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SCHOOL FOR CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS

CHAPTER 2 : REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Guidelines in the Admission of Students with Disabilities in Higher Education


and Post-Secondary Institutions in the Philippines (by Commission on
Higher Education Technical Education and Skills Development Authority,
National Council on Disability Affairs)
This related literature deals with the guidelines that responds to the needs
of a student with disabilities, including the subjects for this research, which
are Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Down Syndrome,
Intellectual Disability (ID), Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This book stated
some specific classroom orientation, and classroom materials that will help
on designing a school for children with special needs.

Effect of Color on Learning Disorder Children in a Learning Environment (by


Faiz Marhalim)
This research study specifically deals on how colors used in a furniture,
decorative material, wall texture, and as a paint inside a classroom or a
facility, can affect a children in their focus, alertness, motivation in their
specific activity while learning.

Personalized Learning: Policy and Practice Recommendations for Meeting


the Needs of Students with Disabilities (by The National Center for Learning
Disabilities)
This related literature deals with the specialized mode of instruction
tailored to specific type of a child with special needs. This stated some
description on how an effective learning environment on a classroom
should be.

Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities (by Smith, Polloway, Patton,


Downdey)
This related literature is a book that deals with the guidelines for the
teachers of children with special needs. This book, specifically on page
108, has a chapter that is entitled “Managing & Differentiating Classroom
Environment” stated a description on how a classroom environment
should be, and also showed a seating plan that is effective for children in
listening and for focusing on their tasks as well as the teacher/ instructor.
SCHOOL FOR CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS

Proposed National Center For Learning Disabilities (NACLED) (by Faiz


Marhalim)
This related literature is an architectural thesis from a university in Malaysia,
that also deals with special children and schools for children with special
needs. This literature, showed researches and data that is designed to
build an effective school for the children with special needs.

A Case Study on Special Education in the Philippines (by Dolores M.


Pascual and Julia Gregorio)
This related literature tackled the detained information on Special
Education in the Philippines. It has stated the condition of the SPED schools
that is currently built, the SPED students’ situation, and the SPED programs
for the special children.

Interactive Play for Children with Autism by Diana Seach


This related literature dealt with specific aspects on how a learning
classroom environment should look like (“Using Play Space ” on page 67,
“Communicating Environment” on page 97, “Planning Interactive Play
Sessions” on page 177)

Designing for Disabled Children and children with special educational


needs (by Gill Hawkins, John Jenkins, Daniel Keeler PB&R Design Services,
Hampshire Coordinating Council)
This related literature deals with specific aspects on a designing an area or
a room for children with disabilities and children with specific needs. There
are many description that deals with architectural and interior space in
this book, an example are: the type of furniture to be used, the openings
of doors and windows, the orientation of seats in a classroom, the colors
that shall be used in a space, and etc.
SCHOOL FOR CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS

2.2 ASSESMENT OF REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The overall related literature dealt with special children with special needs.
However, for this study, the architectural aspect was the main focus of the
researcher as she studies and analyzed the stated related literature.

With that being said, the researcher was able to gather and list
compilation of specific architectural aspects that can be used as a guide
for designing a school for children with special needs.

Stated below are the compilations of the information gathered:

Walls:

Specifically the walls inside the classroom, should be a sliding and folding
partition to increase the space’s flexibility. Particularly, the walls supporting
a heavy equipment should have a framing supports and impact-resistant
boards, and should be out of the reach of a child as much as possible, to
avoid accidents.

Floors:

The floors should always be smooth and slip resistant in both dry and wet
situations. There should not be any trip hazards at all times.
SCHOOL FOR CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS

Floors should also be easy to maintain, impact-resistant.

Wheelchair tracking and parking should also be considered while


planning.

Ceiling:

Ceiling layout need to ensure the coordination between tracking for hosts
and other elements such as services, roof lights, and equipment such as
projectors.

Stairs:

There should be a visual contrast between stair nosing and the thread and
risers, for external steps, tactile information should be provided, such as
corduroy tactile paving to the top and bottom of the steps.

There should be safe protected refuges of a suitable size on all staircases


for evacuation, with appropriate communication links.
SCHOOL FOR CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS

Doors:

The doors and other opening should be considered in designing,


particularly where there are significant members of children using
wheelchairs.

Colors:

Colors should be highly considered for this can affect a child’s behavior
and focus. These following information may be useful:

- A bright surface against dark background can be glaring and


reduce visibility.
- Bright color in large areas, or busy patterns, can confuse or over-
stimulate
- Pastel color or cloudy colors has an effect of calmness and
soothing.
- Color coding is a great way to identify and set apart spaces from
one another.
- Some patterns that produces a glare or strobe effect should be
avoided.
SCHOOL FOR CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS

Acoustics:

Acoustics should have good sound insulation. Poor acoustics conditions,


such as noise distraction and high ambient noise level should be avoided
for this can lose the focus of a student.

Windows and Screens:

Internal glazed screens can be used to provide borrowed light and


enable passive supervision by teachers. The children should also be able
to see what is happening on the surroundings and should not feel
encaged or enclosed to a room. Glazed screens should provide sound
reduction. However, it should be kept in mind that some children can be
distracted by views to the outside activities.
SCHOOL FOR CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS

Lighting:

Lighting should be highly considered when designing a space. Poor


visibility and poor surface contrast may be contributed into accidents. The
design for lighting should avoid glare, silhouetting, reflections, and
shadows and any other interference that causes visual confusion.
Good tonal contrast is important. Window blinds and electric dimming
lights can help with this, as well as local controls.

Ventilation:

Effective ventilation, with adequate fresh air, is important in all structure.


Stale air with high levels of carbon dioxide affects concentration and can
cause drowsiness. This effect may be more pronounced on children.
SCHOOL FOR CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS

Ventilation systems can also be a potential source of contamination, and


need to be designed for infection control or to maintain standards of
hygiene.