You are on page 1of 23

Name: ___________________________________ Date: _____________

Global 9 Period: ___________

Unit 3:
Early Civilizations

1. Paleolithic Age Stone age characterized by nomadic people with basic stone tools

2. Nomad Someone who travels from place to place in search of food

The change from hunting and gathering to herding, farming, permanent
3. Neolithic Revolution
settlements, and specialized jobs
4. Civilization Highly organized group of people with their own language & ways of living

5. Subsistence Farming Producing just enough food for self

The region where the first settled agricultural communities of the Middle
6. Fertile Crescent
East are thought to have settled
7. Cuneiform Ancient Sumerian wedge-shaped writing system
Ancient Egyptian writing system that used pictures and symbols to represent
8. Hieroglyphics
words and sounds
9. Terrace Farming Farming on a mountainside by creating flat “steps”
Chinese belief that heaven grants a ruler the right to rule, and in turn, the
10. Mandate of Heaven
people owe the ruler complete loyalty and obedience
11. Dynastic Cycle Rise and fall of Chinese rulers according to the Mandate of Heaven

12. The Great Wall A wall put up by the Chinese to protect them from invaders
Trade routes from Asia to Europe in which many goods and ideas were
13. Silk Roads
14. Legalism Belief that harsh rules are needed to control society

15. Ziggurat Ancient pyramid-like structure

A large city and the surrounding lands that has its own government (Ex.
16. City-state
Athens & Sparta)
17. Direct Democracy A type of government in which citizens vote and participate in all decisions

18. Republic A form of democracy in which people elect leaders who represent them

19. Twelve Tables First written set of laws in ancient Rome

Rome’s golden age which included a time of peace and many achievements
20. Pax Romana
(aka Roman Peace)
Name: ____________________________________ Date: _____________
Global 9 Period: ___________
Paleolithic Age to Neolithic Revolution
Directions: Once you have filled in the notes at the top of the page, draw a picture in each of the boxes below based on what each time period
would look like.
Paleolithic Age Neolithic Revolution
Known as the “_______________________” because simple ___________________________________________

  
stone tools were used
___________________________________________ (each
___________________ period in human history.
 

People were nomadic: _______________________ person had their own ‘role’ in society)

 
They were also known as

Name: ____________________________________ Date: ____________
Global 9 Period: ___________

Paleolithic Age  Neolithic Age

Directions: All the ideas are jumbled up! Write each idea in the proper box (Paleolithic or Neolithic)

Hunters & gatherers

Agriculture (farming)
Settled in one place
Cave art
Domesticated plants and animals
Learned how to use fire
Old Stone Age
New Stone Age
First stone tools
Specialized jobs
Permanent settlements
Invention of the plow

Paleolithic Age Neolithic Age

Name: _____________________________________ Date: _____________
Global 9 Period: ___________

Early River Valley Civilizations

Early civilizations settled near river valleys because they:

 Were a good source of _______________ (for drinking and watering crops)
 Were a good source of ____________ (fish & animals came flocked to river which made hunting easier)
 ____________________________________________________________________________________
(especially when annual flooding occurred and renewed the soil)
 ___________________________________________________________ (especially for trading goods)

Common features of Ancient River Valley Civilizations:

 _________________________________________ people believed in many gods associated with nature
 _________________________________________ (barter-_________________________ (not money))
 Subsistence farming: __________________________________________________________________

Name: ____________________________________ Date: ____________

Global 9 Period: ___________
The Fertile Crescent

Before they settled down in various parts of the world, humans lived as nomads for tens of thousands of years.
Nomads are people who have no permanent home and travel in search of food and safety.
A typical nomadic group might include an extended family of about ten adults and their children. They would temporarily
camp in an area for a few weeks or months -- the men hunting animals and the women gathering fruit, grains, seeds and
nuts. When the nomads exhausted the resources in that area they moved on.
Civilization developed slowly in different parts of the world. People began to settle in areas with abundant natural
resources. For thousands of years, people have been attracted to a part of the world archaeologists later called the Fertile
The Fertile Crescent is a boomerang-shaped region that extends from the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea
to the Persian Gulf. It is a rich food-growing area in a part of the world where most of the land is too dry for farming.
Some of the best farmland of the Fertile Crescent is on a narrow strip of land between the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers.
The two rivers travel in the same direction for thousands of miles before they combine to drain into the Persian Gulf. The
Greeks called this area Mesopotamia, which means "between the rivers." Very little rain falls in Mesopotamia, but water
and nutrients from the river soak into the land, creating an environment filled with plants and the animals that feed on the
Many different civilizations flourished in this small region. The Sumerians slowly developed one of the first
civilizations in the southeastern section of Mesopotamia as early as 7,500 years ago. The Sumerian civilization lasted
more than three thousand years, but in time the Sumerians lost their influence. The Babylonians formed a centralized
government under King Hammurabi. The Babylonian culture lasted from about 1770BC to about 1595BC. Various other
cultures dominated part or all of the Fertile Crescent including Amorites, the Kassites, (c. 1531-1155BCE) the Hittites (c.
1370 – 1205BCE) and the Assyrians (c.890-600BCE). The land known as Mesopotamia was later controlled by the
Persians, the Greeks under Alexander the Great, the Romans, and the Ottoman Turks. The land between the Tigris and
Euphrates has been part of the modern nation of Iraq since 1932.

1. How did nomads acquire food? ________________ & ___________________

2. When would they move on to a new place?

3. People settled near areas with “abundant natural resources.” Describe what that means.

4. Why did so many people settle in the Fertile Crescent?

5. What two rivers naturally irrigate the Fertile Crescent?

6. What name did the Greeks give the Fertile Crescent? Why?

7. What civilizations have lived in the Fertile Crescent?

8. What modern country makes up the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers today?

Name: ___________________________ Fertile Crescent Map

Color blue= bodies of water, outline rivers Color green: fertile crescent
Label: Tigris River, Euphrates River, Nile River, Mediterranean Sea, Persian Gulf, Black Sea, Red Sea, Caspian
Sea, Mesopotamia, Egypt

On the map to the right,

draw a box around the
area that is pictured in the
map above

Name: _____________________________________ Date: _____________

Global 9 Period: ___________

Fertile Crescent Civilizations

 Built ___________________(large pyramid-like temples)

 Developed ______________________ (an ancient writing system using pictographs)

 _______________________________________________

 ____________________________________: A set of laws posted for all to see.
o ____________________________________________________________________________
o Laws were not actually equal for everyone, and depended on your social class.

 ______________________________________________________________________

 ______________________________________of 22 symbols which became the basis of our modern
 Known as the ______________________________________________________

 Roads increased trade
 Uniform system of coinage that held value

Name: ____________________________________ Date: _____________

Global 9 Period: ___________

I. The majority of China consists of mountains and deserts.

a. In ancient times, ________________________________________________________________
b. ______________________________________________________________________________
c. Today, most people still live in the
_______________________ of China where the
__________________________________ (OK for farming)

II. Terrace Farming

a. What is it? _______________________________
b. Why use it? ______________________________
Where is it used? __________________________

Mandate of Heaven

 The Chinese believed that ______________________________________________________________


 The people owed the ruler ______________________________________________________________

 The ruler owed the people ______________________________________________________________

 If a ruler failed, ______________________________________________________________________

 Signs that a ruler lost the Mandate of Heaven:

The Dynastic Cycle

The dynastic cycle was a system developed over time by the ancient Chinese. No committee or government ever created the system; it
was just something that came about over China’s long history by custom and tradition. China has been ruled by 24 different dynasties.
A dynasty is a ruling family that is in charge of the country, until a civil war is fought and a new one replaces it. A dynasty is made up
of a ruler and his entire extended family (kids, brothers, sisters, nephews, nieces and cousins).The head of the family and ruler of
China is known as the Emperor. An Emperor wields absolute power over its people. All decisions are made by him and anyone who
questions his judgment could be executed for treason. It is believed that the gods chose him and his family to rule. This concept is
known as the “Mandate of Heaven.” Any insult or damage done to the Emperor or his family is considered to be an insult or damage
against the gods.

The ruling Emperor will always pick an “heir”. An heir is the person who will replace the emperor after his death. Generally, the
Emperor will make his eldest son the heir to the throne, but he is allowed to choose whomever he likes from his family. Once the
Emperor dies, the new Emperor will be crowned and given the same respect as the last. This “phase” of the dynastic cycle where
everything is going great (known as the “New Dynasty Phase”) will continue until misfortunes begin to strike the country, or a ruler
begins to lose the trust and respect of its people. It is possible for a Dynasty to last for as little as a couple of days, or for hundreds and
hundreds of years.

Eventually the new dynasty will become the old dynasty. Generally, the old dynasty phase of the dynastic cycle is when the dynasty
loses its luster and doesn’t feel like a fresh, good thing anymore. This can happen for a variety of reasons. The current Emperor may
be less competent than one of his ancestors, or perhaps may be more harsh and treat his people unfairly. Infrastructure, like roads and
bridges may start to decay, he may tax the people too much or local police and soldiers may stop protecting towns and villages. At this
point, people may begin to question whether or not the ruling dynasty still holds the Mandate of Heaven.

Finally, China will enter the third and final section of the dynastic cycle, known as the problems/ rebellion phase. At this point, some
kind of disaster will strike China. There may be an earthquake, flood, or serious drought. Bandit robberies may start to get out of
control or a foreign country might invade China. Being the religious people they are, the Chinese will now be certain that the ruling
dynasty has in fact lost the Mandate of heaven. A new person will rise up and become popular, gain the support of the peasants and
claim that he, in fact, now has the mandate of heaven! He will rally troops, fight a civil war and, if successful- take over China. If he
loses, someone else will soon challenge the current emperor and eventually, someone will be successful. That person will be crowned
emperor and his family will now rule China as the New Dynasty. He will have the complete backing of the people and the cycle
begins again.

Name: __________________________ Date: _____________

Global 9-Cook Period: ___________
Qin Dynasty (221-207 BCE)

Many dynasties in Ancient China lasted for hundreds of years. But the Qin Dynasty lasted for only 15 years.
Yet, First Emperor Qin accomplished an amazing amount of change. Under the Zhou dynasty, China broke up
into warring states. By 221 B.C., the ruler of the state of Qin had conquered his neighbors and took on the
name Shi Huangdi, or “First Emperor.”

 First Emperor Qin was a legalist. Legalists believe that people are basically bad. They believe that it is
necessary to control and regulate every minute of people's lives so they have the discipline needed to
work hard in the fields and in battle. Qin ran his dynasty with absolute control and swift harsh
punishment. It was illegal to whine about Qin's government. If you simply suggested that things might
be improved, you could be put to death without a trial.
 Law Code: He introduced a new law code that applied to everybody. He created a huge law
enforcement group, whose job was to enforce the laws.
 Bureaucracy: To control his people, First Emperor Qin developed a system of bureaucracy. He divided
his empire into 36 provinces. Each province was divided into districts. He put two government officials
in charge of each province. It was their job to put strong people in charge of each district. Workers were
well trained and paid. They reported to supervisors. People at each level supervised those below them.
 Spy System: To make sure everyone did their job correctly, First Emperor Qin set up a spy system.
People had to spy on each other - it was the law. People had to spy on each at work and at home in their
neighborhood or village. If people turned in lawbreakers, they were rewarded. If they did not, they were
executed. It was a simple system, and it worked very well. This organization system gave Qin great
power. That power allowed him to make huge changes. Qin knew that to unify China there had to be big
changes. Most of his laws had something to do with protection.

Other Changes:
 Land: First Emperor Qin took land away from the nobles. He did not want the nobles rising up against
him. Anyone who argued with Qin was either buried alive or put to work building the Great Wall.
 Standardization: He introduced one system of weights, measures, money, written language, and laws.
 Peasants: Peasants were assigned a job. They were either assigned the job of farmer or of silk maker. It
they tried to do anything else besides their assigned job, they were sent to work on the Great Wall. If
people were lazy or slow at doing their assigned job, they were sent to work on the wall.
 Censorship: Qin practiced total censorship. He persecuted scholars and destroyed books. He defined
useless books as any book about anything except books about medicine, agriculture, or prophecy.
Useless books were burned. Over 400 scholars who refused to turn in books were either buried alive or
sent to work on the wall. Qin did not believe in any education for the common man. According to Qin,
the more time people spent studying, the less time they had to grow food. He especially disliked the
teachings of Confucius. He had all Confucius' books burned.

Qin did not think his rule was cruel. He said, "A thousand may die so that a million may live." He built roads,
canals, and bridges. His public works projects probably saved millions of lives that would have been lost to
floods and famine. Although many people died building the Great Wall, it did provide an advantage in war.
No rebellion occurred during his rule.

End of the Qin dynasty. He died of natural causes in 210 BCE. Once he was dead, his son took over. His son
did not rule for long. People revolted against the Qin government all over the countryside. The peasant who led
that revolt became the new emperor. His dynasty was called the Han Dynasty. Life vastly improved during the
Han Dynasty.
Name: ________________________________ Date: ___________________
Global History and Geography Period: _________________

Qin Dynasty

Legalism Terracotta Warriors

(Write down important information
Definition: you learn from the video)

The Great Wall of China ... (true or false???)

1. Can be seen from space.

Evidence that
2. Is one of Shi
the Huangdi was
7 Wonders of athe World.
3. Was built as one giant wall.
4. Was built by Qin Shi Huangdi.
5. Was built of stone walls.
6. Was built because they hated foreigners.
7. It was an impenetrable barrier to invaders.
What was the purpose of the Great Wall?
Name:___________________________ Date: ___________
Global 9- Cook Period: _________
The Silk Roads

Setting out from China along the Silk Road (named due to the high demand for silk), fearful travelers
might begin the journey with a prayer. As they set out on their trip, they had to worry about not only the very
rough terrain but also the bandits along the way. Still, the possible rewards made the risk worth taking. So the
travelers would tighten the straps on their pack animals-horses, mules, camels, or yaks laden with bundles of
goods and in a band of 50 or more, protected by a bodyguard of archers, the caravan set forth.
Week after week, month after month, the journey continued. The traders would roast in the deserts of
the Takla Makan and freeze in the icy, snowy mountains. The great Silk Road stretched halfway across Asia
and linked East Asia and the Mediterranean world. Still, few traders covered the entire distance. Instead,
goods were relayed in stages from one set of traders to another.
A Chinese historian described travel on the desert: “You see nothing in any direction but the sky and the
sands, without the slightest trace of a road, and travelers find nothing to guide them but the bones of men and
beasts and the droppings of camels…You hear sounds, sometimes of singing; and it has often happened that
travelers going aside to see what these sounds might be have strayed from their course and been entirely lost.”
In addition to the menace of natural forces, bands of raiders lurked along the route, ready to descend on
careless travelers. Despite the dangers, traders and travelers moved along the Silk Road. Lucky traders might
return to China with furs from Central Asia, muslin (cloth) from India, glass from Rome, pears, oranges, etc..
The wheel, writing, weaving, gunpowder, religions, paper, and printing were among the inventions and ideas
that spread along the Silk Road from China.
Silk Roads Journal Entry

Directions: Write a journal entry about your travels on the Silk Road. You can be a Chinese trader, a European
trader or a Bandit (raider). You will be graded on how well you incorporate accurate global studies
information on the silk road into your creative story. You must write a minimum of 10 sentences.

Things to include:
 who you are with (are you traveling in a caravan? with family? friends?)
 why you are on the silk roads (hopes, goals, fears)
 locations (what country you’re from, where you’ve been, where you’re going)
 what you see (be specific about the things you come across on your journey)
 what ideas/goods you shared/traded with another culture

Name: _______________________________ Date: __________
Global 9 Period: _________
Early China Review

Most people live in the ________________ part of China because of its fertile soil. However, the majority of
China is covered with _________________ (like the Gobi and Taklimakan) and ______________________
(like the Himalayas). Due to the many mountains, the Chinese adapted to their environment by cutting ‘steps’
into the mountains. This is known as _____________ farming. The earliest civilizations of China settled near
the Huang He River, which is often called the ______________ River or River of Sorrows due to its floods.

Mandate of Heaven
A ___________________ is a ruling family in China in which the _______________ is the leader. The
emperor is believed to have been given the right to rule from god. This concept is known as the
__________________________________________________. Three ways a dynasty can lose this are:
____________________________, ________________________, _______________________.

Qin Dynasty
Qin took the name “_________________________” which means first emperor. He followed the belief system
called ______________________ because he believed people were inherently bad and needed harsh rules to
guide their behavior. Two achievements he is most known for are the _______________
_________________________ & ____________________________.

Silk Roads
The Silk Road played a large role in the sharing of goods and ideas between different cultures. This is known as
_________________________________. The Silk Road was not one road, but many different trade routes
between ________________, ________________, and the Middle East.

Name: ___________________________________ Date: ___________________

Global 9 Period: _________________
Early Civilizations in Latin America
Big Ideas about Latin America:

 Mountains, along with tropical forests in the lowlands, created barriers to the movement
of people. These features limited contact among areas and contributed to
Mayas Aztecs Incas
(1800 BC- 900 AD) (1100-1500) (1200-1530)

 ________________________  _______________________  _______________________

 ________________________  ______________ Mountains
 _______________________-
 _______________________
_________________ (cut and
crops grew on floating
_ (cut steps into Andes
burn rainforest to clear room
mountains to farm on)
 ________________________  _______________________  _______________________

 Built huge pyramid-temples

 Built huge pyramid-temples _
to honor gods
to honor gods  Built huge pyramid-temples
 Belief that gods control
 Sacrificed humans and to honor gods
nature so perform regular
animals to gods  Main temple was covered in

ceremonies to keep gods

 ________________________  _______________________  _______________________
________________________ _______________________ _______________________
 “glyphs” ________________
 Capital city of  Main temple was covered in
_____________________ __________
_______________________________- (cultures live near each other but stay isolated
and do not mix)
 Each of the early civilizations ______________________________________________
(ex. Different forms of farming)
 Early civilizations (Aztecs, Mayas, Incas) were already very _____________________
Name: _________________________________ Date: ____________
Global 9 Period: ___________

Ancient Greece

 Greece is located in _______________________________
 The main part of Greece is a __________________ (land surrounded by water on three sides) and the
rest of it is made up of __________________.
 Greece juts out into the ________________________________________. The Sea between Greece and
the Persian Empire (present day Turkey) is called the _______________________.

 Because Greece has a very _______________________ geography, it was _______________________
________________________. Instead, Greece was divided into _______________________________
_____________________ and experienced ________________________________. Each city-state had
its own ___________________ and __________. The two most famous city-states were:

Athens Sparta
 __________________________________  ___________________________ where men
 Direct Democracy- __________________ spent almost all of their lives ____________
__________________________________ ____________________
__________________________________  Spartans had _____________ who farmed so
__________________________________ the Spartans could focus on the military
__________________________________  Very isolated
 Believed in education
 Focused on trade, interaction and culture
 Known for its philosophers and writers

Name: ___________________________________ Date: _____________

Global 9 Period: ___________
Ancient Rome

 What geographic feature do you think Rome
settled near and why? (List three reasons)

 Rome began as a small _______________

on the _______________________ in Italy

 The two main mountain ranges in Italy are

the _______________ (in the north) and the
___________________ Mts. (run through the center)
 In 509 B.C. Rome established a __________________________________________________________
 Citizenship was not granted to ____________ or __________________ and women had no right to vote
 ______________________________: ____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________. These laws ____________
____________________________________________ since they were displayed in public for all to see
 The Romans developed important legal ideas such “_________________________________________
_______________________________” and the use of ________________________ in court.

Pax Romana (_____________________) 27 BCE- 180 AD

True or False?
 The Pax Romana included about 200 years of peace & prosperity
 The Romans gave citizenship to the people they conquered
 Roads made it difficult to unite the empire
 The Silk Roads spread all the way to Rome & contributed to cultural diffusion
 Buddhism spread throughout the Empire

Name: _______________________ Date: _____________

Global 9 Period: ___________
Roman Architecture Used Today
Notes Ancient Rome Today
 Lime and ________________________

 ______________________ and durable

 Used primarily for ________________

 Extremely well made and long lasting
 Crowned-(_______________________

______________ for water run-off)

 First to use arch in variety of structures

 Able to __________________________
___________ large, heavy buildings
Domes  _______________________________ of
vaulted ceilings and large covered public

 ______________ with ascending seating


 ________________________________
o Gladiator combats, chariot races,
animal slayings, or executions

 Used to conduct a water stream across hollows

or valleys
 ________________________________

 Used water was emptied into sewers to remove
waste material

Name: ____________________________ Date: ___________

Global 9 Period: _________

Thematic Essay: Geography

Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several

paragraphs addressing the task below, and a conclusion.

Theme: Geography
Geographic features can positively or negatively affect the
development of a nation or a region.
Select two different geographic features and for each:
 Explain how this geographic feature has influenced the
development of two nations or regions

You may use any geographic feature from your study of global history. Some
suggestions you
might wish to consider include: river valley, mountain, desert, island, rain forest, and

You are not limited to these suggestions.

Do not describe geography in the United States.

In your essay, be sure to:
 Develop all aspects of the task
 Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
 Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a
conclusion that are beyond a restatement of the theme.

Name: __________________________ Date: _____________

Class: __________________________ Period: ___________
Thematic Essay Checklist

Teacher Student
+ √
Grading Criteria
Essay thoroughly develops all parts of the task evenly and in depth
Demonstrates a logical and clear plan of organization
Includes an introduction and a conclusion that are beyond a restatement of the theme

Includes numerous facts, examples and details to support the claim VERY IMPPORTANT!!!

Is more analytical than descriptive (analyzes & evaluates information)

+ √
A “how-to” guide
Create a graphic organizer; fill in all boxes with simplified notes

Introduction (approximately 3-5 sentences)

Reword the Theme

Provide basic background information

End with your CLAIM (what your essay is going to prove based off the Task)
Body Paragraphs (approximately 10 sentences)
Point: Make your point (this should be based on the claim)

Evidence: Back up your point with supporting facts, examples, and details

Explanation: Explain how the evidence supports your claim; analyze why/how it’s important

Link: Form a connection to the claim; form a connection between each point in the paper

Style: Establish and maintain a formal style; Use proper spelling and grammar

Conclusion (approximately 3-5 sentences)

Reword the Theme/Historical Context/claim

Summarize what each body paragraph proved

Score 0 .5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5


Score 0 .5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5


Class grade: ________

Basic Outline for Thematic Essay on Geography

I. Introduction

II. Body Paragraph: Rivers

a. Describe one civilization that settled near a specific river

b. Describe another civilization that settled near a specific river

c. Explain how living near a river had a positive impact on both civilizations
(all the good reasons early civilizations settled near rivers)

III. Body Paragraph: Mountains

a. Describe one civilization that settled near mountains

b. Explain how the mountains impacted them

c. Describe a second civilization that settled near mountains

d. Explain how the mountains impacted them

IV. Conclusion