Set and Set Operations

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Set and Set Operations

© All Rights Reserved

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Chapter 1

Algebra of Numbers

Chapter Outline

1. Sets and Set Operations

2. The Set of Real Numbers

3. Operations on Real Numbers and Laws of

Exponents

4. The Set of Complex Numbers

5. Operations on and Factoring of Polynomials/

Zeros of Polynomials

6. Rational Expressions and Radicals

7. Equations

8. Inequalities

Chapter 1

Section 1.1

and Number Sets

Section Objectives

Identify

different set

Describe sets relations and Identify

using different perform special

methods different set number sets

operations

Notion of a Set

that it has become a fundamental concept.

terms of more basic concepts.

Notion of a Set

manner) whether an object belongs to the given

collection or not.

Example

Which of the following collection of

objects are sets?

The collection of all natural numbers

between 0 and 5.

SET

The collection of all schools near Intramuros.

NOT A SET

The collection of all buildings in UPLB.

SET

Example

Which of the following collection of

objects are sets?

The collection of all handsome students in

this class.

NOT A SET

The collection of all letters in the word

honorificabilitudinitatibus.

SET

The collection of all flying horses.

SET

Definition

Element

If an object belongs to a set, it is called an

element of the set.

the set.

𝑎 ∉ 𝐴: 𝑎 is not an element of the set 𝐴

Example

“Philippines”, then

ℎ∈𝐴

𝑞∉𝐴

3∈𝑂

22 ∉ 𝑂

Describing a Set

Roster/Enumeration method

Set is indicated by enumerating the elements of

the set and enclosing them in a pair of braces.

Rule method

Set is indicated by enclosing in a pair of braces a

phrase describing the elements of the set with the

condition that those objects, and only those, which

have the described property belong to the set.

Example

If 𝐴 is the collection of distinct letters

in the word mathematics, then

𝐴 = 𝑚, 𝑎, 𝑡, ℎ, 𝑒, 𝑖, 𝑐, 𝑠

while

𝐴 = distinct letters of the word "mathematics"

Describing a Set

Set Builder Notation

describing sets using the rule method. This method

uses a defining property of the elements.

that x is a (a certain defining property of all the

elements)”.

Example

rule method.

or

𝐵 = 𝑥 x is a counting number from 1 to 5

or

𝐵 = 𝑦 𝑦 is a counting number less than 6

Example

𝐶 using the rule method.

Example

write 𝐷 using the roster method.

IMPOSSIBLE

Time to Think!

appropriate? The roster method?

Remember

collection is subject to the following:

• each unique object of the set should be

uniquely represented; and

• the order of representing each object of the

set is immaterial.

Definition

Empty Sets

- are sets having no elements

- denoted by ∅ or { }

Example:

𝐷 = y y is a country in Asia with no people

=∅

𝐴 = {positive numbers less than − 5}

={}

Empty Set

Remarks:

Empty Set is a subset of any set.

∅ ⊆ 𝐴, for any set 𝐴.

∅⊆∅

Definition

Finite/Infinite Sets

Sets differ in sizes and kinds.

Loosely speaking, we say a set is finite if it is

possible to write down completely in a list all

the elements of the set or if its elements can

be counted (and the counting process

terminates)

Otherwise, the set is said to be infinite.

Example

Which of the following sets is finite? Infinite?

The set of all rational numbers between 0

and 5. INFINITE

The set of all buildings in UPLB.

FINITE

The set of all flying horses.

FINITE

Example

Which of the following sets is finite? Infinite?

The set of all hair strands on your head

FINITE

The set of points in a circle.

INFINITE

The set of grains of sand in a beach

FINITE

The set of counting numbers between 1

and 1,000,000,000

FINITE

Definition

Cardinality

The cardinality (or size) of a set is the

number of elements of that set.

𝑛 𝐴 : the cardinality of set 𝐴

alphabet then

𝑛 𝐴 = 5.

2. n ∅ = 0

Definition

Universal Set

Set of all elements under consideration

Superset of all sets under consideration

Denoted by 𝑈

Example

If 𝐴 = 𝑥 𝑥 is an even counting number

𝐵 = 𝑦 𝑦 is an odd counting number

𝐶 = 𝑧 𝑧 is a prime number

𝑈 = 𝑥 𝑥 is a counting number

OR

𝑈 = 𝑦 𝑦 is an integer

OR

𝑈 = 𝑧 𝑧 is a real number

Definition

Equal Sets

Two sets 𝐴 and 𝐵 are equal if they have exactly

the same elements.

𝐴 ≠ 𝐵:Set 𝐴 is not equal to set 𝐵.

Equal Sets

every element in 𝐴 belongs to 𝐵 and every element

in 𝐵 is also in 𝐴.

element that is in 𝐴 but not in 𝐵 or an element

that is in 𝐵 but not in 𝐴.

Example

If 𝐴 is the set of all letters in the word

“resistance”, and

𝐵 is the set of all letters in the word

“ancestries”, then

𝐴=𝐵

If 𝐶 is the set of all letters in the word

“ancestor”, then

𝐵≠𝐶

because 𝑖 ∈ 𝐵 but 𝑖 ∉ 𝐶.

Time to Think!

If 𝐴 = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11} and

𝐵 = {x|x is a prime number less than 12}

Is 𝐴 = 𝐵?

If C= {11, 2, 5, 7, 3}

Is 𝐴 = 𝐶?

Definition

Subsets and Supersets

Set 𝐴 is said to be a subset of set 𝐵 if every

element of 𝐴 is also an element of 𝐵.

𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵: Set 𝐴 is a subset of 𝐵 or

Set 𝐵 is a superset of 𝐴

We write 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵 if and only if 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴 implies

𝑥 ∈ 𝐵.

Subset of a Set

This notation is to be understood to mean two

things:

If whenever 𝑥 is in 𝐴, 𝑥 is also in 𝐵 then 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵

and

If 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵 then whenever 𝑥 is in 𝐴, 𝑥 is also in 𝐵.

we say 𝐴 is not a subset of 𝐵 and we write 𝐴 ⊈ 𝐵.

Example

If 𝐵 = 1, 2, 3, 4 then

𝐵 ⊆ {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}

but

𝐵 ⊈ 1,2, 5, 6 .

If 𝐶 = 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐, 𝑑 and 𝐷 = 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐

• Is 𝐶 ⊆ 𝐷?

No it isn’t. Thus 𝐶 ⊈ 𝐷.

• Is 𝐷 ⊆ C?

Yes it is.

Time to Think!

• Is 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐴?

• If 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵 and 𝐵 ⊆ 𝐶, is 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐶?

about 𝐴 and 𝐵?

• Give an example for sets 𝐴 and 𝐵 such

that 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵 but 𝐵 ⊈ 𝐴

Subset of a Set

𝐴 ⊆ 𝐴, for any set 𝐴.

If 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵 and 𝐵 ⊆ 𝐶 then 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐶.

Definition

Alternative Definition of Equality

of Sets

If 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵 and 𝐵 ⊆ 𝐴 then 𝐴 = 𝐵.

𝐴 ⊂ 𝐵 if and only if A is a nonempty set and

𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵 but 𝐵 ≠ 𝐴.

Example

If 𝐶 = 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐, 𝑑 and 𝐷 = 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐

Is 𝐷 ⊂ C?

𝐷 ⊆ C and

𝐶 ⊈ 𝐷 since 𝑑 ∈ 𝐶 but 𝑑 ∉ 𝐷.

Therefore 𝐷 ⊂ C.

Definition

One-to-one Correspondence

Two sets 𝐴 and 𝐵 are in one-to-one

correspondence if it is possible to pair each

element of 𝐴 with exactly one element of 𝐵

and each element of 𝐵 with exactly one

element of 𝐴.

Example

Is there a one-to-one correspondence

between the set of days in a week and

the set of colors in the rainbow?

YES

M T W Th F Sa S

Example

Is there a one-to-one correspondence

between the set of days in a week and

the set of months in a year?

NO

May

Mar

Nov

Aug

Dec

Sep

Feb

Apr

Oct

Jun

Jan

Jul

S M T W Th F Sa

Example

Let 𝐴 = 1,2,3,4

𝐵 = 3,6,9,12

𝐶 = −4, −3, −2, −1,1,2,3,4

Is there a one-to-one correspondence

between set 𝐴 and set 𝐵?

YES

Is there a one-to-one correspondence

between set 𝐴 and set 𝐶?

NO

Example

Is there a one-to-one correspondence

between the set of even counting

numbers and the set of odd counting

numbers?

YES

E 2 4 6 8 34290

O 1 3 5 7 34289

Time to Think!

between the set of points in a line and the

set of all counting numbers?

Definition

Equivalent Sets

Two sets are equivalent (or of the same size)

if they are in one-to-one correspondence.

Time to Think!

are equivalent, are 𝐴 and 𝐶 equivalent?

Number Sets

={1,2,3, … }

= {0,1,2,3, … }

ℤ = set of integers

= {… , −3, −2, −1,0,1,2,3, … }

Number Sets

N- = set of negative counting numbers

E = set of even integers

O = set of odd integers

E+ = set of positive even integers

E- = set of negative even integers

P = set of prime numbers

C = set of composite numbers

𝑘ℤ= set of multiples of k, k is positive

Example

Venn Diagram

𝐴

𝐵

𝐴 𝐵

𝐴⊆𝐵

𝐵⊆𝐴

Example

Draw a Venn Diagram such that A is not a

subset of B.

𝐵 𝐵

𝐴 or

𝐴

Example

Draw a Venn Diagram satisfying 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵,

𝐴 ⊆ 𝐶 and 𝐵 ⊆ 𝐶.

𝐴 𝐶

Definition

Disjoint Sets

Two sets are disjoint if they have no

element in common.

If 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴 then 𝑥 ∉ 𝐵.

Disjoint Sets

𝐴 𝐴

𝐵 𝐵

Definition

Union

The union of two sets 𝐴 and 𝐵 is the set of

elements that belong to 𝐴 or to 𝐵.

𝐴 ∪ 𝐵: 𝐴 union B

U

A B

𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 = 𝑥 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴 or 𝑥 ∈ 𝐵

Example

If 𝐴 = 1,3,5 and 𝐵 = 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐 then

𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 = 1, 3, 5, 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐

Moreover, 𝑛 𝐴 = 3, 𝑛 𝐵 = 3 and

𝑛 𝐴∪𝐵 =6

Time to Think!

𝑛 𝐴∪𝐵 =𝑛 𝐴 +𝑛 𝐵 ?

Definition

Intersection

The intersection of two sets 𝐴 and 𝐵 is the

set of elements that belong to 𝐴 and to 𝐵.

𝐴 ∩ 𝐵: 𝐴 intersection B

U

A B

𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 = 𝑥 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴 and 𝑥 ∈ 𝐵

Example

If 𝐴 = 𝑎, 𝑒, 𝑖, 𝑜, 𝑢 and 𝐵 = 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐, 𝑑, 𝑒

then

𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 = 𝑎, 𝑒

𝐶 is the set of all composite numbers,

then

𝑃∩𝐶 = ∅

Definition

Alternative Definition

Two sets 𝐴 and 𝐵 are disjoint if and only if

𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 = ∅.

Cardinality of 𝐴 ∪ 𝐵

𝑛 𝐴∪𝐵 =𝑛 𝐴 +𝑛 𝐵

In general,

𝑛 𝐴∪𝐵 =𝑛 𝐴 +𝑛 𝐵 −𝑛 𝐴∩𝐵

Example

If 𝐺 = 1,3,5,7,9,10 and

𝐻 = 3,6,9,12 , then

𝑛 𝐺 = 6 𝑛 𝐻 = 4

𝑛 𝐺∩𝐻 = 2

Then

𝑛 𝐺∪𝐻 = 8

Definition

Set Difference

A-B= 𝑥 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴, 𝑥 ∉ 𝐵

𝐴

𝐵

Definition

Set Difference

A-B= 𝑥 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴, 𝑥 ∉ 𝐵

A= {1,2,3,4,5,6} B= {2,5,7,9,10}

A−B ={1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

Definition

Complement

The complement of 𝐴 denoted by 𝐴′, is the

set of all elements of 𝑈 that are not in 𝐴.

𝐴′ = 𝑥 𝑥 ∈ 𝑈, 𝑥 ∉ 𝐴

𝑈

𝐴

Example

If 𝑈 = 1,3,5,7,9 and A = 5, 9 then

𝑈 𝐴

3

1

5 9

7

𝐴′ = 1,3,7

Complement of a Set

′

𝑈 = ∅

∅′ = 𝑈

Remark:

𝐴′ =𝑈−𝐴

Complement of a Set

𝐴′ ′= 𝐴

U U

𝐴 𝐴

𝐴′ 𝐴′ ′

Example

Illustrate using the Venn diagrams

𝐴∪𝐵 ′

U

A B

AB A B '

Example

Illustrate using the Venn diagrams

′

𝐴 ∩ 𝐵′

U U

A B A B

A' B'

A' B '

Example

Definition

Cross Product

The cross product (or Cartesian product) of

two sets 𝐴 and 𝐵 is the set of all possible

ordered pairs 𝑥, 𝑦 where 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴 and

𝑦 ∈ 𝐵.

𝐴 × 𝐵: 𝑥, 𝑦 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴 and 𝑦 ∈ 𝐵

Example

If 𝐴 = 1,2 and 𝐵 = 𝑎, 𝑏

then

𝐴×𝐵 = 1, 𝑎 , 1, 𝑏 , 2, 𝑎 , 2, 𝑏

𝐵 × 𝐴 = 𝑎, 1 , 𝑎, 2 , 𝑏, 1 , 𝑏, 2

Time to Think!

Definition

Power Set

The power set of any set, denoted by ℘ 𝐴 , is

the set of all subsets of set 𝐴.

Let 𝐴 = 𝑎, 3, # , then ℘ 𝐴 =

𝑎 , 3 , # , 𝑎, 3 , 𝑎, # , 3, # , 𝐴, ∅

What is 𝑛 ℘ 𝐴 ? 8

Time to Think!

any set 𝐴?

Time to Think!

Let 𝑈 be a universal set and A ⊆ 𝑈

𝐴∪𝑈 𝐴∩𝑈

𝐴 ∪ 𝐴′ 𝐴 ∩ 𝐴′

𝐴∪∅ 𝐴∩∅

Time to Think!

Let U = ℤ. Find the following:

1. ℕ∪𝕎=𝕎 6. 3ℤ ∩ 2ℤ= 6ℤ

2. ℕ ∩ 𝕎= ℕ 7. ℕ′ ∩ 𝕎 = {0}

3. 𝐸∪𝑂 =ℤ 8. ℕ ∪ 𝑃′ = ℤ

+ ′ −

4. 𝐸 = {0} 9. 𝐶 ∩ 𝑃 × 𝐸 ={}

− ′

∪O ∪ 𝐸 10. ℤ = {}

5. 3ℤ ∪ 2ℤ

Example

If 𝑛 𝑈 = 𝑟 and 𝑛 𝐵 = 𝑗, then

𝑛 𝐵′ =

𝑟−𝑗

Example

𝐴∩ 𝐵∪𝐶

B C A A B C

Example

Illustrate using the Venn diagrams

𝐴∩𝐵 ∪ 𝐴∩𝐶

U U

A B A B

C C

AB A C

Example

A B A C A B C

A B C A B A C

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