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MATH 17.

COLLEGE ALGEBRA AND TRIGONOMETRY

Chapter 1

Algebra of Numbers
Chapter Outline
1. Sets and Set Operations
2. The Set of Real Numbers
3. Operations on Real Numbers and Laws of
Exponents
4. The Set of Complex Numbers
5. Operations on and Factoring of Polynomials/
Zeros of Polynomials
6. Rational Expressions and Radicals
7. Equations
8. Inequalities
Chapter 1

Section 1.1

Sets, Set Operations,


and Number Sets
Section Objectives

Identify
different set
Describe sets relations and Identify
using different perform special
methods different set number sets
operations
Notion of a Set

Set has pervaded almost all of mathematics so


that it has become a fundamental concept.

It becomes impossible to define set precisely in


terms of more basic concepts.
Notion of a Set

A set is a well-defined collection of objects.

It should be possible to determine (in some


manner) whether an object belongs to the given
collection or not.
Example
Which of the following collection of
objects are sets?
The collection of all natural numbers
between 0 and 5.
SET
The collection of all schools near Intramuros.
NOT A SET
The collection of all buildings in UPLB.
SET
Example
Which of the following collection of
objects are sets?
The collection of all handsome students in
this class.
NOT A SET
The collection of all letters in the word
honorificabilitudinitatibus.
SET
The collection of all flying horses.
SET
Definition
Element
If an object belongs to a set, it is called an
element of the set.

𝑎 ∈ 𝐴: 𝑎 is an element of the set 𝐴

Otherwise, the object is not an element of


the set.
𝑎 ∉ 𝐴: 𝑎 is not an element of the set 𝐴
Example

If 𝐴 is the set of all letters in the word


“Philippines”, then
ℎ∈𝐴
𝑞∉𝐴

If 𝑂 is the set of all odd integers, then

3∈𝑂
22 ∉ 𝑂
Describing a Set
Roster/Enumeration method
Set is indicated by enumerating the elements of
the set and enclosing them in a pair of braces.

Rule method
Set is indicated by enclosing in a pair of braces a
phrase describing the elements of the set with the
condition that those objects, and only those, which
have the described property belong to the set.
Example
If 𝐴 is the collection of distinct letters
in the word mathematics, then

using the roster method,


𝐴 = 𝑚, 𝑎, 𝑡, ℎ, 𝑒, 𝑖, 𝑐, 𝑠

while

using the rule method,


𝐴 = distinct letters of the word "mathematics"
Describing a Set
Set Builder Notation

The set-builder notation is another way of


describing sets using the rule method. This method
uses a defining property of the elements.

𝑥 𝑥 𝑖𝑠 𝑎 __________ is read as "the set of all x such


that x is a (a certain defining property of all the
elements)”.
Example

If 𝐵 = 1,2,3,4,5 , write 𝐵 using the


rule method.

𝐵 = counting number from 1 to 5


or
𝐵 = 𝑥 x is a counting number from 1 to 5
or
𝐵 = 𝑦 𝑦 is a counting number less than 6
Example

If 𝐶 = clock, blue, television , write


𝐶 using the rule method.

IMPRACTICAL and DIFFICULT


Example

If 𝐷 = points in the line 𝑥 = 2 ,


write 𝐷 using the roster method.

IMPOSSIBLE
Time to Think!

When is the use of the rule method


appropriate? The roster method?
Remember

The concept and the representation of the


collection is subject to the following:

• the collection must be well-defined


• each unique object of the set should be
uniquely represented; and
• the order of representing each object of the
set is immaterial.
Definition

Empty Sets
- are sets having no elements
- denoted by ∅ or { }

Example:
𝐷 = y y is a country in Asia with no people
=∅
𝐴 = {positive numbers less than − 5}
={}
Empty Set
Remarks:
Empty Set is a subset of any set.
∅ ⊆ 𝐴, for any set 𝐴.

The empty set is a subset of itself.


∅⊆∅
Definition
Finite/Infinite Sets
Sets differ in sizes and kinds.
Loosely speaking, we say a set is finite if it is
possible to write down completely in a list all
the elements of the set or if its elements can
be counted (and the counting process
terminates)
Otherwise, the set is said to be infinite.
Example
Which of the following sets is finite? Infinite?
The set of all rational numbers between 0
and 5. INFINITE
The set of all buildings in UPLB.
FINITE
The set of all flying horses.
FINITE
Example
Which of the following sets is finite? Infinite?
The set of all hair strands on your head
FINITE
The set of points in a circle.
INFINITE
The set of grains of sand in a beach
FINITE
The set of counting numbers between 1
and 1,000,000,000
FINITE
Definition
Cardinality
The cardinality (or size) of a set is the
number of elements of that set.
𝑛 𝐴 : the cardinality of set 𝐴

Example: 1. If 𝐴 is the set of vowels in the English


alphabet then
𝑛 𝐴 = 5.
2. n ∅ = 0
Definition

Universal Set
Set of all elements under consideration
Superset of all sets under consideration
Denoted by 𝑈
Example
If 𝐴 = 𝑥 𝑥 is an even counting number
𝐵 = 𝑦 𝑦 is an odd counting number
𝐶 = 𝑧 𝑧 is a prime number

A possible universal set is


𝑈 = 𝑥 𝑥 is a counting number
OR

𝑈 = 𝑦 𝑦 is an integer
OR

𝑈 = 𝑧 𝑧 is a real number
Definition
Equal Sets
Two sets 𝐴 and 𝐵 are equal if they have exactly
the same elements.

𝐴 = 𝐵: Set 𝐴 is equal to set 𝐵.

Otherwise, the sets are not equal.


𝐴 ≠ 𝐵:Set 𝐴 is not equal to set 𝐵.
Equal Sets

Thus, to say 𝐴 = 𝐵, we should be certain that


every element in 𝐴 belongs to 𝐵 and every element
in 𝐵 is also in 𝐴.

To say 𝐴 ≠ 𝐵, we should be able to produce an


element that is in 𝐴 but not in 𝐵 or an element
that is in 𝐵 but not in 𝐴.
Example
If 𝐴 is the set of all letters in the word
“resistance”, and
𝐵 is the set of all letters in the word
“ancestries”, then
𝐴=𝐵
If 𝐶 is the set of all letters in the word
“ancestor”, then
𝐵≠𝐶
because 𝑖 ∈ 𝐵 but 𝑖 ∉ 𝐶.
Time to Think!
If 𝐴 = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11} and
𝐵 = {x|x is a prime number less than 12}

Is 𝐴 = 𝐵?

If C= {11, 2, 5, 7, 3}

Is 𝐴 = 𝐶?
Definition
Subsets and Supersets
Set 𝐴 is said to be a subset of set 𝐵 if every
element of 𝐴 is also an element of 𝐵.
𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵: Set 𝐴 is a subset of 𝐵 or
Set 𝐵 is a superset of 𝐴
We write 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵 if and only if 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴 implies
𝑥 ∈ 𝐵.
Subset of a Set
This notation is to be understood to mean two
things:
If whenever 𝑥 is in 𝐴, 𝑥 is also in 𝐵 then 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵
and
If 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵 then whenever 𝑥 is in 𝐴, 𝑥 is also in 𝐵.

Thus, if there is an element in 𝐴 which is not in 𝐵,


we say 𝐴 is not a subset of 𝐵 and we write 𝐴 ⊈ 𝐵.
Example
If 𝐵 = 1, 2, 3, 4 then
𝐵 ⊆ {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
but
𝐵 ⊈ 1,2, 5, 6 .
If 𝐶 = 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐, 𝑑 and 𝐷 = 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐
• Is 𝐶 ⊆ 𝐷?
No it isn’t. Thus 𝐶 ⊈ 𝐷.
• Is 𝐷 ⊆ C?
Yes it is.
Time to Think!

• Is 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐴?

• If 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵 and 𝐵 ⊆ 𝐶, is 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐶?

• If 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵 and 𝐵 ⊆ 𝐴, what can be said


about 𝐴 and 𝐵?
• Give an example for sets 𝐴 and 𝐵 such
that 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵 but 𝐵 ⊈ 𝐴
Subset of a Set

Reflexive Property of Set Inclusion


𝐴 ⊆ 𝐴, for any set 𝐴.

Transitive Property of Set Inclusion


If 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵 and 𝐵 ⊆ 𝐶 then 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐶.
Definition
Alternative Definition of Equality
of Sets
If 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵 and 𝐵 ⊆ 𝐴 then 𝐴 = 𝐵.

Proper Subsets “⊂’’


𝐴 ⊂ 𝐵 if and only if A is a nonempty set and
𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵 but 𝐵 ≠ 𝐴.
Example

If 𝐶 = 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐, 𝑑 and 𝐷 = 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐

Is 𝐷 ⊂ C?

𝐷 ⊆ C and
𝐶 ⊈ 𝐷 since 𝑑 ∈ 𝐶 but 𝑑 ∉ 𝐷.
Therefore 𝐷 ⊂ C.
Definition

One-to-one Correspondence
Two sets 𝐴 and 𝐵 are in one-to-one
correspondence if it is possible to pair each
element of 𝐴 with exactly one element of 𝐵
and each element of 𝐵 with exactly one
element of 𝐴.
Example
Is there a one-to-one correspondence
between the set of days in a week and
the set of colors in the rainbow?
YES
M T W Th F Sa S

red orange yellow green blue indigo violet


Example
Is there a one-to-one correspondence
between the set of days in a week and
the set of months in a year?
NO
May
Mar

Nov
Aug

Dec
Sep
Feb

Apr

Oct
Jun
Jan

Jul

S M T W Th F Sa
Example
Let 𝐴 = 1,2,3,4
𝐵 = 3,6,9,12
𝐶 = −4, −3, −2, −1,1,2,3,4
Is there a one-to-one correspondence
between set 𝐴 and set 𝐵?
YES
Is there a one-to-one correspondence
between set 𝐴 and set 𝐶?
NO
Example
Is there a one-to-one correspondence
between the set of even counting
numbers and the set of odd counting
numbers?
YES
E 2 4 6 8 34290

O 1 3 5 7 34289
Time to Think!

Is there a one-to-one correspondence


between the set of points in a line and the
set of all counting numbers?
Definition
Equivalent Sets
Two sets are equivalent (or of the same size)
if they are in one-to-one correspondence.
Time to Think!

• Are equal sets equivalent?

• Are equivalent sets equal?

• If 𝐴 and 𝐵 are equivalent and 𝐵 and 𝐶


are equivalent, are 𝐴 and 𝐶 equivalent?

• When are two sets “not equivalent”?


Number Sets

ℕ = set of natural (counting) numbers


={1,2,3, … }

𝕎 = set of whole numbers


= {0,1,2,3, … }

ℤ = set of integers
= {… , −3, −2, −1,0,1,2,3, … }
Number Sets
N- = set of negative counting numbers
E = set of even integers
O = set of odd integers
E+ = set of positive even integers
E- = set of negative even integers
P = set of prime numbers
C = set of composite numbers
𝑘ℤ= set of multiples of k, k is positive
Example

2ℤ = … , −6, −4, −2,0,2,4,6, …

3ℤ = … , −9, −6, −3,0,3,6,9, …

4ℤ = … , −12, −8, −4,0,4,8,12, …


Venn Diagram

𝐴
𝐵
𝐴 𝐵

𝐴⊆𝐵
𝐵⊆𝐴
Example
Draw a Venn Diagram such that A is not a
subset of B.

𝐵 𝐵
𝐴 or
𝐴
Example
Draw a Venn Diagram satisfying 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵,
𝐴 ⊆ 𝐶 and 𝐵 ⊆ 𝐶.

𝐴 𝐶
Definition
Disjoint Sets
Two sets are disjoint if they have no
element in common.

𝐴 and 𝐵 are disjoint:

If 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴 then 𝑥 ∉ 𝐵.
Disjoint Sets

𝐴 𝐴
𝐵 𝐵

𝐴 and 𝐵 are disjoint 𝐴 and 𝐵 are not disjoint


Definition
Union
The union of two sets 𝐴 and 𝐵 is the set of
elements that belong to 𝐴 or to 𝐵.
𝐴 ∪ 𝐵: 𝐴 union B
U
A B

𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 = 𝑥 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴 or 𝑥 ∈ 𝐵
Example
If 𝐴 = 1,3,5 and 𝐵 = 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐 then

𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 = 1, 3, 5, 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐

Moreover, 𝑛 𝐴 = 3, 𝑛 𝐵 = 3 and

𝑛 𝐴∪𝐵 =6
Time to Think!

Is it always true that


𝑛 𝐴∪𝐵 =𝑛 𝐴 +𝑛 𝐵 ?
Definition
Intersection
The intersection of two sets 𝐴 and 𝐵 is the
set of elements that belong to 𝐴 and to 𝐵.
𝐴 ∩ 𝐵: 𝐴 intersection B
U
A B

𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 = 𝑥 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴 and 𝑥 ∈ 𝐵
Example

If 𝐴 = 𝑎, 𝑒, 𝑖, 𝑜, 𝑢 and 𝐵 = 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐, 𝑑, 𝑒
then
𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 = 𝑎, 𝑒

If 𝑃 is the set of all prime numbers and


𝐶 is the set of all composite numbers,
then
𝑃∩𝐶 = ∅
Definition
Alternative Definition
Two sets 𝐴 and 𝐵 are disjoint if and only if
𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 = ∅.
Cardinality of 𝐴 ∪ 𝐵

If 𝐴 and 𝐵 are disjoint


𝑛 𝐴∪𝐵 =𝑛 𝐴 +𝑛 𝐵

In general,
𝑛 𝐴∪𝐵 =𝑛 𝐴 +𝑛 𝐵 −𝑛 𝐴∩𝐵
Example
If 𝐺 = 1,3,5,7,9,10 and
𝐻 = 3,6,9,12 , then
𝑛 𝐺 = 6 𝑛 𝐻 = 4
𝑛 𝐺∩𝐻 = 2
Then
𝑛 𝐺∪𝐻 = 8
Definition
Set Difference
A-B= 𝑥 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴, 𝑥 ∉ 𝐵

𝐴
𝐵
Definition
Set Difference
A-B= 𝑥 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴, 𝑥 ∉ 𝐵

A= {1,2,3,4,5,6} B= {2,5,7,9,10}

A−B ={1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

B−A = {2, 5, 7, 9, 10}


Definition
Complement
The complement of 𝐴 denoted by 𝐴′, is the
set of all elements of 𝑈 that are not in 𝐴.
𝐴′ = 𝑥 𝑥 ∈ 𝑈, 𝑥 ∉ 𝐴

𝑈
𝐴
Example
If 𝑈 = 1,3,5,7,9 and A = 5, 9 then

𝑈 𝐴
3
1
5 9
7

𝐴′ = 1,3,7
Complement of a Set


𝑈 = ∅
∅′ = 𝑈

Remark:
𝐴′ =𝑈−𝐴
Complement of a Set

𝐴′ ′= 𝐴
U U
𝐴 𝐴

𝐴′ 𝐴′ ′
Example
Illustrate using the Venn diagrams

𝐴∪𝐵 ′

U
A B

AB  A  B '
Example
Illustrate using the Venn diagrams

𝐴 ∩ 𝐵′
U U
A B A B
A' B'

A' B '
Example

 A  B ' A' B '

 A  B '  A' B '


Definition
Cross Product
The cross product (or Cartesian product) of
two sets 𝐴 and 𝐵 is the set of all possible
ordered pairs 𝑥, 𝑦 where 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴 and
𝑦 ∈ 𝐵.

𝐴 × 𝐵: 𝑥, 𝑦 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴 and 𝑦 ∈ 𝐵
Example

If 𝐴 = 1,2 and 𝐵 = 𝑎, 𝑏

then
𝐴×𝐵 = 1, 𝑎 , 1, 𝑏 , 2, 𝑎 , 2, 𝑏

On the other hand


𝐵 × 𝐴 = 𝑎, 1 , 𝑎, 2 , 𝑏, 1 , 𝑏, 2
Time to Think!

What is the cardinality of 𝐴 × 𝐵?


Definition
Power Set
The power set of any set, denoted by ℘ 𝐴 , is
the set of all subsets of set 𝐴.

Let 𝐴 = 𝑎, 3, # , then ℘ 𝐴 =
𝑎 , 3 , # , 𝑎, 3 , 𝑎, # , 3, # , 𝐴, ∅

What is 𝑛 ℘ 𝐴 ? 8
Time to Think!

What is the cardinality of the power set of


any set 𝐴?
Time to Think!
Let 𝑈 be a universal set and A ⊆ 𝑈

𝐴∪𝑈 𝐴∩𝑈

𝐴 ∪ 𝐴′ 𝐴 ∩ 𝐴′

𝐴∪∅ 𝐴∩∅
Time to Think!
Let U = ℤ. Find the following:

1. ℕ∪𝕎=𝕎 6. 3ℤ ∩ 2ℤ= 6ℤ
2. ℕ ∩ 𝕎= ℕ 7. ℕ′ ∩ 𝕎 = {0}
3. 𝐸∪𝑂 =ℤ 8. ℕ ∪ 𝑃′ = ℤ
+ ′ −
4. 𝐸 = {0} 9. 𝐶 ∩ 𝑃 × 𝐸 ={}
− ′
∪O ∪ 𝐸 10. ℤ = {}
5. 3ℤ ∪ 2ℤ
Example

If 𝑛 𝑈 = 𝑟 and 𝑛 𝐵 = 𝑗, then
𝑛 𝐵′ =
𝑟−𝑗
Example

Illustrate using the Venn diagrams


𝐴∩ 𝐵∪𝐶

B C A A  B C 
Example
Illustrate using the Venn diagrams
𝐴∩𝐵 ∪ 𝐴∩𝐶
U U
A B A B

C C

AB A C
Example

 A  B   A C  A  B C 

A  B C    A  B   A C 