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Two recent publications offer different assessments of the career of the famous British nurse Florence Nightingale. A book by Anne Summers seeks to debunk the idealizations and present a reality at odds with Nightingale’s heroic reputation. According to Summers, Nightingale’s importance during the Crimean Was has been exaggerated: not until near the war’s end did she become supervisor of the female nurses. Additionally, Summers writes that the contribution of the nurses to the relief of the wounded was at best marginal. The prevailing problems of military medicine were caused by army organizational practices, and the addition of a few nurses to the medical staff could be no more than a symbolic gesture. Nightingale’s place in the national pantheon, Summers asserts, is largely due to the propagandistic efforts of contemporary newspaper reporters. By Contrast, the editors of a new volume of Nightingale’s letters view Nightingale as a person who significantly influenced not only her own age but also subsequent generations. They highlight her ongoing efforts to reform sanitary conditions after the war. For example, when she learned that peacetime living conditions in British barracks were so horrible that the death rate of enlisted men far exceeded that of neighboring civilian populations, she succeeded in persuading the government to establish a Royal Commission on the Health of the Army. She used sums raised through public contributions to found a nurses’ training hospital in London. Even in administrative matters, the editors assert, her practical intelligence was formidable: as recently as 1947 the British Army’s medical services were still using the costaccounting system she had devised in the 1860’s. I believe that the evidence of her letters supports continued respect for Nightingale’s brilliance and creativity. When counseling a village schoolmaster to encourage children to use their faculties of observation, she sounds like a modern educator. Her insistence on classifying the problems of the needy in order to devise appropriate treatments is similar to the approach of modern social workers. In sum, although Nightingale may not have achieved all of her goals during the Crimean War, her breadth of vision and ability to realize ambitious projects have earned her an eminent place among the ranks of social pioneers.

1. The passage is primarily concerned with evaluating (A) the importance of Florence Nightingale’s innovations in the field of nursing (B) contrasting approaches to the writing of historical biography (C) contradictory accounts of Florence Nightingale’s historical significance (D) the quality of health care in nineteenthcentury England (E) the effect of the Crimean War on developments in the field of health care A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( )

Choice A does not refer to the less than flattering account of her historical worth mentioned in the First Paragraph. Choice B talks about ‘Contrasting approaches to writing of historical biography’. The author does not discuss different approaches in the passage. Do not pick an answer choice using words such as ‘data’ or ‘approach’. Choice B is tempting but the reference to ‘nurses training curriculum’ is not a literal interpretation of ‘setting up a nurse’s training hospital in London’. Choice D talks about ‘British University’. The fact that she set up a training hospital in London does not mean that she set it up at a British University. Critically examine words for acceptability.

2. According to the passage, the editors of Nightingale’s letters credit her with contributing to which of the following? (A) Improvements of the survival rate for soldiers in British Army hospitals during the Crimean War (B) The development of a nurses’ training curriculum that was far in advance of its day (C) The increase in the number of women doctors practicing in British Army hospitals (D) Establishment of the first facility for training nurses at a major British University (E) The creation of an organization for monitoring the peacetime living conditions of British soldiers. A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) 3. The passage suggests which of the following about Nightingale’s relationship with the British public of her day? (A) She was highly respected, her projects receiving popular and governmental support. (B) She encountered resistance both from the army establishment and the general public. (C) She was supported by the working classes and opposed by the wealthier classes. (D) She was supported by the military establishment but had to fight the governmental bureaucracy. (E) After initially being received with enthusiasm, she was quickly forgotten. A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( )

This is an inference question and our look up of the anchor phrase word ‘public’ shows that her project received public contributions. Choice A is the best statement supported by an explicit statement identified in the passage in the context of ‘public’.

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(D) The editors of Nightingale’s letters mistakenly propagated the outdated idealization of Nightingale that only impedes attempts to arrive at a balanced assessment of her true role. the editors of a new volume of Nightingale’s letters view Nightingale as a person who significantly influenced not only her own age but also subsequent generations. I believe that the evidence of her letters supports continued respect for Nightingale’s brilliance and creativity. With which of the following statements regarding the differing interpretations of Nightingale’s importance would the author most likely agree? (A) Summers misunderstood both the importance of Nightingale’s achievements during the Crimean War and her subsequent influence on British Policy. they were superior to those during the Crimean Was has been exaggerated: not in other parts of the world. 5. In sum. The passage suggests which of the following of the career of the famous British nurse Florence Nightingale. The prevailing in urban centers. Choice C is the answer supported by the summary identified in the passage. Summers writes they had deteriorated. of the female nurses. Summers asserts. For example. A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) This is a question about the ‘summary’ of the entire discussion. A book by Anne Summers seeks to about sanitary conditions in Britain after the debunk the idealizations and present a reality at Crimean War? odds with Nightingale’s heroic reputation. They highlight her ongoing efforts to reform sanitary conditions after the war.©Educational Training Services. (B) The editors of Nightingale’s letters made some valid points about her practical achievements. (E) The evidence of Nightingale’s letters supports Summers’ conclusions both about Nightingale’s activities and about her influence. According to Summers. Additionally. when she learned that peacetime living conditions in British barracks were so horrible that the death rate of enlisted men far exceeded that of neighboring civilian populations. she sounds like a modern educator. until near the war’s end did she become supervisor (B) Compared with conditions before the war. problems of military medicine were caused by (D) They were worse in military camps than in army organizational practices. national pantheon. Inc. she ignored evidence of Nightingale’s subsequent achievement that suggest that her reputation as an eminent social reformer is well deserved. Nightingale’s importance (A) While not ideal. the editors assert. When counseling a village schoolmaster to encourage children to use their faculties of observation. Her insistence on classifying the problems of the needy in order to devise appropriate treatments is similar to the approach of modern social workers. and the addition of a the neighboring civilian populations. Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes Two recent publications offer different assessments 4. her breadth of vision and ability to realize ambitious projects have earned her an eminent place among the ranks of social pioneers. few nurses to the medical staff could be no more (E) They were uniformly crude and than a symbolic gesture. By Contrast. A Division of MLI Consulting. her practical intelligence was formidable: as recently as 1947 the British Army’s medical services were still using the costaccounting system she had devised in the 1860’s. she succeeded in persuading the government to establish a Royal Commission on the Health of the Army. Even in administrative matters. but they still exaggerated her influence on subsequent generations. She used sums raised through public contributions to found a nurses’ training hospital in London. Page 2 . although Nightingale may not have achieved all of her goals during the Crimean War. (C) Although Summers’ accounts of Nightingale’s role in the Crimean War may be accurate. is largely due to the propagandistic efforts of contemporary A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) newspaper reporters. that the contribution of the nurses to the relief of (C) They were more advanced in rural areas than the wounded was at best marginal. Nightingale’s place in the unsatisfactory throughout England.

Inc. Because you are required to pick an answer choice. This is why choice A is not as good as it seemingly sounds. the author is primarily on classifying the were so horrible that the death rate of enlisted men concerned with problems of the far exceeded that of neighboring civilian needy. Additionally. national pantheon. (E) correcting a factual error occurring in one of the works under review I believe that the evidence of her letters supports continued respect for Nightingale’s brilliance and A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) creativity. For example. They highlight her reference in the ongoing efforts to reform sanitary conditions after A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) context of the war. Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes Two recent publications offer different assessments of the career of the famous British nurse Florence Choice E is Nightingale. Nightingale’s letters view Nightingale as a person Choice D is also one in the 1860’s. her breadth of vision and evidence of Nightingale’s creativity and brilliance in the last paragraph. Summers writes wording in children’s ability to observe. although Choice D is the best of a bad bunch of options although the wording in Nightingale may not have achieved all of her goals this choice is not as good as it should be either. In sum. there was Also. system is not nineteenth-century Britain. A Division of MLI Consulting. and the addition of a mean that it did (C) No education before Nightingale had thought few nurses to the medical staff could be no more not have a system to enlist the help of village schoolmasters in before she than a symbolic gesture. Her insistence on classifying the problem with choice A is that it refers to information in the first two problems of the needy in order to devise paragraphs only. Nightingale’s place in the introducing new teaching techniques devised one. when she learned that creativity reads that she insisted peacetime living conditions in British barracks 7. presented elsewhere in the passage was formidable: as recently as 1947 the British (D) citing evidence to support a view of Army’s medical services were still using the costNightingale’s career. Notice until near the war’s end did she become supervisor did not normally emphasize developing the unacceptable of the female nurses. Page 3 . ‘cost to the propagandistic efforts of contemporary accounting’ no concept of organized help for the needy in newspaper reporters. she succeeded in persuading the (A) summarizing the arguments about not mean that government to establish a Royal Commission on there was no Nightingale presented in the first two paragraphs concept of the Health of the Army. and the answer to faculties of observation. A book by Anne Summers seeks to 6. The educator. Which of the following is an assumption tempting to a lot debunk the idealizations and present a reality at underlying the author’s assessment of of test takers because they find odds with Nightingale’s heroic reputation. is largely due (D) Until Nightingale began her work.©Educational Training Services. When counseling a village schoolmaster to encourage children to use their It appears that this passage was tested on the GMAT. her practical intelligence Britain. The author. The prevailing living conditions in British military barracks in is still using her problems of military medicine were caused by peacetime system does not army organizational practices. the editors of a new volume of context of her cost-accounting system until Nightingale devised creativity. modern social workers. choice D appears to be more acceptable than is choice A. Summers asserts. She used sums raised (B) refuting the view of Nightingale’s career organized help through public contributions to found a nurses’ presented in the preceding paragraph for the needy in training hospital in London. an eminent place among the ranks of social pioneers. Even in administrative (C) analyzing the weaknesses of the evidence the 19th century matters. The that the contribution of the nurses to the relief of (B) Nightingale was the first to notice the poor fact that the army the wounded was at best marginal. she sounds like a modern this question was choice A in one test and Choice D in the other. Nightingale’s importance ‘cost accounting during the Crimean Was has been exaggerated: not (A) Educational philosophy in Nightingale’s day system’. mentioned in the (E) The British army’s medical services had no By Contrast. The author gives during the Crimean War. the editors assert. ability to realize ambitious projects have earned her not evidence of her career. who significantly influenced not only her own age tempting but the but also subsequent generations. accounting system she had devised in the 1860’s. In the last paragraph. choice E. also uses the information stated at the beginning of the last paragraph to reach a appropriate treatments is similar to the approach of summary. This does populations. Nightingale’s creativity? a reference to According to Summers. in his or her summary.

one as the Earth entered the thick-walled “pipe” and one as it exited. but due to their differing velocities they slowly gain on or fall behind the disintegrating comet until a shroud of dust surrounds the entire cometary orbit. (B) Describing a new theoretical model and noting that it explains the nature of observations made of a particular natural phenomenon. the computer-model meteor stream gradually came to resemble a thickwalled. The time intervals between the bursts suggest the actual Geminid stream is about 3. Page 4 . (D) Explaining how two different natural phenomena are related and demonstrating a way to measure them. (E) show that a computer model could help in Choice D is the explaining actual astronomical data correct answer consistent with the A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) explicit information A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) stated in the first paragraph. Two brief periods of peak meteor activity during the shower would be observed.000 miles per day around its orbit. and is not the primary focus of the passage.500. (C) Meteor streams are composed of dust particles derived from comets. These particles follow the same orbit as the parent comet. 8. hollow pipe. A Division of MLI Consulting. Choice A is tempting but you must bear in mind that the reference to the conventional theory is made in passing. predicted that the distribution of particles would be increasingly dense toward the center of a meteor stream. the particles were randomly distributed throughout a computer simulation of the orbit of an actual meteor stream. Conventional theories. meteor streams hasten the further disintegration of comets. Has the predicted twin-peaked activity been observed for the actual yearly Geminid meteor shower? The Geminid data between 1970 and 1979 shows just such a bifurcation. Surprisingly. Read the question as: Why was the computer model research 10. which of the following is an accurate statement concerning meteor streams? (A) Meteor streams and comets start out with similar orbits. that the compute-model stream broadened with time. Choice E uses the hit list word ‘DATA’.©Educational Training Services. so the time interval between the two bursts of activity would vary from one year to the next. a secondary burst of meteor activity being clearly visible at an average of 19 hours (1. Inc. (B) Meteor streams grow as dust particles are attracted by the gravitational fields of comets. the Geminid. (C) Evaluating the results of a particular scientific experiment and suggesting further areas for research. but only those of meteor streams are perturbed by planetary gravitation. Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes PASSAGE 2 A Meteor stream is composed of dust particles that have been ejected from a parent comet at a variety of velocities. This section requires that be a good one. (D) Comets may be composed of several kinds of materials. computer-model Geminid stream if the stream were 5. According to the passage. Be a good wordsmith. Choice C talks about ‘further areas of research’. There is no reason why the Earth should always pass through the stream’s exact center. Besides. Choice D talks about ‘two different natural phenomena’. There is no such suggestion in the passage. Astronomers have hypothesized that a meteor stream should broaden with time as the dust particles’ individual orbits are perturbed by planetary gravitational fields.200. however. The researcher found. just over a day to cross the hollow. while meteor streams consist only of large dust particles. Choice B is the best answer using acceptable wording.000 year period on the position of a group of hypothetical dust particles. not to explain the data.000 years old. (E) Once formed. on average. The author states that the research undertaken? You described in the first paragraph was should look for a undertaken in order to statement containing (A) determine the age of an actual meteor stream ‘because’ or an (B) identify the various structural features of infinitive ‘to do meteor streams something’ for such (C) explore the nature of a particularly questions in the context of the interesting meteor stream ‘research’ (D) test the hypothesis that meteor streams identified in the become broader as they age first paragraph. Whenever the Earth passes through a meteor stream. The test is about your ability to pay attention to the choice of words in a specific answer choice. In the model.000 miles) after the first burst. A recent computermodeling experiment tested this hypothesis by tracking the influence of planetary gravitation over a projected 5. A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) 9. The primary focus of the passage is on which of the following? (A) Comparing two scientific theories and contrasting the predictions that each would make concerning a natural phenomenon.000 years old. There is no second phenomenon mentioned in the passage. the Earth would take. as expected. a meteor shower occurs. (E) Analyzing recent data derived from observations of an actual phenomenon and constructing a model to explain the data. the model was set up to test a theory. Moving at a little over 1.

The researcher found. Two brief periods of peak meteor activity during the shower would be observed. Pay attention to the choice of words. the meteor stream would be dense in the center of the stream. why do the dust particles in a meteor stream eventually surround The answer to a comet’s original orbit? ‘why’ will be found (A) They are ejected by the comet at differing velocities. Surprisingly. According to the conventional theory. (B) Meteor activity would be steady throughout the period of the meteor shower. computer-model Geminid stream if the stream were 5. The best description of dense activity in the center of the stream is contained in choice A. (D) Random bursts of very high meteor activity would be interspersed with periods of very little activity (E) In years in which the Earth passed through only the outer areas of a meteor stream. not due to ‘slowing velocities’. and then gradually decline. According to the passage. on average. 12. (E) their ejection velocity is slower than that of the comet A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) in a statement containing ‘because’ or ‘due to’ or the infinitive ‘to do something’. Choice E talks about ‘absent activity’. the Geminid. a meteor shower occurs.000 years old. Inc.000 years old.000 year period on the position of a group of hypothetical dust particles. Page 5 . hollow pipe. so the time interval between the two bursts of activity would vary from one year to the next. The time intervals between the bursts suggest the actual Geminid stream is about 3. A recent computermodeling experiment tested this hypothesis by tracking the influence of planetary gravitation over a projected 5. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following could most probably be observed during the Earth’s passage through a meteor stream if the conventional theories mentioned in the first paragraph were correct? (A) Meteor activity would gradually increase to a single.500. Whenever the Earth passes through a meteor stream. Pay good and critical attention to the words used in an answer choice.000 miles) after the first burst. the Earth would take. Choice B talks about ‘steady activity’ throughout. Has the predicted twin-peaked activity been observed for the actual yearly Geminid meteor shower? The Geminid data between 1970 and 1979 shows just such a bifurcation. the computer-model meteor stream gradually came to resemble a thick-walled.000 miles per day around its orbit. just over a day to cross the hollow.200. Choice D is tempting to a lot of folks but bear in mind that the passage states that the particles surround the orbit ‘DUE TO THEIR DIFFERING VELOCITIES’. one as the Earth entered the thick-walled “pipe” and one as it exited. Conventional theories. but due to their differing velocities they slowly gain on or fall behind the disintegrating comet until a shroud of dust surrounds the entire cometary orbit. a secondary burst of meteor activity being clearly visible at an average of 19 hours (1. however. Moving at a little over 1. that the compute-model stream broadened with time. predicted that the distribution of particles would be increasingly dense toward the center of a meteor stream. A Division of MLI Consulting. There is no reason why the Earth should always pass through the stream’s exact center. as expected.©Educational Training Services. meteor activity would be absent. Choice A is the best answer explained by ‘because’ statement. A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) A Meteor stream is composed of dust particles that have been ejected from a parent comet at a variety of velocities. (B) Their orbits are uncontrolled by planetary gravitational fields. Astronomers have hypothesized that a meteor stream should broaden with time as the dust particles’ individual orbits are perturbed by planetary gravitational fields. Choice D talks about unsupported ‘random bursts of activity’. Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes 11. (C) Meteor activity would rise to a peak at the beginning and at the end of the meteor shower. Choice C is according to the new theory being tested. intense peak. These particles follow the same orbit as the parent comet. (D) Their velocity slows over time. (C) They become part of the meteor stream at different times. the particles were randomly distributed throughout a computer simulation of the orbit of an actual meteor stream. In the model. Take a look at the arrows pointing to the required reference.

000 miles) Geminid meteor stream. a meteor shower occurs. little over 1. so the time interval between the two bursts of activity would (A) Most meteor streams it encounters are more vary from one year to the next. after the first burst. what can you infer as to what do they have in common? Looks like the two theories disagree about where the dense part of the stream would occur. but due to their differing following is a prediction concerning meteor velocities they slowly gain on or fall behind the streams that can be derived from both the disintegrating comet until a shroud of dust conventional theories mentioned in the first surrounds the entire cometary orbit. A Division of MLI Consulting.©Educational Training Services. None of the two theories makes a prediction the Earth would take. than 2. Conventional theories. it Has the predicted twin-peaked activity been usually passes near to the stream’s center. just over a day to about the size of the dust particles. predicted The conventional theory did not believe that that the distribution of particles would be the stream would be denser on the edges. on average. on average. longer in duration resemble a thick-walled. increasingly dense toward the center of a (D) Meteor showers caused by older meteor meteor stream. simulation of the orbit of an actual meteor stream. One says that the stream would be dense on the edges and the other at the center. Choice C is the correct inference supported by the qualifier used in the anchor phrase statement. None of the two tested this hypothesis by tracking the influence of theories talks about ‘even distribution’.000 year (B) The orbits of most meteor streams should period on the position of a group of hypothetical cross the orbit of the Earth at some point and dust particles. Choice D is the best inference. meteor stream will usually become denser at the that the compute-model stream broadened with outside edges of the stream than at the center. hollow pipe. observed for the actual yearly Geminid meteor shower? The Geminid data between (C) It crosses the Geminid meteor stream once 1970 and 1979 shows just such a bifurcation. These particles follow the same orbit 13. Astronomers paragraph and the new computer-derived theory? have hypothesized that a meteor stream should broaden with time as the dust particles’ individual (A) Dust particles in a meteor stream will orbits are perturbed by planetary gravitational usually be distributed evenly??? throughout any fields. (B) When passing through a meteor stream.200. The time intervals between the (E) It accounts for most of the gravitational bursts suggest the actual Geminid stream is about perturbation affecting the Geminid meteor 3. than those caused by very young meteor streams. A recent computer-modeling experiment cross section of the stream. Two brief periods of peak meteor activity during the shower 14. We are required to interpret the qualifier ‘yearly’ describing the ‘Geminid Meteor shower’. smaller than those stream. the computermodel meteor stream gradually came to streams should be. computer-model Geminid stream A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) if the stream were 5. Inc. stream. The ‘yearly’ reference suggests that the shower happens once a year as earth cuts through the stream.000 years old. however. Page 6 . (C) Over time. A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) Pay close attention to the VERB used in the question stem. planetary gravitation over a projected 5. cross the hollow. Surprisingly. Moving at a that compose younger meteor streams. (E) The individual dust particles in older meteor Whenever the Earth passes through a meteor streams should be.000 years old. one as the Earth entered the paragraph of the passage that which of the thick-walled “pipe” and one as it exited. There is following must be true of the Earth as it orbits no reason why the Earth should always pass the Sun? through the stream’s exact center.500. The passage suggests that which of the as the parent comet. a every year. This is an inference question as suggested by the verb ‘SUGGEST’. as expected. The question is: on the basis of information in the passage describing the difference between the two theories.000 years old. It can be inferred from the last would be observed. Both should agree that the older the stream the denser the distribution of particles ‘somewhere’ resulting in longer meteor showers. secondary burst of meteor activity being clearly (D) It usually takes over a day to cross the actual visible at an average of 19 hours (1. meteor streams randomly distributed throughout a computer do not have orbits. time. the distribution of dust in a the Geminid. on average.000 miles per day around its orbit. The researcher found. the particles were give rise to a meteor shower. Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes A Meteor stream is composed of dust particles that have been ejected from a parent comet at a variety of velocities. In the model.

however.000 year old Computermodel Geminid stream? (A) 24 hours (B) 36 hours (C) 48 hours (D) 60 hours (E) 72 hours We are required to identify that which is ‘taken for granted’ in the last sentence. on average.©Educational Training Services. the computer-model meteor stream gradually came to resemble a thickwalled. (B) A thick-walled pipe with a hollow center. it would take twice as long or 48 hours to cross the same 5. it would take approximately how long to cross the 5. A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) 17. Which of the following is an assumption underlying the last sentence of the passage? (A) In each of the years between 1970 and 1979. The time intervals between the bursts suggest the actual Geminid stream is about 3. If the earth is moving at half the speed. Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes A Meteor stream is composed of dust particles that have been ejected from a parent comet at a variety of velocities. (D) A set of concentric hollow pipes placed such that there is space between any two pipes. A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) 16. (D) The Geminid meteor stream has not broadened as rapidly as the conventional theories would have predicted. The closest visual representation of a stream according to the conventional theory is stated in choice A. The last sentence reads that the ‘time interval between bursts suggests that the stream is 3. but due to their differing velocities they slowly gain on or fall behind the disintegrating comet until a shroud of dust surrounds the entire cometary orbit.200. A recent computer-modeling experiment tested this hypothesis by tracking the influence of planetary gravitation over a projected 5. Moving at a little over 1. Choice E is the best answer. It can be inferred from the passage that if the Earth were moving at 750. (E) The computer-model Geminid meteor stream provides an accurate representation of the development of the actual Geminid stream.000 years old. Inc. the Earth would take. the Earth took exactly 19 hours to cross the Geminid meteor stream. predicted that the distribution of particles would be increasingly dense toward the center of a meteor stream.000 year old stream.000 year old stream. so the time interval between the two bursts of activity would vary from one year to the next. . The researcher found.500.000 miles per day around its orbit. that the compute-model stream broadened with time. Page 7 If the earth is moving at a little over 1.000 years. A Division of MLI Consulting. (C) A solid pipe with uniform density throughout. Conventional theories. Two brief periods of peak meteor activity during the shower would be observed. The conventional theory believed that the stream would be denser in the middle. This is a ‘distance problem’ tested in Reading Comprehension format’.000 miles per day. hollow pipe. a secondary burst of meteor activity being clearly visible at an average of 19 hours (1. Surprisingly. one as the Earth entered the thick-walled “pipe” and one as it exited.000 years old’. There is no reason why the Earth should always pass through the stream’s exact center.000 miles) after the first burst. 15.500. the Geminid. it would take just over 24 hours to cross the 5. In the model. a meteor shower occurs. the particles were randomly distributed throughout a computer simulation of the orbit of an actual meteor stream.000 year period on the position of a group of hypothetical dust particles. Whenever the Earth passes through a meteor stream. This determination is obtained by using the computer model. Astronomers have hypothesized that a meteor stream should broaden with time as the dust particles’ individual orbits are perturbed by planetary gravitational fields. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following would resemble a meteor stream if the conventional theory as discussed in the first paragraph were true? (A) A solid pipe with gradually disappearing halo around it. just over a day to cross the hollow. Has the predicted twin-peaked activity been observed for the actual yearly Geminid meteor shower? The Geminid data between 1970 and 1979 shows just such a bifurcation. These particles follow the same orbit as the parent comet.000 miles per day around its orbit. as expected. and what is taken for granted or assumed is that the computer model is a reliable or a good predictor of the age of the stream on the basis of an analysis of the information. (C) The Geminid meteor stream should continue to exist for at least 5. (B) The comet associated with the Geminid meteor stream has totally disintegrated.000 years old. (E) A solid pipe with gradually decreasing density toward the center. computer-model Geminid stream if the stream were 5.

Inc. Page 8 .©Educational Training Services. A Division of MLI Consulting. Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) END OF SECTION How long did you take to complete this section? Minutes.

for their coral hosts. not deteriorate. Choice E provides information stated in the context of an example. Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes Time : 25 Minutes 18 Questions Directions: Each passage in this group is followed by questions based on its content. thereby producing food for themselves. sewage disposal. (B) explain how reef communities acquire sustenance for survival. Typical symptoms of reef decline are destabilized herbivore populations and an increasing abundance of algae and filter-feeding animals. Declines in reef communities are consistent with observations that nutrient input is increasing in direct proportion to growing human populations. This symbiotic process allows organisms in the reef community to use sparse nutrient resources efficiently. (E) describing the abundance of algae and filterfeeding animals in coral reef areas. (D) indicate a cause of decreasing nutrient input in waters that reefs inhabit. which is one component of the reef community. Choice C provides contra information: the reef thrives in nutrient poor waters. The reference to ‘filter feeding animals’ is made in the course of providing an example of reef decline. This ecosystem is one of the fascinating paradoxes of the biosphere: how do clear. 1. After reading a passage choose the best answer to each question and fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet. Coral reefs are one of the most fragile. Symbiotic cells of algae known as zooxanthellae carry out photosynthesis using the metabolic wastes of corals.©Educational Training Services. (D) The growth of coral reef communities tends to destabilize underwater herbivore populations. Page 9 . Notice the clear paraphrasing of ‘typical symptoms’ as ‘characteristic sign’ and of ‘reef decline’ as ‘reef deterioration’. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) 2. slashand-burn land cleaning. (B) The nutrients on which coral reef communities thrive are only found in shallow waters. Answer all questions following a passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage. The author refers to “filter-feeding-animals” in paragraph 2 in order to (A) provide an example of a characteristic sign of reef deterioration. it is not the primary purpose of the passage. The passage is primarily concerned with (A) describing the effects of human activities on algae in coral reefs. The passage suggests which of the following about coral reef communities? (A) Coral reef communities may actually be more likely to thrive in waters that are relatively low in nutrients. Although it is mentioned in the first paragraph. we are not sure whether the effect is good or bad. waters support such prolific and productive communities? Part of the answer lies within the tissues of the corals themselves. (B) explaining how human activities are posing a threat to coral reef communities. A Division of MLI Consulting. Choice D talks about ‘producing food’. and thus nutrient-poor. biologically complex. Choice A talks about the ‘effects’ of human activities on ‘algae’. Agriculture. (E) Coral reef communities are more complex and diverse than most ecosystems located on dry land. Choice A is the best answer. (C) discussing the process by which coral reefs deteriorate in nutrient poor waters. Notice that the qualifier ‘nutrient poor’ has been interpreted in this inference statement as ‘low in nutrients’. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) Choice B is the best answer capturing the essence of the passage. which threatens coral reef communities. (C) Human population growth has led to changing ocean temperatures. Inc. and diverse marine ecosystems on earth. however. (D) explaining how coral reefs produce food for themselves. Any information used as an example can NEVER be part of the central idea or the primary purpose. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) 3. Also. (C) identify a factor that helps herbivore populations thrive. a variety of human activities are causing worldwide degradation of shallow marine habitats by adding nutrients to the water. (E) identify members of coral reef communities that rely on coral reefs for nutrients. thereby threatening reef communities sensitive to subtle changes in nutrient input to their waters. and manufacturing that creates waste by-products all increase nutrient loads in these waters. and even for other members of the reef community. Unfortunately for coral reefs.

(C) The degraded waters of their marine habitat have reduced their ability to carry out photosynthesis. Our lookup clearly states that the reef communities are paradoxical because prolific communities thrive in nutrient poor waters. which of the following is a factor that is threatening the survival of coral reef communities? (A) The waters they inhabit contain few nutrient resources. This symbiotic process allows organisms in the reef community to use sparse nutrient resources efficiently. and manufacturing that creates waste by-products all increase nutrient loads in these waters. Unfortunately for coral reefs. Symbiotic cells of algae known as zooxanthellae carry out photosynthesis using the metabolic wastes of corals. 4. Typical symptoms of reef decline are destabilized herbivore populations and an increasing abundance of algae and filter-feeding animals. (E) They are declining even when the water surrounding them remains clear. sewage disposal. Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes Coral reefs are one of the most fragile. Choice C is the best answer interpreting ‘nutrient poor waters’ as ‘environment with limited food reserves’. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) This is an explicit information question and we are required to identify ONE of several factors specifically stated as contributing to the decline of reef communities. (D) They are too biologically complex to survive in habitats with minimal nutrient input. A Division of MLI Consulting. (E) Waste by-products result in an increase in nutrient input to reef communities. a variety of human activities are causing worldwide degradation of shallow marine habitats by adding nutrients to the water.©Educational Training Services. waters support such prolific and productive communities? Part of the answer lies within the tissues of the corals themselves. slashand-burn land cleaning. (B) A decline in nutrient input is disrupting their symbiotic relationship with zooxanthellae. This ecosystem is one of the fascinating paradoxes of the biosphere: how do clear. According to the passage. Declines in reef communities are consistent with observations that nutrient input is increasing in direct proportion to growing human populations. (B) They are able to survive in spite of an over abundance of algae inhabiting their waters. however. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) 5. thereby threatening reef communities sensitive to subtle changes in nutrient input to their waters. (D) Their metabolic wastes contribute to the degradation of the waters they inhabit. Agriculture. Page 10 . for their coral hosts. (C) They are able to survive in an environment with limited food resources. and even for other members of the reef community. thereby producing food for themselves. Choice E is the best answer supported by a very explicitly stated information in the context of factors posing a threat to the reef communities. and diverse marine ecosystems on earth. and thus nutrient-poor. Inc. biologically complex. It can be inferred from the passage that the author describes coral reef communities as paradoxical most likely for which of the following reasons? (A) They are thriving even though human activities have depleted the nutrients in their environment.

and heroes of the United States. Such emerging issues as immigration and voting rights gave Mexican American advocacy groups the means by which to promote ethnic solidarity. neither fully captures the dynamic and changing aspects of ethnicity in the United States. Patrick’s Day (both are major holidays in the countries of origin). Choice A uses a ‘cute phrase’ restated from one of the two definitions stated in the passage. cited Mexican leader Benito Juarez as a model for Mexican Americans in their fight for contemporary civil rights. Which of the following statements about the first two definitions of ethnicity discussed in the first paragraph is supported by the passage? (A) One is supported primarily by sociologists. A different conception of ethnicity de-emphasizes the cultural component and defines ethnic groups as interest groups. And every year. Choices C and D are not good for this reason alone. Page 11 . The first emphasizes the primordial and unchanging character of ethnicity. Inc. this movement also evoked increased interest in tribal history and traditional culture. people have an essential need for belonging that is satisfied by membership in groups based on shared ancestry and culture. (B) One emphasizes the political aspects of ethnicity and the other focuses on the economic aspects. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) Our anchor phrase look up reveals that ONE definition EMPHASIZES the cultural and ancestral aspects of ethnicity and the OTHER definition DEEMPHASIZES the ancestral aspects. Notice that the information in paragraphs 2 and 3 relate to examples. Like European ethnic groups in the nineteenth-century United States. (E) One focuses more on immigrant groups than does the other. 6. symbols. the author does not say that the definitions are ‘incomparable’. ethnicity serves as a way of mobilizing a certain population behind issues relating to its economic position. Besides. The Civil Rights movement also brought changes in the uses to which ethnicity was put by Mexican American people. Cultural and instrumental components of ethnicity are not mutually exclusive. ethnicity is more satisfactorily conceived of as a process in which preexisting communal bonds and common cultural attributes are adapted for instrumental purposes according to changing real life situations. In the 1960’s. ethnic groups have begun to organize in order to further their political and economic interests. late twentieth-century Mexican American leaders combined ethnic with contemporary civic symbols. and the other is favored by members of ethnic groups. Choice D is the best literal interpretation of this passage information. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) 7. (E) The two definitions of ethnicity that have dominated sociologists’ discussions are incomparable and should be replaced by an entirely new approach. (B) Ethnicity is best defined as a dynamic process that combines cultural components with shared political and economic interests. but rather reinforce one another. A Division of MLI Consulting. (C) In the United States in the twentieth century.©Educational Training Services. Rather. Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes Choice B is the best answer capturing the essence of the passage. In this view. with both holidays having been reinvented in the context of the United States and linked to ideals. then Mayor of San Antonio. While both of these definitions are useful. One example of the process is the rise of participation by Native American people in the broader United States political system since the Civil Rights movement of the 1960’s. (D) Ethnicity in the United States has been significantly changed by the Civil Rights movement. Which of the following best states the main idea of the passage? (A) In their definitions of the nature of ethnicity. In 1968 Henry Cisneros. Mexican Americans celebrate Cinco de Mayo as fervently as many Irish American people embrace St. In this view. Mexican Americans formed community-based political groups that emphasized ancestral heritage as a way of mobilizing constituents. Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists’ discussions of the nature of ethnicity. Texas. and any information stated in the context of examples cannot be the main idea. Pay close attention to the choice of words in an answer choice. Choice E has the HIT LIST WORD ‘approach’ in it. The author states that the definitions are inadequate. (D) One focuses more on the ancestral components of ethnicity than does the other. (C) One is the result of analysis of United States populations. sociologists have underestimated the power of the primordial human need to belong. Besides leading Native Americans to participate more actively in politics (the number of Native American legislative officeholders more than doubled). and the other is the result of analysis of European populations.

The Civil Rights movement also brought changes in the uses to which ethnicity was put by Mexican American people. people have an essential need for belonging that is satisfied by membership in groups based on shared ancestry and culture. is not good because the use of the word ‘renaissance’ is not supported by any information stated in the context of Mexican community . In the 1960’s. Choice C. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) 10. with both holidays having been reinvented in the context of the United States and linked to ideals. The native Americans are used as an example of the PROCESS that combines culture with interest components. Like European ethnic groups in the nineteenth-century United States. (B) In the 1960’s Mexican American community groups promoted ethnic solidarity primarily in order to effect economic change. While both of these definitions are useful. (B) how ethnic feelings have been motivated and strengthened by political activity. neither fully captures the dynamic and changing aspects of ethnicity in the United States. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) 9. (D) In the 1960’s members of the Mexican American community were becoming increasingly concerned about the issue of voting rights. (E) the benefits gained from renewed study of ethnic history and culture. late twentieth-century Mexican American leaders combined ethnic with contemporary civic symbols. but rather reinforce one another. the interest component addressed in the context of the native Americans is the political participation. In this view. Page 12 . (C) how the Civil Rights movement can help promote solidarity among United States ethnic groups. The passage supports which of the following Mexican statements about the American Community? (A) In the 1960’s the Mexican American community began to incorporate the customs of another ethnic group in the United States into the observation of its own ethnic holidays. (D) how participation in the political system has helped to improve a group’s economic situation. Which of the following types of ethnic cultural expressions is discussed in the passage? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) The retelling of traditional narratives The wearing of traditional clothing The playing of traditional music The celebration of traditional holidays The preparation of traditional cuisine A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) One example of the process is the rise of participation by Native American people in the broader United States political system since the Civil Rights movement of the 1960’s. Texas. (E) In the 1960’s the Mexican American community had greater success in mobilizing constituents than did other ethnic groups in the United States. Choice D is the best literal interpretation of this information. Such emerging issues as immigration and voting rights gave Mexican American advocacy groups the means by which to promote ethnic solidarity. Rather. The question is: which of the following information is explicitly stated in the context of the Mexican American Community? Our lookup of the reference to this community reveals what is highlighted on the left. A different conception of ethnicity deemphasizes the cultural component and defines ethnic groups as interest groups. (C) In the 1960’s leaders of the Mexican American community concentrated their efforts on promoting a renaissance of ethnic history and culture. this movement also evoked increased interest in tribal history and traditional culture. ethnicity is more satisfactorily conceived of as a process in which preexisting communal bonds and common cultural attributes are adapted for instrumental purposes according to changing real life situations. We learn that the ‘emerging issues’ of immigration and voting rights were of concern to the community. a tempting choice for test takers. Choice B is the best answer supported by information explicitly stated in the context of Native Americans. Besides leading Native Americans to participate more actively in politics (the number of Native American legislative officeholders more than doubled). Mexican Americans formed community-based political groups that emphasized ancestral heritage as a way of mobilizing constituents. Cultural and instrumental components of ethnicity are not mutually exclusive. (A) the ability of membership in groups based on shared ancestry and culture to satisfy an essential human need. And every year. Inc. Mexican Americans celebrate Cinco de Mayo as fervently as many Irish American people embrace St. Specifically. In this view. American people in the second paragraph in The first emphasizes the primordial and unchanging order to provide an example of character of ethnicity. The author of the passage refers to Native sociologists’ discussions of the nature of ethnicity.©Educational Training Services. then Mayor of San Antonio. Patrick’s Day (both are major holidays in the countries of origin). In 1968 Henry Cisneros. ethnicity serves as a way of mobilizing a certain population behind issues relating to its economic position. and heroes of the United States. symbols. cited Mexican leader Benito Juarez as a model for Mexican Americans in their fight for contemporary civil rights. Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes Two divergent definitions have dominated 8. A Division of MLI Consulting.

In this view. A different conception of ethnicity deemphasizes the cultural component and defines ethnic groups as interest groups. neither fully captures the dynamic and changing aspects of ethnicity in the United States. (B) many Mexican Americans were insufficiently educated in Mexican history. ethnicity is more satisfactorily conceived of as a process in which preexisting communal bonds and common cultural attributes are adapted for instrumental purposes according to changing real life situations. (E) Mexican Americans should emulate the strategies of Native American political leaders. Like European ethnic groups in the nineteenth-century United States. late twentieth-century Mexican American leaders combined ethnic with contemporary civic symbols. ethnicity serves as a way of mobilizing a certain population behind issues relating to its economic position. Such emerging issues as immigration and voting rights gave Mexican American advocacy groups the means by which to promote ethnic solidarity. and heroes of the United States. (C) the fight for civil rights in the United States had many strong parallels in both Mexican and Irish history. this movement also evoked increased interest in tribal history and traditional culture. cited Mexican leader Benito Juarez as a model for Mexican Americans in their fight for contemporary civil rights. 11. Mexican Americans formed community-based political groups that emphasized ancestral heritage as a way of mobilizing constituents. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) Henry Cisneros believed that Benito Juarez was a MODEL or a positive example for the Mexican Americans. but rather reinforce one another. with both holidays having been reinvented in the context of the United States and linked to ideals. (E) They organized formal community groups designed to promote a renaissance of ethnic history and culture. Texas. (C) They created cultural traditions that fused United States symbols with those of their countries of origin. people have an essential need for belonging that is satisfied by membership in groups based on shared ancestry and culture. then Mayor of San Antonio. A Division of MLI Consulting.©Educational Training Services. symbols. (D) the quickest way of organizing communitybased groups was to emulate the tactics of Benito Juarez. (B) They conceived of their own ethnicity as being primordial in nature. Rather. Choice A is the best and literal interpretation of this information. Cultural and instrumental components of ethnicity are not mutually exclusive. The passage suggests that in 1968 Henry Cisneros most likely believed that (A) many Mexican Americans would respond positively to the example of Benito Juarez. One example of the process is the rise of participation by Native American people in the broader United States political system since the Civil Rights movement of the 1960’s. (D) They de-emphasized the cultural component of their communities in favor of political interests. Mexican Americans celebrate Cinco de Mayo as fervently as many Irish American people embrace St. The Civil Rights movement also brought changes in the uses to which ethnicity was put by Mexican American people. In this view. Inc. And every year. The first emphasizes the primordial and unchanging character of ethnicity. While both of these definitions are useful. Patrick’s Day (both are major holidays in the countries of origin). Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists’ discussions of the nature of ethnicity. The information in the passage supports which of the following statements about many European ethnic groups in the nineteenth-century United States? (A) They emphasized economic interests as a way of mobilizing constituents behind certain issues. In 1968 Henry Cisneros. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) 12. In the 1960’s. Besides leading Native Americans to participate more actively in politics (the number of Native American legislative officeholders more than doubled). Page 13 .

The primary purpose of the passage is to (A) contrast possible outcomes of a type of business investment. like those in production and distribution. Our inference is that the bank was on a par with its competitors and was able to retain customers and to provide reputable service. A Division of MLI Consulting. which failed to improve its competitive position despite its investment in reducing the time a customer had to wait for a teller. Choice A. Choice C is the best answer that is consistent with this statement in the passage. (E) criticize the way in which managers tend to analyze the costs and benefits of business investments. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) 14. Inc. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) 15.©Educational Training Services. The reference is that the bank failed to improve its competitive position despite investment in service improvement. The author cautions against investment in service enhancement if a company already effectively on a par with its competitors. (D) It was slightly superior to that of the bank’s regional competitors. Choice B is the best answer capturing the essence of the passage and stating the main purpose of the passage. Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes The fact that superior service can generate a competitive advantage for a company does not mean that every attempt at improving service will create such an advantage. it will not benefit from investment in service enhancement. must be balanced against other types of investments on the basis of direct. The passage suggests which of the following about service provided by the regional bank prior to its investment in enhancing that service ? (A) It enabled the bank to retain customers at an acceptable rate. Nor did they analyze their service improvement to determine whether it would attract new customers by producing a new standard of service that would excite customers or by proving difficult for competitors to copy. The bank managers did not recognize the level of customer inertia in the consumer banking industry that arises from the inconvenience of switching banks. This truth was not apparent to managers of one regional bank. Our anchor phrase lookup reads that investment in service must be balanced or weighed against other types of investments on the BASIS of tangible benefits. 13. uses the cute phrase ‘tangible benefits’. (D) trace the general problems of a company to a certain type of business investment. tangible benefits such as cost reduction and increased revenues. Also. If a company is already effectively on a par with its competitors because it provides service that avoids a damaging reputation and keeps customers from leaving at an unacceptable rate. investments in service are comparable to investments in production and distribution in terms of the (A) tangibility of benefits that they tend to produce. a very tempting choice. (B) increased revenues that they ultimately produce. (C) basis on which they need to be weighed (D) insufficient analysis that managers devote to them (E) degree of competitive advantage that they are likely to provide. (B) It threatened to weaken the bank’s competitive position with respect to other regional banks. NEVER pick an answer choice that converts an adjective to a noun (tangible to tangibility) Page 14 . (C) illustrate various ways in which a type of business investment could fail to enhance revenues. then investment in higher service levels may be wasted. Investments in service. since service is a deciding factor for customers only in extreme situations. According to the passage. (C) It had already been improved after having caused damage to the bank’s reputation in the past. (B) suggest more careful evaluation of a type of business investment. Our anchor phrase lookup reveals that the truth that if a company is effectively on a par with other players in the market because it is able to retain customers and to provide service that avoids damaging reputation. The only merit of the improvement was that it could be easily described to the customers. Choice A is the best answer consistent with this interpretation.

©Educational Training Services. Inc. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) Page 15 . Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes (E) It needed to be improved to attain parity with the service provided by competing banks. A Division of MLI Consulting.

It seems to be the norm. Inc. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) The bank is an example to show the validity of the central idea described in the first paragraph. Investments in service. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) 17. Choice B.©Educational Training Services. then investment in higher service levels may be wasted. (B) It illustrates the pitfalls of choosing to invest in service at a time when investment is needed more urgently in another area. Our look up reveals that the managers failed to analyze whether what they did could be copied by competitors or would excite customers. and make sure that the wording is appropriate. Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes The fact that superior service can generate a competitive advantage for a company does not mean that every attempt at improving service will create such an advantage. is not good because we cannot interpret ‘exciting customers’ to mean ‘making a measurable change in the experience’. which failed to improve its competitive position despite its investment in reducing the time a customer had to wait for a teller. Choice A is not good because it is not an exceptional case. a tempting choice for many a test taker. (D) was an innovation that competing banks could have imitated (E) was adequate to bring the bank’s general level of service to a level that was comparable with that of its competitors. since service is a deciding factor for customers only in extreme situations. The bank managers did not recognize the level of customer inertia in the consumer banking industry that arises from the inconvenience of switching banks. (D) It supports the argument that investments in certain aspects of service are more advantageous than investments in other aspects of service. The discussion of the regional bank in the second paragraph serves which of the following functions within the passage as a whole? (A) It describes an exceptional case in which investment in service actually failed to produce a competitive advantage. Choice E is the best answer. The question is about what the managers failed to consider or analyze. A Division of MLI Consulting. and the reference to ‘measurable change’ in choice B is not appropriate. Pay attention to the words used in answer choices. Nor did they analyze their service improvement to determine whether it would attract new customers by producing a new standard of service that would excite customers or by proving difficult for competitors to copy. like those in production and distribution. (B) made a measurable change in the experience of customers in the bank’s offices. The passage suggests that bank managers failed to consider whether or not the service improvement mentioned in the second paragraph (A) was too complicated to be easily described to the prospective customers. Choice D is the best answer consistent with this explicitly stated information. 16. This truth was not apparent to managers of one regional bank. If a company is already effectively on a par with its competitors because it provides service that avoids a damaging reputation and keeps customers from leaving at an unacceptable rate. The only merit of the improvement was that it could be easily described to the customers. Pay attention to the VERB used in the question stem. (E) It provides an example of the point about investment in service made in the first paragraph. must be balanced against other types of investments on the basis of direct. Page 16 . (C) It demonstrates the kind of analysis that managers apply when they choose one kind of service investment over another. Excitement is an immeasurable feeling. tangible benefits such as cost reduction and increased revenues. (C) could be sustained if the number of customers increased significantly.

it seems to suggest that the investment did not produce a great deal of benefit or did produce some trivial benefit. then investment in higher service levels may be wasted. Take words literally and see whether they make sense. Choice B is the best answer. Your ability to critically analyze words for their appropriateness is what is tested in this section. 18. The only merit of the improvement was that it could be easily described to the customers. oddity means a strange thing. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) How long did you take to complete this section? Minutes The tone is one of minimizing tone. If a company is already effectively on a par with its competitors because it provides service that avoids a damaging reputation and keeps customers from leaving at an unacceptable rate. Choice A uses the noun form of the adjective odd. (E) point out the limited duration of the actual service improvement. Never pick an answer choice that converts an adjective to a noun using the ‘ity’ form. The author uses the word “only” in the last sentence of the second paragraph most likely in order to (A) highlight the oddity of the service improvement. (odd is changed to oddity) (B) emphasize the relatively low value of the investment in service improvement. tangible benefits such as cost reduction and increased revenues. Nor did they analyze their service improvement to determine whether it would attract new customers by producing a new standard of service that would excite customers or by proving difficult for competitors to copy.©Educational Training Services. The bank managers did not recognize the level of customer inertia in the consumer banking industry that arises from the inconvenience of switching banks. Also. Page 17 . Inc. which failed to improve its competitive position despite its investment in reducing the time a customer had to wait for a teller. since service is a deciding factor for customers only in extreme situations. Investments in service. must be balanced against other types of investments on the basis of direct. This truth was not apparent to managers of one regional bank. Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes The fact that superior service can generate a competitive advantage for a company does not mean that every attempt at improving service will create such an advantage. (D) single out a certain merit of the service improvement from other merits. (C) distinguish the primary attribute of the service improvement from secondary attributes. Do not go through the motions of picking answer choices. like those in production and distribution. A Division of MLI Consulting. The way the statement is made.

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