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pk
December
2008

Chief Patrons
Dr. Khalid Mahmood Sheikh Kanwar Tariq Mahmood
(Drirector (R) A.K.U) (NBF, Islamabad)
Chief Organizers
Prof. Muhammad Azeem Farooqi Akhtar Hussan Chaudhry
(PhD Scholar, Principal GIIT, Rawalpindi) (M.A. English, Dy. Manager TEVTA, Rawalpindi)

Bureau Chief: Khalid Mahmood Ch. (PhD Scholar NUML, Islamabad)


Chief Editor: Sub Editor:
Muhammad Nauman Zafar Ghayoor Ahmad Ghazali
(QAU, Islamabad) (M.A. ELT NUML, Islamabad)
Editor Women Wing: Sub Editor:
Prof. Musarrat Azmat Farooqi Nabila Majeed Farooqi
(M.A. Eng., Isl., Urdu, TEFL, Arabic) (Fazal Dars-e-Nizami, Principal, Religious School)
Art Editor: Muhammad Naeem Anwar Farooqi (Gujranwala)
Marketing Manager: Sub Manager:
Muhammad Waheed Rashid Prof. Zaqa-ullah Farooqi
(Islamic Law Scholar IIUI, Islamabad) (M.A. English Literature)
Chief Distributor: Assistant:
Peer Muhammad Sarfraz Farooqi Hafiz Muhammad Umar Farooqi (GCU, Lahore)
Legal Advisors:
Anjum Iqbal Butt (Advocate)
Hafiz Asif Raza Farooqi (Advocate, M.A. Pol. Sc., Isl., Mass Com.)

Dr. Sultan Basheer Mahmood Prof. Muhammad Riaz Gohar (G. C., Gujranwala)
Muhammad Saeed Babar (PhD Scholar Finance, MAJU) Muhammad Imran Khan (PhD Scholar, GCU, Lahore)
Hafeez Ullah Khan Hafiz Muhammad Imran Farooqi
(Controller Exams, AIOU, Islamabad) (PhD Scholar IT, NUST)
Dr. Sultan Azam Khan Tamoori Muhammad Imran Younis Advocate
(Asst. I.G. Police (General), Motorway Police) (Gujranwala)
Major Hafiz Muhammad Naeem Farooqi Irshad Qader Sheikh
(Pakistan Army) (Asst. Registrar, AIOU)
Rashid Kalyami Abdul Basit Khan Abbasi
(Chairman Qasim School System, Rawalpindi) (M.A. English Literature)
Dr. Abdul Hameed Khan Abbasi (AIOU, Islamabad) Tuba Azeem Farooqi (Student F.G.C.W, F-7/2, Islamabad)

Published by:
Azeem Publications (regd.)

First Floor, Hussain Plaza, Peoples Colony, Gujranwala


azeempublications@yahoo.com
0321-6441756 azeemfarooqi786@yahoo.com

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3
Al-Quran

4
Al-Hadith
5
Ahwaal-ul-Muaarifeen
9
Great Expectations
26
The Education System of Pakistan

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Others recognized Him through meditation and
believed His reality. Certain people recognized
Him through His dignity and feared from Him.
Some of the believers recognized Him as a
!…û ^ß$Ö] oÊô àônû Þø^Šøm æƒö ^nø Þû‚% Ö] oÊô àônû ãø qûçø Öû]ø æû ƒö sustainer and became completely dependent on
The person with two faces, on the day of Him. Some of the people recognized Him
judgment, in the fire of hell will have two faces. through His oneness, some recognized Him with
His presence. All these are the evidences show
Narration of the Hadith that the people's fear from Allah is directly related
Sheikh Qazi Abu Al-Fazal in Ali Al-Wasti's to his perception or recognition of Allah and the
school narrated that Abu Ali Al-Hassan Al-Hadad recognition of Reality is related to meditation,
” reported, who was narrated by Ali Abu Tahir hence the fear from Allah is related to the
Al-Hassan bin Wazir ”. He said that Abu recognition of Allah's Highness. The human
Al-Matahar bin Abdullah Al-Ashbai got this powers and given authorities are shaped from the
hadith from Abu Naeem Ahmad bin Abdullah recognition of Allah's attribute as sustainer. The
bin Ahmad Al-Hafiz, who was reported by Abu conception purity and piety is related to Allah's
Muhammad Abdullah bin Jaafar. He said that it quality oneness and the seer's will to meet Allah is
was told by Abu Masood Ahmad bin Farat ” got related to the Presence of Allah.
it from Abu Daud Al-Hazari ”, who says that
Ibn-e-Rabee ” passed it down after getting from Heavenly Presences and their Ranks
Naeem bin Hanzala ” who was narrated by The presences in the heaven are different
Ammar bin Nasir ”. according to their practices of worship, as much
they put themselves in Allah's worship, they get
Gathering of Two Teachers the status near Allah Almighty. Some has got the
It is an unwanted fact that two teachers status of modesty, others got the status as
should be get together. The recognizers report if closeness and love, some angels got their rank as
you find a true and perfect follower the Holy being God fearing.
Prophet ], disciple must follow him. In the words of Al-Quran:
(164:]ìZ ) !ݺç×öÃû Ú$ ݺ^ÏøÚø äü Öø Ÿ$]ô «ß$Úô ^Úø æø
The Recognizer of Higher Rank And We have fixed estimation about every
Even a person who want to be the follower thing.
of the Holy Prophet's ] way, he and his
generation must have a close relation to a Common Ranking of Recognition (Seers)
recognizer/seer. This will find him an easy way to At the level of common ranking, are those
find Allah. people who recognized Allah thorough the
Hadiths and information about Oneness that was
The Recognizers and their Destination tol d t hem by t he Hol y Prophet ]. they
The recognizers have various ranks and confirmed it through their heart and practiced it
status. Some of them truly recognized Allah through their bodies. But when they stained their
through their imagination and feared from Him. self through sins and Allah's disobedience, they
Some of them recognized Him through His live reckless life and met unavoidable dangers,
blessings and attributed all goodness to Him. only Allah's benevolence can save them.
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Insight Bearing People The Example of Hazrat Binyamin
The higher rankings are those people, who And those who recognized Allah through His
recognized Allah Almighty through their faculty presence, they are like the brother of Hazrat
of reason. These are the insight bearing people. Yousuf 7 , when Yousuf 7 held Binyamin
They believed in Allah through His sign all with him and said to him, "O brother! Do you
around. They settled the matters of presence and want to observe things while staying with me or
above the limits of presence. These are the you want to go back to the father." He said, "I
people who are at the right path. They always want to see every thing spade."
keep themselves under a cover. They are at a Hazrat Yousuf 7 said, ""If you want to stay
particular ranking of yaqeen (belief). They with me you will have to be patient." The brother
recognized Allah and held their firm belief. No said, "I will bear any pains for you. I shall stay
element of cause and effect sway them away from with you."
their belief. The light and guidance of the Quran Then t he bow el, w hich w as kept for
and Hadith give them the light of righteousness. measuring wheat was kept and got out of
Binyamin's sack. Hence the people of Egypt was
Comparing the Two Groups accused to theft and condemned. The brothers
No doubt those who recognized Allah also did the same. But he remained calm and cool
Almighty through the wide open information and in spite of all this. He did not fear about this
Hadith, they are like the brothers of Hazrat condemnation. This is the example of a person
Yousuf 7 , who became swayed when they who got the faith through Allah's recognition.
recognized their brother's status and met their
base end before Hazrat Yousuf 7 . Recognizers' Three Grades Near Imam Hassan
(77:Š- ) !ØöfûÎø àûÚô äö $Ö ïº]ø Ñø†ø ‰ø ‚ûÏøÊø Ñû†ôŠûm$ áû]ô •çû Öö^Îø Basari
They began to say he has committed stealing Sheikh ul Taifa Imam Hassan Basari says the
as did his brother before. seers (recognizers) in this world has three grades
And those who recognized Allah through which are as under:
reasons and rationality are like the example of 1. Ones who are stick to Allah's worships and
Hazrat Yaqoob 7 , who recovered the Hazrat kept it his life and soul and recognized that
Yousuf 7 is alive and sadness doubled due to it. Allah provides him the life provisions, who
It added up pains in his continued sufferings does sufficient to him. He followed Allah's
when he was longing for meeting his son, he lost promise and left the worldly life and found
his eyesight. He had to his sons: no interest in the worldly cravings and
(87:Š- ) !Ìø‰öçû m% àûÚô ]çû ŠöŠ$ vøjøÊø ]çû föaø ƒû] became carefree of all these desires and got
Go and search for Yousuf. busing worshipping Allah Almighty, till his
And further said: death this type of life is above the worthy
(94:Š- ) !Ìø‰öçû mö xømû…ô ‚öqôŸø ø oûÞôù]ô pearls.
I feel Yousuf's smell. 2. Secondly, those who are tolerant like the first
The brother who were careless about him, one and left the worldly love to
said: accommodate the wealth save the share
(95:Š- ) !Üômû‚ôÏøÖû] Ô ø ×ô ×F•ø oûËô Öø Ôø Þ$]ô äô ×# Ö^iø ]çû Öö^Îø necessary for survival. In spite of all this they
They began to say, for God's sake you are still are God fearing and hope all the best from
swaying with the past things. Allah Almighty.
They further said: 3. Thirdly, those who never confirm Allah's
(85:Š- ) !Ìø‰öçû mö †ö Òö„ûiø ]ç+ jøËûiø orders but is completely involved in worldly
You are always remembering Yousuf. life. He constructs high building and castles
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as if to live here all through his life. For such benevolence they find themselves harder against
a person there is no share in the life enemies of Allah. Even during sleep they see
hereafter. He may be successful only with Allah's Highness, Who is Perfect. He selects his
Allah's Mercy. second from his men and bestows countless with
beneficence and Allah calls them to His blessings.
Hazrat Christ's Event (54:%i ) !Üû Óöeùô …ø oÖF]ô •çû fö nû Þô]øæø
I can to know through a Hadith, that Christ And ye return to your Allah.
7 passed near to a group of people whose body
have become weak and pale. He asked them why Characteristics of the True Followers and Their
you met this miserable plight. They replied that it Grades
was due the fear of fire. The Prophet Christ 7 So those people who accept Allah's oneness
said that Allah cares for those who fear Him and have their various ranking. They are:
keep themselves on to the right path. i. Repenting: They always care for the modesty.
Then the Christ 7 , went to another class ii. Pious: Piety is the chief characteristic of these
the people whose body were lean, with faded people. They always seek Allah's help and
colour and weak bodies on asking the reason of guidance.
their plight, they cleared out that their condition iii. God Fearing: They fear from Allah and make
is due to the longing for the paradise. The Christ themselves closer to Allah in their love
7 then said that Allah Almighty will enjoin on following Allah's defined path.
you what you hope for, you will be rewarded. iv. Recognizers: These people discern into
The Christ 7 reached the third party who Allah's creation and find themselves meek
were weaker and pale than the earlier ones. When and bawed down before Allah's will.
Christ 7 asked about their thin condition. They
replied that it was due to their love for Allah. The The Recognition: A Divine Food
Christ 7 thrice said that you are closest to Allah The element of recognition is like food for
Almighty. the seers, bestowed to Allah's selected ones.
Some of these only taste it, others eat it and
Kinds of the Recognizers certain people have it as per their need. But there
The recognizers are of three types: are the people who satiate themselves upto their
1. First type is of those people who never hold fill or capacity.
the love of those worldly life.
2. Secondly those people who believe in God The Recognizers' Flight and Stages
and always live a humble life. On the way to Allah's recognition, the seers
3. Thirdly, those people who follow greeted life cover their different stages some of them find the
and are proud of Allah's blessings. deep dens as their destination others are placed at
Allah says: some well-settled areas, some find their place in a
(32:§Ã) !ä́ŠôËûßøÖùô ܺÖô^¾ø Üû`ö ßûÛôÊø big city, likewise other are just as living in stage
So many of them heavy on to their own which is quite similar to the life and hereafter.
souls.
Doom's Day Near The Holy Prophet ]
Allah's High Blessings It is narrated that the Holy Prophet ] said
People at the level of recognition to Allah are that on Doom's day some sounder will announce
at two levels. Either they are at the rising level of that those who believed and fixed with äö ³×# ³Ö] Ÿ$]ô äø ³³ÖF]ô Ÿø
recognition and increase the awareness of even he had a little belief just like a little mustard
relationships. With Allah's blessings and grain, he will be drawn out of hell.
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Level of Ihsan and Recognition
The Holy Prophet ] said that "Ihsan" being Abraham's Lincoln's Letter
compassionate to others, the carriers of this to His Son's Teacher
tribute, this means to worship Allah Almighty, as
if you are seeing Allah or even He is seeing you, "Hewillhavetolearn,Iknow,thatallmenare
this just the quality of recognition. Allah will say not just, all men are not true. But teach him also
to these people, your interest to Me and Mine to that for every scoundrel there is a hero; that for
you is of high worth. O my people ye be safe. everyselfishpolitician,there is adedicated leader.
Allah is close to them as a companion. Allah Teachhimthatforeveryenemy,thereisafriend.It
smears of His Highness and says that paradise is will take time, I know, but teach him, if you can,
for these people and offers them what they want. that adollar earned isof farmore value thanfive
found.Teachhimtolearntoloseandalsotoenjoy
Hazrat Rabia Basri's Love to Allah winning.Steerhimawayfromenvy,ifyoucan.Let
It is narrated that Hazrat Malik bin Dinar and him learn earlythat the bullies are easiest to lick.
Sabet bin Asad Binai came to Rabia Basri ”. she Teachhim,ifyoucan,thewonderofbooks,butalso
asked Malik why we reverend Allah Almighty. He givehimquitetimetoponderovertheeternal
replied, "To find paradise." The same question mystery of birds in the sky, bees in the sun and
she put to Sabet. He replied, "I obey Allah due to flowersonagreenhillside.Inschoolteachhimitis
the fear of hell." Rabia said, "O Malik ” you are farmorehonorabletofailthantocheat.Teachhim
like a bad laborer who works only for his greed. tohavefaithinhisownideas,evenifeveryonetells
And Sabet you are like a bad slave who works himtheyarewrong.
fearing punishment." When both of them asked Teachhimtobegentlewithgentlepeopleand
the same question to Rabia Basri ”, she replied, tough with the tough. Try to give my son the
"I worship Allah through the core of my heart strengthnottofollowthecrowdwheneveryoneis
and with love only." gettingonthebandwagon.Teachhimtolistentoall
menbutteachhimalsoto filterallhehearsona
A Youth's Example screenoftruthandtakeonlythegoodthatcomes
Once Zin-Noon Misari ” were addressing through.Teachhim,ifyoucan,howtolaughwhen
the people and the audience were weeping while he is sad. Teach him there is no shame in tears;
one youth was smiling. He was asked the reason, teachhimtoscoff at cynics and to beware of too
then he recited these verses: muchsweetness.Teachhimtosellhisbrawnand
¡mˆq ^³_³ì é³^³³r³ß³Ö] á憳mæ …^³Þ Íçì à³Ú á悳fóm ܳã×³Ò braintothehighestbidders;butnevertoputaprice
¡nfŠ×‰ ^³³ãÞç³n š^³³m… o³³Ê çv–nÊ á^ßrÖ] çß³Ó³Šm á^³eæ] onhisheartandsoul.Teachhimtoclosehisearsto
¡³m‚³e o³fv³e o³³Ç³³je] Ÿ ^³³³Þ] oñ]çâ á^ßrÖ] æ‚×íÖ] oÊ ‹³nÖ ahowlingmobandtostandandfightifhethinks
Mostly people worship Allah fearing from he'sright.Teachhimgentlybutdonotcuddlehim
fire and consider it enough for being themselves because only the test of fire makes fine steel. Let
safe, either keep it sufficient to live in paradise himhave,thecouragetobeimpatient,lethimhave
having gardens and fountains. But my wish is thepatiencetobebrave.Teachhimalwaystohave
neither paradise nor to eternal life in it. There is sublimefaithinhimselfbecausethenhewillalways
no parallel to my love to Allah Almighty. havesublimefaithinmankind.Thisisabigorder,
but see what you can do. He is such a fine little
fellow,myson."

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Birth and Childhood the sensitive nerves of a boy who had lived in a
Charles Dickens was born on the 7th dream world. From a psychological point of view,
February 1812 at Portsea, near Portsmouth, the boy experienced a sense of complete betrayal
where his father was a clerk in the Navy Pay by those from whom he expected love and
Office. From Portsea the family moved to protection.
Chatham when Dickens was three years old; his The Callousness of His Mother
father had been promoted and was now at the When his father left prison, Charles thought
government dockyard there. For a few years all that this would mean an end to his own shame
went well. The family had two servants, one of and degradation. But the family were in no hurry
whom, named Mary Weller, used to tell Dickens to take the boy a way from gainful employment,
horrifying stories which gave him nightmares. and he remained in the factory until his father
His Boyhood and His Ambition quarreled with the relative who owned it and the
From Dickens's own autobiographical notes boy was removed. Even then his mother was in
we get several glimpses of him as a boy. He was favour of patching up the quarrel and sending the
able to visit the theatre, to buy books and steep boy back. Charles could never forget throughout
himself in eighteenth century fiction both his life this attitude of his mother. Years later,
picaresque and sentimental. Already he began to when he was a man, he always tried to avoid the
harbor dreams of acquiring the education of a locality where that particular factory was situated,
gentleman and saw himself through the world of and he never forgave his mother.
books, becoming the heir of the centuries and The Painful Experiences of Early Life
moving with ease among the great writers of the After leaving the factory, Charles resumed his
past. But something happened rudely to disturb schooling at Wellington House Academy. But the
this dream. mischief had been done. In the depths of his
Poverty and Work in a Blacking Factory nature a split had occurred; a sensitive, delicate
His father, John Dickens, lived consistently boy had been plunged into experiences that could
beyond his means, got hopelessly into debt, and only have been endured by somebody tough and
was recalled to London. Charles, ignorant of the obstinate. The vision of a world of grim, twisted
desperate circumstances of his family, followed shapes, deformed, exaggerated caricatures, a
and found them living in one of the poorest world full of horrid images, impressed itself
streets. In February 1824 his father was arrested permanently upon the soul of a child. It was thus
for debt and taken to the Marshalsea Prison. The that he always continued to see the Victorian
family situation was now almost critical: there was scene. Loving beauty, he had, during his
no money to buy bread and the boy was forced to childhood, been forced into contact with the
pawn his precious books one by one. But worse seamier side of life, with dirt, squalor, shame and
was to come - an experience so bitter and humiliation. The resulting disgust and utter
humiliating that it continued to haunt him hopelessness were ineradicable. He had seen the
throughout his life. His parents found a job for sordid underworld of London, inhabited by men
him in Warren's Blacking Factory owned by a and women, diseased in mind and body, where
relative. For six months, in utter despair, Charles, the victims of some vast, incomprehensible
still little more than a child, worked in the dirty, system were oppressed and destroyed.
rat-infested old house, sticking labels on blacking An Office-Boy and then a Shorthand Writer
bottles. This was the first raw impact of life on Dickens left school when he was fifteen. He
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took up a job as an office-boy in a firm of sketches "Boz", which was his nickname for his
solicitors. He proved himself extremely useful but you ng brother, deriv ed from the child 's
he soon realized that this kind of work could only mispronunciation of Moses. He had also been
be a temporary phase for a young man of his now appoint ed t o the regu lar staff of a
energies and ambitions. After his day's work at newspaper; he reported parliamentary
the office, he started learning shorthand in the proceedings when the House was in session; and
evenings and acquired amazing proficiency in it. he traveled up and down the country covering
In eighteen months he left the solicitors' office elections, great political meetings and other
and became a professional shorthand-writer. To events.
begin with, he got a job in a court of law where The Famous Author of "Pickwick Papers"
he acquired much of his know-ledge of the His first book, "Sketches by Boz" appeared
intricacies of the law, as well as his contempt for in 1836. it met an enthusiastic reception as the
it, and became also familiar with legal characters work of a new humorist. His next work, which
who are found in abundance in his novels. appeared in monthly installments, was "Pickwick
Acting as a Hobby Papers". This book made Dickens instantaneously
But shorthand was not his only interest. famous, chiefly on account of its character of
During his spare time he visited the theatres and Sam Weller. Dickens was at this time only twenty
music-halls of London. As a small child, standing four. It is doubtful, says one of Dickens's
on the kitchen table, he had entertained his biographers, if any other single work had ever
father's friends with comic songs. He was a born before aroused such wild and widespread
entertainer. Acting in plays now became one of enthusiasm in the entire history of literature as
his hobbies; and his famous public readings from "Pickwick Papers" had done. With each new
his novels in his later life were a form of acting. novel that Dickens now wrote, his fame grew,
As a Press Reporter until before he died he was probably the most
Soon, because of his great speed and widely known living Englishman.
accuracy in shorthand, he became a reporter in His Country's Conscience
the Press Gallery of the House of Commons. He Dickens proved himself to be not only the
was ju st twenty at t he time. He mad e a greatest entertainer of his age, not only his
tremendous success of his new job. One of his country's greatest novelist; he was, as perhaps
colleagues said that he occupied the very highest none had been before, his country's conscience.
rank, not merely for accuracy in reporting but for He spoke for millions; and in an age of very great
a marvelous quickness in transcript. Another men he was recognized as the most outstanding
colleague wrote: "There never was such a of them all. Certainly he excelled all of them in
shorthand-writer." From the Press Gallery of the his restless, almost fierce energy. His novels did
House of Commons he looked down on the final not occupy all his attention; he also edited
parliamentary skirmishes over the Reform Bill of magazines, produced plays and acted in them; he
1832 and in doing so earned twenty five guineas a traveled extensively not only in England, but in
week. He developed as low an opinion of Europe and America; he delivered endless
Parliament as he had previously formed to courts speeches, sponsoring charitable causes. His
of law. energy was, indeed, boundless.
Sketches of London Characters Marriage; Love-Affair; Separation
A year later Dickens took to original writing. In 1836 Dickens had married a twenty on
He began with brief sketches of London year old girl, Catherine Hogarth. The marriage
characters he had come across in his hours of proved a failure. In April 1856 Dickens wrote to
wandering about the city. He signed these his friend John Forster, "Poor Catherine and I are
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not made for each other and there no help for it." off character after character, rejoicing too in the
By this time, fed up with Catherine, he had also language he puts in their mouths, a language so
fallen in love with Ellen Ternan, a pretty young fertile and exuberant in comic invention as to
actress whom he had come to know well in the have a lyrical quality almost of poetry. Mr.
course of rehearsals of plays in which Dickens Pickwick undergoes the rigors of trial for breach
was so interested as a hobby. In May 1858 of promise; he is put in prison; he is fleeced by
Dickens separated from his wife. She had born rogues. Yet the world of this book is an innocent
him nine children. After the separation, most of world; this is the world of fairy-tale, with the bad
the children remained with Dickens and his fairies not monstrous but absurd. In this book the
household was managed by his sister in law, crudities and miseries of the real world are
Georgina Hogarth. sterilized by humour.
Public Readings from his Novels Two Kinds of Comic Characters
At the age of forty six he also embarked on It is possible to divide Dickens's comic
what became almost a second career: he began to characters into two groups. When he accepts
read passages and scenes from his novels to large them without the intervention of any moral
audiences in Britain and America. He acted all the standards and rejoices in them for their own sake,
roles in turn and threw himself into them with a the result is pure humour. Such are Pickwick, Sam
tremendous zeal. His public readings had a Weller and Tony Weller, Mr. Micawber, Boffin,
hypnotic effect on his audiences, but these and above all, Mrs. Gamp. When Dickens feels a
readings exerted an enormous strain on his mind. strong moral disgust the result is a character not
In the end he had to give up these public so much of humour as of savage comedy with no
readings, and he retired to Gad's Hill to write good nature in it at all. Characters of this second
"Edwin Drood", which might be described as a kind are most evident when Dickens is attacking
psychological thriller but which he could not social injustice or flaws in the social code.
complete. Bumble, Heep, and Gradgrind are typical figures
Sudden Death of savage comedy; ridicule and contempt are
His death was sudden and dramatic. On the poured upon them, but they remain monstrous
9th June 1870 he had put in a long day on and they terrify. Among figures of the first
"Edwin Drood", when he had a stroke at dinner. category, Mrs. Gamp may be regarded as the
He got up from the table in a stunned condition shining example of "the poetry, of the comic";
and said that he had to go to London at once. only a great poet could have invented her; she
Then he fell to the floor and never recovered belongs to the same order of creation as Falstaff.
consciousness. He died the next afternoon. He Some Examples of Humour from Dickens's
was buried with pomp in Westminster Abbey, an Novels
honour which he fully deserved. The humour, the pathos, the power of
description, the power of tragic representation in
Charles Dickens Dickens seem but the efforts of one faculty of
imagination. His super-abundant humour
The Great Humorist depends for its full appreciation on a knowledge
of the characters who are its source and incidents
The Pure Humorist in "Pickwick Papers" which give rise to it. But this humour also has
With the publication of Dickens's very first something which always marks it as the product
novel "Pickwick Papers", Dickens's gift of of one peculiar and creative mind. When Mrs.
humour became apparent. Here we find Dickens Crupp is asked by that young gentleman how she
the pure humorist, rejoicing in his ability to dash knows that love is the cause of his restlessness
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and bad spirits, she, slightly drunk with David's The Wellers and the Pecksniffs, the Swivellers
brandy, solemnly replies, "Mr. Copperfield, I'm a and the Micawbers must surely abide for ever,
mother myself". unchanging and immortal - immortals of lesser
When jerry cruncher, suspected by Mr. Lorry note, but still of the same lineage with Falstaff.
of having passed his nights in digging up bodies John Ruskin's View
for the doctors, is asked by his employer what he This is how John Ruskin commented on this
has been besides a messenger, he conceives the aspect of the genius of Dickens in a letter to his
luminou s i dea of repl ying, "Agricul tu ral father written in 1863: "I quite agree in your
character". estimate of Dickens. I know no writer so
The young man of the name of Guppy, in his voluminous and unceasingly entertaining, or with
memorable proposal of marriage of Esther such a store of laughter - legitimate,
Summerson, mentions as one of his qualifications open-hearted, good-natured laughter; not at
that his mother "is eminently calculated to be a things merely accidentally ridiculous or at mere
mother-in-law". indecencies, but at things inherently grotesque
With full confidence can we endorse the and purely humorous.
following opinion: "While we live, and while our Note
children live, Sam Weller and Dick Swiveller, Mr. Sam Weller, probably Dickens's greatest
Pecksniff and Mr. Gamp, the Micawbers and the comic character, appears in "Pickwick Papers".
Squeerses, can never die. They are more real than Mrs. Sarah Gamp, who does not lag far behind
we are ourselves, and will outlive and outlast us as Sam Weller, appears in Martin Chuzzlewit; and so
they have outlived their creator. This is the one do Pecksniff and Mark Tapley. Squeers and
proof of genius which no critic, not the most Crummles appear in Nicholas Nickleby, Mr. and
carping or dissatisfied, can gainsay." Mrs. Micawber and Peggotty, belong to the world
Delightful Absurdities of "David Copperfield", as does Barkis. Guppy
One may be sure, says a critic, that Dickens are characters in "Bleak House". Mr. and Mrs.
will make future generations laugh as much as he Boffin appear in "Our Mutual Friend". Dick
made his own contemporaries laugh. His humour Swiveller belongs to "The Old Curiosity Shop".
is so rich, so thorough, so varied, and so original Jerry Cruncher and Mr. Lorry are to be met with
that it must always appeal to the liking for in "A Tale of Two Cities".
oddities and eccentricities inherent in human
nature. There is humour which does not exactly Themes in "Great Expectations"
amuse, and there is humour which simply amuses Recurrent Themes in Dickens's Novels
and is delightful. Dickens had extraordinary Certain themes occur again and again in the
humour of the second kind. He was infinitely novels of Dickens. Helpless and unhappy
droll and various in his mirthful moods, and the children, prisons and criminals, cruel and unjust
animal spirits abound in all his writings. The institutions, greed for money and power - these
delightful absurdities of whom the chief are Dick are constantly recurring motifs in Dickens's plots.
Swiveller and Mark Tapley, Miggs and Mrs. Gamp They all appear in "Great Expectations" and are
will be delightful to reading humanity for a long woven into an interlocking pattern of great
time to come. subtlety and intensity among the central figures.
Immortal Comic Figures Unhappy Childhood, One of the Themes
The quality of humour founded in the roots Some of the most poignant scenes in the
of common humanity can never grow stale: nor book are the opening ones, which describe the
can it die. It seems impossible to imagine a day atmosphere in which Pip grows up. He is
when the world will refuse to laugh with Dickens. introduced as "a small bundle of shivers", alone in
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the graveyard; and this is followed by the expectations are nothing but a cage; as he says,
terrifying intrusion of the world of active violence "the taint of prison and crime" seems to pursue
and fear as the convict seizes him. then we see him. His first view of London is of the grim
the household at the forge, where he is made to shape of Newgate prison. His final complete
feel guilty and ashamed of his very existence; the involvement is the discovery that he owes his
Christmas party at which he is rebuked and prosperity not to the respectable Miss Havisham
bullied by his elders; his treatment at the hands of but to the convict Magwitch.
the hypocritical Pumble-chook; his introduction The Theme of the Ruthlessness of the Law
to Estella who calls him coarse and common Crime and imprisonment are inseparable
(Pip's agonies as a child are perhaps even more from the law. The law is the mechanism which
trying than those of David Copperfield). Dickens society has developed to dispense justice.
knew that in children there is nothing so finely Professedly, the law protects the strong and the
perceived and so finely felt as injustice, and weak alike, the gentleman and the commoner, the
looking back on his childhood, Pip too knows adult and the child. Dickens, however, gives us
that truth: "Within myself, I had sustained, from the bitterest satire on legal pretensions, and on
my babyhood, a perpetual conflict with injustice." the cruelties inflicted by the powerful upon the
The atmosphere of the first stage of Pip's helpless, especially upon children. When the
expectations is predominantly that of depression convict first appears in the opening scene, he is
and isolation. (This atmosphere pertains not only described as "a man who had been soaked in
to the child Pip but also to the old woman, Miss water and smothered in mud, and cut by flints,
Havisham). and stung by nettles, and torn by briars."
The Theme of Guild and Imprisonment Symbolically this is what society has done to
Mingled with this atmosphere of emptiness bring Magwitch to this condition, and when we
and desolation is another suggestion which hear his story later, we see how from his earliest
permeates the whole book: it is the suggestion of childhood he was doomed to become a criminal
human guilt and imprisonment. In the opening by poverty, degradation, and the indifference and
scene, Pip meets the terrifying and terrified inhumanity of those who wield authority. From
convict, Magwitch, who is to play so vital a part Mr. Jaggers's description, we learn that children
in his expectations. The leg-iron, got rid of for w ere so l e mn l y t ri e d i n cr i mi nal cou rt s,
the time with the file which Pip steals for the imprisoned, whipped, neglected, and cast out.
convict from Joe's forge. Pip's feelings a little Dickens's final comment on the ruthlessness of
later, when he is hoping that the convict will the law is the picture in the court as Magwitch is
elude the pursuing soldiers, might apply to the condemned to death. Magwitch is one of the
whole atmosphere: "The dismal wind was thirty two men and women who have been given
muttering round the house … the tide was death sentences. They are herded together,
flapping at the shore, and I had the feeling that surrounded by legal officials, and by a large crowd
we were caged and threatened." As a child, while of people who have come to watch the show.
Pip is still helpless and innocent of any The judge gives a pompous, moralistic speech,
wrong-doing, he is treated as if he were guilty. singling out the already dying Magwitch as a
His sister's attitude to him has always been that "scourge to society."
towards a young offender. Pumblechook pushes The Theme of the Lack of Love and Sympathy
him before the magistrate, when he is to be among Human Beings
legally apprenticed to Joe, exactly as if Pip had A large part of the novel deals with adult
that moment picked a pocket or set fire to a suffering and with the states of mind of
corn-rick. Later Pip is to find that his great imprisonment, isolation, and loveless ness, the
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cruelties of the strong towards the weak and no intellectual or artistic interests, and no purpose
helpless, are the outward symbol s. Pip's what ever. He lives in a world of make-believe
infatuation for Estella and the frustration of his and self-deception, restless, aspiring,
passion is only one of the negative elements in discontented, haunted by the guilt of his rejection
the emotional texture of the book. The minds of of Joe, and tortured by his unrequited passion for
the main characters are all deformed by the lack Estella. He sees his feelings as high emotions.
of love. All Pip's relationships and moral values Into this world of false values and false hopes
continue to be turned upside down repeatedly. breaks the terrible truth that his benefactor is the
The great expectations of money and love are all convict whom he had helped on the marshes
reversed into ironic paradox. many years age.
The Theme of the Corrupting Power of Money
Pip's journey through life, after he has been The Mind, Character, and
introduced to Miss Havisham's house, may be Development of Pip
called a snob's progress. After meeting Estella, he The Growth of Pip's Mind and Character
at once begins to think that her standards are the The story of Great Expectations is narrated
correct ones and that he and his relatives are by the hero himself. The hero's name is Philip
coarse and common. The forge now seems to Pirrip, but he calls himself only Pip. We watch
him dirty, and he feels ashamed of Joe's ignorance Pip growing from a child into an adult before our
and simplicity. When he is informed by Mr. own eyes. We are witnesses to the development
Jaggers about his great expectations, he never of Pip's mind, character, and personality. The
doubts that his benefactor is Miss Havisham and novel traces the growth of the mind of its hero,
that Estella is part of the design of his fortunes. although it acquaints us with a multitude of other
As he goes out alone on his last evening at home, characters as well. The novelist gives us a peep
intending to forget the marshes, he remembers into the inner mental state of Pip at different
with shame his meeting with the convict, but times in his career, besides dwelling upon his
comforts himself with the thought that it was all a external circumstances.
long time ago and that the man was now
probably dead. Dickens's account of Pip's life as a Pip'sExtremeSensitiveness
gentleman in the city of London and at
Hammersmith is a bitter satire on the possession His fears and Terrors after Meeting the Convict
of money without any sense of responsibility for The most striking characteristic of Pip is
its use. Dickens did realize the great value and perhaps his sensitiveness of which we get some
importance of money. After all, it is through evidence at the very outset. This sensitiveness
money that Pip is able to learn the manners of shows itself in the fears and terrors that he
good society, to acquire a knowledge of the experiences as a consequence of his meeting with
world, and to get some kind of education under a stranger in the churchyard. The convict who
the charge of Mr. Matthew Pocket. But the fact meets him in the churchyard frightens him with
remains that Pip's life in the years of his the threat that there is a certain young man who
prosperity is purely parasitic. During these years is very fond of eating children's hearts and livers
Pip leads an existence of empty futility, spending and that, if Pip fails to bring the food and the file,
his allowance on clothes and pleasure, and Pip's heart and liver will be consumed by that
leading his friend Herbert into expenditures young man. Pip runs home in a state of fright
which he cannot afford. In personality, Pip after promising to procure the food and the file
becomes absorbed into the background of his demanded by the stranger. At home, Pip is
associates, who have no real human fellowship, haunted by the specter of the devourer of
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children's hearts and livers and says: "If ever oppressed by his feeling of fear is when, getting
anybody's hair stood on end with terror, mine into a coach to go to his native town on a brief
must have done so then." Pip further describes visit, he recognizes one of the two convicts on
his state of mind thus: "I was in mortal terror of the same coach as the man who had shown him
the young man, who wanted my heart and liver." the file at the Three Jolly Bargemen and given
That night Pip can hardly sleep; and if he does him a shilling. On this occasion, he tells us, there
sleep somewhat, he gets bad dreams. was a great fear in his mind though he could not
Fight with Pale define his fear. As he walks to the hotel where he
Throughout his life, Pip is pursued by a fear wishes to stay, he almost trembles with a feeling
of something or the other. His mind is deeply of dread. "It was the revival for a few minutes of
bruised by his sister's ill-treatment, and this the terror of childhood," he tells us.
ill-treatment makes him even more sensitive. The Arrival of Magwitch, and Pip's Fear
Pumblechook and Mr. and Mrs. Hubble aggravate The sudden arrival of the convict, Magwitch,
the situation. It is only Joe who applies some whom Pip had helped as a boy causes a great
balm to Pip's lacerated spirit. When, after having tumult in Pip's mind. He recalls that this man was
been forced to a fight with the pale young gentle a desperately violent type of individual who was
man (namely, Herbert) in the courtyard of Miss almost on the point of murdering a fellow
Havisham's house, Pip goes home, he feels convict with whom he was grapping in the ditch.
oppressed by the fear of consequences. The more Pip now feels himself to be unsafe under the
he thinks of that fight, the more certain he feels same roof with the convict. He experiences "a
that some harm would now come to him. when half-formed terror that it might not be safe to be
he goes the next time to Miss Havisham's house, shut up there with him in the dead of the wild
his terrors reach their height. He wonders solitary night.
whether the agents of justice would be sent from Fear Caused by Wemmick's Warning
London to deal with him for his having knocked Yet another occasion when Pip is filled with
down the pale young gentleman. He wonders a feeling of fear is when he receives Wemmick's
whether Miss Havisham would herself punish note warning him not to go home that night and
him by shooting him with a pistol. Indeed, his when Pip spends the night in a hotel. Throughout
fear of the possible consequences of the fight that night he cannot drive out from his mind
makes him most wretched and miserable. Wemmick's warning "Don't go home". On this
His Uneasiness during the Night Preceding his occasion also Pip can hardly sleep.
Departure for London Fear of Compeyson
On the eve of his departure for London to On learning that Compeyson has been
begin a new life, Pip again feels most uneasy. This dogging his footsteps, Pip is again overcome by
time he is troubled by the fear that things might fear. He tells us that he felt a special and peculiar
take a wrong turn and that he might not be able terror at the thought that Compeyson had been
to go to London after all. The last night that he sitting behind him at the theatre like a ghost. He
spends at the smithy proves almost to be a simply cannot get Compeyson out of his
torture. Throughout that nigh he sees dreams of thoughts.
his coach taking him to wrong places instead of Pip, Not a Coward; His Imaginative Nature
to London, and fantastic failures of his journey Pip's constantly experiencing one terror or
occur to him till at last the morning comes and he
another should not give us the impression that he
feels reassured. is a coward in the physical sense. He is brave and
His Fear on Seeing a Convict on the Coach courageous enough when danger actually
Another occasion when Pip feels most confronts him, as we discover when he is trapped
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by Orlick in the sluice-house near the lime-kiln course, his passion for Estella. He falls in love
on t he marshes. Pip is by nature a very with her when he is yet a small boy, and he
imaginative person, and he is inclined to magnify continues to love her throughout. When a
and exaggerate a danger whenever he thinks of it. stranger (namely, Mr. Jaggers) comes and informs
It is his imaginative nature and his sensitiveness Pip that fortune is going to smile on him, Pip's
which are responsible for his experiencing fear expectations rise. Attributing this turn in his
and terror on various occasions. fortune to Miss Havisham, he begins to nurse the
His Sense of Guilt Born of His Sensitiveness illusion that Miss Havisham intends Estella for
Closely connected with his proneness to fear, him. As time passes, Pip falls more and more
is the sense of guilt which Pip experiences on hopelessly in love with Estella. This is how he
various occasions. This sense of guilt is also a describes his feelings towards Estella: "The
direct consequence of his sensitive nature. He has unqualified truth is that, when I loved Estella
a sense of guilt after the has stealthily given the with the love of a man, I loved her simply
food and the file to the convict. because I found her irresistible".
His Keen Feeling of Inferiority Pip's Forgiving Nature
Almost at the very outset of his life Pip Although pip feels strongly resentful of the
develops a sense of inferiority and suffers a good decepti on that M iss Hav isham has been
deal on account of it. This sense of inferiority practicing upon him by encouraging him to
takes its birth in his mind at the time of his first believe that she is the source of his good fortune,
meeting with Estella at Miss Havisham's house. he readily forgives her when she begs his
Estella treats him with contempt. She calls him a forgiveness. He has every right to feel aggrieved
stupid, clumsy, laboring boy with coarse hands. with her for permitting him to harbor an illusion
She mocks at him for calling the Knaves in the with regard to the identity of his benefactor, and
pack of cards "Jacks". She "beggars" him in the he expresses his grievance to her in plain terms.
game that they play to please Miss Havisham. All On the first occasion when he expresses his
this gives him a sense of inferiority; he feels grievance, she justifies herself rather than
humiliated, hurt, spurned, offended, angry, sorry; apologizes, but on a subsequent occasion she falls
and even tears come to his eyes. On this at his feet to seek his forgiveness, and he
occasion, after Estella has left him, he cries, kicks immediately softens. This is how he describes his
the wall, and plucks his hair, so bitter are his reaction to her kneeling before him: "To see her
feelings. His sense of inferiority now urges him with her white hair and her worn face kneeling at
towards self-improvement. He starts attending a my feet, gave me a shock through all my frame. I
school where Biddy is a teacher. He tells Biddy entreated her to rise and got my arms about her
that he would like to become a "gentleman," to help her up." A little later, when Miss
mainly on account of the beautiful young girl Hav isham's d ress cat ches fire, Pip d oes
who lives at Miss Havisham's house. He feels everything possible to save her life. Thus Pip is
ashamed of being apprenticed to Joe to Become a not the man to entertain any feelings of revenge
blacksmith. His life begins to appear to him against a repentant person. Similarly he harbors
coarse and common. He thus expresses his no ill feeling against Estella in spite of having
feelings when he becomes an apprentice to Joe: been spurned by her. He proposes marriage to
"I had a strong conviction on me that I should her when, as a widow, she expresses her regret
never like Joe's trade. I had liked it once, but once over her past lack of appreciation of his love for
was not now." her.
His Passion for Estella Pip's Snobbery
The most conspicuous fact of Pip's life is, of Pip's relationship with Joe is one of the
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important themes of this novel. When Pip is still Havisham and Magwitch, but also in his relations
a small boy, he is deeply attached to Joe who is with Herbert. He develops a keen interest in
the only person who treats Pip with kindness and Herbert's welfare, and his friendliness towards
sympathy. Pip feels very grateful to Joe at this that man is deeply reciprocated by the latter. He
stage in his life because his child's heart is starved is deeply concerned about Herbert's career and
of affection and he gets all the affection that he invests an amount of two hundred and fifty
needs from only one individual, namely Joe. pounds with Clarriker, a shipping-broker, who
Later, Biddy also shows a lot of consideration and promises to take Herbert as a partner in due
affection for Pip. However, when fortune begins course. Pip does this without even telling
to smile upon Pip, Pip's attitude towards Joe and Herbert, to save his friend from any possible
Biddy begins to undergo a change. At the time of feeling of embarrassment. On all occasions Pip
his departure for London he does not express to takes Herbert into confidence about his own
Joe and Biddy the kind of sentiment that the difficulties and problems - his love for Estella.
occasion demands. Joe and Biddy are overcome Pip's Hatred for Pumblechook and for Orlick
by their feelings on this occasion. But Pip does The only persons for whom Pip entertains
not seem to respond to their feelings. Soon any hatred are Pumblechook and Orlick.
afterwards, however, he realizes that he has been Pumblechook always treated Pip contemptuously
somewhat cold towards them, and he is overtaken when Pip was a small boy. Pumblechook's
by a strong desire to go back and have "a better patronizing attitude was always detested by Pip.
parting", though he cannot do so. When Pip has Pip regards this man as a swindler and scoundrel.
stayed in London for some time and become a But there is a bigger scoundrel, namely Orlick,
regular city resident, his outlook upon life whom Pip hates even more and with greater
changes and he becomes snobbish. justification.
Pip's Aversion to Magwitch A Summing Up of His Character
Pip has long remained ignorant of the Pip is on the whole a likable person, and
identity of his benefactor. He has all along had a
worthy of being the hero of the novel. He is
vague feeling that his good fortune has flowed certainly not an ideal character. He has his
from Miss Havisham. Therefore, on one wet and weaknesses and his shortcomings. But, on the
stormy night, when Magwitch suddenly arrives at whole, he wins our sympathy, regard, esteem, and
Pip's apartment in London and discloses the true even our admiration. He is a man of strong
facts, Pip receives a great shock. The feeling that
intelligence, sound judgment, and amiable
he owes all his good fortune to this convict in temper. He shows his intelligence not only in the
unbearably painful to him. he experiences a manner in which he, ably assisted by Herbert,
feeling of strong a version to the convict. This is
makes arrangements for Magwitch's escape but
how Pip describes his state of time: "I only saw a
also in his quickly perceiving the resemblance
man who had meant to be my benefactor, and between Molly and Estella. His judgment of the
who had felt affectionately, gratefully, and character of Drummle is perfectly correct and his
generously, towards me with great constancy warning to Estella not to marry him was fully
through a series of years." Pip now tells Magwitch
justified. The portrayal of Pip is one of the
that he will remain by his side as long as he can.
triumphs of Dickens in the field of
Pip pays him regular visits in the prison where he
character-creation. Never at any point in the story
lies seriously ill. do we doubt about the reality of Pip, even though
Pip's Capacity for Friendship here and there we may doubt an occurrence or
The essential goodness of Pip is seen not happening. And long after we have finished our
only in the way he behaves towards Miss reading of the novel, Pip remains in our minds
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like a man whom we have actually met and that he had stolen food from the blacksmith's
moved with. house. He makes this false declaration evidently
to protect Pip who might otherwise have been
The Character and Role of forced to confess the theft he had committed and
Abel Magwitch might have been punished for it. Already we have
here the seeds of sympathy we shall feel later on
Magwitch's Encounter with Pip for Magwitch. He shows a strange, unexpected
Abel Magwitch is the convict whom we meet concern for the little boy who had brought him
in the very first chapter. He suddenly pounces food and a file.
upon the child Pip and imposes him some food Magwitch's Decision to make a "Gentleman" of
to eat and a file to remove the iron on his leg. He Pip
is described at this time as a "fearful man", with o Next to his being a criminal and a convict,
hat, with broken shoes, with an old rag tied round the most striking fact about Magwitch is the part
his head, a man who had been "soaked in water, he plays in changing Pip's fortune. Pip was living
and smothered in mud, and lamed by stones, and a wretched life as a blacksmith's apprentice in a
cut by flints, and stung by nettles, and torn by small village. Under Magwitch's instructions, the
briars." He shows a grim sense of humour when lawyer Mr. Jaggers arrives in the village with good
he tells Pip of a young man who has a peculiar news for the young apprentice. Magwitch has
way of catching hold of a small boy in order to decided to make a "gentleman" of Pip. He has
eat his heart and liver. The convict builds up a paid Mr. Jaggers a handsome amount of money
terrible image of this mythical young man in partly as the lawyer's professional fee but mainly
order to frighten Pip into complying with his for the education and training of Pip who is to be
demand for food and a file. taken away from the village to the big city.
Grappling with Another Escaped Convict Magwitch has made a lot of money in Australia
When the convict is recaptured by the whither he had been transported and he has
soldiers, it appears that it was possible for him to decided to make use of his money in
have given a slip to his pursuers but that he was transforming a village boy into a city gentleman.
very keen that a fellow-convict, who had also Mr. Jaggers faithfully carries out Magwitch's
escaped from the prison-ship, should be instructions. As desired by Magwitch, his identity
captured. In fact, the convict Magwitch is found as Pip's benefactor is to revealed to Pip and is
grappling with the other convict in a ditch and, kept a close secret till Magwitch himself returns
when the soldiers arrive, Magwitch declares that to London and chooses to disclose the true facts
he does not mind being captured himself as long to Pip.
as the villain whom he is holding does not run His Deep Affection for Pip
away. In other words, Magwitch's desire for some Magwitch makes a sudden and dramatic entry
sort of revenge upon the other convict proves into Pip's London apartment on a wet and stormy
stronger than his desire for his own freedom. night. Pip is completely surprised to see a
Later in the story we learn that the other convict muscular man of about sixty, strong of legs,
is a man called Compeyson, a great scoundrel browned and hardened by exposure to weather.
who was largely responsible for initiating The stranger then reveals who he is. He is the
Magwitch into a life of crime. convict whom Pip had helped as a small boy, and
His Anxiety to Save Pip from the Consequences it was to repay Pip for the service that he had
of the Theft of Food done to the convict at that time that Magwitch
It is noteworthy that, before being taken had decided to make a gentleman of him.
away by the soldiers, Magwitch falsely declares Magwitch's joy of seeing Pip knows no bounds,
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even though Pip shrinks from his very touch. of refined gentlemen; he has no delicacy of
Magwitch tells pip that he regards him as his son feeling. Pip's initial aversion to him is fully
and that he has saved a lot of money, all meant justified. He was not prepared for the kind of
for Pip. He then explains that he has taken great revelation that Magwitch brings with him, and
risk in coming to London and that it is necessary that is why he shrinks from Magwitch as from a
to take every possible precaution to keep his snake. Pip can scarcely conceal his disgust when
identity a secret. If he has come back to London Magwitch meets him in his apartment. This is
at the risk of his life, it is only to meet Pip. We how Magwitch is described at this time: "He ate
cannot help feeling a certain admiration for this in a ravenous way that was very disagreeable, and
man who has developed a boundless affection for all his actions were uncouth, noisy and greedy. If
Pip on whom all his hopes are now centred. I had begun with any appetite, he would have
His Past taken it away, and I should have sat much as I
From the account of his life that he gives to did, repelled from him by an insurmountable
Pip and Herbert, it becomes clear that the life of aversion, and gloomily looking at the cloth."
crime which Magwitch had been leading was However, Magwitch soon wins our sympathy and
partly due to his own nature but mainly due to even our admiration, as he wins Pip's affection
the pernicious influence of Compeyson upon and devotion. Our sympathy and admiration for
him. this is how Magwitch describes his early life: the man stem, of course, from the deep and
"tramping, begging, thieving, working some time genuine love which he has developed for Pip.
when I could, a bit of a poacher, a bit of a When he lies ill in prison, Pip attends upon him
laborer, a bit of a waggoner, a bit of a haymaker, a like a son, and Pip consoles him in his dying
bit of a hawker, a bit of most things that don't moments by revealing to him the fact that his
pay and lead to trouble." Eventually, when he had daughter is still alive and doing well. Magwitch's
become a seasoned criminal, he and his boss, whole record of his criminal life is ignored by us
Compeyson, had been taken into custody and put at this stage, when he lies dying; we now think of
on trial for felony. At this time, Compeyson had him only as the man who had the best of
deserted him, with the result that, while intentions towards Pip and who had devoted all
Compeyson had been sentenced to seven year's his energies to the making of money to finance
imprisonment, Magwitch was sentenced to his project of making a gentleman of pip. His
fourteen years' imprisonment. They were both boldness and fearlessness also contribute to the
put on the same prison-ship. It was on account of favorable opinion that we now form about him.
this background of Compeyson's treachery that Magwitch is certainly not a scoundrel out and out,
Magwitch had become a sworn enemy of as are Compeyson, Arthur, and Orlick. His
Compeyson. This explains Magwitch's catching criminality is greatly redeemed by his goodness
hold of Compeyson on the marshes in the early towards Pip and the fearlessness and the
part of the novel, and his pouncing upon composure which he displays at the time of the
Compeyson and both of them going down in the attempted escape.
water in the later part. Magwitch's bid for escape Magwitch is a key figure in the story. Apart
from England is thwarted by Compeyson who form his vital role in the plot, he contributes to
has been keeping a watch on the movements of one of the dominant themes of the novel, namely
Pip and Herbert and who has informed against the theme of money values in a materialistic
Magwitch to the police. society. He becomes the symbol of money which
Wins Our Sympathy governs social life and without which nobody can
There is much in Magwitch to repel us. He is hope to make any headway in life. He also
crude and clumsy; he is not fit for the company represents the criminal section of the society of
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the time, but he is a criminal with certain her left side, she tells Pip that she has "a broken
redeeming qualities, and he is contrasted with heart".
other criminals who have not an iota of goodness Her Frustration
in them. Finally, Magwitch's role in the novel is It is much later in the novel that we come to
such as to contribute to the suspense and know (from Herbert) the true story of Miss
excitement of the story. Most of the incidents in Havisham. She had inherited a lot of wealth from
which he figures are of a melodramatic nature: her father who used to be a brewer and who had
the opening incident of Pip's encounter with him; married a second time. She had been courted by a
his recapture when he is grappling with his young man who had proposed marriage to her.
fellow-convict; his sudden appearance in Pip's However, that young man, after having robbed
apartment in London; his abortive bid for escape her of a good deal of her money, had deserted
under the direction of Pip and Herbert. His death her, failing to turn up on the day that she was to
is one of the most moving incidents in the story. marry him. in all this trickery and deceit, her
half-brother had played a leading part. Since that
The Mind and Character of evil day, Miss Havisham had remained confined
Miss Havisham to her own room, shutting out the daylight and
living like a recluse. The deep humiliation and
Her life of Seclusion frustration that she had suffered because of the
We first hear of Miss Havisham when it is desertion of her lover had broken her heart
decided that Pip should go and play at her house completely and had cast a permanent shadow of
in response to her which to have a small boy to gloom upon her life. Later still in the novel we
come to her house sometimes to play there. Miss learn that the lover who had courted her was no
Havisham, we are told, was "an immensely rich other than Compeyson, the crook and scoundrel,
and grim lady living in a large and dismal house who had so much to do with Magwitch and
barricaded against robbers, and leading a life of whose associate Arthur, Miss Havisham's
seclusion." Mrs. Gargery and Pumblechook half-brother, had been.
believe that Pip's fortune may be made by his Estella, An Instrument of Her Revenge upon the
going to Miss Havisham's house. Male Sex
A Withered Woman with a Broken Heart Miss Havisham's bitter disappointment has
Pip's first impression of Miss Havisham wrecked her happiness, but she has decided to
accords well with the little information that is wreak her vengeance upon the male sex. With
provided to us when we first hear about her. Pip that object in view, she rears a little girl, supposed
tells us that she was "the strangest lady" he had to be an orphan, to whom she gives the name
ever seen. He finds her dressed in rich materials - "Estella" and whom she proposes to use as an
satins, laces, silks - all of white. There are bright instrument of her revenge. She wants Estella to
jewels sparkling on her neck and on her hands. At grow into a hard-hearted woman incapable of
the same time, Pip finds that everything that she feeling any sympathy or pity for any man, and
wears seems to have lost its luster and looks taking a malicious pleasure in arousing a hopeless
faded. She wears a bridal dress, but the dress is as passion in the heart of every man who comes into
withered as the lady herself. The dress had been contact with her. When Estella is still a girl in her
put upon the rounded figure of a young woman, teens, Miss Havisham sends for a boy, Pip, of
but the figure upon which the dress now hangs nearly the same age, so that she may witness the
loose is shrunk to a skeleton. Miss Havisham tells effect that Estella's beauty would produce upon
Pip at this first meeting that she has not seen the the boy's mind. And she feels quite satisfied to
sun for many years. Then putting her hands on see that, while Pip is falling more and more under
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the influence of Estella's beauty, Estella treats the Her Shabby Treatment of Her Relatives
boy with a kind of haughtiness and arrogance Miss Havisham, as is to be expected in view
which Miss Havisham had encouraged her to of her bitter experience, has become utterly
cultivate towards all men. cold-hearted. She treats her relatives who call on
Her Spiteful Nature, and her View of Love her in a harsh, brusque, and almost insulting
Often, when Pip goes to Miss Havisham's manner. It is true that these relatives come to her
house, he overhears her whispering into Estella's wi th no nobl e moti v es; they come wi th
ears: "Break their hearts my pride and hope; break mercenary motives only, and she is aware of their
their hearts and have no mercy." By this she motives. Even so, her cynical disregard of their
means that Estella should conquer the hearts of feelings does her no credit. She certainly gives an
men with her beauty and charm, and should even amount of twenty five guineas to help Pip to
go out of her way to arouse their desire for her, settle down as an apprentice to Joe, the
but that she should never respond to any man's blacksmith, and she certainly gives a guinea to Pip
love. Estella's beauty is thus a great asset to Miss every time he visits her on the occasion of his
Havisham, and she derives much satisfaction birthday. But, even when she seems to treat Pip
from the fact that Estella is admired by all the with kindness, her real motive is to hurt the
men who see her. Again and again she asks Pip feelings of her relatives by arousing the feeling of
whether he thinks her beautiful and whether he jealousy in them. For instance, when Pip goes to
admires her. On one occasion, when Pip comes her to tell her that he has been adopted by some
to see Miss Havisham from London, she draws rich benefactor, she puts a few questions to him
Pip's head close to her own as she sits in her chair in the presence of Miss Sarah Pocket, and Pip on
and says to him, "Love her, love her, love her! If this occasion tells us: "She quite gloated on these
she favours you, love her. If she wounds you, questi ons and answers, so k een was her
love her. If she tears your heart to pieces, love enjoyment of Sarah Pocket's jealous dismay."
her, lover her, love her!" Never haps Pip found The Deception She Practiced upon Pip
such passionate eagerness in any one as he now There is also an element of trickery in Miss
finds in Miss Havisham's utterance of these Havisham's nature. She allows Pip to harbor the
words. Vehemently she tells Pip that she adopted illusion that she is the source of his good fortune.
Estella to be loved, that she educated her to be She even encourages him to continue to have
loved, and that Estella has developed into what such an impression. Later on, when Pip has
she is, so that she might be loved. Then she goes discovered the secret of who his benefactor really
on to say to Pip: "I'll tell you what real love is. It is, he mildly scolds Miss Havisham for having
is blind devotion, unquestioning self humiliation, deceived him. he asks her if it was an act of
utter submission, giving up your whole heart and kindness on her part to have encouraged him to
soul to the smiter - as I did." Thus Miss entertain a false belief. Miss Havisham's reply to
Havisham would like others to go through the this is characteristic. Why should she be expected
same agony which she herself experienced when to show kindness to any one? she asks pip. In
she was young and fell in love with a man who other words, she justifies the deception that she
forsook her at the last minute. The only thing practiced upon Pip because life has not treated
that can now console Miss Havisham is the her with any kindness.
suffering of others in their experience of love. Her Shocking Discovery of Estella's
Her motive in sending Estella to Richmond is Cold-Heartedness Towards Her
that Estella should get into a larger social circle so Miss Havisham succeeds only too well in her
as to break the hearts of as many young men as scheme of hardening Estella's heart. The result is
possible. that Estella becomes so cold-hearted that she
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treats not only men with complete callousness she had shut out infinitely more; that in seclusion,
but also Miss Havisham herself. Indeed, we may she had secluded herself from a thousand natural
say that Miss Havisham is hoist with her own and healing influences; that her mind had grown
petard. Miss Havisham discovers, to her utter diseased; I knew equally well." Miss Havisham
dismay and chagrin, that Estella has no regard for now confesses her guilt in having perverted
her feelings and does not even feel grateful to her Estella's heart. "I stole her heart away and put ice
for having brought her up and educated her. She in its place." She says with reference to the
is naturally upset at Estella's coldness towards her manner in which she has brought up Estella.
and, when she mentions this to Estella in an A Pathetic Creature
aggrieved tone, she receives a most cruel reply. Miss Havisham now becomes a pathetic
Estella tells her that she is what Miss Havisham creature. We begin to pity her even a Pip pities
has made her. In vain does Miss Havisham fret her. And we pity her even more when her dress
and fume, saying that she could never believe that catches fire and she is badly burnt. The woman
Estella could become so proud and hard towards who was so formidable and frightening has now
her; Estella shows a complete absence of any become utterly helpless and powerless, and lies
affection in her heart for Miss Havisham. That dying.
night Miss Havisham is unable to sleep because According to some critics, the change in Miss
the discovery of Estella's ingratitude towards her Havisham is unconvincing. But such a view does
has come as a great shock to her. not seem to be valid. Miss Havisham's cynicism
Her Repentance and Remorse and hard-heartedness were the result of her
Later in the novel, there is a change in Miss deeply frustrating experience of love. She was not
Havisham. Pip's pleadings on behalf of the by nature spiteful or malevolent. With the passing
Pocket family, and especially Herbert, produce of time, her bitterness was bound to diminish.
the desired effect upon her mind. She sends for Besides, she herself now feels starved of affection
Pip and authorizes him to receive an amount of because the only person from whom she could
nine hundred pounds from Mr. Jaggers as legitimately expect any affection has badly let her
financial help for Herbert. She is now full of down. Her eyes are at last opened to the injustice
remorse over her past cynicism and that she has been doing to Pip and to her
hard-heartedness. She feels particularly repentant relatives. She now gives money not only to
of her having allowed Pip to continue to have the Herbert but leaves some for Mr. Matthew Pocket
wrong impression that she was the source of his also. The change in her seems to be natural. It is
good fortune. She even falls at Pip's feet, crying not a correct interpretation to regard her as a
in a state of despair: "What have I done! What "flat" character, that is, a character who does not
have I done!" she now seeps, and Pip is surprised. develop but remains the same.
Pip had never before seen her shedding a tear.
Pip realizes the great folly that Miss Havisham Dickens as a
had committed in having taken to a life of
seclusion and in trying to extract happiness from Great Humorist
the suffering of others. Pip thus describes his "Great Expectations" tells a story which, in
reaction to Miss Havisham's state of mind at this its essentials, is serious and even somber. In spite
moment: "That she had done a grievous thing in of that, there is plenty of humour in this novel as
taking an impressionable child to mould into the in other novels by Dickens. Dickens was
form that her wild resentment, spurned affection, undoubtedly a great humorist, and almost every
and wounded pride, found vengeance in, I knew novel by his pen provides ample evidence of the
full well. But that in shutting out the light of day, exuberance of his comic invention. His humour is
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always fresh and original, never stale or description of the external appearance of most of
stereotyped. He does not imitate the humour of the characters. There is Mrs. Joe whose skin is so
great comic writers; he is himself a great red that Pip wonders whether she washes herself
originator of comic scenes and a comic portrayal with a nutmeg-grater instead of soap. There is Joe
of character. "Great Expectations" provides himself how, in his holiday clothes, looks "more
examples of the comedy of situation, the comedy like a scarecrow in good circumstances than
of character, and the comedy that results from a anything else. Nothing that he wore then, fitted
witty use of language. him or seemed to belong to him." There is Mr.
Examples of the Comedyof Situation Wopsle who "united to a Roman nose and a large
There are several examples of what is known shining bald forehead, had a deep voice, which he
as the comedy of situation in this novel. We have, was uncommonly proud of." Uncle Pumblechook
for instance, a comic situation when, at a dinner is described as "a large, hard-breathing, middle
at which a few guests are also present, Joe secretly aged, slow man, with a mouth like a fish, dull
offers gravy to pip each time Pip is rebuked or staring eyes, and sandy hair standing upright on
snubbed by Mrs. Gragerty or by any of the guests. his head." Even the formidable Mr. Jaggers is
We have a comic situation when every child described in an amusing manner as "a burly man,
coming to Mrs. Pocket stumbles and falls and with an exceedingly large head and a
when it is discovered that there is a foot-stool corresponding large hand. He was prematurely
lying under Mrs. Pocket's skirt without her being bald on the top of his head, and had bushy black
aware of it. The discovery of this foot-stool eye-brows that wouldn't lie down but stood up
makes the governess Flopson say to Mrs. Pocket, bristling." His clerk, Mr. Wemmick, is described
"If it ain't your foot-stool? And if you keep it i n a n e v e n m o r e a m u s i ng m a nn e r . M r .
under your skirt like that, who's to help Wemmick's mouth was "such a post office of a
stumbling?" There is a funny situation when mouth that he had a mechanical appearance of
Pumblechook has a fit of coughing because, as a smiling." When he sits lunching at his desk on a
consequence of Pip's filling the wine-bottle with dry hard biscuit, he throws pieces of it "from time
tar-water. Pumblechook drinks this tar-water to time into his slit of a mouth, as if he were
under the impression that he is drinking wine. posting them." The other clerks working in Mr.
The manner in which Wemmick puts his arm Jaggers's office are also made to appear funny.
around Miss Skiffins and she quietly and gently One of these clerks is described as one "who
unwinds his arm from round her waist is another looks something between a publican and a rat
example of the humour of situation. The manner catcher"; another is "a little flabby terrier of a
in which Wemmick gets married according to clerk with dangling hair"; and another is "a
plan but producing an impression that the whole high-shouldered man with a face-ache tied up in
thing is accidental may also be regarded as an dirty flannel."
example of this kind of humour. Then there is Joe, A Comic Character
Joe who does not know where exactly he can put Then there is humour which results from the
his hat when he visits pip in London. Joe takes
behaviour, habits, disposition, mannerisms, etc.
off his hat carefully with both hands, like a bird's
of the various characters. In this kind of humour,
nest with eggs in it, looks all round the room for
Joe undoubtedly occupies the foremost place.
a suitable spot on which to deposit it, and Indeed, Joe may be regarded as the greatest comic
ultimately palaces it on the chimney-piece from
character in this particular novel. The original
which it afterwards keeps falling at intervals.
thing is that Dickens has created comedy out of a
Persons Described so as to Appear Funny character who is otherwise almost idealized by
Next is the comedy resul ting form a him as representing the best qualities of a true
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Christian. Joe is a delicious combination of a true behaviour. One wonders, however, whether Joe is
gentleman and a comic figure. The manner in not capable of a certain slyness occasionally. For
which Joe gives to Pip an account of how his instance, when he returns from his interview with
father used to treat his mother is quite amusing. Miss Havisham, he tells his wife that Miss
Joe's father was a cruel-hearted man given to Havisham has given him a sum of twenty five
heavy drinking and he treated Joe's mother in a guineas to be handed over specifically to Mrs.
beastly manner, but Joe insists that his father was Gargery, while Miss Havisham did not mention
good at heart. Joe is ungrammatical style of Mrs. Gargery at all! In addition to Joe's peculiar
speech while giving this account and the style of speaki ng , t here are a cou pl e of
inconsistency between Joe's father "hammering mannerisms which amuse us when he speaks. He
away" at his mother most unmercifully and makes a frequent use of the expressions "I
hammering away at Joe also in the same manner meantersay," and "what larks!" The portrayal of
and Joe's insistence that his father was essentially Joe is undoubtedly an example of Dickens's
kind hearted are most amusing. Then there is original and creative humour.
Joe's description of his wife, Mrs. Gargery is Mrs. Joe, a Stock Figure of Comedy
given to government, which "I meantersay the Mrs. Joe is also a figure of comedy. Although
government of you and myself," he says to Pip. she is extremely harsh towards Pip and her
Joe calls her a Mogul, a Buster, a mastermind, attitude towards both Pip and Joe is bullying and
who is generally "on the Rampage." And Joe has domineering, somehow we feel amused by her
his own way of pronouncing these words so as to harshness and hard-heartedness. The reason is
lend to them the proper emphasis. Joe addressing that she represents a familiar type of female
Pip every time he is asked a question by Miss character in literature: she is a shrew, and a shrew
Havisham, when she has summoned him to always provokes mirth and laughter. She is the
discuss pip's future is another example of the only character who may be regarded as a
humour of character. Pip feels very stock-figure of comedy in this novel. But we see a
uncomfortable when, in answering every single certain originality in the manner in which even
question which Miss Havisham asks him. Joe this traditional figure of the shrew is presented to
turns toward pip and supplies the required us by Dickens.
information in his own peculiar style, speaking as The Comic Mannerisms of Jaggers
if the questions were being asked by Pip. Indeed, Jag g e rs i s an a w e -i n sp i r i ng man ; he
this is one of the funniest pieces of writing in the commands great respect in legal circles, and not
whole novel. Then there is Joe's clumsy only criminals but even magistrates are afraid to
behaviour in Pip's apartment in London. The him. but Dickens has lent touches of comedy
humour here is, of course, mingled with pathos even to this character. For instance, we are told
but in spite of pathos, we cannot help feeling that while eating he seemed to bully his very
amused. Especially amusing here is the way in sandwiches. We are also told that he never
which Joe eventually manages to get from laughed but that his creaking boots laughed.
Herbert a cup of tea after having first left it to Likewise, his habit of biting his forefinger, his
Herbert's option whether to serve him tea or flourishing his handkerchief, and his washing
coffee and then saying "yes" to a cup of coffee. hands with scented soap are amusing mannerisms
This certainly is an example of hilarious comedy, in him.
and Joe gets his cup of tea without in the least Wemmick, an Original Comic Creation
appearing to be clever or smart. Indeed, it is the As a figure of comedy. Jaggers's clerk,
sheer simplicity of the man that is the source of Wemmick, occupies a position next only to Joe.
much of the humour that results from his We are amused by the dual personality that he
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possesses; he is one man at his office and quite of drama, Wopsle succeeded only in accelerating
another at his house. At the office, he is the process of the decline of drama.
businesslike and cold; at his house he is sociable, Other Comic Characters
genial, and even warm-hearted. The description Other comic characters in the novel are Mr.
of his household is very amusing. His small house and Mrs. Pocket, and Mr. barley (Clara's father).
is in very particular like a castle or a fort: it has a Mr. Pocket has a habit of trying to raise himself
moat around it, a flagstaff on the top, and a gun from his seat by clutching his hair whenever he
mounted on the wall. If this house were besieged finds himself faced with some problem. At one
by an enemy, Wemmick could hold out for a stage we are told that "Mr. Pocket got his hands
fairly long time, because he has plenty of in his hair again, and this time he really did lift
provisions in the castle in the shape of the himself some inches out of his chair." (This
vegetables growing in his garden, and the fowls, should be treated properly as an example of the
the rabbits, and the pig that he has in his humour of situation). Mr. and Mrs. Pocket are
backyard. Wemmick's constant harping upon quarrelling most of the time, and their bickering
"portable property" is also amusing. But the most and friction excite much mirth in us, though we
amusing part of his household is his Aged Parent do not have any first-rate comedy here. Mr.
with whom Wemmick is on terms of perfect Barley is an invalid, but a very rowdy kind of
understanding and cordiality. The Aged Parent is invalid who keeps talking to himself and makes
happy as a king as long as he gets from exacting demands upon his docile daughter. His
Wemmick, or from any friend of Wemmick's, a addiction to liquor is his extra qualification.
nod every now and then. Wemmick too is an Oddity, Eccentricity, Caricature
original comic creation. It is evident that much of the comedy of
Pumblechook and Wopsle, Comic Characters character results from oddities and eccentricities
Pumblechook and Wopsle are also largely of manner and behaviour. There is a touch of
comic characters. As there is some element of caricature in the portrayal of such persons as
wickedness in Pumblechook, he may be regarded Jaggers, Wemmick, Mr. and Mrs. Pocket, and Mr.
as "the comic villain" of the story. What amuses Barley. The humour in this case is of a genial
us most about this man is his bumptiousness and nature. In the case of Mrs. Gargery and
his hypocrisy. He is all the time claiming credit Pumblechook, however, the humour is satirical.
for the good fortune and prosperity of Pip, Verbal Humour
though all he did was to introduce Pip to Miss Finally, there is the humour resulting from
Havisham's household. Pumblechook is almost as the manner in which language is used. For want
stern in his treatment of the boy Pip as Mrs. of any other label, this type may be called verbal
Gargery, but as soon as Pip becomes prosperous, humour. For instance, this is how Pip describes
Pumblechook's attitude towards Pip becomes the manner in which Mrs. Gargery prepares him
servile. Pumblechooks' cringing to Pip at Mrs. for his visit to Miss Havisham's house: "With
Gargery's funeral is quite amusing. Wopsle that, she pounced upon me, like an eagle at a
amuses us by his vanity in thinking himself an lamb, and my face was squeezed into wooden
accomplished actor. The bubble of his vanity is bowls in sinks, and I was soaped, and kneaded
pricked at the Three Jolly Bargemen by Jaggers and toweled, and thumped, and harrowed, and
who takes him to task for misleading his rasped, until I really was quite beside myself."
audience. When Wopsle becomes a professional There are numerous incidental touches of
actor in London, his performances are greeted humour in the course of the narration, which
with ironic applause by the audiences; and Pip depend upon a clever or ingenious use of words.
tells us that, instead of bringing about the revival
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AZEEM ENGLISH MAGAZINE 48 DECEMBER 2008

Azeem Educational Conference presents www.aec.org.pk


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DECEMBER 2008 47 AZEEM ENGLISH MAGAZINE

Azeem Educational Conference presents www.aec.org.pk


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AZEEM ENGLISH MAGAZINE 46 DECEMBER 2008

Azeem Educational Conference presents www.aec.org.pk


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DECEMBER 2008 45 AZEEM ENGLISH MAGAZINE

Azeem Educational Conference presents www.aec.org.pk


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AZEEM ENGLISH MAGAZINE 44 DECEMBER 2008

Azeem Educational Conference presents www.aec.org.pk


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DECEMBER 2008 41 AZEEM ENGLISH MAGAZINE

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DECEMBER 2008 39 AZEEM ENGLISH MAGAZINE

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AZEEM ENGLISH MAGAZINE 38 DECEMBER 2008

Azeem Educational Conference presents www.aec.org.pk


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DECEMBER 2008 37 AZEEM ENGLISH MAGAZINE

Azeem Educational Conference presents www.aec.org.pk


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AZEEM ENGLISH MAGAZINE 36 DECEMBER 2008

Azeem Educational Conference presents www.aec.org.pk


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Azeem Educational Conference presents www.aec.org.pk


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DECEMBER 2008 33 AZEEM ENGLISH MAGAZINE

Azeem Educational Conference presents www.aec.org.pk


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AZEEM ENGLISH MAGAZINE 32 DECEMBER 2008

Azeem Educational Conference presents www.aec.org.pk


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DECEMBER 2008 31 AZEEM ENGLISH MAGAZINE

Azeem Educational Conference presents www.aec.org.pk


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AZEEM ENGLISH MAGAZINE 30 DECEMBER 2008

Azeem Educational Conference presents www.aec.org.pk


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AZEEM ENGLISH MAGAZINE 28 DECEMBER 2008

Azeem Educational Conference presents www.aec.org.pk