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CSWIP-3.

2 GUIDE Page 1 of 20

CSWIP 3.2 Guide


Well begun is half done!
Cracking

1) SAW Defects;
a) Solidification cracking
b) Porosity
c) Hydrogen induced cracking
d) Slag inclusion

2) What term would be given to non- metallic inclusions on both sides of a weld?
a) Wagon Track

3) What is the major cause of HAZ Cracking?


a) High restraint joint
b) High carbon
c) High hydrogen

4) State 4 mechanisms of cracking which may be found in the weld metal of ferritic steel
weldments?
a) Hydrogen induced cracking
b) Solidification cracking
c) Solidification Pipe or Void
d) Reheat cracking

5) State 3 methods of procedure for avoiding solidification pipe in weld metal?


a) Correct depth to width ratio
b) Correct bead shape
c) Correct surface chilling effect

6) State 4 factors which give rise to hydrogen cracking?


A) Stress
b) Hardness
c) Hydrogen
d) Temperature
e) Thickness

7) Give 2 reasons why the grain growth which occurs on welding make these materials
unsuited for many welded products?
a) As the chromium content is increased, increased quantities of sigma phase is produced
which embrittles the steel. Solidification cracking is a problem. Single phase alloys suffer
grain growth with heating & loss of strength & toughness on welding.

8) Give 2 advantages of Martensitic S.S?


a) Magnetic &Abrasion resistant

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9) Can be enlarged grain size of ferritic S.S be refined? If yes how?


a) Yes, by Peening

10) What does a procedure consist of?


a) Essential variables
b) Non essential variables
c) Supplementary variables
Essential variables: A change in welding parameters which effects the mechanical
properties of a weld are called essential variables. e.g.; Process, type of materials,
electrode flux, shielding gas, pre-heating, PWHT, current, voltage etc..
Non essential variables: A change in welding parameters which will not affect the
mechanical properties of the weld mettle; Groove angle, method of cleaning etc..
Supplementary variables: The welding procedure shall be attached with PQR to show the
evidence that the procedure meets the mechanical properties desired by the
code/specification

X-Ray

11) Roentgen measures gamma or X-ray radiation only in;


a) in air only

12) One of the general rules concerning the application of geometric principles of shadow
formation of radiography is;
a) The distance between the anode& the material examined should always be as great as
possible.

13) The small area in the X-ray tube from which the radiation emanates is called;
a) Focal spot

14) A sheet of lead with an opening cut in the shape of the part to be radiographed may
be used to decrease the effect of scattered radiation which undercuts the specimens, such
a device is called;
a) A mask

15) Low voltage X-ray tubes are generally fitted with windows made of ;
a) Beryllium

16) A monochromatic X-ray beam;


a) Is a beam consisting of a single wavelength

17) The general method of producing X-rays involves the sudden deceleration of high
velocity electrons in a body is called
a) A target

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18) The velocity of electrons striking the target in an X-ray tube is a function of ;
a) The voltage difference between the cathode& anode

19) The primary form of energy conversion when electrons striking a target in an X-ray
tube results in the production of;
a) Heat

20) The purpose for circulating oil in some types of X-ray tube is ;
a) To dissipate heat

21) The X-ray absorption of a specimen depends on;


a) The thickness& density of the material
b) The atomic number of the material

22) The radiographic absorption of a material will tend to become less dependent upon
the composition of the material, when;
a) The kilovoltage is increased

23) The load that can be handled by an X-ray tube focal spot is governed by;
a) The size of the focal spot &the efficiency of the cooling system of the anode

24) A lead sheet containing a pinhole may be placed halfway between the X-ray tube&
film in order to;
a) Determine the approx: size of the focal spot

25) the most common way of cooling the anode of a high power X-ray tube is;
a) Cooling by circulation of water or oil in the anode

26) In certain cases, it may be advantage to pack lead shot around a specimen. The
purpose for doing this is;
a) To generate smaller wavelength X-radiation

27) Excessive subject contrast caused when the thickness range in the test specimen is too
great for the radiation quality used may be corrected by;
a) Increasing the kilovoltage
b) Using a filter at the X-ray tube& increasing the exposure time

28) Which of the following X-ray generators would produce the narrowest cone of X-
radiation?
a) High voltage produces narrower X-radiation

29) A radiograph of a steel weldment is made using a 15Mev betatron. When the
radiograph is developed, there was an overall film mottling. A possible cause for such
mottling is;
a) Failure to use a lead screen during exposure

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30) While using an X-ray tube for radiography the operator wishes to increase the
radiation intensity. To do so the,
a) Tube current should be increased

31) The main purpose of the X-ray generator controls on the equipment is ;
a) To enable the operator to obtain the intensity, quality& duration of exposure desired

32) The projected area of the target of an X-ray tube is called;


a) Effective focal spot

33) KV selection finally depends on what factor?


a) Material thickness

34) Intensity of X-rays is mainly depend on ;


a) Tube current

35) Filters;
a) Lead (pb), steel, copper or brass are used as filters

36) A filter mounted on the X-ray tube between the source& the specimen, for to absorbs
more of the “soft” or low energy X-rays. This helps to prevent over exposure of thin
areas of the specimen and it reduces the undercut near the edges of the specimen. By
absorbing more of the “soft” radiation, lower subject contrast results

37) Thin sheets of lead foil in intimate contact with X-ray film during exposure increase
film density because;
a) They emit electrons when exposed to X & Gamma radiation which help darken the
film

38) X-ray tubes are often enclosed in a shock proof casing in order to;
a) Protect the operator from high voltage shock.

39) A voltage selector consisting of an iron core transformer with a single winding have a
series of taps@ various points on welding;
a) An autotransformer

40) Valve tubes are used in X-ray equipment to;


a) Provide necessary rectification

41) The adjustment of tube current in conventional X-ray tube circuit is made by;
a) Adjusting the filament heating current

Filters

42) Filters used at the port of X-ray tube;


a) Filter out “soft” radiation to provide a more homogeneous X-ray beam

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43) Filters placed between the X-ray tube& specimen tends to reduce scatter radiation
undercutting the specimen;
a) By absorbing the longer wavelength components of the primary beam

44) The inherent filtration of an X-ray tube is a function of;


a) The thickness& composition of the X-ray tube port

45) The kilovolt age applied to an X-ray tube affects;


a) The quality of the beam
b) The intensity of the beam

46) Besides serving as a filter screen of high atomic number such as lead &lead
antimony, also;
a) Provide some image intensifying action

47) X-ray films with large grain size;


a) Have higher speeds than those with a relatively small grain size

48) The amount of unsharpness or blurring of a radiograph is ;


a) Directly proportional to the size of the focal spot &inversely proportional to the source
to object distance

49) the most commonly used target material in an X-ray tube is


a) Tungsten

50) The purpose for including a disc-shaped target that rotates rapidly during operation in
some X-ray tube is;
a) To increase the permissible load

51) A device which is basically a combination of magnet& transformer designed to guide


& accelerate electrons in a circular orbit to very high energies is called;
a) Betatron

Fluoroscopy
52) Two serious obstacles to high sensitivity fluoroscopy are;
a) The limited brightness& large grain size of fluoroscopic screens

53) In general the quality of fluoroscopic equipment is best determined by;


a) Penetrameter sensitivity measurements

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54) Fluoroscopy differs from radiography in that;


a) In fluoroscopy the X-ray image is observed visually on a fluorescent screen rather than
recorded on a film like radiography. Fluoroscopic image is positive transparency but
radiographic image is negative transparency.

55) If fluorescent screen is accidentally exposed to unattenuated X-rays, what will


happen?
a) The screen is essentially undamaged

56) A basic difference between a radiograph and a fluoroscopic image is;


a) The fluoroscopic image is a positive, whereas the radiograph is a negative transparency

Gamma Ray

57) The absorption of gamma rays from a given source when passing through matter
depends on;
a) The atomic number
b) Density&
c) Thickness of the matter

58) Images of discontinuities close to the source side of the specimen become less clearly
defined as;
a) The thickness of the specimen increases

59) The specific activity of cobalt-60 depends on;


a) The time the material has been in the reactor

60) Two isotope sources of given strength have two different specific activity values. The
source with the high specific activity value will be of;
a) Smaller physical size than the source with a lower specific activity

61) The quantity of radiation striking a unit area of film;


a) Is the product of radiation intensity and time

b) Radiation quality
c) Scattered radiation

62) The code of federal regulations requires that all shipping containers for radioisotopes;
a) be fire resistant

63) Which of the following instruments would exhibit the best sensitivity &most likely
be used to detect small leaks in a radiation barrier;
a) A Geiger counter

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64) Stereo Radiography;


a) A special radiographic method requiring 2 radiographs taken during separate
exposures from 2 different positions to give the visual impression of a 3 dimensional
display when viewed in an optical device simultaneously.

65) The parallax method of depth location;


a) The depth of discontinuity may be estimated by making 2 exposures on a single film
from 2 different positions of the X-ray tube. The depth of the discontinuity is computed
from the shift in the shadow of the discontinuity with respect to the images of fixed
markers on the front& back of the specimen.

66) Lead screens are put in direct contact with the film to;
a) Increase the photographic action on the film
b) Absorb the longer wavelength scattered radiation
c) Intensify the photographic effect of the primary more than the scattered radiation

67) With respect to quality what 3 factors must be considered in selecting SFD?
a) Source size
B) Specimen thickness
c) Geometric unsharpness

68) A larger physical size source may produce an equivalent quality radiograph if;
a) The SFD is increased

69) Cobalt-59 becomes cobalt-60 when it is placed in a nuclear reactor where it captures;
a) A neutron

70) The ability of a material to block or partially block the passage of X-rays &gamma
rays is referred to as;
A) Absorption

71) The photoelectric effect involves;


a) Complete absorption of a photon

72) Slow speed film density range varies between;


a) 1.8-2.5

73) Quality Control;


a) The operational technique and activities used to full fill quality

74) In Process inspection;


a) Inspection and surveillances carried out during production.

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75) Auditing;
a) To carried out a periodic and systematic “check” on a system/process to ensure that it
has been carried out as specified

76) Fillet weld size required is specified in drawings in terms of;


a) Leg length (l)

77) In fillet weld throat area;


a) Design throat thickness X length of weld

78) What is meant by the term “concession”?


a) Agreed deviation of code for contractor requirement

79) What is the purpose of a Charpy test?


a) To determine the amount of energy absorbed in fracturing a standardized test piece at a
specified temperature.

80) Name 2 wrought plate defects;


a) Laps& Laminations
b) Segregation bands

81) State the factors which must be satisfied for good welds;
a) Fusion
b) The process must remove any oxides& other contaminations from the joint faces
c) Contamination from the atmosphere must be avoided
d) The welded joint must possess adequate properties

82) Methods of protecting the molten metal from contaminations;


A) Proper shielding gas
b) Proper shielding flux
c) Inter passes cleaning
d) Proper welding technique
d) Avoid moisture& low hydrogen electrodes use proper ovens

83) Describe the metal cleaning requirements required when making high class S.S
welds;
a) Formation of chromium carbides can cause weld decay, or carbide precipitation or
sensitization; for to avoid it stabilized grades with Ti, nb, V, used
b) Hydrogen induced cracking

84) Electrode polarity;


A) DCEP: deepest penetration, best surface appearance, bead shape& resistance to
porosity
b) DCEN: gives faster burn-off, decreased penetration, electrode consumption is high,
using mainly for limited weld ability steel due to less heat to the surface.

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85) Electrode diameter;


a) A large diameter electrode will reduce penetration

86) Electrode extension (Stick out);


a) If the electrode extension is short penetration is deep. If the electrode extension is high
decrease the penetration. Therefore increased extension is useful in cladding and surface
applications. In normal welding electrode extension 25-30mm for mild steel, for S.S 20-
25mm

87) Dose:
a) The accumulated exposure dose of radiation over a period of time.

88) Dose rate:


a) To an immediate measure of dose rate or radiation intensity

89) Dosimeter:
a) Instruments which measure total dose exposure are called dosimeters.eg: of dosimeters
include the Lauritsen electroscope, the pocket dosimeter, the R-meter, and film badges.

90) Survey meters:


a) Instruments used to measure dose rate exposure or radiation intensity are called survey
meters. Example of dose rate instruments includes the Geiger counter& the ionization
chamber.

91) In selecting a radioisotope for a particular class of work the desired characteristics
would be;
a) Appropriate energy (Mev)-Radiographer can change only this character.
b) High specific activity which would give small source size& high emissive
c) Long half life.

92) Thicker sections absorb more& transmit;


a) Less energy

93) Spot radiography;


a) The minimum length of a spot radiograph shall be 6inches.

94) Steels:
a) Rimming steel: 0.09%c, 0.9%mn + residuals
Weld ability: The weld pool will require additional deoxident via a filler rod

b) Low carbon steel: 0.2%c, 0.9%mn + residuals


Weld ability: Good but the level of residuals may cause weld metal/HAZ
cracking

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c) Medium carbon steel: 0.45%c, 0.9%mn + residuals


Weld ability: Hydrogen cracking in the HAZ as the section size increases

d) High carbon steels: 0.8%c, 0.9%mn + residuals


Weld ability: Good toughness, if weld ability problem rise use tiny stabilizers

e)Quenched& Tempered steel: 0.4%c,1.0%mn,0.8%cr,0.3%mo,Ti or Al + residuals


Weld ability: Difficult to weld

f) High temperature steels: 0.25%-9%cr, 0.25-3%mo etc.


Weld ability: Due to low chromium difficult to weld

g) Low temperature steel: 3.5-9%Ni etc


Weld ability: The higher nickel subject to solidification cracking

h) Micro alloyed steel (HSLA):0.25%c, 1.5%mn, 0.002%V, 0.005%nb, 0.003%Ti Weld


ability: Suffer hydrogen cracking in the weld metal

95) Stainless Steels:

a) Martensitic S.S: 11%cr, 0.08%c+residuals


Weld ability: Poor due hydrogen cracking

b) Ferritic S.S: 12.27%cr, 0.08%c+residuals


Weld ability: Poor due to cracking, brittleness& temper embrittlement

c) Austenitic S.S: 18-27%cr, 8-22%Ni, 0.08%c+residuals


Weld ability: Solidification cracking& weld decay

96) H eat treatment

Annealing:
a) Temperature: 920°C
b) Cooling: Hold in furnace
c) Result: Improves ductility, decreases toughness, makes bending

Normalizing:
a) Temperature: 920°C
b) Cooling: Hold in air
c) Result: Relieves internal stress, improves mechanical properties, increases toughness

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Quenching/Hardening:
a) Temperature: 920°C
b) Cooling: Hold in some quenching medium immediately after heating
c) Result: Hardens carbon steels, prevents carbide precipitation in austenitic steels, and
prevents temper brittleness.

Temper:
a) Temperature: 550°C-700°C
b) Cooling: Hold air cool
c) Result: Increases toughness of quenched steels.

Stress relief:
a) Temperature: 550°C-700°C
b) Cooling: Hold in air
c) Result: Relieves residual stresses, improves stability, prevents stress corrosion
cracking

Pre-Heat for welding:


a) Temperature: 50°-250°C.

97) Methods of metal removing during repair;


a) Air arc gouging-metal is melted by a carbon arc& blown out by compressed air
b) Oxyacetylene gouging
c) Mechanical method- by using pneumatic chisels, high speed rotatory carbide burrs,
grinding wheels.

98) The repair of service cracks may be difficult; why?


a) Access may be restricted. E.g.: inside a mine winder.
b) Preheat& or post weld heat treatments may be difficult or even impossible to applies.
Because of risk of damage to machine surfaces, plastic seals, electrical insulation etc. or
presence of flammable materials
c) The component can’t generally be rotated into the most convenient position for
welding. Therefore potential welding may have to be used.Eg, circumferential seams of a
pressure vessel may have to be repaired in the overhead position by manual welding
whereas the vessel was originally fabricated by rotating it under a SAW machine. The
change in welding processes& position of welding could affect the fracture toughness.
Therefore complex weld procedure tests may be required for the repair of critical items of
plant.
d) The environment may be hazardous.eg, heat, nuclear radiation, underground

99) Arc cutting systems;


a) Plasma cutting
b) Air arc cutting
c) Oxygen arc cutting

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100) What are the things we will take care about a repair?
a) Make sure the repair, if it is a fitness for purpose evaluation
b) If repair is required make repair welding procedure
c) Ensure welding procedure is approved
d) The extend of repair& possible consequences such as distortion
e) The access of welding& welding positions
f) Requirement for preheat& or post heat
g) Choice of welding consumables& welding procedure to avoid pre or post weld heat
treatment.
h) The mechanical properties required in the weld metal & HAZ & the need for
procedure tests
i) Qualified welder& supervisor
j) Repair removing area& reweld are required NDT

101) The first 2 vital factors for a successful repair is;


a) Suitable repair welding procedure
b) Fulfilling the metallurgical requirements

102) what is the principle limitation of oxyacetylene welding?


a) Slow melting
b) Less speed
c) Skilled operator required (welder)

103) Give 3 typical defects found with oxyacetylene welding;


a) Too concave butt weld profile
b) Oxidized weld face
c) Overheated weld

104) State 2 processes that use the “key holing” technique;


a) Electron beam welding
b) Plasma arc welding

105) How is contamination of the weld prevented in friction welding?


a) Pressure
b) Rotation

106) Atomic Mass Unit (AMU):


a) AMU is an arbitrarily selected unit of mass which is 1/16inch the mass of an oxygen
atom

107) Isotopes:
a) Atoms of the same element having different numbers of neutrons were called isotopes
of the element

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108) Radioactivity:
a) Is refers to the disintegration of unsuitable nuclei of atoms

109) Wavelength: (λ)


a) The7 distance between any 2 successive crests or troughs is called wavelength=V÷F

110) Frequency (F):


a) Number of cycles per second

111) Energy of radiation is expressed;


a) In eV’s (electron volts. This is the energy equivalent to 1.6X10¯12erg.

112) X-rays& Gamma rays;


a) Both are electromagnetic radiation
b) Both have no mass or weight
c) The radiation travels at the speed of light (3 X 10¯10cm/s)

113) Half life:


a) The length of time necessary for half of the atoms to decay
Half life=0.693÷λ

114) Radioactivity:
a) The number of disintegrations which a given amount of a radioisotope has during a
given length of time is called the activity of the isotope

115) Ionization:
a) Any action which disturbs the electrical balance of atoms which make up matter is
referred to as ionization. Ionization rated are expressed in terms of roentgens per
hour(r/hr) or milli roentgens per hour (mr/hr)

116) Gamma& X-rays lose their energy to atoms by 3 processes;


a) Photoelectrical absorption
b) Compton scattering
c) Pair production

117) Scattering;
a) Change in the direction of incident radiation is called scattering

118) Roentgen;
a) Is a measure of ionization in air due to passage of gamma or X-radiation.

119) Curie;
a) The unit of measure of radioactivity. Is defined as any radioisotope that gives 3.7 X
1010 disintegrations per second.

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120)
a) RBE : Relative Biological Effectiveness
b) REM : Radiation equivalent men
c) RAD : Radiation absorbed dose

121) Doses of radiation classified accordingly;


a) Mild Dose : 25-50REM
b) Moderate Dose : 50-200REM
c) Medium Lethal Dose : 200-600REM
d) Lethal Dose : 600-800REM

122) Exposure of personnel in restricted areas;


a) =5(N-18), where N=person’s age in years

123) Leak tests called wipe tests are made at intervals not exceeding 6months to assure
the capsules have not ruptured and released contamination

124) Metabolic rate;


a) The rate at which chemical changes occur in living cells

125) Biological effects of radiation are grouped into 2 major classes;


a) Somatic effect-damage the body tissues& organs which impair normal
functions.1st&obvious defect.
b) Genetic effect-those effects which may be produced on future generations

126) Leucopenia;
a) The lack of necessary number of white blood cells. May or may not be serious.

127) Anemia;
a) A lack of the proper number of blood cells, or a decreased amount of hemoglobin in
the circulating blood. The total number of red cells in one person is normally about
35trillion

128) Largest gland in the body;


a) Liver

129) Largest mass of lymphatic tissue in the body;


a) Spleen.

130) Gonads;
a) The reproductive organs of a man (Ovaries& testes)

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131) The amount of radiation absorption is dependent on;


a) The thickness of the material
b) Density of the material
c) Atomic number of the absorber

132) The 3 basic essentials in producing a radiograph are;


a) A source of radiation, usually X-ray or gamma radiation
b) The object to be tested
c) A cassette containing the film

133) Radiation area;


a) A major portion of the whole body could receive in any 1hour a dose exceeding
5mrem, or in any 5 consecutive days a dose in excess of 100mrem.

134) High radiation area;


a) Whole body could receive a dose exceeding 100mrem in any 1hour.

135) Unrestricted area;


a) Which does not exceed 0.5rem in 1 calendar year, 2mrem in 1 hour, or 100mrem in 7
consecutive days.

136) Radioactive material symbol;


a) Magenta on a yellow back ground.

137) Radioactive material container must have a tag or label stating the;
a) Kind of radioactive material
b) Quantity
c) Date of measurement

138) Sources of Gamma rays;


a) Naturally occurring materials (radium-226)
b) Fission products (Cesium-137)
c) Activation by neutron bombardment (Cobalt-60, Iridium-192, Thulium-170 etc)

139) X-ray discovered by;


a) Roentgen

140) Electron identified by;


a) Thompson

141) Proton identified by;


a) Rutherford

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142) Elements symbol:


1
a) Hydrogen : 1H
238
b) Uranium : 92U

Note:
Subscript is atomic number& denotes the nuclear charge of protons in the nucleus
Superscript is the sum of the neutrons& protons in the nucleus; it is approximately the
atomic weight.

143) if using railway cars for transporting of radioactive materials the play card must be;
a) Diamond shaped

144) If doubt in radiograph is it crack or not what will do?


a) Additional radiograph made
b) Fine grain films may be used
c) The angle of the radiation may be changed
d) Other kinds of NDT may be used

Screens

145) 2 types of radiographic screens;


a) Lead foil screens
b) Fluorescent screens

146) In radiography with gamma rays the front lead foil need be;
a) Only 0.004 to 0.006inch thick.

147) Lead intensifying screens may be used;


a) 0.005inch front 0,010inch back

Film

148) Radiographic film;


a) Is a thin, transparent, plastic base, coated with gelatin containing silver bromide
crystals. The gelatin& silver bromide crystal mixture is called an emulsion

149) Film speed;


a) Speed is defined as the relative exposure required to attain a desired density

150) Weld ability of a steel determined by mainly which factors?


a) Composition of parent metal
b) Joint design& size
c) Process& technique

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151) Half Life of isotopes:


Sl Isotope Symbol Half life

1 Radium-226 Ra-226 1620 Years


2 Cobalt-60 Co-60 5.3 Years
3 Iridium-192 Ir-192 30 Years
4 Cesium-137 Cs-137 75 Days
5 Thulium-170 Tm-170 120 Days
6 Gadolinium-153 Gd-153 240 Days
7 Samarium-145 Sm-145 240 Days

152) Units:
Radiation Quantity S.I Unit& Symbol Earlier Unit
Absorbed Dose 1 Gray(Gy) 100 rad
1Centi Gray 1 rad
Dose rate Micro Gray/hr/GBq@1meter Roentgen(R)
Milli Roentgen(mR)
Dose Equivalent 1 Sievert(Sv) 100rem
10 milli sivert(mSv) 1rem

Radio activity 1 Becquerel 1 disintegrations


37 giga Becquerel(Bq) 1 Curie

153) Dose rate of commonly used radioisotope;

Radio Isotope Dose rate.R/hr/curie@1 feet emissive

Co-60 14.4
Cs-137 4.2
Ir-192 5.9
Ra-226 9.0

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154) Image Quality Indicators;


a) DIN;

Wire Diameter(mm)
Set 1-ISO-7 6-ISO-12 10-ISO-16
3.2 1.0 0.4
2.5 0.8 0.32
2.0 0.63 0.25
1.6 0.5 0.2
1.25 0.4 0.16
1.0 0.32 0.13
.80 0.25 0.10

b) ASTM;
Wire Diameter(inch)

Set A B C D
0.0032 0.010 0.032 0.100
0.004 0.013 0.040 0.126
0.005 0.016 0.050 0.160
0.0063 0.020 0.063 0.20
0.008 0.025 0.080 0.25
0.010 0.032 0.100 0.32

c) ASTM PLAQUE;
4T T 2T

Wish you all the best!!!

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CSWIP-3.2 Guide Page 1 of 5

Contrast
1) Contrast;
a) Is a comparison of the light to dark areas. If the radiograph has a large difference in
density, the radiograph has high contrast.

2) Radiographic contrast?
a) The difference in density between the detail& its background.

3) Radiographic Contrast;
a) The density difference between two selected portions of a radiograph

4) One method of reducing radiographic contrast is to;


a) Decrease the wavelength of radiation used

5) Radiographic contrast;
a) Is defined as a comparison of densities on developed film areas. This is a combination
of subject contrast& film contrast.

6) Subject contrast:
a) X-ray kilovoltage or Gamma ray energy
b) Scattered radiation

7) Film contrast:
a) Screen type
b) Film contrast characteristics
c) Film density (exposure& chemical cleaning)

8) The slope (steepness) of a characteristic curve is a measure of;


a) Film contrast

9) for a given change in the radiation exposure film contrast is the inherent ability to
show
a) A difference in intensity

10) Subject contrast;


a) The ratio of radiation intensities passing through 2 selected portions of a specimen is
called subject contrast. Specimens having uniform thickness& composition have very
low subject contrast. Subject contrast varies according to the energy of radiation&
specimen density, thickness& atomic number. Subject contrast can be increased by
lowering X-ray KV or gamma ray Mev.

11) Subject contrast is affected by;


a) Thickness differences in specimen
CSWIP-3.2 Guide Page 2 of 5

12) An X-ray film having wide latitude also has by definition;


a) Low contrast

13) High radiographic contrast is due to;


a) High specimen contrast –due to a specimen thickness range is too great for the quality
of radiation desired, can be corrected by increasing the radiation energy.
b) High film contrast-can be corrected by using film of lower contrast characteristics

14) Low radiographic contrast is caused by;


a) Low subject contrast
b) Low film contrast, and /or
c) Under development-is caused by too short a development time, too cold a developer
solution or a developer of too low chemical activity.

Density
15) What is the name given to degree of film blackening?
a) Density

Gradient
16 The slope of a straight line joining two points of specified densities on a characteristic
curve of a film is known as the;
a) Average gradient

17) The slope of the H&D curve of a radiographic film is called;


a) Gamma or Gradient

18) H& D Curve;


a) Density changes, film contrast are best described by characteristic curve.

Latitude

19) In comparison with lower voltage radiographs, high energy radiographs show;
a) Greater latitude

20)The range of thickness over which densities are obtained that are satisfactory for
interpretation is a measure of the;
a) Latitude of a radiograph

21)The range of specimen thicknesses that can be adequately recorded on the radiograph
is referred to as the;
A) Latitude of the radiograph
CSWIP-3.2 Guide Page 3 of 5

Graininess
22) As the effective energy of the radiation increases up to about 250kv;
a) Film graininess increases

23) A radiograph is taken at a voltage of 500kv.If the voltage is increased with a resultant
increase in the energy of radiation while all other conditions remain the same;
a) There will be little significant change in the graininess of the film

24) Graininess;
a) When the minute silver grains on which the x-ray film image is formed group
together in relatively large masses, they produce a visual impression is called
graininess

Definition
25) Improper geometric factors, poor contact between film& lead foil screens&
graininess of film are possible causes of;
a) Poor definition

26) An X-ray tube with a small focal spot is considered better than one with a large focal
spot when it is desired to obtain;
a) Better definition

27) Poor definition due to;


a) Geometric exposure factors
b) Poor contact between film& intensifying screens
c) Graininess of fluorescent
d) Graininess of film

28) Reason for poor definition;


a) Large source size
b) Less SFD
c) More object to film distance
d) Source is not placed perpendicular to the angle of film

Latent image
29) Latent image;
a) When X-rays, gamma rays, light or electrons strike the photographic emulsion a
change takes place in the silver halide crystals. This change is referred to as latent image
CSWIP-3.2 Guide Page 4 of 5

30) Developer solution strength reduced by due to;


a) Number of film processed
b) Contact with atmospheric air
c) Contamination

Mottling
31) Explain film mottling;
a) Mottling due to diffraction; during radiography of course grained steels (castings)
using low energy X-rays, the X-rays are diffracted by grain boundaries & defect
like image will appear on the radiograph called mottling. To confirm mottling the
angle of the initial radiation has to be changed.
To avoid mottling:
a) Increase X-ray energy (use high Kv)
b) Use lead (Pb) screens

32) Mottling due to diffraction can be reduced and in some cases eliminated by;
a) Raising the kilovaoltage
b) Using lead foil screens

Scattered Radiation
33) To reduce the amount of scattered radiation;
a) Use lead foil screens
b) Protection from back scatter
c) Filters
d) Use masks& diaphragms

34) When primary radiation reaches objects beyond the specimen being radiographed;
a) Backscattered radiation occurred.

35) Most scattered radiation reaching the film comes from the specimen being
radiographed. This would be called;
a) Forward scatter

36) Due to scattered radiation the edge of the image become hazy or foggy, causes the
condition known as;
a) Undercut
CSWIP-3.2 Guide Page 5 of 5

Geometrical Unsharpness

37) The ill defined part of the total shadow is called penumbral shadow, also referred to
as;
a) Geometrical Unsharpness

38) Geometrical unsharpness;


a) Ug = ft ÷d
Ug = the amount of geometrical unsharpness
d = the source to object distance
t = the object to film distance (specimen thick)
f = the physical size of source of radiation
Geometrical unsharpness as large as 0.01” may be acceptable on radiographs. Smaller
source sizes are desirable; they will produce radiographs having less geometrical
unsharpness. A rule of thumb is that d/t ratio should be 8 or more. The larger the ratios
better the definition on a radiograph.

39) Geometric principles of shadow formation applied to radiography are the basis of;
a) Radiation source should be as small as possible
b) SFD should be as great as possible
c) Film should be as close to the specimen as possible
d) The center ray of the radiation beam should be perpendicular to the film
e) The plane of max interest on the specimen should be parallel to the film

40) A general rule governing the application of the geometric principles of shadow
formation states that;
a) The central ray should be as nearly perpendicular to the film as possible, to preserve
spatial relationships

41) In order to utilize the principles of geometric enlargement (placing the film at a
distance from the specimen)
a) The source of radiation must be extremely small
CSWIP-3.2 Guide Page 1 of 4

Film Processing

Developing:

1) There are 5 distinct steps in the processing of film;


a) Developing
b) Stop with (Arresting development or stop development)
c) Fixation
d) Washing& Drying

2) Developing;
a) Developing solutions have the ability to reduce the silver bromide crystals on the
exposed part of films to metallic silver. Developing time 5-8minutes having a
temperature of 68°F or 20°C.Longer developing time is likely to produce chemical fog
which will decrease contrast.

3) The activity of the developer solution is maintained stable by;


a) Addition of replenishes

4) The developer solution is;


a) Alkaline

5) Over development is a function of;


a) Too long a development time
b) Too warm a developer solution

Fixation
6) Fixation;
a) Removes the unexposed silver bromide without changing the silver deposits which
compose the desired image. The fixer solution also hardens the gelatin on the film so that
it will stand drying with warm air. Fixing time is 8 minutes.2 minutes agitation at
temperature from 65 to 70°F.

7) Good practice indicates the minimum overall density should not be less than;
a) 1.5

8) The purpose of fixation is:


a) To leave the developed silver as a permanent image
b) To harden the gelatin

9) For best results when manually processing film, solutions should be maintained within
a temp range of;
a) 65°F to75°F
CSWIP-3.2 Guide Page 2 of 4

10) An excessively high film density can be caused by;


a) Over exposure
b) Over development
c) Fog

11) Static marks which are black tree like or circular marks on a radiograph are often
caused by;
a) Improper film handling techniques

12) Water spots on films can be minimized by;


a) Immersing wet film for one or two minutes in a wetting agent solution

13) When sharp, black, bird foot shaped marks which are known not to correspond with
any discontinuities appear at random on radiographs; they are probably caused by;
a) Static charges caused by friction

14) Lack of Fusion (L.O.F) usually seen on a radiograph;


a) Straight on one side and irregular on other side in radiograph

15) Undercut;
a) Dark lines have diffused edges are seldom straight& they are parallel to the weld seam

16) Radiographic undercutting is caused by;


A) Side scatter

17) Shrinkage porosity;


a) Is usually caused by lack of metal, dark highly irregularly shaped image on a
radiograph

18) Shrinkage cavities;


a) Are caused by an insufficient amount of molten metal when casting cools

19) Cold shuts;


a) May be evaluated in a manner similar to cracks

20) Hot Tears;


a) Due to contracts during metal cooling. These are likely to occur at places where a thin
section joins a thicker section of the casting. Tears appear on a radiograph as dark lines
that are very ragged and may have a number of branches of varying densities.

21) Segregation;
a) When certain alloys are used for castings the constituent metals may tend to separate in
spots. Light & blotches on a radiograph
CSWIP-3.2 Guide Page 3 of 4

22) Micro shrinkage;


a) Magnesium castings some times have a kind of porosity referred to as “micro
shrinkage”. The RT image is one of fuzzy or feathery streaks that out line a definite area.

23) Puckered or net like film surface known as reticulation, results from;
a) Sudden extreme temperature changes during processing.

24) Frilling;
a) Loosening of film emulsion from its base; can be corrected by a fresh supply of
fixation chemical.

25) Crimp marks;


a) Are the result of sharp bends being forced on the film while being inserted into
cassettes or film holders.

26) Pressure marks:


a) Results from mechanical impact or pressure.

27) Light spots;


a) Are caused by chemicals being splashed on the film before development or foreign
materials entrapped between screen& films.

28) Streaks results from;


a) Film hangers are contaminated
b) Film is improperly agitated
c) Inspection of film allows developer to flow across the film before fixation

29) Streaks& water spots may be eliminated by use of a;


a) Wetting agent in the final water rinse before drying

30) Yellow stains commonly result from;


a) Prolonged development in old, oxidized developer
b) The omission of a stop bath or rinsing
c) Improper fixation

31) White Scum;


a) The presence of a milky appearing fixer solution indicates that the solution was mixed
too warm, has been mixed too rapidly, or that the developer has been carried over into the
fixer solution.

32) A special form of scatter due to X-ray diffraction effects in a specimen with large
grains will result in;
a) A radiograph of mottled appearance
CSWIP-3.2 Guide Page 4 of 4

Penetrameter

33) A penetrameter is used to indicate;


a) The quality of the radiographic technique.

34) Penetrameter;
a)The identifying number shall distinct of lead figures cemented to the penetrameter, the
number should indicate to 2 figures, the minimum thickness of the specimen for which
the penetrameter may be used. A penetrameter is used to indicate the quality & sensitivity
of a radiograph & not to measure the size of a hole or cavity that may be detected.

35) Hole penetrameter;


a) They should be parallel& adjacent to the weld at one end of the exposed length with
the small holes at the outer end. The thickness of the penetrameter must not be more than
2% of the thickness of the specimen. Each penetrameter should contain 3 drilled holes
2,3,& 4times the penetrameter thickness, but in no case less than 1/16inch for X-rays&
3/32inch for Gamma rays. The smallest hole should be distinguishable on the radiograph.

36) Penetrameter;
a) The penetrameter shall consist of material substantially the same as that of the
specimens under examination.
b) The thickness of the penetrameter shall be not more than 2% of the thickness of the
specimen.
c) The diameter of holes (left to right) shall be 4, 3, & 2 times the thickness of the
penetrameter, but not less than 1/16inch

37) Radiographic sensitivity;


a) Is specified as the ratio of the smallest thickness difference visible on the radiograph to
the thickness of the material being examined. Expressed in percentage.

Percentage sensitivity=S÷T X 100


Note: S= Smallest detectable thickness difference
T=Thickness of the material being inspected

38) Define Radiographic Sensitivity;


a) A qualitative term often used to indicate the size of the smallest detail which can be
seen in a radiograph.

39) The function of a film interpreter is to;


a) Identify discontinuities& manufacturing deviations which don’t meet the applicable
code or specification standards
b) Determine if the proper technique has been used during an exposure
CSWIP-3.2 Guide Page 1 of 6

1) When radiographing to the 2-2Tquality level an ASTM penetrameter for 1/2inch thick
2024 Al alloy has a thickness of;
a) 10 mils

2) If an exposure time of 60seconds was necessary using a 4foot SFD for a particular
exposure. What time would be necessary if a 2foot SFD is used and all the other variables
same;
a) 15 seconds

3) In making an isotope exposure in an unshielded area, you find the dose rate of 6feet
from the source is 1200mr/hr.what would be the dose rate@24 feet?
a) 75mR/hr

4) The formula for determining permissible accumulated personnel does is;


a) 5(N-18)

5) When radiographing to the 2-2T quality level, an ASTM penetrameter for 2.5inch steel
has a thickness of;
a) 50mils

6) A good cobalt-60 radiograph is made on 3inch steel casting using an exposure time of
10 minutes& SFD of 36 inches. It is necessary to change the SFD to 24 inches. What
exposure time would produce a similar radiograph if all other conditions remain the
same;
a) 6.4minutes
7) An ASTM penetrameter for use when inspecting a 1/2inch steel plate to the 2-2T
quality level using a 15inch SFD would be made of;
a) 10mils thick steel

8) The maximum practical speed of scanning a test object for conventional fluoroscopic
inspection has been estimated to be;
a) About 3inches per second

9)The half value layer of lead for cobalt-60 is approx.0.5inch.If the radiation level on the
source side of 1.5inch lead plate is 64R/hr,the radiation level on the opposite side is;
a) 8R/hr

10) If 1curie of iridium-192 produces a dose rate of 5900mR/hr@1foot.How many mR


will 10curies produce at the same distance?
a) 59000mR

11) Approx.how long would it take for a 10 curie cobalt-60 source to decay to 2.5curies;
a) 10.6 years

12) An iridium-192 gamma ray source has an approx. practical thickness limit of;
a) 3 inches of steel or its equivalent
CSWIP-3.2 Guide Page 2 of 6

13) Sensitivity calculation:


a) S=d÷ t X 100 (Dia of thinnest visible wire÷ThicknessX100)

14) The exposure factor formula;


a) Milliamperes X time÷distance² (mAxt÷d²)

15) A 1000KVp X-ray machine used in conjunction with a lead foil screen has an
approximate practical thickness limit of;
a) 5inches of steel or its equivalent
λ=Decay constant of radioisotope
t=Time
N=Number of atoms remaining after “t” time
λ=Half life of a radioactive element
197) Decay:
N=N0e¯λt
N0=Number of atoms present at Zero time
E=Base of natural logarithms=2.718

16) Specimen-Steel Equivalent thickness;


a) Set of Aluminum =Density of Al ÷ Density of steel

17) Exposure Calculation data;


a) T=FAD² ÷ S
Note=Exposure time in minutes
F=Film Factor (from table)
A=Absorber factor (from curve)
D=SFD (inches)
S=Source activity (milli curies)

Relative film Factor


Film type Density
1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
High speed 0.8 1.3 2.1 2.4
Medium speed 3.6 5.1 6.6 15.0
Low speed 15 21.0 27.0 34.0

18) Exposure Time;


a) =Radiation Intensity X Time
E = I x T.
CSWIP-3.2 Guide Page 3 of 6

19) Film density more correctly called optical density;


a) D = log10 I÷I0
D = Film density
I =Intensity of light incident upon a film
Io=Intensity of light transmitted through a film
Log 10 = base 10 logarithm

20) Radiation Attenuation;


a) I /I0 = (d0/d) 2
I = Radiation Intensity @ distance “d”
I0 = Initial radiation Intensity @ distance d0
d = Distance @ which intensity “I”
d0 = Initial distance from source

Source

I0 I

d0

I0 I

d0

Example;
CSWIP-3.2 Guide Page 4 of 6

(1) Suppose the emission of a source of radiation is 100R/h @ 1foot. What is the dose
rate @ 2 feet? And at 4 feet?

a) I0=100R/hr
do =1ft
d =2ft
Then I÷I0= (d0÷d) 2, I/100= (1÷2)2
=100 x 1÷4, =25R/hr

b) At 4 feet
I÷100= (1÷4)2
=100 X 1÷16, = 6.25R/hr

2) A 10curie source of Co-60 is to be used at 10 feet from a group of workmen. What


does rate will they receive? What does would they receive in 8 hours?
(Note: the dosage rate for Co-60 is 14.4r/hr/c at 1ft)

a) If I0=10 X 14.4 =144r/hr


do =1ft
d=10ft
then I÷144 = (1÷10)2
I =144(1÷10)2 = 144(1÷100), =1.44r/hr,=1440mr/hr.

In 8 hours the men would receive 8 X 1440mr/hr, = 11520mr/hr or11.520r/hr.

In the above example at what distance would the group of men receive only 2mr/hr?
If I = 2mr/hr, Io=144r/hr ie, 144,000mr/hr
do =1ft
Then find “d” in the equation;
I÷Io = (do÷d) 2 =2÷144,000=1÷d2
2d2=144000, d2=72000, d=Route of 72000,=268ft

3) Suppose a radioisotope source has an emission of 6mr/hr/mc at 1foot. If an 800mc


source is used, determine the dosage rates? @2ft, 3ft, 4ft, 5ft
a) I÷Io=(do÷d)2 or I= Io(do÷d)2
I=6 X 800(1÷2)2, =4800 X 1÷4, =1200mr/hr
CSWIP-3.2 Guide Page 5 of 6

21) Absorption of radiation:


I=I0e-ut
Where;
Io=initial intensity of gamma rays
e= base of natural logarithms
u= linear absorption co-efficient of absorber for given gamma rays
t= thickness of absorber in centimeters

Linear absorption co-efficient:


Absorption co-efficient per centimeters
Energy in Mev pb Fe Al H2O
0.2 5.0 1.06 0.33 0.14
0.5 1.7 0.63 0.23 0.090
1.0 0.77 0.44 0.16 0.067
1.5 0.57 0.40 0.14 0.057
2.0 0.51 0.33 0.12 0.048
2.5 0.48 0.31 0.10 0.042
3.0 0.47 0.30 0.090 0.038
4.0 0.48 0.27 0.082 0.033
5.0 0.48 0.24 0.074 0.030

22) An unshielded point source emitting 1Mev gamma rays produces an emission of
500mr/hr @ 1ft. What will be the dosage rate, if there are interposed lead shields 1cm
thick, 2cm thick, 3, 4, 5 and 10cm thick?
a) To compute intensity of radiation for the 3cm thickness of lead shielding, note that
linear absorption co-efficient for lead at 1Mev is 0.77;
I3 =I0e-ut, =500e-0.77 X 3, =500e-2..31
=49.5mr/hr@1ft

23) Half value layer;


The amount of shielding which will stop half of the radiation of a given intensity.
HVL=0.693÷µ
HVL-half value layer in centimeters
µ=Linear absorption co efficient (in reciprocal centimeters)
Example:
a) Suppose there is a 1.0Mev source of gamma radiation; µ of lead for 1.0Mev radiation
is 0.77.What is the half value layer of lead?
HVL=0.693÷0.77,
=0.90cm

24) 1 lead HVL for Co-60 radiation is 0.49 inch, for 10 HVL is?
a) 10 HVL X 0.49inch = 4.9inch lead required

25) Reduction factors;


CSWIP-3.2 Guide Page 6 of 6

a) Reduction factors depends upon the radiation energy (Mev) and the shields atomic
number, thickness and density
Reduction factor=Dose rate without shield÷ Dose rate with shield
Example; Suppose a Co-60 source of radiation has an intensity of 2,000mr/hr@ a
distance of 10feet.Workmen need to be at that distance from the source but should
receive only 4mr/hr.How much lead shielding should be used? Iron? Concrete?
Reduction factor=2,000÷4, =500
Lead - 4.6inches
Iron - 7.8inches
Concrete- 24.5 inches

26) A radiographer plans to make a radiograph in a location where it is necessary for


people to work periodically as close as 10feet to a 500mc source of Co-60.He plans to
reduce the dose rate to 6mr/hr by placing a portable iron shield between the radiographic
setup and the work area. What thickness shield would be needed to attenuate the gamma
radiation to the required level?

Find the exposure rate at 10feet from the 500mc source of Co-60.1 curie of Co-60 has an
exposure rate of 14,400mr/hr@1foot. Therefore 500mc would have an exposure rate one
half this amount, or 7,200mr/hr@ 1feet. From equation;
I÷Io= (do÷d) 2
The exposure rate @ 10feet may be found;
I (10ft) =Io (do÷d) ²
=7,200(1ft÷10ft) ², =7200÷100, =72mr/hr
The 72mr/hr dose rate must be reduced by the iron shielding to 6mr/hr
Reduction factor=72mr/hr÷6mr/hr, =12.
An iron shield 3.5inch thick is necessary to reduce the radiation to 6mr/hr.

27) Personnel Exposure Time;


Allowable working in hr/week=Permissible exposure in mr/wk
Exposure rate in mr/hr

267)
Radioisotope r/hr@ various distances in feet from source
1 curie source Gamma radiation
1 2 4 8 16 32
Co-60 14.4 3.6 0.9 0.23 0.06 0.014
Ra-226 9.0 2.3 0.6 0.14 0.035 0.009
Ir-192 5.9 1.5 0.4 0.09 0.023 0.006
Cs-137 4.2 1.1 0.26 0.07 0.016 0.004