11.27 N − m)(0.0075 m)

τMAX = =

J 4.97 × 10−9 m4

ANS: τ MAX = 17.01 MPa

Problem 11.17 Consider the solid circular shaft in

Problem 11.16. The shear modulus of the material is

G = 80 GPa. What angle of twist per unit meter of

length is caused by the 2-MN-m torque?

Free Body Diagram:

Solution:

The polar moment of inertia for the shaft is:

π π

J = c4 = (0.4 m)4 = 0.0402 m4

2 2

The angle of twist per meter of length is:

φ T 2 × 106 N − m

= =

L JG (0.0402 m4 )(80 × 109 N/m2 )

φ

ANS: L

= 0.00062 rad/m = 0.0356 degrees/m

hollow circular cross section with 0.5-m outer radius and

0.3-m inner radius, what is the maximum shear stress?

Free Body Diagram:

Solution:

The polar moment of inertia for the hollow shaft is:

π π

J = (ro − ri ) = (0.5 m)4 − (0.3 m)4

2 2

J = 0.0855 m4

Maximum shear stress in the shaft is:

Tρ 2 × 106 N − m (0.5 m)

τMAX = =

J 0.0855 m4

ANS: τ MAX = 11.7 MPa

Problem 11.19 The propeller of the wind generator is

supported by a hollow circular shaft with 0.4-m outer

radius and 0.3-m inner radius. The shear modulus of the

material is G = 80 GPa. If the propeller exerts an 840-

kN-m torque on the shaft, what is the resulting maximum

shear stress?

Free Body Diagram:

Solution:

The polar moment of inertia for the shaft is:

J = π2 (0.4 m)4 − (0.3 m)4

J = 0.0275 m4

Maximum shear stress in the shaft is:

Tc (840, 000 N − m) (0.4 m)

τMAX = =

J 0.0275 m4

ANS: τ MAX = 12.2 MPa

twist of the propeller shaft per meter of length?

Free Body Diagram:

Solution:

The polar moment of inertia for the shaft is:

J = π2 (0.4 m)4 − (0.3 m)4

J = 0.0275 m4

Angle of twist for the shaft is:

LT (1 m) (840, 000 N − m)

φ= =

JG (0.0275 m4 ) (80 × 109 N/m2 )

ANS: φ = 0.000382 rad = 0.0219◦

Problem 11.21 In designing a new shaft for the wind

generator in Problem 11.19, the engineer wants to limit

the maximum shear stress in the shaft to 10 MPa, but de-

sign constraints require retaining the 0.4-m outer radius.

What new inner radius should she use?

Solution:

The polar moment of inertia for the shaft is:

J = π2 (0.4 m)4 − (ri )4

J = 0.0402 − 1.571ri4

Maximum shear stress in the shaft is:

Tc (840, 000 N − m) (0.4 m)

τMAX = = = 10 × 106 N/m2

J (0.0402 − 1.571ri4 )

ANS: ri = 0.2546 m

with 1-in. diameter and the shear modulus of the material

is G = 5.8 × 106 psi. If the torque T = 1000 in − lb,

determine (a) the magnitude of the maximum shear stress

in the bar; (b) the magnitude of the angle of twist of the

right end of the bar relative to the wall in degrees.

Free Body Diagram:

Solution:

Maximum torque in the shaft is 1,000 in-lb.

The polar moment of inertia for the shaft is:

J = π2 (0.5 in)4

J = 0.0982 in4

(a) Maximum shear stress in the shaft is:

TC (1, 000 in − lb) (0.5 in)

τMAX = =

J 0.0982 in4

ANS: τMAX = 5092.958 lb/in2

(b) The angle of twist in the 8-inch section of the bar is:

(8 in)(500 in−lb))

φ8 in =

(0.0982 in4 )(5.8×106 in4 )

φ8 in = 0.00702 rad = 0.402◦

The angle of twist in the 6-inch section of the bar is:

(6 in)(1,000 in−lb)

φ6 in =

(0.0982 in4 )(5.8×106 lb/in2 )

φ6 in = 0.0105 rad = 0.604◦

Total angle of twist for the bar is:

φ = φ8 in + φ6 in = 0.402◦ + 0.604◦

ANS: φ = 1.006◦

Problem 11.23 For the bar in Problem 11.22, what

value of the torque T would cause the angle of twist of

the end of the bar to be zero?

Free Body Diagram:

Solution:

The torque in the 8-inch section of the bar is (T − 500 in − lb).

The torque in the 6-inch section of the bar is T .

The equation for total angle of twist for the bar is:

L8 in T8 in L6 in T6 in (8 in) (T − 500 in − lb) (6 in) T

0= + = +

JG JG JG JG

Solving the equation for T :

ANS: T = 286 in − lb

cular cross section and Part B has a hollow circular

cross section. The shear modulus of the material is

G = 3.8 × 106 psi. Determine the magnitudes of the

maximum shear stresses in parts A and B of the bar.

Free Body Diagram:

Solution:

The torque in the solid section of the bar is 250,000 in-lb. The torque

in the hollow section of the bar is 100,000 in-lb. Polar moment of

inertia for the solid section of the bar is:

π

JS = (2 in)4 = 25.13 in4

2

Polar moment of inertia for the hollow section of the shaft is:

π

JH = (2 in)4 − (1 in)4 = 23.56 in4

2

Maximum shear stress in the solid section of the bar is:

TS cS (250, 000 in − lb) (2 in)

(τMAX )S = =

JS 25.13 in − lb

ANS: (τMAX )S = 19, 896.54 lb/in2 = 19.89 ksi

Maximum shear stress in the hollow section of the bar is:

TH cH (100, 000 in − lb) (2 in)

(τMAX )H = =

JH 23.56 in4

ANS: (τMAX )H = 8, 488.96 lb/in2 = 8.49 ksi

Problem 11.25 For the bar in Problem 11.24, deter- Free Body Diagram:

mine the magnitude of the angle of twist of the end of

the bar in degrees.

Solution:

The torque in the solid section of the bar is 250,000 in-lb. The torque

in the hollow section of the bar is 100,000 in-lb. Polar moment of

inertia for the solid section of the bar is:

π

JS = (2 in)4 = 25.13 in4

2

Polar moment of inertia for the hollow section of the shaft is:

π

JH = (2 in)4 − (1 in)4 = 23.56 in4

2

The angle of twist for the solid section of the shaft is:

LS TS (7 in) (250, 000 in − lb)

φ= =

JS GS 25.13 in4 3.8 × 106 lb/in2

The angle of twist for the hollow section of the shaft is:

LH TH (14 in) (100, 000 in − lb)

φ= =

JH GH 23.56 in4 3.8 × 106 lb/in2

Total angle of twist for the shaft is:

φt = φS + φH = 1.05◦ + 0.896◦

ANS: φ = 1.95◦

Problem 11.26 For the bar in Problem 11.24, deter- Free Body Diagram:

mine the magnitude of the maximum shear stresses in

parts A and B of the bar and the magnitude of the angle

of twist of the end of the bar in degrees if the 150 in-kip

couple acts in the opposite direction.

Solution:

Polar moments of inertia for the two sections of the bar are:

π π

JA = (2in)4 = 25.13 in4 JB = (2in)4 − (1in)4 = 23.56 in4

2 2

From the FBD we see that the torque in the sections of the bar is:

Maximum shear stresses in the sections of the bar are:

(50, 000 in − lb)(2 in) (100, 000 in − lb)(2 in)

(τA )MAX = (τB )MAX =

25.13 in4 23.56 in4

ANS: (τA )MAX = 3, 980 lb/in2 (τB )MAX = 8, 488.96 lb/in2 ≈ 8.49 ksi

The angles of twist in each of the sections of the bar are:

(50, 000 in − lb)(7 in) (100, 000 in − lb)(14 in)

φA = − φB =

(25.13 in4 )(3.8 × 106 lb/in2 ) (23.56 in4 )(3.8 × 106 lb/in2 )

Total angle of twist is:

ANS: φ = 0.01197 rad = 0.686◦

Problem 7.26 Determine the y coordinate of the cent-

roid of the area in Problem 7.25.

of a vertical strip: y

R

1 2

y dA (R − x2 )1/2 (R2 − x2 )1/2 dx

2

y = A = h . h

dA dA

A A y = ½(R2 – x2)½

x

The upper integral is

R R x dx

1 2 1 x3

(R − x2 ) dx = R2 x −

h 2 2 3 h From the solution of Problem 7.25,

3

1/2

1 2R h3

= − R2 h + . R πR h2 h

2 3 3 A = dA = −h 1− 2 − R arcsin .

A 2 2 R R

3 3

1 2R

The centroid is y = 2A 3

− R2 h + h3

troids. y

40 mm

b = 60 mm

h l = 40 mm

A1 A2 x

h = 40 mm

60 mm 40 mm

b l

y

b = 60 mm

l = 40 mm

h = 40 mm

1 1

A1 = bh = (60)(40) = 1200 mm2

2 2 40 mm

2

A2 = lh = (40)(40) = 1600 mm

A1 + A2 = 2800 mm2 x

60 mm 40 mm

From the tables and inspection

2

x1 = b x2 = b + l/z

3

1 1

y1 = h y2 = h

3 2

x1 = 40 mm x2 = 80 mm

y1 = 13.33 mm y2 = 20 mm

For the composite, substituting,

x1 A1 + x2 A2

x = = 62.9 mm

A1 + A2

y1 A1 + y2 A2

y = = 17.1 mm

A1 + A2

Problem 7.28 Determine the coordinates of the cen-

troids. y

20 mm

60 mm

x

30 mm

70 mm

breaking the composite shape into parts.

l1

20 mm

20 mm y A1 h1

l1 = 70 mm

A2 h1 = 70 mm 60 mm

h2 l2 = 70 mm

60 mm

h2 = 70 mm

x

l2 x 30 mm

70 mm

l1 = 70 mm

h1 = 20 mm

l2 = 30 mm

h2 = 60 mm

A1 = l1 h1 = 1400 mm2

A2 = l2 h2 = 1800 mm2

By symmetry,

x1 = 0 x2 = 0

y1 = 70 mm y2 = 30 mm

For the composite,

x1 A1 + x2 A2 0+0

x = = =0

A1 + A2 320 mm2

y1 A1 + y2 A2

y =

A1 + A2

(70)(1400) + (30)(1800) 152000

y = =

3200 3200

y = 47.5 mm

x =0

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