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Strategies for Safety Evaluation of Road Intersection to

have Sustainable Development


* ** ***
AB Khan , PK Agarwal , S Chaki
Abstract

Intersection is an area shared by two or more roads. This area is designated


for the vehicles to turn to different directions to reach their desired
destinations. Its main function is to guide vehicles to their respective
directions. Intersections are complex locations on any road. Compared with
other urban intersections usually generate more traffic crashes because of
considerable conflicts in motorized traffic, as well as conflicts among non-
motorized traffic, and pedestrians. According to recent statistics,
approximately 55% of total traffic crashes and 23% of crashes with fatalities
in urban areas in the USA occur at intersections. In India, approximately 32%
of urban traffic crashes take place at intersections. These statistical data
indicate that intersections are places of significant safety concern. Therefore
there is an urgent need for safety improvement at highway intersection.
Literature review indicated that the theories lacks in providing complete
scientific explanation of the accidents. Each theory presents incomplete
perspective that offers an incomplete explanation of the intersection
fatalities. Almost all the theories are about accident causation have been
proposed as means of accidents, rather than out of intellectual curiosity. In
this study strategies are illustrated to predict the number of accidents. This
study is designed to analyze and quantify the traffic safety scenario at
intersections in urban cities the total harm caused by crashes can be
substantially and readily reduced. The study will focus on an aspects of
intersection safety in urban cities i.e. identification of road intersection
safety factor conditions. This study discusses about the development of
strategies for safety improvement of road intersections in urban cities.
Illustrations of strategies were carried out by two case studies of Bhopal City.
Various strategies are considered to illustrate the sensitivity of proposed
study. The accidents at intersections are determined using JUNCTIONS 8
software keeping in mind the simplicity and uniformity. The graphs were also
plotted for illustration of different strategies.
*
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Smt S.R. Patel Engineering College, Unjha 384170,
**
Gujarat. Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal
462051, Gujarat, India.
***
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Smt S.R. Patel Engineering College, Unjha 384170,
Gujarat. Correspondence to: Mr. A.B. Khan, Department of Civil Engineering, Smt S.R. Patel Engineering
College, Unjha-384170, Gujarat, India. E-mail Id: Abkamu4@gmail.com

© ADR Journals 2017. All Rights Reserved.


J. Adv. Res. Auto. Tech. Transp. Sys. 2017; 1(1&2) Khan AB et al.

Theoretical models suggest that the number of fatalities in urban cities is


not likely to decline for many years to come unless new policies are
established and Implemented. Thus, it is expected that this study will be
useful in improving safety at highway intersections.

Keywords: Intersection safety, Junctions 8, Safety improvement, Strategies,


Fatalities.

Introduction

According to documented statistics, crossing streets. The different approach and


intersections are among the most hazardous crossing movements by motorists, bicyclists and
locations on roadway systems. Thus safety pedestrians make at-grade intersections one of the
evaluation of a road intersection is a most complex traffic situations that people
determinant problem in order to establish a encounter. Figure 1 and Figure 2 respectively shows
relation for maintenance and to make right aerial view of four legged Pragati Petrol Pump and
design choices for the enhancement of new 10 Number Market T-Intersections at Bhopal city
infrastructures. Road intersections that have showing all users at intersections primarily due to
accident potential or have high numbers of the ever-increasing growth of motor vehicles and
accidents called hazardous intersections. By the inadequacy of the road system to cope with the
identifying the reasons that make the saturated traffic flow. The intersections as shown in
intersection hazardous it is possible to improve Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 respectively are uncontrolled
its safety more effectively. This study is intersections. Neither of the intersections has
designed to analyze and quantify the traffic rotary for controlling the traffic movement. At some
safety scenario at intersections in Bhopal city. approaching lanes there are no proper pavement
The study focuses on an aspects of intersection markings, physical dividers like medians,
safety in India i.e. identification of road channelizing islands, traffic signals and no
intersection safety factor conditions. Based on pedestrian facilities like footpath, cross walk etc.
the Indian Road Congress IRC checklist and The situation is worsened by the encroachments
based on various established study aspects, and temporary vendors like tea stalls at the
some exemplary strategies are discussed to intersection. All these factors have an adverse
evaluate the number of accidents at existing impact on road user’s behavior which enhances the
intersections. The proposed strategy will possibility of accidents. Therefore it became
provide an analytical and numerical imperative to develop strategies for safety
perspective of accident predicted per year by improvement at intersections for smoother and
modification of Intersection safety factors. The safer traffic movement.
accidents at intersections are predicted using
Junctions 8 keeping in mind the simplicity and
uniformity. The main objective of this study is
A critical review of literature indicated that
development of strategies for safety
china has first ranked in the world in the
improvement at highway intersections using
number of road accidents and fatalities, in
Junctions 8. The functional area of an
which approximately 30% of occurred at urban
intersection extends upstream and
downstream from the physical area of the
intersections. Therefore, measuring

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Khan AB et al. J. Adv. Res. Auto. Tech. Transp. Sys. 2017; 1(1&2)

intersection safety factors is essential to achieve Environmental and weather condition also an
effective correction countermeasures (Zhou et al, important part which affected the intersection
2013). It was observed that intersection collision safety (Shankar et al, 1994). The dynamic behavior
figure in Japan are even more devastating, with of simulation techniques has the potential to
more than 58 percent of all traffic crashes reported provide a highly useful platform for short-term
at intersection. Intersection related fatalities in safety analysis (Milam and Choa, 2000). It was
Japan are approximately 30 percent of all Japanese observed from the past studies various researchers
traffic accidents (Salim, 2008). Likewise important had been widely used the microscopic simulation
strategies involve education and enforcement. techniques for understand and establish good
Quite often, it is a mixture of these strategies that is relation between road accident trends and
needed to truly solve a problem related to responsible elements for future traffic control and
intersection safety (Agarwal et al, 2016). Efficiency operations. Based on the literature review, some of
and user safety are the two primary goals of the important deficiencies in the present state of
transportation engineering and play an important art are that the theories lacks in providing complete
role in traffic accident occurrence. The first is scientific explanation of the accidents. Each theory
related to the geometric design of roads and the presents incomplete perspective that offers an
second is road user characteristics (Mohamed et al, incomplete explanation of the intersection
1999). fatalities.

Figure 1.An Aerial View of a Pragati Petrol Pump Four Legged Intersection Showing All Users

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J. Adv. Res. Auto. Tech. Transp. Sys. 2017; 1(1&2) Khan AB et al.

Figure 2.An Aerial View of a 10 Number Market T-intersection Showing All Users

Strategies for Intersection Safety Strategies for Safety Improvement at


Improvement Using Junctions 8 Highway Intersections

General Strategy for Predicting the Number of


Accidents
The main objective of this study is
development of strategies for safety This strategy is designed to analyze and
improvement at highway intersections using quantify the traffic safety scenario at four
Junctions 8.This section gives the details of legged Pragati petrol pump and 10 number
the strategies developed. The strategy is first market T-intersections in Bhopal City. It will
to determine the predicted number of focus on aspects of intersection safety i.e.
accidents per year using Junctions 8. The determination of accidents occurring at Pragati
proposed study is designed to analyze and petrol pump and 10 number market
quantify the traffic safety scenario at intersection. The accidents at intersections are
intersections in urban cities. The study will predicted using Junctions 8 software keeping
focus on an aspects of intersection safety in in mind the simplicity and uniformity.
urban cities i.e. identification of road
intersection safety by predicting number of A Case Study for Safety Improvement of
accidents per year. Proposed study discusses Bhopal Intersections
about the development of strategies for
General
safety improvement of road intersections in
urban cities. The main objective of this study is
development of strategies for safety
The accidents at prioritized intersections are
improvement at highway intersections using
predicted using Junctions 8 software keeping
Junctions 8. The illustration of and working of
in mind the simplicity and uniformity. As
strategies is presented by calculations and
explained earlier, the strategy consists of the
results using Junctions 8. Further, this section
Strategy for safety evaluation at intersection
presents input data required for analysis of the
by predicting number of accidents per year.

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Khan AB et al. J. Adv. Res. Auto. Tech. Transp. Sys. 2017; 1(1&2)

case studies and analysis and results using Case Study-I: Four Legged Unsignalised
Junctions 8 was presented here. (Pragati Petrol Pump Intersection)
Analysis and Results Using Junctions 8 Input Data
The section is designed to analyze and quantify The determination of predicted number of
the traffic safety scenario at intersections in accidents at Pragati Petrol Pump in Bhopal City
urban cities, and to identify the was done using Junction 8 software. This cross
countermeasures for intersection fatalities, the road was selected because it was found to be
total harm caused by crashes can be the most dangerous intersection of Bhopal City
substantially and readily reduced. The study and moreover it is situated at a location which
will focus on an aspects of intersection safety is said to be the heart of Bhopal City as more
in urban cities i.e. identification of road than 80% of corporate offices are situated
intersection safety factor conditions. The here. The traffic survey was carried out for the
analysis and results of study is present in this peak hour duration i.e. from 6:00 pm to 7:00
section. Analysis and results is illustrated with pm and the various other. This is un-signalized
the help of two case studies. Case studies were intersection and the traffic behavior here was
done on four legged Pragati Petrol Pump and in a haphazard manner. The details of units of
10 number market T-intersections of Bhopal different input and output parameters of
City. The accidents at intersections are Junction-8 are presented in Table 1.
predicted using Junctions 8 software keeping
in mind the simplicity and uniformity.

Table 1.Details of Units of Different Inputs and Outputs of Junctions-8


Distance Speed Traffic Traffic Flow Average Total Rate of
units units units units units delay units delay delay units
input results units
M KMPH PCU PCU per hour S -min per min

Table 2 shows the details of conditions during which the analysis was carried out.

Table 2.Details of Conditions during Analysis for Pragati Petrol Pump Intersection
Name Junction Major Arm Driving Lighting Major Minor
Type Road Order Side Arms Arms
Direction
Pragati Petrol Crossroads Two-way A, B, C, Left Normal/ A, C B, D
Pump D unknown

The road heading towards Habibganj railway Analysis and Results for Pragati Petrol
station was assigned Major Arm-A, the road Pump intersection
towards 6 No Market was given Minor Arm-
B, the road towards DB mall was Major Arm- The various measured input data of Major
C, and the road towards Pragati Petrol Pump Arm geometry is presented in Table 3.
was given Minor Arm-D.

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J. Adv. Res. Auto. Tech. Transp. Sys. 2017; 1(1&2) Khan AB et al.

Table 3.Details of Input Data of Major Arm Geometry of Pragati Petrol Pump Intersection
Arm Width of Has kerbed Has Width for Visibility for Pedestrian
carriageway central right right turn right turn (m) crossing type
(m) reserve turn bay (m)
A 19.50 No No 2.20 70.00 Zebra
C 19.50 No No 2.20 100.00 Zebra

The various measured input data of minor Arm geometry is presented in Table 3.

Table 4.Details of Input Data of Minor Arm Geometry of Pragati Petrol Pump Intersection
Arm Minor Lane Lane Lane Visibility to Visibility to Pedestrian
arm type width Width Width left (m) right (m) crossing type
(m) left (m) right (m)
B One lane 5.00 - - 15 150 None
D Two lanes - 5.00 5.00 10 25 None

The various measured input data details of Zebra Crossings are given in Table 5.

Table 5.Details of Input Data of Zebra Crossings at Pragati Petrol Pump Intersection
Arm Space Space Vehicles Crossing Crossing Crossing Crossing Crossing
Between between queuing Data length time length time
crossing crossing on exit Type (entry (entry (exit (exit
and and (PCU) side) (m) side) (s) side) (m) side) (s)
junction junction
entry entry
(Left) (Right)
(PCU) (PCU)
A 0.00 0.00 4.00 Distance 11.50 8.21 11.50 8.21
C 0.00 0.00 5.00 Distance 11.50 8.21 11.50 8.21

Most of input data presented in above Tables very less traffic. Table 6 shows the details of
i.e. Table 3, 4, 5 were measured early in the input data that was taken at Pragati Petrol
morning at the time when there was no or Pump intersection.
Table 6.Details of Various Inputs of Accident Parameters
Arm Kerbed Gradient Angle to S.S.D. Radius of Number Visibility Visibility
island (%) next arm (m) entry ahead to left to right
present (degree) corner (m) lanes (m) (m)
A No 0.00 90.00 25.00 5.00 2 - A
B No 0.00 90.00 15.00 - - 15.00 150.00
C No 0.00 90.00 25.00 5.00 2 - -
D No 0.00 90.00 15.00 - -- 10.00 25.00

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The video graphic survey that was done at shows the pedestrian flow movement at
intersection was used to resolve the pedestrian Pragati Petrol Pump intersection.
flow movement at the intersection. Table 7
Table 7.Pedestrian Flows for Determining Accident Prediction
No. Arms Pedestrian flow (peds x 1000)
1 A 2.304
2 B 1.408
3 C 2.880
4 D 1.728

A video graphic survey was carried out from a movements. This peak hour traffic was then
nearby high rise building at Pragati Petrol converted to AADT by using the conception
Pump (Bhopal City) intersection during the that the peak hour flow is 2 times the
peak hour traffic i.e. 6:00 pm-7:00 pm was normal flow. This turning movement flow
used to determine the details of traffic turning has been shown in tabular form in Table 8.
Table 8.Input Data Table Shows Detailed Flow of Traffic for Predicting Accidents
Arm To Light (AADT x Medium (AADT Heavy (AADT Buses (AADT Cycles (AADT
arm 1000) x 1000) x 1000) x 1000) x 1000)
A A 0.420 0.408 0.000 0.000 0.000
A B 1.290 0.768 0.000 0.000 0.000
A C 11.712 9.016 0.264 2.376 0.000
A D 6.144 2.928 0.000 0.000 0.000
B A 2.772 1.424 0.000 0.000 0.000
B B 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
B C 2.460 1.728 0.000 0.000 0.000
B D 6.264 4.440 0.000 0.000 0.000
C A 11.562 9.064 0.264 2.376 0.000
C B 1.824 1.824 0.000 0.000 0.000
C C 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
C D 3.804 2.216 0.000 0.000 0.000
D A 5.712 4.248 0.000 0.000 0.000
D B 4.566 1.512 0.000 0.000 0.000
D C 4.464 2.496 0.000 0.000 0.000
D D 0.426 0.312 0.000 0.000 0.000

After collecting all the relevant information of intersection. Table 9 shows the results
input data at the intersection the model was generated after operating the model for
run to generate results of predicted number of accidents prediction.
accidents at four legged Pragati Petrol Pump

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J. Adv. Res. Auto. Tech. Transp. Sys. 2017; 1(1&2) Khan AB et al.

Table 9.Results of Predicted Accidents per Year at Pragati Petrol Pump Intersection
Total vehicle accidents Total pedestrian accidents Total accident rate
(Accidents/ year) (Accidents/ year) (Accidents/ year)
23.227 2.373 25.600

Table 9 shows that the predicted number of 21. So it can be over and done with that the
total accidents per year is coming out to be methodology presented in this work to
25.6. To legalize the methodology accident determine the number of accidents per year
record was also collected from Habibganj using Junction8 is logical and realistic.
Police station and it was found from the
Table 10 shows detailed results of predicted
documentation of Habibganj Police that the
number of accidents obtained after
total number of accidents that take place at
operating Junctions-8.
Pragati Petrol Pump intersection in 2015 was
Table 10.Detailed Results (Accidents/Year) of Accident Prediction for
Pragati Petrol Pump Intersection
No. Accidents/ Year Prediction
1 VA1: Single vehicle accidents on major arm 0.478
2 VA2: Rear shunt and lane-changing on major arm 5.496
3 VA3: Right-angle accidents: major arm with previous minor 0.765
4 VA4: Right-angle accidents: major arm with next minor 0.336
5 VA5: Right-turn from major with own ahead 0.126
6 VA6: Right-turn from minor with next ahead 7.237
7 VA7: Right-turn from major with opposite ahead 0.306
8 VA8: Right-turn from minor with previous ahead 3.336
9 VA9: Other right-turn from minor arm 3.761
10 VA10: Left-turn from minor with previous ahead 0.134
11 VA11: Head-on/U-turn/parked/parking accidents on major 0.088
12 VA12: Other vehicle-only accidents on major arm 0.489
13 VA13: Other vehicle-only accidents on minor arm 0.674
14 PA1: Pedestrian with vehicle entering on major arm 1.124
15 PA2: Pedestrian with vehicle exiting on major arm 0.057
16 PA3: Other pedestrian accidents on major arm 0.167
17 PA4: Pedestrian accidents on minor arm 1.025
Total Accidents rate (Per year) 25.6

The various types of collisions that can occur at Pedestrian with vehicle exiting on major arm.
different major and minor lanes are also shown in
Table 10. It can be accomplished from the Table 10
These obtained results seem to be appropriate
that the maximum number of predicted accidents is
as the traffic on the major arms are
approaching the intersection in high speed and
7.237 i.e. VA6: Right-turn from minor with next
the minor arm traffic visibility to right or left is
ahead and the minimum number of predicted
quite less due to existence of some
accidents is 0.057 i.e. PA2:
obstructions. Further the minimum numbers of

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accidents i.e. Pedestrian with vehicle exiting because it was found to be the most
on major arm are also logical due to presence dangerous intersection of Bhopal City and
of pedestrian crossings at the major arm. moreover it is an important market area of
Bhopal City. The traffic survey was carried
Case Study-II: Unsignalised T- out for the peak hour duration i.e. from 6:00
Intersection at 10 Number Market pm to 7:00 pm and the various other. This is
un-signalized priority T-intersection and
Input Data
none of the arm having zebra crossing. Due
The determination of predicted number of to the market area the number of pedestrian
accidents at 10 number market intersections crossing at intersection is high. The details of
in Bhopal City was done using Junction 8 units of different input & output parameters
software. This T-intersection was selected of junction-8 are presented in Table 11.
Table 11.Details of units of different inputs and outputs of Junctions-8 for T intersection
Distance Speed Traffic Traffic Flow Average Total Rate of
units units units units units delay units delay delay
input results units units
M KMPH PCU PCU per S -min per min
hour

Table 12 shows the details of conditions during which the analysis was carried out.
Table 12.Details of Conditions during Analysis for T intersection
Name Junction Major road Arm Driving Lighting Major Minor
type direction order side arms arms
10 No. T Two-way A,B,C Left Normal A,C B
Market intersection

The road heading towards Basant Kunj was Analysis and Results for 10 No. Market
assigned Major Arm-A, the road towards intersection
Bitthan market was given Minor Arm-B, the
road towards 7 number market was Major The various measured input data of Major
Arm-C. and Minor Arm geometry is presented in
Table 13 and Table 14 respectively.
Table 13.Details of Input Data of Major Arm Geometry of 10 no market T intersection
Arm Width of Has kerbed Has Width for Visibility for Pedestrian
carriageway central right right turn right turn (m) crossing type
(m) reserve turn bay (m)
C 9.10 No No 2.20 60.00 None

Table 14.Details of Input Data of Minor Arm Geometry of 10 no market T intersection


Arm Minor Lane width Lane width Visibility to Visibility to Pedestrian
arm type left (m) right (m) left (m) right (m) crossing type
B Two lane 4.70 4.70 12 39 None

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Most of input data presented in above Tables less traffic. Table 15 shows the details of
i.e., Table 13, 14 were measured early in the input data that was taken at 10 number
morning at the time when there was no or very market intersections.
Table 15.Details of Various Inputs of Accident Parameters for T Intersection
Arm Kerbed Gradient Angle to Stopping Hatching Number Retail
island (%) next arm sight width at of entry land use
present (deg) distance junction lanes
(m) center (m)
A No 0.00 90.00 15.00 0.00 1 Yes
B No 0.00 90.00 20.00 0.00 - -
C No 0.00 180.00 15.00 0.00 1 Yes

A video graphic survey was carried out from a converted to AADT by using the conception
nearby high rise building at 10 number market that the peak hour flow is 2-2.5 times the
(Bhopal City) intersection during the peak hour normal flow. In the present case we
traffic i.e. 6:00 pm-7:00 pm was used to assumed that peak hour flow is 2 times the
determine the details of traffic turning normal flow. This turning movement flow
movements. This peak hour traffic was then has been shown in tabular form in Table 16.
Table 16.Input Data Table Shows Detailed Flow of Traffic for Predicting Accidents at T Intersection
Arm To arm Light (AADT Medium Heavy Buses Cycles
x 1000) (AADT x 1000) (AADT x 1000) (AADT x 1000) (AADT x 1000)
A A 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
A B 4.650 3.528 0.000 0.000 0.200
A C 9.990 6.096 0.000 0.000 0.300
B A 3.039 3.280 0.000 0.000 0.240
B B 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
B C 4.134 3.096 0.000 0.000 0.340
C A 9.462 4.840 0.000 0.000 0.440
C B 6.828 4.328 0.000 0.000 0.220
C C 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

The video graphic survey that was done at Table 17 shows the pedestrian flow movement
intersection was also used to resolve the at 10 number market intersections.
pedestrian flow movement at the intersection.
Table 17.Pedestrian Flows for Determining Accident Prediction
Arm Pedestrian Flow (peds x 1000)
A 2.496
B 3.456
C 2.016

After collecting all the relevant information of run to generate results of predicted number of
input data at the intersection the model was accidents at 10 number market intersections.

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Table 18 shows the results generated after accidents per year. It can also be seen from the
operating the model for accidents prediction. table that vehicle accidents and pedestrian
The results obtained are in number of accidents are obtained separately.
Table 18.Results of Predicted Accidents per Year for 10 no Market T intersection
Total vehicle accidents Total pedestrian accidents Total accident rate
(Accidents/year) (Accidents/year) (Accidents/year)
2.930 1.175 4.105

Table 18 shows that the predicted number of total number of accidents that take place at
total accidents per year is coming out to be 10 number market intersection in 2015 was
4.105 To legalize the strategy accident 2. So it can be over and done with that the
record was also collected from Habibganj strategy presented in this work to determine
Police station and it was found from the the number of accidents per year using
documentation of Habibganj Police that the Junction-8 is logical and realistic.
Table 19.Detailed Results (accidents/year) of Accident Prediction for 10
Number Market Intersection
No. VA 1: Single vehicle accidents from Arm C 0.025
1. VA 2: Single vehicle accidents from Arm A 0.035
2. VA 3: Rear shunt/lane changing from Arm C 0.341
3. VA 4: Rear shunt/lane changing from Arm A 0.274
4. VA 5: C-B interacting with C-A 0.020
5. VA 6: B-A interacting with C-A 0.095
6. VA 7: C-B interacting with A-C 0.363
7. VA 8: B-A interacting with A-C 0.431
8. VA 9: B-C interacting with A-C 0.936
9. VA10: Head-on and U-turn on major arm 0.033
10. VA11: Other vehicle accidents 0.376
11. PA1: Pedestrian with vehicle entering on Arm C 0.180
12. PA2: Pedestrian with vehicle entering on Arm A 0.244
13. PA3: Pedestrian with vehicle exiting on Arm C 0.259
14. PA4: Pedestrian with vehicle exiting on Arm A 0.092
15. PA5: Other pedestrian accidents 0.400
Total 4.105

Table 19 shows detailed results of predicted 0.936 i.e. VA9: B-C interacting with A-C and
number of accidents obtained after the minimum number of predicted accidents
operating Junctions-8. The various types of is 0.020 i.e. VA5: C-B interacting with C-A.
collisions that can occur at different major
and minor lanes are also shown in Table 19. Conclusions

It can be accomplished from the Table 19 that the The main objective of this study was
maximum number of predicted accidents is development of strategies for safety

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J. Adv. Res. Auto. Tech. Transp. Sys. 2017; 1(1&2) Khan AB et al.

improvement at highway intersections using hazardous locations on roadway systems.


JUNCTIONS 8. The following conclusion may In this study the predicted numbers of
be drawn based on the study: accidents per year are determined using
JUNCTIONS 8. To validate the work some
Safety on intersection has severely
intersections locations in Bhopal City and
degraded due to increase in road accidents
their present condition was taken .This
every year worldwide. Though, India has
study shows that the predicted number of
only 1 % of total vehicle across globally but
total accidents per year at Pragati Petrol
it has 10 percent of total deaths.
Pump and 10 number market T-junction
Therefore, there is need to improve the
after operating Junctions-8 are 25.6 and
intersection safety conditions by
4.105 respectively. To legalize the strategy
identifying the factors responsible for it
accident record was also collected from M.
amending suitable measures to reduce the
P. Nagar and Habibganj Police station and
chances of accidents to improve safety.
it was found from the documentation of
The peak hour traffic volume of the four Police that the total number of accidents
legged and three legged Intersection was that take place at Pragati Petrol Pump
found out to be 2000 PCU per hour and intersection in 2015 was 21 and total
1200 PCU per hour respectively. This number of accidents at 10 no Market T
traffic intensity and other intersection junction in 2015 was 2.So it can be over
characteristics in its present situation and done with that the proposed study is
require traffic engineering measures for logical and realistic.
the safe operation of traffic at the
The main contribution of this study is
intersection.
that it helps to predict the number of the
The improvement in the road safety can be accidents per year occurring at four
done by decreasing the number of legged and T junction of Bhopal City.
accidents at intersections. The accident can
It is expected that this study will be
be reduced by providing improvement to
useful to improve safety at intersections
the intersection by applying certain
by predicting the number of accidents
engineering measures. Further, all the
per year and thereby help in improving
remedial measures cannot be applied, as
safety at intersections.
the developing countries have the limited
resources (fund, man power, money, References
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