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Ilaw at Buklod ng Manggagawa (IBM) v.

NLRC, 198 S 586 (91)

FACTS:

IBM representing 4500 employees of SMC working at various plants, offices and
warehouses in NCR presented to the company a demand for correction of the significant
distortion in the workers’ wages pursuant to the Wage Rationalization Act.

In that demand, the Union explicitly invoked Section 4 (d) of RA 6727 which reads as
follows: Where the application of the increases in the wage rates under this Section results in
distortions as defined under existing laws in the wage structure within an establishment and
gives rise to a dispute therein, such dispute shall first be settled voluntarily between the parties
and in the event of a deadlock, the same shall be finally resolved through compulsory arbitration
by the regional branches of the National Labor Relations Commission having jurisdiction over
the workplace. It shall be mandatory for the NLRC to conduct continuous hearings and decide
any dispute arising under this Section within twenty (20) calendar days from the time said
dispute is formally submitted to it for arbitration. The pendency of a dispute arising from a wage
distortion shall not in any way delay the applicability of the increase in the wage rates prescribed
under this Section.

Demand unheeded by company hence the union members refused to render overtime
services until the distortion has been corrected by SMC.

It appears that the employees working hours/schedule has been freely observed by the
employees for the past 5 years and due to the abandonment of the longstanding schedule of
work and reversion to the eight-hour shift substantial losses were incurred by SMC.

SMC filed a complaint with arbitration branch of NLRC then before the NLRC for the
latter to declare the strike illegal.

Union’s contention: workers’ refusal to work beyond 8 hours was a legitimate means of
compelling SMC to correct distortion.

SMC: The coordinated reduction by the Union’s members of the work time in order to
compel SMC to yield to the demand was an illegal and unprotected activity.

ISSUE: Whether or not the strike is legal in the resolution of wage distortion.

HELD:

ILLEGAL.

The strike involving the issue of wage distortion is illegal as a means of resolving it. The
legality of these activities is usually dependent on the legality of the purposes sought to be
attained and the means employed therefore. It goes without saying that these joint or
coordinated activities may be forbidden or restricted by law or contract. In the instance of
"distortions of the wage structure within an establishment" resulting from "the application of any
prescribed wage increase by virtue of a law or wage order," Section 3 of Republic Act No. 6727
prescribes a specific, detailed and comprehensive procedure for the correction thereof, thereby
implicitly excluding strikes or lockouts or other concerted activities as modes of settlement of the
issue.

The provision states that the employer and the union shall negotiate to correct the
distortions. Any dispute arising from wage distortions shall be resolved through the grievance
procedure under their collective bargaining agreement and, if it remains unresolved, through
voluntary arbitration. Unless otherwise agreed by the parties in writing, such dispute shall be
decided by the voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators within ten (10) calendar days
from the time said dispute was referred to voluntary arbitration. In cases where there are no
collective agreements or recognized labor unions, the employers and workers shall endeavor to
correct such distortions. Any dispute arising there from shall be settled through the National
Conciliation and Mediation Board and, if it remains unresolved after ten (10) calendar days of
conciliation, shall be referred to the appropriate branch of the National Labor Relations
Commission (NLRC). It shall be mandatory for the NLRC to conduct continuous hearings and
decide the dispute within twenty (20) calendar days from the time said dispute is submitted for
compulsory arbitration. The pendency of a dispute arising from a wage distortion shall not in any
way delay the applicability of any increase in prescribed wage rates pursuant to the provisions
of law or Wage Order.

The legislative intent that solution of the problem of wage distortions shall be sought by
voluntary negotiation or arbitration, and not by strikes, lockouts, or other concerted activities of
the employees or management, is made clear in the rules implementing RA 6727 issued by the
Secretary of Labor and Employment pursuant to the authority granted by Section 13 of the Act.
Section 16, Chapter I of these implementing rules, after reiterating the policy that wage
distortions be first settled voluntarily by the parties and eventually by compulsory arbitration,
declares that, "Any issue involving wage distortion shall not be a ground for a strike/lockout."