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Herzberg;s motivation-hygine theory :-

Need priority characterizes the

types of will be either directed towards achieving certain
desirable positive goals ,or conversely, towards avoiding other.
Undesirable ,negative consequences. Thus ,a question may arise as to what
variables are perceived to be desirable goals to achieve, and conversely,
undesirable condition to avid. In this connection, a research Study was
conducted by frderick Herzberg and associates of case –western reserve
university. This study consisted of an intensive analysis of the exper iences
and feelings of 200 engineers and accountants in nine different companies in
pittsburg area,u.s.a. during the structured interview, they were asked to
describe a few previous job experiences in which they felt exceptionally bad.
About jobs.they were also asked to rate the degree to which their fellings
were influenced- for better or worse-by each experience which they

On analyzing the information from the interview, Herzberg

concluded that there were two categories of needs essentially independent of
each other affecting behavior in different ways. His finding are that there are
some job conditions which operate primarily to dissatisfy employees when
the conditions are absent, however, their presence does not motivation them
in a strong way. Another set of job conditions operates primarily to build
strong motivation and high job satisfaction, but their absence rarely proves
strongly dissatisfying. The first set of job conditions has been referred to as
maintenance or hygiene factors and second set of job conditions as
motivational factors.

Hygiene factors;-

According to Herzberg, there are ten maintenance or hygiene factors. These

are company policy and administrstion, technical supervision, interpersonal
relationship with supervisors, interpersonal relationship with peers,
interpersonal withsubordinates, salary,job security, personal life, working
condition, and status. These are not intrinsic parts of a job, but they are
related to conditions under which a job is performed. They produce no
growth in a worker,s output; they only prevent losses in workere,s
performance due to work restrictions. These maintenance factors are
necessary to maintain at a reasonabie leval of satisfaction in employees;
however, any increase beyond this level will not provide any satisfaction to
the employees, however, any cut below this level will dissatisfy them. As
such, these are also called as dissatisfiers. Since any increase in these factors
will not affect employee,s level of satisfaction, these are of no use for
motivating them.

Motivational factors :-

These factors are capable of having a positive effect on job satisfaction

aften resulting in an increase in one,s total output. Herzberg includes six
factors that motivate employees. These are : achievevent, recognition,
advancement, work itself, possibility of groth, and responsibility. Most of
these factors are related with job contents. An increase in these factors will
satisfy the employees; however,any decrease will not affect their level of
satisfaction. Since, these increase level of satisfaction in the employees in
the employees, these can be used in motivating them for higer output.

Herzberg maintains that potency of various factors is not

entirely of the factors themselves. It is also influenced by the personality
characteristics of the individuals. From this point of view, individuals may
be classified into two groups- motivation seekers and maintenance seekers.
The motivation seekers generally are individuals who are primarily
motivated by the satisfiers such as advancement and other factors associated
with work itself. On the other hand, the maintenance seekers tend to be more
concerned with factors surrounding the job such as supervision, working,
conditions, pay, etc,