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Circulation/Transport capillaries

-actual site of exchange
General
venules & veins
two major transport systems in body: – bring blood from capillaries back to heart

A. The Circulatory System B. Lymphatic System
B. The Lymphatic Sysem
an open system that returns excess materials
circulatory system works in conjunction with in the tissue spaces back to the blood
lymphatic system
fluid = lymph
! they are directly connected to each other
no dedicated pump; muscle contractions
A. Circulatory (cardiovascular) System move lymph along

circulatory system consists of “plumbing” and lymphatic vessels move lymph in one
“pumps” & circulating fluid direction; lymph does not circulate

pump = the heart

fluid = blood

blood flows in closed system of vessels
over 60,000 miles of vessels (mainly capillaries)

>arteries ! capillaries ! veins

heart<

arteries & arterioles
– take blood away from heart to capillaries

Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System, Ziser Lecture Notes, 2013.11 1 Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System, Ziser Lecture Notes, 2013.11 2

The Circulatory System
(Cardiovascular System) 4. maintain fluid and electrolyte balances in tissues
and cells
major connection between external and internal
environment: 5. maintain acid/base balances in tissues and cells

everything going in or out of body must go 6. help regulate temperature homeostasis
transfers excess heat from core to skin for removal
through the circulatory system to get to where
its going
C. Protective Functions:
more than 60,000 miles of blood vessels with a pump
7. Clotting and Inflammation prevent excessive
that beats 100,000 times each day
fluid loss and limit the spread of infection
General Functions of Circulatory System:
8. Circulating cells and chemicals actively seek out
and remove pathogens from the body
A. Transport
= “immune system”
B. Homeostasis
C. Protection

A. Transport functions:

1. Pick up food and oxygen from digestive and
respiratory systems and deliver them to cells

2. pick up wastes and carbon dioxide from cells and
deliver to kidneys and lungs

3. Transport hormones & other chemicals, enzymes
etc throughout the body

B. Homeostasis functions:
Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System, Ziser Lecture Notes, 2013.11 3 Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System, Ziser Lecture Notes, 2013.11 4

Ziser Lecture Notes.11 6 Heart Chambers Heart Valves interior of heart is subdivided into 4 chambers: There are also 4 one-way valves that direct flow of blood through the heart in one direction: atria = two upper chambers with auricles 2 Atrioventricular (AV) valves smaller. Greek and Roman scholars correctly composed of tough fibrous outer layer and inner surmised that the heart is a pump for filling vessels with blood serous membrane Aristotle however thought the heart was the seat of emotion and a source of heat to aid digestion: outer surface of heart is also covered with serous excited ! heart beats faster membrane (= visceral pericardium) “heartache” of grief (=epicardium) continuous with the pericardium his thoughts predominated for over 2000 years before its true nature reemerged between the 2 membranes is pericardial fluid !lubrication the heart is one of first organ systems to appear in developing embryo pericarditis = inflammation of pericardium. each heartbeat becomes painful ! heart is beating by 4th week wall of heart: study of heart = cardiology epicardium = visceral pericardium no machine works as long or as hard as your heart thin & transparent serous tissue beats: >100. weaker bicuspid (Mitral) valve ventricles = two lower chambers .separates left atrium and ventricle . membranes become dry. 2013. thicker. = pericardium (=pericardial sac)(parietal pericardium) Some ancient Chinese.consists of three flaps of tissues left ventricle is at apex of heart both held in place by chordae tendinae Heart Vessels attached to papillary muscles There are 4 major vessels attached to heart: ! prevent backflow (eversion) 2 arteries (take blood away from heart): keeps valves pointed in direction of flow 2 Semilunar valves aorta . Ziser Lecture Notes. Ziser Lecture Notes.11 7 Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System.11 8 . Egyptian. The Heart – Anatomy lower border of heart (=apex) lies on diaphragm we are more aware of our heart than most other internal organs heart is enclosed in its own sac. interlacing contractile tissue heart is about size and shape of closed fist acts as single unit (gap junctions) endocardium = delicate layer of endothelial cells heart lies behind sternum in mediastinum.to right atrium pulmonary veins (4 in humans) . 2013.separates right atrium and ventricle . Ziser Lecture Notes. thinner. continuous with inner lining of blood vessels broad superior border of heart = base [endocarditis] Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System.11 5 Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System.consists of two flaps of tissues larger. stronger left ventricle much larger and thicker than tricuspid valve right ventricle .000 x’s/day > 30 Million times each year myocardium = cardiac muscle cell > 3 Billion times in a lifetime to pump > 1 Million most of heart barrels of blood branching.to left atrium Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System.from right ventricle aortic SL valve 2 veins (bring blood back to heart): at beginning of aorta vena cava (superior & inferior) pulmonary SL valve at beginning of pulmonary trunk .from left ventricle pulmonary trunk at beginning of arteries leaving the ventricles . 2013. 2013.

Tunica Interna aneurysm = a weak point in arterial wall forms a. Veins & Venules arranged into capillary beds = functional units of circulatory system generally have a greater diameter than arteries but thinner walls. Ziser Lecture Notes.000 miles of blood vessels is tunica adventitia is thickest of three capillaries but not as elastic as arteries only 5% of blood at any one time is in capillaries little smooth muscle Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System. renal arteries and nerves. Tunica Externa (= T.11 11 Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System. 2013.000 miles of vessels (mainly capillaries) elastic tissue and collagen fibers >arteries ! capillaries ! veins strengthens vessel walls ! prevent high pressure from rupturing them heart< allows vasodilation and vasoconstriction arteries & arterioles – take blood away from heart to capillaries usually the thickest layer. Tunica Externa b. 10% in arterioles actual site of exchange of materials pressure is variable ! the rest is just pumps and plumbing MAP ~ 93 varies from 100 – 40 mmHg most organs receive blood from >1 arterial branch consist of only a single layer of squamous provides alternate pathways epithelium= endothelial layer (=tunica intima) 2. Ziser Lecture Notes. Capillaries: all blood in circulation 15% in arteries. Intima) venules & veins inner endothelium – bring blood from capillaries back to heart exposed to blood Histology of Vessels when damaged or inflamed induce platelets or walls of arteries and veins consist of three layers: WBC’s to adhere a. Blood Vessels b. Tunica Interna (=T. Tunica Media blood flows in closed system of vessels middle. lymphatic vessels and smaller blood circle of Willis vessels Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System. !thick layers of connective tissues many of the medium veins.11 10 Types of Blood Vessels ~70% of all blood is in veins & venules ~60% in veins. made mainly of smooth muscle with some over 60. flaccid capillaries are extremely abundant in almost every ! more compliant tissue of the body three layer are all thinner than in arteries ! most of the 62. especially in limbs !more muscular than veins have = 1 way valves arteries and arterioles typically contain ~25% of 3. vessels or other passageways. Tunica Media ! may lead to plaque buildup and atherosclerosis c. adventitia) Is a bulging sac that may rupture or put pressure on nearby brain tissue. outer loose connective tissue usually due to degeneration of the tunica media. Ziser Lecture Notes. Ziser Lecture Notes. Arteries & Arterioles low pressure: 12 – 8 mmHg venules built to withstand the greatest pressure of the 6 – 1 mmHg veins system larger veins near 0 !strong resilient walls. 2013.11 9 Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System. especially in arteries capillaries -actual site of exchange c. 2013. ~10% in venules 1. atherosclerosis or hypertension anchors the vessel and provides passage for small Most common in abdominal aorta.11 12 . 2013.

inferior mesenteric v. Special Circulation Patterns external iliac v. subclavian v. brachiocephalic v. renal v. brachial a. femoral v. ! usually blue on models subclavian a. Ziser Lecture Notes. Coronary Circulation (or Cardiac Circulation) heart needs an abundant supply of oxygen and nutrients !myocardium has its own supply of vessels ~5% of blood goes to heart muscle tissue ~10-x’s its “fair share” based on weight alone any interruption of blood flow can cause necrosis within minutes = myocardial infarction R & L Coronary Artery branch from aorta just beyond aortic SL valve blood enters when Left Ventricle relaxes (most vessels receive blood when ventricles contract) most blood returns to heart through veins that drain into coronary sinus which empties into Right Atrium beneath entrance of Inferior Vena Cava 2. superior mesenteric v. capillaries and veins are arranged into two Major Arteries and Veins circuits: Pulmonary Circuit: Arteries pulmonary a. lft common carotid a. Ziser Lecture Notes. heart is a double pump common carotid a. 2013. internal iliac a. 2013. brachial v. oxygen deficient blood in pulmonary artery and vena cava external carotid a. Circle of Willis 7 separate arteries Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System. gonadal v. common iliac a. axillary v. 2013. hepatic portal v. internal iliac v. femoral a. Ziser Lecture Notes.11 15 Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System.11 13 Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System. inferior mesenteric a. jugular v.Circuits of Bloodflow Anatomy of Circulatory System arteries. Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System. 1. gonadal a.11 14 common iliac v. pulmonary: heart ! lungs ! heart rt ventricle! pulmonary arteries (trunk)!lungs!pulmonary Veins pulmonary v. internal carotid a. inferior vena cava hepatic v. renal a. external iliac a. veins!left atrium Systemic Circuit: Arteries aorta systemic: heart ! rest of body ! heart ascending aorta rt & lft coronary a. Ziser Lecture Notes. left ventricle!aorta!body!vena cava!rt atrium aortic arch brachiocephalic a. Veins: superior vena cava coronary v. lft subclavian a descending aorta celiac trunk superior mesenteric a.11 16 . 2013. axillary a.

2013. branchig from the internal carotids and Heart Physiology vertebral arteries for the heart to work properly contraction and arterial anastomosis interconnects them to form a relaxation of chambers must be coordinated circle of connecting arteries at base of brain Histology of Heart ! more than one route for blood to get to brain cardiac muscle fibers 3. gall striated ! myofibrils are highly ordered bladder. 2013. stomach.11 18 remain aerobic AV Bundle (Bundle of His) connected to AV Node takes stimulus from AV Node to ventricles ! greater dependence on oxygen than skeletal muscles Purkinje Fibers takes impulse from AV Bundle out to cardiac mucscle fibers have exceptionally large mitochondria of ventricles causing ventricles to contract comprise 25% of cell volume (vs skeletal mm!2%) the heart conducting system generates a small cells are more adaptable in nutrient use.11 20 . Ziser Lecture Notes. Ziser Lecture Notes. EKG) Conducting System ECG is a record of the electrical activity of the conducting system cardiac muscle cells are not individually innervated as body is a good conductor of electricity (lots of salts) potential changes at body’s surface are picked up by 12 leads are skeletal muscle cells !they are self stimulating [ECG is NOT a record of heart contractions] the rhythmic beating of the heart is coordinated and R maintained by the heart conducting system P T conducting system consists of: Q S SA Node intrinsic rhythm P wave = passage of current through atria 70-75 beats/min from SA Node initiates stimulus that causes atria to contract conduction through atria is very rapid (but not ventricles directly due to separation) atrial depolarization AV Node QRS wave = passage of current through picks up stimulus from SA Node ventricles from AV Node – AV Bundle – if SA Node is not functioning it can act as a pacemaker Purkinje Fibers =ectopic pacekmaker (usually slower intrinsic rhythm) impulse slows as it passes to ventricles ventricular depolarization Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System. Hepatic Portal System relatively short.11 19 Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System. pancreas. Ziser Lecture Notes. 2013. can use: electrical current that can be picked up by an glucose electrocardiograph fatty acids (preferred) lactic acid =electrocardiogram (ECG. Ziser Lecture Notes.11 17 Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System. and intestines usually 1 nucleus per cell superior and inferior mesenteric merge to form hepatic portal vein rather than tapering cells are bluntly attached to each other by gap junctions = intercalated do not take blood directly to vena cava discs instead take it to liver for “inspection” ! myocardium behaves as single unit -phagocytic cells remove toxins -vitamins and minerals are stored but atrial muscles separated from ventricular muscles by conducting tissue sheath ! atria contract separately from ventricles cardiac muscle cells cannot stop contracting to build up glycogen stores for anaerobic metabolism ! need constant supply of oxygen & nutrients to Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System. 2013. thick branched cells veins from spleen.

fibrosis indicates amt of damage receives sensory info from: Baroreceptors (stretch) in aorta and carotid sinus increased stretch ! slower Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System. 2013. Ziser Lecture Notes.8 seconds) idea of how rapidly the impulses are being conducted and how the heart is functioning consists of: systole ! contraction of each chamber Abnormalities of ECG’s = arrhythmias diastole ! relaxation of each chamber 1. ventricles contract 2.11 23 Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System. Ziser Lecture Notes. Stroke Volume: =The amount of blood that the heart pumps/min !normal SV = ~70 ml CO = Heart Rate X Stroke volume (healthy heart pumps ~60% of blood in it) = 75b/m X 70ml/b also each side of heart must pump exactly the = 5250 ml/min (=5. fibrillation rapid. if Rt heart pumped 1 ml more per beat ! within 90 minutes the entire blood volume during strenuous exercise heart may increase would accumulate in the lungs output 4 or 5 times this amount most affected by: A.11 21 Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System. stress activation of sympathetic NS some drugs contraction and relaxation of ventricles produces may promote fibrillation characteristic heart sounds: lub-dub 3. Ziser Lecture Notes.11 22 ! defective valves congenital Chemoreceptors rheumatic (strep antibodies) monitor carbon dioxide and pH septal defects more CO2 or lower pH ! faster Cardiac Output B. heart contractility.11 24 .25 l/min = ~1 same amount of blood with each beat gallon/min) ! otherwise excess blood would = ~ normal blood volume accumulate in lungs or in systemic in a lifetime the heart will pump ~53 million gallons (200 Million vessels L) of blood eg. 2013. uncoordinated contractions of individual muscle cells dub = diastolic sound atrial fibrillation is OK shorter. flutter lub = systolic sound short bursts of 200-300 bpm but coordinated contraction of ventricles and closing of AV valves 4. 2013.Q interval = 0. AV Node Block T wave = repolarization of ventricles normal P . Heart Rate: mean arteriole pressure innervated by autonomic branches to SA and AV systemic blood pressure = back pressure nodes (antagonistic controls) condition of heart tissue cardiac control center in medulla (cardiac center) eg. sharper sound (since it only contributes 20% of blood to heart beat) ventricular fibrillation is lethal ventricles relax and SL valves close electrical shock used to defibrillate and recoordinate contractions abnormal sounds: “murmurs” Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System. tachycardia (>100 bpm) increased body temperature ! fever relation of ECG to cardiac cycle emergencies.20 seconds (atrial repolarization is masked by QRS) changes indicate damage to AV Node ! difficulty in signal getting past AV Node by comparing voltage amplitudes and time Cardiac Cycle intervals between these waves from several leads can get 1 complete heartbeat (takes ~ 0. bradycardia (<60 bpm) decrease in body temperature some drugs (eg digitalis) two atria contract simultaneously overactive parasympathetic system endurance athletes as they relax.12 – 0. 5. 2013. Ziser Lecture Notes.

Ziser Lecture Notes.11 25 Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System. gender (men at slightly higher risk of HBP). tire ~35psi] pressure changes in pressure are the driving force that moves Measuring Blood Pressure blood through the circulatory system use sphygmomanometer blood pressure is created by usually measure pressure in the brachial artery 1. peripheral resistance c. vasoconstriction raises blood pressure range: 110-140 / 75-80 [mm Hg] Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System. <blood proteins varicose veins: “incompetent” valves Hypertension = 140/90 esp. gradually release pressure until 1st spurt arterial end of the circuit (pulse) passes through cuff = systolic pressure 2. kidney failurel stroke. continue to release until there is no obstruction of flow ! back pressure. Physiology of Blood Vessels vasodilation lowers blood pressure Blood circulates in arteries and capillaries by going eg. race resistance of blood flow (African Americans at higher risk) may be more important Flow of Blood in Veins indicates strain to which vessels are continuously subjected the blood pressure gradient is the main force that moves blood through arteries. if transient is normal: adaptation during fever. Ziser Lecture Notes. prolonged standing. the force of the heart beat procedure: a. prolonged hypertension is a major cause of: heart failure.11 28 . Ziser Lecture Notes. 2013.11 27 Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System. arterioles and also reflects condition of peripheral vessels capillaries Abnormal Blood Pressure movement of blood through veins is not pressure Hypotension = low BP: systolic <100: driven by the heart usually not a cause for concern veins have 1 . 2013. heredity. aneuryisms bottom number = diastolic pressure. resistance to flow sounds disappear mainly depends on diameter of a vessel and = diastolic pressure its compliance normal BP = 120/80 eg. increase pressure above systolic to previously discussed completely cut off blood flow in artery the heart maintains a high pressure on the b. exercise. strong pregnancy emotions hemorrhoids: if persistent is a cause for concern varicosities of anal veins due to excessive pressure from birthing or bowel 30% of those >50 yrs old suffer from hypertension movements Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System. in some may produce dizziness when standing up too quickly (esp in older patients) most abundant in veins of limbs may be due to severe bleeding and lead to circulatory shock quiet standing can cause blood to pool in veins and may cause fainting may hint at poor nutrition eg. obesity.way valves often associated with long healthy life prevent backflow but. superficial veins may be due to. obesity leads to many additional vessels that blood must pass through ! raises blood pressure down a pressure gradient [1lb of fat requires ~7 miles of blood vessels] Blood Pressure eg. 2013. high blood pressure affected by: heredity. Ziser Lecture Notes. vascular force of ventricular contraction disease. any blockage of the normal diameter of a =the force of the blood flowing through vessel will increase resistance blood vessels eg atherosclerosis inhibits flow ! raises blood measured as mmHg [ 100 mm Hg = 2 psi. 2013. age (risk increases after age 35).11 26 usually asymptomatic for first 10-20 yrs = silent killer top number = systolic pressure.

single cell layer thick cuff of smooth muscle surrounds origin of capillary extremely abundant in almost every tissue of body branches !most of 62.11 32 . Ziser Lecture Notes. Ziser Lecture Notes.1 mm away from a capillary amount of blood entering a bed is regulated by: ! vasomotor nerve fibers but only contains ~5% of blood in body ! local chemical conditions variable pressure 35 – 15 mm Hg blood flows slowest in capillaries due to greater cross-sectional area of all capillaries combined ! blood flows 1000x’s faster in aorta than in capillaries provides greatest opportunity for exchange to occur Capillary Beds capillary beds are the functional units of circulatory system usually capillaries 10 –100 capillaries are organized into each capillary bed Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System. 2013. 2013.11 30 ! the rest is pumps and plumbing arterioles and venules are joined directly by metarterioles (thoroughfare channels) each capillary <1mm long capillaries branch from metarterioles thin walled .000 miles of vessels = precapillary sphincter usually no cell >0. Blood Flow & Differential Distribution of venous pumps Blood muscular pump (=skeletal muscle pump) the overall flow of blood to and within a particular organ or tissue is related to blood pressure and during contraction veins running thru muscle are compressed and force blood in one direction (toward peripheral resistance heart) circulation also involves the differential distribution respiratory pump of blood to various body regions according to individual needs inspiration: increases pressure in abdominopelvic cavity to push blood into thoracic cavity !active body parts receive more blood than inactive parts expiration: increasing pressure in chest cavity forces !blood volume must be shifted to parts as they thoracic blood toward heart become more active veins also act as blood reservoirs these shifts are regulated by Vasomotor System !with large lumens and thin walls they are compliant and can blood circulates because of pressure gradients accommodate relatively large volumes of blood. Ziser Lecture Notes.11 29 Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System. 2013. Ziser Lecture Notes. 2013. (60-70% of all blood is in veins at any time) individual arterioles can increase or decrease their resistance to blood flow by constricting or most organs are drained by >1 vein dilating ! occlusion of veins rarely blocks blood flow as it does in arteries mediated by autonomic nervous sytem ! removal of veins during bypass surgery usually not traumatic vasomotor control center in medulla works in conjunction with cardiac centers Capillaries & Capillary Beds capillaries are the actual site of exchange of materials Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System.11 31 Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System. II.

000 deaths/yr 7. leading cause of death in US for both men and women in some may produce dizziness when standing ! 500. 2013. Ziser Lecture Notes.11 36 .2 M/yr worldwide (’07) up too quickly (esp in older patients) ! 30% of deaths/yr may be due to severe bleeding and lead to circulatory shock most common form is coronary atherosclerosis may hint at poor nutrition often leading to myocardial infarction (heart attack) eg. strong emotions begins with the buildup of plaque: if persistent is a cause for concern (silent killer) 30% of those >50 yrs old suffer from hypertension a. plaque seeps into the blood stream and Stroke sudden death of brain tissue occurring when a clot forms that blocks bloodflow Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System. esp left ventricle may get so thick that not enough space to pump blood effectively valves may thicken and become calcified impulse conduction along conducting system becomes more difficult !increase in arrhythmias or heart block muscle cells die heart becomes weaker !lower tolerance to physical activity Atherosclerosis is main change seen in blood vessels with age stiffening of arterial walls with increasing deposits of collagen fibers & declining resilience of elastic fibers also decline in responsiveness of baroreceptors so less vasomotor response to changes in blood pressure Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System. immune system dispatches macrophages to consume the high blood pressure affected by: cholesterol gender: men slightly higher risk of HBP age: risk increases after age 35 c.11 34 Abnormal Blood Pressure Disorders of the Circulatory System Hypotension low BP ! systolic <100 Heart Disease usually not a cause for concern ! often associated with long healthy life can lead to heart attack and ultimately heart failure but. can cause dizziness most noticeable effect of aging on CV system is or fainting stiffening of arteries heart has to work harder to overcome resistance ventricles enlarge. 2013. blood is drawn away from brain. macrophages become foam cells full of cholesterol heredity/race: African Americans at higher risk diet: any factors leading to obesity d. Effects of Aging on CV System results: quick move from lying to standing. Ziser Lecture Notes. to keep the arterial wall slick. 2013. cholesterol in blood infiltrates the arterial wall usually asymptomatic for first 10-20 yrs= silent killer b. foam cells in plaque secrete chemicals that weaken the aneuryisms cap g. exercise. f the cap cracks. <blood proteins Heart Attack Hypertension if transient is normal: heart attack risk is ~’50% genetic & 50% cheeseburger’ adaptation during fever. foam cells accumulate and become a major component of plaque prolonged hypertension is a major cause of: heart failure e. Ziser Lecture Notes. Ziser Lecture Notes. smooth muscle cells form a vascular disease cap kidney failure stroke f.11 35 Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System.11 33 Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System. 2013.

effects range from unnoticeable to fatal depending on extent of tissue damage and function of affected tissue Varicose Veins can occur anywhere on body but most common on legs veins in legs are largest in body and must counteract gravity to get blood back to the heart veins become enlarged and valves fail to prevent backflow of blood often associated with tired. achy. Ziser Lecture Notes. cerebral atherosclerosis. or feeling of heavy limbs most common in superficial saphenous veins ! they are poorly supported by surrounding tissues many factors contribute to likelihood of varicose veins: heredity age esp occur betw 18 and 35 yrs. 2013. peaks betw 50 and 60 yrs gender women are 4 to 1 times more likely to get them pregnancy sometimes form during pregnancy (8-20% chance) then disappear afterwards lifestyle: prolonged sitting or standing daily Transposition of the Great Vessels the child will develop normally until they begin to walk the right ventricle wll be unable to pump enough blood through systemic circuit Human Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System.11 37 . thrombosis or hemorrhage of a cerebral aneurysm cuts off blood flow to part of the brain.