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1 The Periodic Table lists all the known elements.

Elements are arranged in order of ....... 1 ....... number.

The melting points of Group I elements ....... 2 ....... down the group.

The melting points of Group VII elements ....... 3 ....... down the group.

Which words correctly complete the gaps 1, 2 and 3?

2 Which information about an element can be used to predict its chemical properties?

A boiling point
B density
C melting point
D position in the Periodic Table

3 Which statement about the Periodic Table is correct?

A Elements in the same period have the same number of outer electrons.
B The elements on the left are usually gases.
C The most metallic elements are on the left.
D The relative atomic mass of the elements increases from right to left.

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4 Which statement is correct for the element of proton number 19?

A It is a gas that dissolves in water.


B It is a hard metal that is not very reactive with water.
C It is a non-metal that burns quickly in air.
D It is a soft metal that is highly reactive with water.

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1 The Group I metals show trends in both their physical and chemical properties.

(a)
a) How do their melting points vary down the Group?

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(ii) Which element in the Group has the highest density?

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(iii) All Group I metals react with cold water. Complete the following equation.

........Rb + ........H2O → ................ + ................


[2]

(b) Lithium reacts with nitrogen to form the ionic compound, lithium nitride.

(i) State the formula of the lithium ion. .............…….. [1]

(ii) Deduce the formula of the nitride ion. .............…….. [1]

(iii) In all solid ionic compounds, the ions are held together in a lattice.
Explain the term lattice.

....................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(iv) What is the ratio of lithium ions to nitride ions in the lattice of lithium nitride?
Give a reason for your answer.

........ lithium ions : ........ nitride ions

....................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

[Total: 9]

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2 Vanadium is a transition element. It has more than one oxidation state.
The element and its compounds are often used as catalysts.

(a) Complete the electron distribution of vanadium by inserting one number.

2 + 8 + .......... + 2
[1]

(b) Predict three physical properties of vanadium which are typical of transition elements.

1. .......................................................................................................................................

2. .......................................................................................................................................

3. ................................................................................................................................. [2]

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(c) Vanadium(V) oxide is used to catalyse the exothermic reaction between sulfur dioxide
and oxygen in the Contact Process.

2SO2 + O2 2SO3

The rate of this reaction can be increased either by using a catalyst or by increasing the
temperature. Explain why a catalyst is used and not a higher temperature.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................... [2]

(d) The oxidation states of vanadium in its compounds are V(+5), V(+4), V(+3) and V(+2).
The vanadium(III) ion can behave as a reductant or an oxidant.

(i) Indicate on the following equation which reactant is the oxidant.

2V3+ + Zn → 2V2+ + Zn2+


[1]

(ii) Which change in the following equation is oxidation?


Explain your choice.

V3+ + Fe3+ → V4+ + Fe2+

....................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

[Total: 8]

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3 The table below includes information about some of the elements in Period 2.

element carbon nitrogen fluorine neon


symbol C N F Ne
structure macromolecular simple simple single
molecules N2 molecules F2 atoms Ne
boiling point / °C 4200 –196 –188 –246

(a) Why does neon exist as single atoms but fluorine exists as molecules?

...........................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................... [2]

(b) What determines the order of the elements in a period?

..................................................................................................................................... [1]

(c) When liquid nitrogen boils the following change occurs.

N2(l) → N2(g)

The boiling point of nitrogen is very low even though the bond between the atoms in a
nitrogen molecule is very strong. Suggest an explanation.

...........................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................... [2]

(d) Draw a diagram showing the arrangement of the outer shell (valency) electrons in a
molecule of nitrogen.

[2]

[Total: 7]

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4 For each of the following, select an element from Period 4, potassium to krypton, which
matches the description.

(a) A metal that reacts rapidly with cold water to form a compound of the type M(OH)2 and
hydrogen.

..................................................................................................................................... [1]

(b) Its only oxidation state is 0. ........................................................................................ [1]

(c) It has a macromolecular oxide, XO2, which has similar physical properties to those of
diamond.

..................................................................................................................................... [1]

(d) This is one of the metals alloyed with iron in stainless steel. ..................................... [1]

(e) It can be reduced to an ion of the type X–. .................................................................. [1]

(f) It can form a covalent hydride having the formula H2X. .............................................. [1]

(g) Its soluble salts are blue and its oxide is black. .......................................................... [1]

(h) It is a liquid at room temperature. ............................................................................... [1]

[Total: 8]

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5 Zinc alloys have been used for over 2500 years.

(a)
a) Explain the phrase zinc alloy.

....................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(ii) Making alloys is still a major use of zinc. State one other large scale use of zinc.

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(iii) Describe the bonding in a typical metal, such as zinc, and then explain why it is
malleable. You may use a diagram to illustrate your answer.

....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. [3]

(iv) Suggest why the introduction of a different atom into the structure makes the alloy
less malleable than the pure metal.

....................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) Zinc metal is made by the reduction of zinc oxide. The major ore of zinc is zinc blende,
ZnS. Zinc blende contains silver and lead compounds as well as zinc sulfide.
Zinc blende is converted into impure zinc oxide by heating it in air.

2ZnS + 3O2 → 2ZnO + 2SO2

(i) Describe how zinc oxide is reduced to zinc.

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(ii) Some of the zinc oxide is dissolved in sulfuric acid to make aqueous zinc sulfate.
Write a balanced symbol equation for this reaction.

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

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(iii) This impure solution of zinc sulfate contains zinc ions, silver(I) ions and lead ions.
Explain why the addition of zinc powder produces pure zinc sulfate solution.
Include at least one ionic equation in your explanation.

....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. [4]

(iv) Describe how zinc metal can be obtained from zinc sulfate solution by electrolysis.
A labelled diagram is acceptable. Include all the products of this electrolysis. The
electrolysis is similar to that of copper(II) sulfate solution with inert electrodes.

[4]

[Total: 18]

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6 Selenium and sulfur are in Group VI. They have similar properties.

(a) One of the main uses of selenium is in photoelectric cells. These cells can change light
into electrical energy.

(i) Name a process which can change light into chemical energy.

....................................................................................................................................

(ii) Name a device which can change chemical energy into electrical energy.

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) The electron distribution of a selenium atom is 2 + 8 + 18 + 6.

(i) Selenium forms an ionic compound with potassium. Draw a diagram which shows
the formula of this ionic compound, the charges on the ions and the arrangement of
the valency electrons around the negative ion.
Use o to represent an electron from an atom of potassium.
Use x to represent an electron from an atom of selenium.

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(ii) Draw a diagram showing the arrangement of the valency electrons in one molecule
of the covalent compound selenium chloride.
Use x to represent an electron from an atom of selenium.
Use o to represent an electron from an atom of chlorine.

[3]

(iii) Predict two differences in the physical properties of these two compounds.

....................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

(c) The selenide ion reacts with water.

Se2– + H2O → HSe– + OH–

What type of reagent is the selenide ion in this reaction? Give a reason for your choice.

...........................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................... [3]

[Total: 13]

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7 Choose an element from the list below which best fitsthedescription.

Rb Fe Si I P Sr

(a) An element which reacts with cold water. ............... [1]

(b) It is a solid at room temperature and exists as diatomic molecules, X2. ............... [1]

(c) It can form two oxides, XO and X2O3. ............... [1]

(d) This element has a hydride of the type XH3. ............... [1]

(e) It has a macromolecular structure similar to that of carbon. ............... [1]

[Total: 5]

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1 Where in the Periodic Table is the metallic character of the elements greatest?

2 Argon, Ar, has a higher relative atomic mass than potassium, K, but appears before it in the
Periodic Table.

Ar
K

Why is argon listed before potassium in the Periodic Table?

A Argon has fewer neutrons than potassium.


B Argon has fewer protons than potassium.
C Argon has more neutrons than potassium.
D Argon has more protons than potassium.

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3 J and K are two elements from the same period in the Periodic Table.

The table gives some properties of J and K.

Which statement about J and K is correct?

A J forms an acidic oxide.


B J is found to the left of K in the Periodic Table.
C K forms positive ions when it reacts.
D K is more metallic than J.

4 In the outline of the Periodic Table below, some elements are shown as numbers.

1 2
3 4
5 6
7

Which two numbers are metals in the same period?

A 1 and 2 B 1 and 7 C 3 and 5 D 5 and 6

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5 Calcium, on the left of Period 4 of the Periodic Table, is more metallic than bromine on the right of
this period.

Why is this?

Calcium has

A fewer electrons.
B fewer protons.
C fewer full shells of electrons.
D fewer outer shell electrons.

6 The diagram shows one period of the Periodic Table.

Li
Li B B C N O F Ne

Which two elements form acidic oxides?

A carbon and lithium


B carbon and neon
C carbon and nitrogen
D nitrogen and neon

7 Which property of elements increases across a period of the Periodic Table?

A metallic character
B number of electron shells
C number of outer shell electrons
D tendency to form positive ions

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8 W, X, Y and Z are elements in the same period in the Periodic Table.

W and Y are metals. X and Z are non-metals.

Which shows the correct order of these elements across the period?

A W X Y Z

B X Z W Y

C Y W X Z

D W Y X Z

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1 Which of the following could be a transition element?

2 The table gives information about four elements, P, Q, R and S.

A P, Q and S B Q and S only C R and S only D S only

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3 Osmium is a transition element.

Which row gives the expected properties of osmium?

4 The table gives information about four elements.

Which element is a transition metal?

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5 Which properties of the element titanium, Ti, can be predicted from its position in the Periodic
Table?

6 Which is not a characteristic property of transition metals?

A act as catalysts
B form coloured compounds
C high melting point
D low density

7 An element X has the two properties listed.

1 It acts as a catalyst.
2 It forms colourless ions.

Which of these properties suggest that X is a transition element?

property 1 property 2

A  
B  
C  
D  

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8 An element melts at 1455 °C, has a density of 8.90 g / cm3 and forms a green chloride.

Where in the Periodic Table is this element found?

9 An element has a melting point of 1084 °C and a density of 8.93 g / cm3. It’s oxide can be used as
a catalyst.

In which position in the Periodic Table is the element found?

A B C

10 The positions of four elements are shown on the outline of the Periodic Table.

Which element forms a coloured oxide?

B C
D

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11 Which element is a transition metal?

12 Platinum is a transition metal.

Which statement about platinum is correct?

A It does not catalyse reactions.


B It forms coloured compounds.
C It has a low density.
D It has a low melting point.

13 The table gives information about four elements.

Which element is a transition metal?

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14 Which properties of the element titanium, Ti, can be predicted from its position in the Periodic
Table?

15 An element has the following properties.

● It forms coloured compounds.


● It acts as a catalyst.

● It melts at 1539 °C.

In which part of the Periodic Table is the element found?

A Group I
B Group IV
C Group VII
D transition elements

16 Which compound is likely to be coloured?

A KMnO4 B KNO3 C K2CO3 D K2SO4

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17 An element melts at 1455 °C, has a density of 8.90 g / cm3 and forms a green chloride.

Where in the Periodic Table is this element found?

18 The table gives information about four elements.

Which element is a transition metal?

19 The sulfate of element F is green.

Which other properties is element F likely to have?

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1 Use your copy of the Periodic Table to answer these questions.

(a) Choose an element from the Periodic Table to match each description.
You may give either the name or the symbol.

(i) It is the most reactive metal. ................................................................................ [1]

(ii) It is the only non-metal which is a liquid at r.t.p.. ................................................. [1]

(iii) An isotope of this element is used as a fuel in nuclear reactors. ......................... [1]

(iv) This Group VII element is a solid at r.t.p.. ............................................................ [1]

(v) This element is in Group V and Period 4. ............................................................ [1]

(vi) This unreactive gas is used to fill lamps. ............................................................. [1]

(b) Predict the formula of each of the following compounds.

(i) germanium oxide .......................................................................................................

(ii) tellurium bromide ................................................................................................. [2]

(c) Give the formula of each of the following ions.

(i) strontium ....................................................................................................................

(ii) fluoride ................................................................................................................. [2]

[Total: 10]

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2 Nickel is a transition element.

(a) Predict three differences in the chemical properties of nickel and barium.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................... [3]

(b) Nickel ores are converted into nickel(II) oxide. This can be reduced to impure nickel by
heating with carbon. The nickel is purified by the following reversible reaction.

Ni(s) + 4CO(g) Ni(CO)4(g)


nickel carbonyl

(i) Impure nickel is heated at 60 °C. The forward reaction occurs.

Ni(s) + 4CO(g) → Ni(CO)4(g)


impure

The nickel carbonyl, a gas, moves into a hotter chamber at 200 °C. The backward
reaction occurs and the nickel carbonyl decomposes.

Ni(CO)4(g) → Ni(s) + 4CO(g)


pure

Is the forward reaction exothermic or endothermic? Give a reason for your answer.

....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

(ii) Explain why the forward reaction is favoured by an increase in pressure.

....................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

(iii) Suggest what happens to the impurities.

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

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(iv) Suggest another method of refining nickel. Give a brief description of the method
which you have suggested. A labelled diagram is acceptable.

[4]

[Total: 12]

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3 Choose an element which fitseachofthefollowingdescriptions.

(i) It is a yellow solid which burns to form an acidic oxide.

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(ii) This element is a black solid which, when heated, forms a purple vapour.

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(iii) Most of its soluble salts are blue.

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(iv) It has a basic oxide of the type MO which is used to treat acidic soils.

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(v) It is an unreactive gas used to fill balloons.

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

[Total: 5]

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4 Titanium is a transition element. It is isolated by the following reactions.

titanium ore → titanium(IV) oxide → titanium(IV) chloride → titanium


TiO2 TiCl 4 Ti

(a) Why is it usually necessary to include a number in the name of the compounds of
transition elements?

..................................................................................................................................... [1]

(b) Titanium(IV) chloride is made by heating the oxide with coke and chlorine.

TiO2 + 2Cl 2 TiCl 4 + O2

2C + O2 2CO

Explain why the presence of coke ensures the maximum yield of the metal chloride.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................... [2]

(c) Explain why the change, titanium(IV) chloride to titanium, is reduction.

...........................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................... [1]

(d) Complete the table which shows some of the properties of titanium and its uses.
The first line has been completed as an example.

property related use

soluble in molten steel making steel titanium alloys

........................................................................ making aircraft and space vehicles

resistant to corrosion, especially in sea water ...............................................................

[2]

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(e) The titanium ore contains 36.8% iron, 31.6% titanium and the remainder is oxygen.

(i) Determine the percentage of oxygen in this titanium compound.

percentage of oxygen = ........................................................................... % [1]

(ii) Calculate the number of moles of atoms for each element.


The number of moles of Fe is shown as an example.
number of moles of Fe = 36.8 / 56 = 0.66

number of moles of Ti = ...........................................................................................

number of moles of O = ..................................................................................... [1]

(iii) What is the simplest ratio for the moles of atoms?

Fe : Tii

............. ............. .............


[1]

(iv) What is the formula of this titanium compound?

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

[Total: 10]

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5 Chromium is a transition element.

(a)
a) Predict two differences in the physical properties of chromium and sodium.

....................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

(ii) Predict two differences in the chemical properties of chromium and sodium.

....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) Chromium is used to electroplate steel objects. The diagram shows how this could be
done.
add more
chromium(III)
+ sulfate(aq) –

lead anode object to


be plated
chromium(III)
sulfate(aq)

(i) Give two reasons why steel objects are plated with chromium.

....................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

(ii) The formula of the chromium(III) ion is Cr3+ and of the sulfate ion is SO42–. Give the
formula of chromium(III) sulfate.

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(iii) Write the equation for the reaction at the negative electrode (cathode).

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

(iv) A colourless gas, which relights a glowing splint, is formed at the positive electrode
(anode). Name this gas.

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

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(v) During electrolysis, it is necessary to add more chromium(III) sulfate but during
copper-plating using a copper anode, it is not necessary to add more copper(II)
sulfate. Explain.

....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

[Total: 12]

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6 The first three elements in Group IV are carbon, silicon and germanium.
The elements and their compounds have similar properties.

(a) The compound, silicon carbide, has a macromolecular structure similar to that of
diamond.

(i) A major use of silicon carbide is to reinforce aluminium alloys which are used in
the construction of spacecraft. Suggest three of its physical properties.

[3]

(ii) Complete the following description of the structure of silicon carbide.

Each carbon atom is bonded to four atoms.

Each silicon atom is bonded to carbon atoms. [2]

(b) Germanium(IV) oxide, GeO2, has the same macromolecular structure as silicon(IV)
oxide. Draw the structural formula of germanium(IV) oxide.

[3]

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(c) Germanium forms a series of hydrides comparable to the alkanes.

(i) Draw the structural formula of the hydride which contains four germanium atoms
per molecule.

[1]
(ii) Predict the products of the complete combustion of this hydride.

[2]

[Total: 11]

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7 For each of the following select an element from Period 4, potassium to krypton, that
matches the description.

(a) It is a brown liquid at room temperature.

(b) It forms a compound with hydrogen having the formula XH4.

(c) A metal that reacts violently with cold water.

(d) It has a complete outer energy level.

(e) It has oxidation states of 2 and 3 only.

(f) It can form an ion of the type X .

(g) One of its oxides is the catalyst in the Contact Process.

[Total: 7]

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1 Iron is a transition element.

(a) Which of the following statements about transition elements are correct?

Tick three boxes.

The metals are highly coloured e.g. yellow, green, blue.

The metals have low melting points.

Their compounds are highly coloured.

Their compounds are colourless.

The elements and their compounds are often used as catalysts.

They have more than one oxidation state.

[3]

(b) (i) In which Period in the Periodic Table is iron to be found?

[1]

(ii) Use the Periodic Table to work out the number of protons and the number of
neutrons in one atom of iron.

number of protons = number of neutrons = [1]

(c) Iron is extracted in a blast furnace. The list below gives some of the substances used
or formed in the extraction.

carbon monoxide coke iron ore limestone slag

(i) Which substance is a mineral containing largely calcium carbonate?

[1]

(ii) Which substance is formed when impurities in the ore react with calcium oxide?

[1]

(iii) Which substance is also called hematite?

[1]

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(d) State two functions of the coke used in the blast furnace.

[2]

(e) Most of the iron is converted into mild steel or stainless steel. Give one use for each.

mild steel

stainless steel [2]

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2 The first three elements in Period 6 of the Periodic Table of the Elements are caesium,
barium and lanthanum.

(a) How many more protons, electrons and neutrons are there in one atom of lanthanum
than in one atom of caesium. Use your copy of the Periodic Table of the Elements to
help you.

number of protons ................................................

number of electrons ................................................

number of neutrons ................................................ [3]

(b) All three metals can be obtained by the electrolysis of a molten halide. The electrolysis
of the aqueous halides does not produce the metal.

(i) Complete the equation for the reduction of lanthanum ions at the negative
electrode (cathode).

La3+ + ................ → ................

(ii) Name the three products formed by the electrolysis of aqueous caesium bromide.

...................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[4]

(c) All three metals react with cold water. Complete the word equation for these reactions.

metal + water → ................................. + ............................. [2]

(d) Barium chloride is an ionic compound. Draw a diagram that shows the formula of the
compound, the charges on the ions and gives the arrangement of the valency electrons
around the negative ion.
The electron distribution of a barium atom is 2.8.18.18.8.2

Use x to represent an electron from a barium atom.


Use o to represent an electron from a chlorine atom.

[2]

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(e) Describe, by means of a simple diagram, the lattice structure of an ionic compound,
such as caesium chloride.

[2]

(f) The reactions of these metals with oxygen are exothermic.

2Ba(s) + O2(g) → 2BaO(s)

(i) Give an example of bond forming in this reaction.

...................................................................................................................................

(ii) Explain using the idea of bond breaking and forming why this reaction is
exothermic.

...................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[3]

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3 Manganese is a transition element. It has more than one valency and the metal and its
compounds are catalysts.

(a) (i) Predict three other properties of manganese that are typical of transition elements.

...................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[3]

(ii) Complete the electron distribution of manganese by inserting one number.

2 + 8 + .......... + 2 [1]

(b) It has several oxides, three of which are shown below.


Manganese(II) oxide, which is basic.
Manganese(III) oxide, which is amphoteric.
Manganese(IV) oxide, which is acidic.

(i) Complete the word equation.

manganese(II) + hydrochloric → ............................... + ...............................


oxide acid
............................... [2]

(ii) Which, if any, of these oxides will react with sodium hydroxide?

...............................................................................................................................[1]

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(c) Aqueous hydrogen peroxide decomposes to form water and oxygen.

2H2O2(aq) → 2H2O(l) + O2(g)

This reaction is catalysed by manganese(IV) oxide

The following experiments were carried out to investigate the rate of this reaction.

A 0.1 g sample of manganese(IV) oxide was added to 20 cm3 of 0.2 M hydrogen


peroxide solution. The volume of oxygen produced was measured every minute. The
results of this experiment are shown on the graph.

volume of
oxygen / cm3

0
0
time / min

(i) How does the rate of reaction vary with time? Explain why the rate varies.

...................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[3]

(ii) The following experiment was carried out at the same temperature.

0.1 g of manganese(IV) oxide and 20 cm3 of 0.4 M hydrogen peroxide

Sketch the curve for this experiment on the same grid. [2]
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(iii) How would the shape of the graph differ if only half the mass of catalyst had been
used in these experiments?

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[2]

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4 Period 3 contains the elements sodium to argon. This question asks about the chemistry of each of
the Period 3 elements or their compounds.

(a) Sodium nitrate is a white crystalline solid. When heated it melts and the following reaction
occurs.

2NaNO3(l) → 2NaNO2(l) + O2(g)

A 3.40 g sample of sodium nitrate is heated.

Calculate the

• number of moles of NaNO3 used,

.................................. mol

• number of moles of O2 formed,

.................................. mol

• volume of O2 formed, in dm3 (measured at r.t.p.).

.................................. dm3
[3]

(b) Magnesium reacts slowly with warm water to form a base, magnesium hydroxide.

(i) Explain what is meant by the term base.

....................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) Write a chemical equation for the reaction between magnesium and warm water.

....................................................................................................................................... [2]

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(c) Aluminium oxide is amphoteric. It is insoluble in water.

Describe experiments to show that aluminium oxide is amphoteric.

....................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [3]

(d) Silicon(IV) oxide has a giant structure.

(i) Name the type of bonding in silicon(IV) oxide.

....................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) Give two physical properties of silicon(IV) oxide.

.............................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................... [2]

(e) Calcium phosphate is used in fertilisers. The bonding in calcium phosphate is ionic.
Calcium phosphate contains the phosphate ion, PO43–.

(i) What is ionic bonding?

.............................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................... [2]

(ii) Deduce the formula of calcium phosphate.

....................................................................................................................................... [1]

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(f) Sulfur tetrafluoride, SF4, can be made by combining gaseous sulfur with fluorine.

S(g) + 2F2(g) → SF4(g)

The reaction is exothermic.

(i) Complete the energy level diagram for this reaction. Include an arrow which clearly shows
the energy change during the reaction.

S(g) + 2F2(g)
energy

[3]

(ii) During the reaction the amount of energy given out is 780 kJ / mol.

The F–F bond energy is 160 kJ / mol.

Use this information to determine the bond energy, in kJ / mol, of one S–F bond in SF4.

S + F F → F S F
F F
F

.................................. kJ / mol [3]

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(g) Chlorine and compounds of chlorine are important in water treatment and in laboratory testing
for water.

(i) Chlorine is added to water to make the water safe to drink.

Explain why adding chlorine makes water safe to drink.

....................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) A compound of chlorine is used in the laboratory to test for the presence of water.

Name the compound of chlorine used in this test and describe the colour change seen in
a positive result of this test.

name of compound .............................................................................................................

colour change from ................................................... to ...................................................


[3]

(h) Argon is an unreactive noble gas.

(i) Explain why argon is unreactive.

....................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) Give one use of argon.

....................................................................................................................................... [1]

[Total: 27]

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1 (a) Different gases diffuse at different speeds.

(i) What is meant by the term diffusion?

.............................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) What property of a gas molecule affects the speed at which it diffuses?

....................................................................................................................................... [1]

(b) Helium is a gas used to fill balloons. It is present in the air in very small quantities. Diffusion can
be used to separate it from the air.

Air at 1000 °C is on one side of a porous barrier. The air which passes through the barrier has
a larger amount of helium in it.

(i) Why does the air on the other side of the barrier contain more helium?

....................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) Why is it an advantage to have the air at a high temperature?

.............................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................... [1]

(c) Most helium is obtained from natural gas found in the USA. Natural gas contains methane and
7% helium. One possible way to obtain the helium would be to burn the methane.

(i) Write an equation for the complete combustion of methane.

....................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) Suggest why this would not be a suitable method to obtain the helium.

.............................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................... [1]

(iii) Suggest another method, other than diffusion, by which helium could be separated from
the mixture of gases in natural gas.

....................................................................................................................................... [1]

[Total: 7]

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2 For centuries, iron has been extracted from its ore in the blast furnace. The world production
of pig iron is measured in hundreds of million tonnes annually.

(a) The following raw materials are supplied to a modern blast furnace.

iron ore which is hematite, Fe2O3


limestone which is calcium carbonate
carbon in the form of coke
air

Describe the essential reactions in the blast furnace. Each of the four raw materials must
be mentioned at least once. Give the equation for the reduction of hematite.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................... [6]

(b) Each year, blast furnaces discharge millions of tonnes of carbon dioxide into the
atmosphere. This will increase the percentage of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

(i) Explain why this increased percentage of carbon dioxide may cause problems in the
future.

....................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

(ii) Until the early eighteenth century, charcoal, not coke, was used in the blast furnace.
Charcoal is made from wood but coke is made from coal. Explain why the use of
charcoal would have a smaller effect on the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

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(iii) A method being developed to produce iron with lower emissions of carbon dioxide
is by electrolysis. Hematite, Fe2O3, is dissolved in molten lithium carbonate and
electrolysed. The ore is spilt into its constituent elements.

Write an equation for the reaction at the negative electrode (cathode).

....................................................................................................................................

Complete the equation for the reaction at the positive electrode (anode).

........O2– → ............... + ............... [3]

[Total: 13]

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3 The following reactivity series shows both familiar and unfamiliar elements in order of
decreasing reactivity. Each element is represented by a redox equation.

Rb Rb+ + e–
Mg Mg2+ + 2e–
Mn Mn2+ + 2e–
Zn Zn2+ + 2e–
H2 2H+ + 2e–
Cu Cu2+ + 2e–
Hg Hg2+ + 2e–

Two of the uses of the series are to predict the thermal stability of compounds of the metals
and to explain their redox reactions.

(a) Most metal hydroxides decompose when heated.

(i) Complete the equation for the thermal decomposition of copper(II) hydroxide.

Cu(OH)2 → ............... + ............... [1]

(ii) Choose a metal from the above series whose hydroxide does not decompose when
heated.

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(b)
b) Define in terms of electron transfer the term oxidation.

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(ii) Explain why the positive ions in the above equations are oxidising agents.

....................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(c)
c) Which metals in the series above do not react with dilute acids to form hydrogen?

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(ii) Describe an experiment which would confirm the prediction made in (c)(i).

....................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(d)
d) Which metal in the series above can form a negative ion which gives a pink / purple
solution in water?

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(ii) Describe what you would observe when zinc, a reducing agent, is added to this
pink / purple solution.

.............................................................................................................................. [1]
PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com
[Total: 8]
4 This question is concerned with the elements in Period 5, Rb to Xe.

(a) The electron distributions of some of these elements are given in the following list.

element A 2+
element B 2+
element C 2+
element D 2+
element E 2 + 8 + 18 + 18 + 4
element F 2 + 8 + 18 + 18 + 7

(i) Identify element C. ............................................................................................... [1]

(ii) Which element in the list does not form any compounds?

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(iii) Which element in the list forms a chloride of the type XCl 2?

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(iv) Which two elements would react together to form a compound of the type XY4?

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(v) Which element in the list would react with cold water to form an alkaline solution and
hydrogen?

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(b) Predict two differences in physical properties and two differences in chemical properties
between rubidium and the transition metal niobium.

physical .............................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

chemical ...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................... [4]

[Total: 9]

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5 Strontium and sulphur chlorides both have a formula of the type XCl 2 but they have
different properties.

property strontium chloride sulphur chloride

appearance white crystalline solid red liquid

melting point / oC 87 -8

particles present ions molecules

electrical conductivity of solid poor poor

electrical conductivity of liquid good poor

(a) The formulae of the chlorides are similar because both elements have a valency of 2.
Explain why Group II and Group VI elements both have a valency of 2.

[2]

(b) Draw a diagram showing the arrangement of the valency electrons in one covalent
molecule of sulphur chloride.
Use x to represent an electron from a sulphur atom.
Use o to represent an electron from a chlorine atom.

[3]

(c) Explain the difference in electrical conductivity between the following.

(i) solid and liquid strontium chloride

[1]

(ii) liquid strontium chloride and liquid sulphur chloride

[1]

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6 The elements in Period 3 and some of their common oxidation states are shown below.

Element Na Mg Al Si P S l Ar
Oxidation
State +1 +2 +3 +4 –3 –2 –1 0

(a) (i) Why do the oxidation states increase from sodium to silicon?

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) After Group(IV) the oxidation states are negative and decrease across the period.
Explain why.

...................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[2]

(b) The following compounds contain two elements. Predict their formulae.

aluminium sulphide ............................................

silicon phosphide ............................................ [2]

(c) Choose a different element from Period 3 that matches each description.

(i) It has a similar structure to diamond.

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) It reacts violently with cold water to form a solution pH = 14.

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(iii) It has a gaseous oxide of the type XO2, which is acidic.

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(d) The only oxidation state of argon is zero. Why it is used to fill light bulbs?

..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[1]

PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com
(e) Draw a diagram that shows the arrangement of the valency electrons in the
ionic compound sodium phosphide.

Use o to represent an electron from sodium.


Use x to represent an electron from phosphorus. [3]

(f) Sodium reacts with sulphur to form sodium sulphide.

2Na + S → Na2S

An 11.5 g sample of sodium is reacted with 10 g of sulphur. All of the sodium reacted but
there was an excess of sulphur.
Calculate the mass of sulphur left unreacted.

(i) Number of moles of sodium atoms reacted = .....................


[2 moles of Na react with 1 mole of S]

(ii) Number of moles of sulphur atoms that reacted = ..................

(iii) Mass of sulphur reacted = ...................g

(iv) Mass of sulphur left unreacted = .................g [4]

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