Mechatronics 12 (2002) 1145–1156

Simulation and construction of a speed control for a DC series motor
J. Santana
a

a,*

, J.L. Naredo a, F. Sandoval a, I. Grout b, O.J. Argueta c

b

Centro de Investigacin y Estudios, Avanzados del IPN, Prol. Lpez Mateos Sur # 590, o o Guadalajara 45090, Mexico Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland c Universidad Autnoma de Guadalajara, Av. Patria #1201, Guadalajara 44100, Mexico o

Abstract DC series motors are preferred for mechatronic applications requiring high torque/speed ratios. This paper describes the design and implementation of an open loop DC motor speed control that is based on a micro-controller and on IGBTs. Trial and error designs are expensive and time consuming. This problem is solved here by using simulation tools which can predict the dynamic behavior of systems consisting of mechanic and electronic modules. The simulations provided along the paper show a satisfactory agreement with laboratory measurements. Ó 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction DC series motors usually are selected for traction applications requiring high torque/speed ratios. Examples of these are wheel chairs, golf carts, hoists, cranes, actuator arms, etc. [8]. A typical application consists in a human operator driving a DC motor by means of an accelerator pedal or a lever. The electronic system regulating the electric power fed into a motor, in accordance with a pedal or lever’s position, customarily is referred to as speed control. Such a system can be either in closed or in open loop configuration [8]. While closed loop systems are required for high accuracy applications, there are many situations for which an open loop system will suffice. This paper is concerned with the latter ones.
*

Corresponding author. Fax: +52-33-3134-5579. E-mail address: juan.santana@cts-design.com (J. Santana).

0957-4158/02/$ - see front matter Ó 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S 0 9 5 7 - 4 1 5 8 ( 0 2 ) 0 0 0 1 9 - 3

/ Mechatronics 12 (2002) 1145–1156 A typical DC motor speed control often has its internal signals generated and processed by analog circuitry and has its power driving stage made of several MOSFET modules in parallel [1]. PSPICE is being used for the work reported here. the model of the proposed speed control is constructed using the manufacturers provided models of its constituent electronic devices. etc. the conjunct simulations of the motor and its speed control are applied at refining and debugging the proposed design. In a previous work by other author ABM has been applied in the construction of a detailed IGBT model [3]. these models often cannot be modified by the user for attaining a closer match between simulations and real performance. Later on. Nowadays. For the work reported here. the use of manufacturer provided models and the inclusion of user developed models. Due to this reason and to its relatively low cost. 2.8. PSPICE permits both. It is proposed here that this drawback can be alleviated substantially by properly combining computer simulations and laboratory tests. even before its construction. In this paper. however. Santana et al. An open loop digital speed control based on IGBTs is thus proposed and developed here. The improved control would thus result more reliable.g. INTUSOFT SPICE.. Finally. The conjunct simulation of an electric motor and its speed control has been done before by applying very simple models for the motor and/or for the electronic control modules [1. most of the time. Mechatronic prototypes usually are implemented by a trial and error process which. while ABM is employed in the construction of a detailed DC series motor model. in addition. various available software packages permit simulating mechatronic prototypes. Generic models usually permit a fast simulation development. on the other hand. a detailed motor model is first developed. While some of these packages provide generic models for various power electronic devices and/or mechatronic components. this model is tuned up for attaining a very close match between simulations and the actual performance of the motor being employed as test bench. less costly and much simpler to produce.12]. Mentor Graphics Mechatronics Library.1146 J. ends up being very expensive and time consuming. This typical control can be improved by replacing or complementing its analog functions with digital ones and. The latter is through an extension called analog behavioral modeling (ABM) [7]. Saber from Analogy. Principal functions of a DC motor speed control The accelerator pedal for an electric motor usually is coupled mechanically to a rheostat that translates its position into the voltage signal fed to the speed control. PSPICE from OrCad [7]. e. The main purpose of this paper nevertheless is to present the methodology being employed by these authors for developing a working prototype of the proposed speed control. by substituting each paralleled arrangement of MOSFETs with a single IGBT module [9]. MATLAB-SIMULINK from MathWorks [11]. others facilitate the use of manufacturer provided models of specific devices as well as of user developed models. A . Then. the IGBTs and other electronic devices are represented by means of manufacturers supplied models.

Proposed design for a DC motor speed control Current digital technologies provide several clear advantages over the analog ones for the functions of generating the PWM switching signals and of processing the protection signals of the DC motor speed control. A list of the main protection functions is as follows: • • • • • • Protection Protection Protection Protection Protection Protection against against against against against against start up at full voltage. 2. This is performed by the control’s power output stage usually made of power semiconductor devices: diodes. The rheostat voltage first is fed into emitter follower OpAmp 1 (TL084). low battery voltage. One single processor replaces several analog modules and their associated discrete components [1]. IGBT.J. switching signals absence at the power drive gates. The micro-controller used here is the MC68HC811 which incorporates eight A/D 8-bit converters. its reliability can be increased. Fig. MOSFET. 3. Santana et al. 1. / Mechatronics 12 (2002) 1145–1156 1147 first function for this control is thus the conditioning of the pedal signal for removing rheostat noise and smoothing sudden changes at speed ups and slow downs. The control’s physical dimensions and manufacturing costs can thus be reduced while. etc [6]. high temperature. overcurrents in windings. Pulse width modulation (PWM) has become a widely adopted method for generating these waveforms [1]. This thus Fig. The conditioning of the pedal signal is performed by the circuit shown in Fig. SCR. Shunt resistance Rpp ensures that Vcond goes to zero if the rheostat connection is lost. The speed control then uses this conditioned signal for its second function consisting in the generation of the switching waveforms that would drive the output power electronic devices. 1 shows a block diagram for the proposed speed control. . The fourth and last function being considered here is the provision of protection mechanisms for the control itself. at the same time. loss of pedal signal. Proposed layout for a DC series motor speed control. for the motor and for the user. A third function for the speed control is to deliver the required power to the DC motor.

Pedal signal conditioning circuit. Before their injection into the power driver gates. Finally. This linear characteristic. Vcond from Fig. the other protection functions listed above are implemented using voltage sensors as well as current and temper- Fig. 2. Santana et al. Gate driver. 3. In addition to the protection against loss of pedal. only one branch of this bridge is implemented in the form shown in Fig. implements the function of protection against loss of pedal signal. each one of them is taken as an address for the micro-controller’s E2 PROM. the RC circuit output is injected through emitter follower OpAmp 2 into the micro-controller’s first A/D converter. a full DC to DC H-bridge converter made with four IGBTs and their corresponding parallel diodes is highly recommended [6]. With the values shown in the figure the latter is 47 ms. As for the power electronic stage. Vcond is thus discretized into 256 levels. This branch is made to perform as a step down converter [6]. however. OpAmp 1 output then goes into an RC circuit where diode D1 allows for two different time constants. The pulse width is thus varied in 256 steps according to Vcond . For the work reported here. A discrete linear variation is adopted here for the prototype being implemented. could be easily changed if this is deemed convenient. the PWM signals are first passed through a gate driver stage consisting in an optoelectronic isolator and a buffer.1148 J. To generate the PWM switching signals. while the former is at least 738 ms depending on the value of Radjust . The corresponding memory cell contains the intended duration of the pulse. This is shown in Fig. 3. one for accelerating and the other for decelerating. . / Mechatronics 12 (2002) 1145–1156 Fig. 2 circuit is fed into the micro-controller’s first A/D converter input. 4. however.

The magnetic flux and the windings current are related through the machine’s magnetization curve which is denoted as follows [2. The electrical equilibrium equation is [2.5]: / ¼ f ðIs Þ Function f ðIs Þ in general includes saturation and hysteresis effects. Motor equations The equations that describe the electromechanical behavior of a DC series motor are given as follows. 4. Rt is the total series resistance. Is is the current through the windings and Lt is the total series inductance. 4. Santana et al.8]: Tem ðtÞ ¼ TL þ Bx þ J dx dt ð4Þ ð3Þ where TL is the load torque.8]: V s ¼ Ea þ Rt I s þ L t dIs dt ð1Þ where Vs is the voltage at the two windings connected in series. The relation of Ea with magnetic flux / and angular speed x is [2. ð5Þ . The analog signals delivered by these devices are then fed into the micro-controller via its additional A/D converter inputs and their monitoring is made by the micro-controller’s program. ature transducers as needed. B is the viscous friction constant and J is the motor’s rotor and shaft inertia. Power output stage.1. DC series motor modeling using analog behavioral modules 4.8] Ea ¼ Ka /xðtÞ ð2Þ where Ka is a motor constant.J. The electromagnetic torque developed by the DC motor depends on Is and on / in the following manner: Tem ðtÞ ¼ Ka /Is The torque balance equation is [2. Ea is the induced electromotive force (emf). / Mechatronics 12 (2002) 1145–1156 1149 Fig.

6. Is . / Mechatronics 12 (2002) 1145–1156 4. Included in this branch also is a current controlled voltage source of unit gain which acts as a current sensor. The ABM implementation of this model is shown in Fig. Module 1 of Fig. for a different value of x [2]: Ea ¼ Ea0 x x0 ð7Þ Module 5 of Fig. On neglecting Bx. Santana et al. This value usually corresponds to the motor’s nominal or nameplate speed.1150 J. (4). 5 is a series branch of elements that corresponds to Eq. Analog behavioral modeling of a DC series motor Eqs.2. this equation yields [8]: Fig. the magnetic flux / and the electromagnetic torque Tem . the viscous friction term. (1). The sensed current is required by modules 3 and 5 in the calculation of both.5]. On combining (5) and (2) Ea ¼ Ka xf ðIs Þ ð6Þ The magnetization characteristic of an electric motor usually is provided as a set of points of Ea vs. Note that the emf term ‘‘Ea ’’ is injected into this branch from module 2 by a voltage controlled voltage source of unit gain. Module 2 actually implements Eq. According to (6). Is obtained at a fixed value x0 ¼ 180:6 rad/s of the angular speed. Its output is the emf fed back into module 1. 5. An example of this is provided by Fig. In addition to Ea0 . ABM implementation of the motor. (7). . Let Ea0 denote this characteristic at x0 . the other input to module 2 is the angular speed calculated by module 4 that corresponds to Eq. 5. It should be mentioned that for the implementation reported here the hysteresis was neglected. The magnetic flux actually is an intermediate variable for the calculation of Ea . 5 actually is the specified or measured non-linear curve Ea0 vs. (1)–(5) provide a mathematical model for a DC series motor suitable for the purposes of this paper [2.

the parameters Lt . Then. (2) and (3) into (7) the following expression is obtained for the electromagnetic torque Tem ¼ ðEa0 Is Þ=x0 ð9Þ Module 3. Rt and J of this motor were measured.J. At intermediate frequencies Lt is calculated using linear interpolation. From the wound’s step response the following two values of Lt were estimated experimentally: Lt ¼ 75 lH at 2100 Hz and Lt ¼ 150 lH at 2500 Hz. various experiments were performed on both. implements this last equation. microcontroller. 5 model. Next. gate driver and power output stage. 6. SPICE model of the proposed speed control Fig. Except for the micro-controller. all . such as a dynamometer. 4 that module 4 implements this last equation. The above-described motor model was used to reproduce the operation of an available 1 hp DC series motor. It consists of four basic building blocks: pedal signal conditioner. Measured values for the magnetization curve of an 1 hp DC series motor. actually supplied the lack of certain special instruments. On combining Eqs. The values of the variables and parameters used for the simulations are as follows: Rt ¼ 55 mX.3. These experiments were devised so as to permit the refinement of the measured parameters. the motor and its ABM model. 6. 4. First. The wound inductance Lt is a value that varies with frequency [10]. 1 schematizes the SPICE model of the proposed DC series motor speed control. / Mechatronics 12 (2002) 1145–1156 1151 Fig. in addition. 1 x¼ J Z t ðTem À Tl Þ dt À1 ð8Þ It is clear from Fig. Is was obtained as a collection of 80 points which is plotted in Fig. J ¼ 0:06 kgm2 . finally. These values are listed in Table 1. Vs ¼ 12 V (tension between A and A0 ). Cp ¼ 10 000 lF and the parasitic inductance Lc was neglected. all these data were applied to Fig. Finally. Santana et al. The ABM motor model. the magnetization characteristic Ea0 vs.

The detailed diagram for the pedal signal conditioner is the one provided in Fig.6 rad/s 1 hp 12 V 60 A Series – – – Measured – – – – – 55 mX 150 lH at 2100 Hz. 8b provides the plot of the corresponding experimental measurement. This permitted the debugging and fine-tuning of the preliminary design even before its implementation. Fig. while the diagrams for the gate driver and for the power output stage are provided in Figs. Fig. The transient current injected into the motor at the starting up now is obtained through a simulation considering a 90% duty cycle and a frequency of 2500 Hz. Before being injected into the motor model. Only the model for the IGBT module was not in this library. 7a shows the steady state current being injected by the speed control into the DC series motor as obtained from a simulation considering a 70% duty cycle and a frequency of 2250 Hz. A detailed representation of the micro-controller is not deemed necessary and. but it could be easily downloaded from the manufacturer’s web information site. An advantage of using SPICE for the modeling of these blocks is the access to a vast library of models for commercially available devices [4]. This . 3 and 4. 5. 7b shows this same current as obtained from an experimental measurement. Santana et al. 8a shows the plot of the steady state current injected into the DC motor obtained by simulating a 50% duty cycle and a frequency of 2100 Hz. Results Fig. 75 lH at 2500 Hz 0. / Mechatronics 12 (2002) 1145–1156 Table 1 Name plate and measured values of the DC motor Symbol Nominal frequency Rated power Rated voltage Rated current Wound Wound resistance Wound inductance Rotor inertia x0 – – – – Rt Lt J Name plate 180. Note that the agreement between these two figures is satisfactory. Fig. It should be mentioned here that. The agreement between these two figures also is satisfactory. it is unrealistic for the desktop computer being used in this work. Before its physical implementation.1152 J. these PWM signals are passed through the gate driver and the power output models. the speed control SPICE model was tested along with the ABM motor model. the other protection functions of the micro-controller and their associated circuitry were not included in the simulation.06 kg m2 these blocks are represented in great detail using manufacturer provided SPICE models for the semiconductor devices being used. besides. It was opted instead for representing the PWM function only by means of a rectangular wave generator with its pulse width being varied in 256 steps according to the output of the pedal signal conditioner. apart from the protection against loss of pedal signals. 2.

Steady state current at 50% duty cycle and 2100 Hz frequency: (a) simulated. (b) measured. 9a and b can cause serious damage to the speed control power output stage. Fig. The simulations help determining the adequate Fig. 9. This figure should be compared with 10b that corresponds to the transient current obtained experimentally for the same duty cycle and frequency. Current transients as the ones in Fig. . current is plotted in Fig. 7. 9a and the corresponding measurement is provided by Fig. These two figures coincide in showing that the transient peaks of current can be as high as two times the motor’s nominal current. Transient state current without load at 90% duty cycle and 2500 Hz: (a) simulated. 10a provides the transient current at start up when it is simulated assuming a 50% duty cycle and a frequency of 2100 Hz. / Mechatronics 12 (2002) 1145–1156 1153 Fig. 9b. 8. Fig. Santana et al.J. (b) measured. (b) measured. Steady state current at 70% duty cycle and 2250 Hz frequency: (a) simulated.

Simulated electromotive force at startup for various duty cycles and frequencies. Fig. 11 for instance shows the simulated electromotive forces for various Fig. starting conditions and the appropriate power electronic devices. Simulated angular velocities at startup for various duty cycles and frequencies.1154 J. / Mechatronics 12 (2002) 1145–1156 Fig. (b) measured. Transient current without load at 50% duty cycle and 2. Santana et al. .1 kHz: (a) simulated. 11. Fig. 10. Another advantage of the simulations is the possibility of observing various internal variables of the system. 12.

While PSPICE has permitted a detailed representation of the electronics and power electronics modules which include manufacturers’ supplied modules. respectively. when combined with experimental work. 12 shows the obtained angular velocities. 13a and b show. The agreement attained here between simulations and laboratory tests has been satisfactory. They also enabled the monitoring of inaccessible variables . The overall experience with the methodology presented is that it has helped reducing development time and costs substantially. The ABM model provided here accounts for more realistic motor features.J. / Mechatronics 12 (2002) 1145–1156 1155 Fig. frequencies and duty cycles. The conjunct simulation of the motor and its speed control has thus been possible. may even modify this model with relative ease to suit the particular needs for other developments. Conclusions A methodology for developing complex electronic–electromechanical prototypes has been presented in this paper. in addition. The simulation tools adopted here are PSPICE from OrCAD and its ABM utilities. Previous works by others (Chee-Mun. The simulations. For instance. This methodology has been further applied in the development of a speed control for an 1 hp DC series motor. while Fig. 13. It consists essentially in combining computer simulations with laboratory tests. It can be further adopted by other developers and the paper provides the necessary data for reproducing the results presented here. the ABM utilities have enabled the accurate description of the motor’s electromechanical features. finally. 6. the simulated electromagnetic torque obtained for a 2 Nm load and at 90% and 50% duty cycles. like dynamometers. HDLA Mentor) have simulated speed controls coupled to very simple (one branch) motor models. Simulated torque at startup with a 2 Nm load: (a) 90% duty cycle at 2500 Hz. (b) 50% duty cycle at 2100 Hz. the simulations have helped to establish that the system should not be started up with a duty cycle above 50%. Santana et al. Third parties. Fig. The simulations have permitted the testing and the debugging of the speed control even before it was constructed. even supplied the lack of certain specialized instrumentation. INTUSOFT.

. [11] MATLAB. Power Electronics Converters. [9] Argueta OJ. PAS-98(5):1636–44. as well as on applications of this to DC motors of different dimensions where the ABM model provided here may have to be modified to include additional features. 1999. devices and applications. Sudhoff SD. New York: IEEE Press.30(4):883–8. 1999. 1998. [12] Muhammad HR. [4] Goody RW. Wasynczuk O. IEEE Proceedings of CIEP. 1998. o MSc Thesis. 1995. Reference Manual for PSPICE ABM Modules. [6] Mohan N. p. MacDonald ML. Digital control for brush DC motor. o [10] DeWolf FT. Unidad Guadalajara. Dynamic Simulation of Electric Machinery Using MATLAB/SIMULINK. ongoing work is in the development of a full H-bridge speed control. 158–63. Prentice Hall Inc. [2] Ong Chee-Mun. Thyristorized DC drives with regenerative braking and speed reversal. Power Apparatus and Systems 1979. Santana et al. Underland TM. / Mechatronics 12 (2002) 1145–1156 like the electromotive force. Measurement of inductance of DC machines. Centro de Investigacin y Estudios Avanzados del IPN. IEEE Tran Ind Appl 1994. A remarkable fact is that not a single power electronic device was burned during this project. 1999. Applications and Design. 1995. Desarrollo e Implementacin de un Control de Velocidad e Motores de CD en Serie. Using analog behavioural modeling in PSPICE for the implementation of ı subcircuit-models of power devices. IEEE Trans. MicroSim PSPICE for Windows. [3] Cotorogea Mara. International Power Electronics Congress.1156 J. like viscous friction. Robins WP. References [1] Castagnet T. Analysis of Electric Machinery. Reference Manual. Finally. Nicolai J. 1993. IEEE Trans IECI 1978.25(4):347–54. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. New York: John Wiley and Sons. [8] Sen PC. hysteresis and the frequency dependence of wound inductance. Power electronics circuits. 1998. [7] OrCAD. [5] Krause PC.

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