Structure
5.1 Introduction
Objectives
5.2 Real Sequences
Bounded Sequences
Monotonic Sequences
5.3 Convergent Sequences
5.4 Criteria for the Convergence of Sequences
Cauchy Sequences
5.5 Algebra of Convergent Sequences
5.6 Summary
5.7 Answers/Hints/Solutions
5.1 INTRODUCTION
In Unjt 2, you were introduced to the structure of the real numbers. In Unit 3, some
interesting properties of the system of real numbers were discussed. In addition to these
properties, there are several other fascinating features of the real numbers. In this unit, we
discuss one such feature. This is related to the problem of obtaining the sum of an infinite
'number of real humbew.
You kAow thnt it is easy to find the sum of a finite number of real numbers. The addition of
an infinite number of real numbers, however, poses some problem. Apparently, you may
conclude that it is not possible to add an infinite number of real numbers. But an infinite
sum i.e. the sum of an infinite number of real numbers is not artificial. Under certain
limiting processes, it is possible to give a meaning to an infinite sum of the form
Recall that this is the infinite sum of a Geometrical Progressi~nwith first term 1 and
common ratio 12 '
To obtain the infinite sums, we need the notion of a sequence of real numbers,
and its convergence to a limit. What is, then, a sequence? What is the
meaning of the convergence of a sequence? What is the criteria to
determine the convergence of a sequence? We shall try to find answers for these
questions. Also we shall discuss a few related concepts such as boundedness and monotoncity
of sequences. We shall frequentby use these concepts in the Units 6 and 7 as well as later on
in Blocks 3 and 5.
Objectives
After studying this wit, you shauld, therefore, be able to .
* define a sequence and its subsequence
* discuss a bounded and a monotonic sequence
* find the limit of a sequenca, if it exists
* verify whether a given sequence is convergent or not
,* use the criteria for the convergence of a sequence and define the Cauchy sequence.
I
1 1 1
Then s, = 5,Is2 = 5' s3 = 8' sa = 1 ,........ and so on.
T h e sequence s, is given by
(1, 1, 1 ......) is a sequence whose first term is 1, second term is 1, Bird term is 1, and so
on, wheras the set { I , 1, 1 , ...} is just the singlctou { I ) . kience to mclke the distillctio~i
clear, we some:imes write this sequence as (1") or
L.ei us look at a few more exa~nplcsof Real Sequellces.
EX/BM)EE 4 : (E) The erpsessioi: ( 8 , 2, 3, 4, ...I i s a sequence. This is the sequence
,
(n),,. or @I=
It has many fascinating mc! interesting properties. Also, it ha. lot of ~pplications
particiilarly in puzzles and riddles in Matllematics. In fact, Fibonacci, was illspired by
HinduArabic methods uf calculation. 111: fol111d t11i.s scquellce when he was trying to
solve the following problem:
"How many pairs of rabbits can be [~roducedfrona a single pair in a ycer if d v t ~ y .I.hc nicll~oti01' spccifjiir~ga
monil~each pair bcgrt:; a new pair w h i c l ~from the s c r o ~ ~month
d o u becomcs scqurllcc irl terms of prcvicjusly
the sequerlce.
~ I I I ) W I Itcr~nsof
producti~e'?" is called a rrcorsiorr formula.

Now consider the scqucnce ( sl,) gii'cn by ql = ( 1 )" n2. For111a secguence ( t, 1 w!~ost:
terms are the positive terms of the sequence ( s,, ). Then the telnls of (sll) are (I, 4, 4,
16, 25, 36, 49, 64; ...I slid the te:tnc of i t , ) are (4,16, 36, 64, ...I. Cbviocsly ( i , ) 1s
obpr' a by selecting, in ordcr, an infinite number of the dcrllls of (s"). 111such a case,
'
Let ( s n ) be a sequealcc. Let n,, n,, n3, ... he natorul numbers such that n, < n2 I I ~<:
... Then a sequerice
(s,,,, Sn2,,S, ...I = (s,, 3 = ( t, I,., or ( t, 1,
is called a subsequence of ( sn ).
Note that n, < n, .:n, < ....... < nk, .:n, n,,, .:.,, defines an infinite subset of N,
namely, {n,, n,, n,, ...I. Conversely, you can say that every infinite subset of N can be
described by
We have,
Thus, the sequance (sn)is bounded above by 2. Next, if we consider a sequence (sn), where
(s,Z 2),
then, in view of identity (s,+J2 2 =  , it follows easily that s n ' r 6 V n 2 2 i.e.,
4s;
the sequence (sn) is bounded below by 42.
EXERCISE 2
Define a sequence which is bounded below ohly or bounded above only. Give a n
example for each. Verify whether an Arithmetical Sequence ( a, a+d, a+2d, ), ...
d # 0 is bounded or bounded below only or bounded above only.
EXERCISE 3
Examine which of the sequence in Exercise 1 are bounded a n d unbounded.
Again, recall the notion of monotonic functions as discussed in Unit 4. Since a sequence
is a special type of function; therefore, we can say something about a monotonic
sequence. First, let us study the following examples:
123
Consider the sequence (Z, 4 1
,...). Here s, = $1) = 7,s, = s (2) =
2
;j;
$3) = 3r ,and so on. You can see that s, < s, < s, c s, < ..., that is, s(1) < s(2) <
s(3) < ... . In other words, the sequence preserves the order in N. Such a sequence is
called a monotonically incresing sequence.
Again, consider the sequence ( 1, 1 1 1 ...). Here, the inequalities are reversed
9 9 9
2 3 4
1 1
1 >  > j > 1 > ...; that is,
2
s(1) > $2) > s(3) > s(4) > ...
Sequences
In this case the sequence reverses the order in N. Such a sequence is called a
monotonically decreasing sequence.
and, so, in view of the fact that sn2 6, for n 2 2, it follows easily that sn sntl2 0 i.e.,
sntl I. sn, foi all n r 1. Hence tlie sequence (sn) is a mo~lotonicallydecreasing sequence.
I
However, if you look at the sequence sn= (1 + +r, then we call show that it is an
In the analogous formula for sntl, every term on the r.h.s. of last equality (except the
firstterm) increases in value and an additional tenn will appear on the right. Therefore,
s,+~> s,,, 'd n 21.
1
Thus (sn), where sn = (1 4 ) , is an strictly increasing sequence. In fact, this is bounded
n
as well.
For, observe that
As you will see below (Theorem 4), any such sequence has to be convergent. The limit
I that the number e is same as the value of the exponential function e: for x = I
I
Now try the following exercises.
EXERCISE 4
I
I Which of the following sequences are monotonic?
1 i) ( sinn); ii) ( tann);
EXERCISE 5
Alternatively, we can say that the sequence (+1 approaches the limit 0 if
be made as small as possible for larger and larger values of n. Note that such a
behaviour is not true of the seqrlence (n). Check why?
The condition that a sequence (sn) has a limit s is often expressed by saying that the
sequence (s,,) tends to a limit s. We say also that a sequence (sn) is convergent if there
exists a number s (called the limit of the sequence) such that Isn sl can be made "as
small as possible" for sufficiently large values of n. Note, however, our intuition is not
sharp enough to tell if the sequence (n sin T)1 converges, we, therefore, need a precise
definition of the convergence of a sequence, and also soine criteria to determine whether
a given sequence converges or not. We shall first define converges of sequence in this
section, and later on take up the criteria of convergence of seqiiences in the next section.
]s.E. SSE [. The initial segment that must be cut off depends on ~ . i . e how
. close to s are
the tail elements.
Figure 2 below illustrate the limit concept graphically. Consider the horizontal strip of
width 2~ generated by the lines y = s  E and y = s+e. A given term sn of the sequence
( sn) lies inside this strip exactly if the inequality Isn  sJ< E hold good. n u s , for a
llumber s to be the litnit of the scquellce (s,,), we must be able to specify a point m on
the xaxis such that, for all n lying to the right of nl, the corresponding term s,, lie wilhin
the horizontal strip.
n>m
Fig. 2
As you know that quite often (for example in the proof of the trigotlometric identities),
we use the if method i.e. we initially work backward from our desired conclusion, but
in the formal proof we must nuke sure that our steps aie reversible. In the present
example, we want to know how big n must be so that
So, we will operate on this inequality algebraically and try to solve it for n. Thus, we
1
start with  < E.
n2
By multiplying both sides by n2 and dividing both sides by e, we find that we want
1
Let E > 0 and take m =  . Then
6
Sequenccs & Series
I
which proves that the sequence (,) converges to the limit 0.
n
A similar problem is given in the next exercise, which you should solve to check your
understanding and computational skill.
EXERCISE 6
1
Use Definition 6 to prove that the sequence ($ converges to the limit 0.
the distance between 1 and I is 2, while the length of the interval Is 1 s + 2
3, 1 [ is 1.
Thus the sequence (1, 1, 1, 1, ... ) does not converge.
In above example, we have come across two sequences which are not convergent. Such
sequences are called divergent sequences.
Thus a sequence is said to be divergent if it is not convergent. Now we take up the
question: Can a sequence converge to two different limits? The answer to this question is
no and we prove this in the following form.
.
PROOF : Suppose that a sequence ( s n ) has two distinct limits s and s . Then s # s . Let
us assume, without loss of generality, that s s . Take E = 
f
S  s'
3 .
f
Sincr: sn+ s, all but iinitcly many elements of the sequence are in the interval
f
ISE, S+E[. For the same reason, all but finitely many elements of the seqence are in tlle
interval ]stE, s t + E [. Look at the Fig. 3.
The two intervals ]s  E, S'+E [ and Is&, s t &[ are disjoint (why?), and a tail of the
f
sequence cannot be contained in both the intervals. Hence, it is not possible for the
sequence (sn) to converge to two different limits. This proves the theorem.
Having defined convergence of sequence, the question that remains to be settled is : How
to test the convergence of a ;+:en sequence? Let us, first, obtain necessary conditions
for the convergence of a sequence. This condition is provided by the following theorem.
THEOREM 3: Every convergent sequence is boutadcd. Sequences
PROOF : Let (sn) be a sequence which converges to s. Then, for E > 0, there is
1 /
number rn E N such that s,, s < 6 , for n > m.
Let S denote the 6et (sn : n E N) = {s,, s ,,.,, ), where s, 5 s, S s, ... Since ( s n ) is
bounded aboye, therefore, there exists an upper bound for the sequence ( s,, s,, s, ... ).
Thus S hrls the lessf upper bound, say u. We slailn that the sequence (sll) converges to u,
For, let F > 0 be some real number. Since u  E is not an upper bound for the set S,
therefore, u  E < U, This rneans that there exists some integer m such that sm > u  E. Also,
since the sequence (s,,) is an iacreasing, we have
3 IS,  UJ< e,
(s,)
which shows that the sequel~ce converges to the limit u.
In case sf a monotonically decreasing sequence, the proof is similar to the one given
above. 'So, we leave this as an easy exercise for you.
Sequei,ci.s & Sel its

EXEBCISE 7
Let (sll) bc a monotonically decrensi~agsequcnce which is bounded Seloav. Show that
the sequence converges to its greatest lower bound.
EXERCISE 8
i) Suppose that the sequence (s,:) converges to s and sn 5 A, for every n. Show that
s 5 A.
ii) Supposc the sequence (sn) converges to s and s,, 2 a, for every n. Show that s 2 a.
EXERCISE 9
i) Suppose that the sequence (st) ccnverges to s. Show that every subsequence of (sll)
also converges to s.
ii) If a sequence docs not converge, then no subsequence of it caal converge. Is the
statement true? Justify your answer.
  
In fact, it is not difficult to see t!lat a sequlenca (fill)converges to s if and only if all its
s~absequcnceconverges to the mme limit s. However, if a sequence is such that its
subsequences converges to different limits, then the sequence will not convergent. For
example. the sequepce (s,,), where sn= ( I)", is ona s ~ ~ sequence.
ch Because, here ( 1,
. 1,  2 ,...) and (1, 1, 1,...) are its two subsequences converging to  1 and 1,
respecti\leiy. But, chc: sequence (( 1)") itself is not convergent.
EXERCISE 10
Sappo'ie the sequence (sn) converges to s. Show that the sequence (!s,,() converges to
Isl. Give an example to show that the converse of this is not true.
We now state a result (without proof) in tlie follouling theorem which is also referred to
as rhe BulzanoWeierstreas Theorem.
You have encountrred two examples of divergent sequences in Example 7, namely (1, 2,
3, 4 ,... ) and (1, 1, 1, 1, ...). The sequencc (1, 2, 3, 4, ....) is said to be divergent
sequence because its terms become "hvo big", whereas (I, 1, 1, 1, ....) is divergent
because it has no limit point.

In this case, we also write lim sn co or sn+m as 11 + co. Such a sequence is said to be
divergent sequence. You can similarly define the divergence of a sequence (sn) to m.
We car1 write this as 1% sn = m.
you can easily see that if a sequence ( s n ) diverges to +& or m, then 'the sequence is
unbounded. Some diverges to +m; while sqme other diverges to a.
'TO end this section, let us look at a very important sequence, which will be frequently
used in the larer sections:
clearly, 0 is a lower bound of the sequence. Therefore, it is enough to show tl'iat if r > 0,
then r is not a lower bound of the sequence. Let r > 0. We wish to show that, for some
1
n E N, xn < 1.. That is, for some n E N, nlogx < log r. (Recall from Unit 4 that .
I

log x is an increasing function). This is equivalent to finding n E N such that n > log r
log x '
i
Surely there are infinitely many such n's. This' sl?ows Lhat, when 0 < x < 1, liln x n = 0.
Thus, when 0 5 x < 1, tlie sequence ( xn ), converges to 0.
ii) If x = 1, the sequence ( x") is die constant sequence (1, I , 1, ...) and thus converges
1 to 1.
I
iii) Let x > 1. Then, silice xn*'> xn the sequence (x n ) is a lnonotonic increasing
sequence. To show that the sequence diverges to +w, it is sufficient to show .that the
sequence is unbounded.
 "I

Wc ~onclucletills section by drsc1rs5ins a very 1111portanterta~llplcof a convergent
sequence.

SOLU'FION: Writr: sn =
1
tin = I + xn. Then x,, 0, tor n ,1
Ey Bino~n~sl
'Theorem. w e Iiave

7
Let m E N such that m a: 1 1.
T
E
'l'heii. x,) < 6, h r all n ,rn.
Helice 1% I = i 1 X" C: e, fur ill1 ir :. n(. That is, ( s,,) coilverges to l
THEOREM 6: If' a sequence ( s,, ) is convcrgcnt, then for a given E > 0, there esists
m E N S I I C ~ Ithat Isn  sL[ C: E, whenever n > li 1n.
Thus isn  ski < ' E . for aB n, k > 111 (n > k).
The theorem says that if the terms of the sequence (sen)get close to some number, then
they are already close to each other. Motivated by the above theorem, we have the
following definition due to A.L. Cauchy, an eminent French mathematician.
PROOF: Let ( srl) be a cauchy sequence. Then, by definition, it follc. s:. that for E = 1.
there is a positive integer m sucll that
In particular, Isn  sm+,l< 1, for all n > m. In other words (see Unit 3)
Thus if
.snr+ p as r + w.
Our claim is that sn + p as 11 + w.
Let E > 0 be given. Then there exists a natural number q such that, for any r > q, w e
have
Again since ( s,, ) is a cauchy sequence, therefore, tht:e cxists a natural number k such .
that for n > k > rn, we have
E
l S n  S k I < 7.
Now, for an n > m, clloose r so large thal n, I.nl and r > q. 'Tben
Sequences % Series E
IsnrPI'Ts
E
is satisfied. Also 1 sn  s,,~
/ is satisfied with k = n,. TIILIS,tbr n > ~ n ,
< E +  E1 = E .
2 2
Thus, given an E > 0, we have found an m such that, for any n > In, I s,,  p I < E.
Theorems 6 and 8 are solneti~nescombined into one theorem wl;.cli is popularly known
as Cauchy's General Principle of Convergence o r Cauchy's criteria for t h e
convergence of sequence.
I
EXAMPLE 11 : S l ~ o wthat the sequence ;; is a cauchy sequence. W h a t about ( nl)?
SOLUTION : Let E > 0 be given. Then by taking m = III (E) > $ , we see that
In other words,
whenever n > In and k > m ,which shows that the sequence (1x)
is convergent.
We'shall sllow that convergence and limits are preserved under above operations.
lirn
ntr
(q, + tn ) = s + t,
PROOF: Let E > 0 be given. Then ~ 1 2 ,0. Since lirn sn = s, there is.m, E b4 such that
n>n
E . '
I sn s J <  , whenever n 2 m,.
2
Since lirn tn = t, there is m, E N such that
n4r
E
Itn  t J , whenever n r rn,.
2
Let m = max (m,, m,). Then, for all n 2; m, we have
PROOF: The theorem is obvious if u = 0. So, let us consider the case when a t 0.
.
Now you can easily solve following exercise.
EXERCISE 13
Let linl sn = s and
1142
!i,mP t,, = t. Let a, p E lirn (.asn +
'R. Show that nr= P t n ) = cc s + [Jt.
Now to prove that the limit of the productGoftwb convergent sequences is the prod;~ct01'
their limits, we need the following theorem:
ti' such
Since (sn) converges, therefore it is bounded. Hence, there exists a'ieal ,nu~~lber
that 1 snI < K, for all n. Since 1i1n s,, = s, we have Is I
IlIX
s K. Hence
i
I s n + s I < I s n I  I  ( s ( < 2K f o r a l t n .
, Since lirn
n+r,
sn = s, there is an m E N such that I sn s I < 
E
2K for all . 11 2 ni.
1
PROOF: We use the wcllknown algebraic identity ab =  [(a t b)l  (a  b)?].
4
Now, by Theorem 10, we know that sn + ln + s
'
4 t as n+m. Ti~erefore.using Tl~eorem I
12. we get
(so + tJ2 + (~+t)~.

~ 1 ~by0 E, 13, sn tn + s  t as n+m. Therefore. ligalli using Theorem 12, we have
Ifence, (sl, + tn)'  (sn  tJ2 > ( s 1 l )'  (S  t)'. Finally, using the algebraic, idcnli:~,
we get
verify t.fiat all the steps are justif'ied. Nniice that this proof' uses no E. 'T*l~etcuhlliqut, of
~!:;i!lg'the'iilgebraic ideritity to deal with Ihe product is c,alled polsrizi~tioa.
I'inally. we turn our attention to the qe~otientof'convery,ent seqr.ri.liccs. I:nr l.hi.r;. \rife ?sail.\
,II( ()reim:
ilr7ed ttie fi.~llocv~n,b 1
i
I'WBEOF: '1'6: p~.ovetlic ~i.leul.em,rse nccd s ii!f,(> that ;:
3
c;in bc rl*:iint:J. Bur: w l ~ :
1 :! if
:abot,lt 7 SOIIIC
I I:
g,':= 0. then '  S 1101 ilefi;iccj. "To ovclecumc tliii; difficulty \.vt! 112:iy
!> 3,)
\,Ye shall discuss tlio proof for the casc s 0 The case \ O call he discurstd 1.y'
applyilig the case for s :. O to the sequence ( s,, )
Since iim sn
n >I
 s. tlierelblr tl'iere exists m, e N such that
S
, This implies that sn > for all n , m,.
2
sufficient for the convkrgence of (sn + tn).'It is possible for (sn + tn) to be convergent
even if ( s,, ) and ( t, ) do not converge.
Similar reniarks are true for sequence (a sn) and (sn tn). Now try the following exercises.
'EXERCISE 14
i) Given an example of divergent sequence ( sn) and ( tn) such that ( sn+ tn)
converges.
ii) Given a n example of a divergent sequence (s,,) and a codvergent sequence ( t n )
such that'( s. tn) converges.
EXERCISE IS
Show that if (sn) is a bounded sequence and if ( t n ) converges to 0, then (sntn)
converges to 0.
111. If ( sn) diverges to +OD and if ( tn) converges, then (sn + tn) diverges to 4m.
You can similarly try to formulate some similar results for the sequences.diverging to
minus infinity.
5.6 SUMMARY
In this unit, we have initiated the study of the limiting procebs by introducing the norion .
of a sequence and other related concepts. In section 5.2, we have defined a sequence, a
subsequence and a few types of sequences such as bounded and monotonic sequences .
etc. We have confined our discussion to the real sequences. A real sequences is a special
type of real function whose domain is the set N of natural numbers and the range is a
subset of the set R of real numbers. If s: N + R is a sequence, then its values are . ,
denoted. by s,, s,, .... The sequence is generally denoted by ( s n ) where the values s,, s,,
.... are known as its terms. A sequence'( t n ) is called a subsequence of the sequence ( s,, )
if all terms of tn are taken in order from *thoseof ( sn). A sequence ( x ) is said to be
bounded if there exists a real number K such that ( s,, I I K, for' every n E N. A seiuerice
(s, ) is said to be monotonicall;r illcreasing if sn Isnr,,for, every n E N and it is said to
be monotonically decreasing if sn 2 sn+,for every n E N. The sequence ( s m )is said to be
strictly increasing if sn < sn+,(strict inequality), for every n E N and strictly decreasing if
Sn ' Sn+l' for every n E N. A sequence which is either increasing or decreasing is said to
be a monotonic sequence.
Section 5.3 deals with the convergence of a sequence. When a sequence ( s n ) possesses a
limit as n+m, then it is said to be convergent. In other words, we say that a sequence
(s,,) .converges to a limit s if for a given E > 0, there exists a positive integer m such
that
A sequence which is not convergent is said to be a divergent sequence. This is due to the
reason that ( s, ) is unbounded or because ( s n ) does not have a unique limiting value.
In Section 5.4, we have discussed Cauchy's Criteria to test the convergence of a sequence
without taking the botheration of finding the limit of the sequence. Tl1i.s criteria states that
a sequence ( s n) is convergent if and only if, for an E > 0, there exists a positive integer
n1 such that
1 s,  skI < E, for a11 n, k > m ( n > k ).
Finally in section 5.5, we have discussed the algebra of convergent sequences i.e., the
sum, difference, product and the quotient of two convergent sequences is a sequence
which is convergent under certain necessary restrictions.
E 1) ii) is a subsequence o r (n) while (i) and (iii) are not subsequence of (n). .
E 2) Since d r 0, either d >  0 or d < 0. Let us consider the case d > 0. The case d < 0 ,
% .
E 4) i) is not monotonic.
ii) is also not monotonic.
1 1 1
1+12 > 
iii) is monotonically decreasing since  1+22. > 1+32 >  """'

iv) The sequence is monotonically increasing.
The sequence is (1, 5, 5, 7, 7, 9, 9, .....)
s, 5 s2 5 s3 5 ..",
Let ( s,,,) be a subsequence. This means that
nI < n2 < no ...
Hence s,, 5 sni I sn3< ...
25
Sequences &Series
[n other words, (s,,) is n~onotonicallyincreasing.
ii) Yes. Suppose ( s n ) is both an increasing slid a decreasing sequence. This means
that s, 2 s: 2 s, 2 .... and s , I. s, 5 s, s ..... By the law of trichotollly ( do you
recall it), this can happen it and only if s, = s, = s, = ..... In other words
constant sequences are the orfly sequences which are both increasing and
decreasing.
E 7) We have s, 2 s, 2 s, .... and we are given that the sequence is bounded. Hence,
by the completeness axiom, the set is,. s,, ..,..I has the greatest lower bound.
Let a be the greatest lower bound. Hence sn 2 a, for eveiy n E N.
Let E > 0 be given. Then a t E is not a lower bound of the sequence. Hence
sill L= a + E , for somr: m EN. But then a + E = sn, 2 s , > ..... But then a  E z
,?
sill 2 sm, .... 2 a. That is, s,, lies i n the interval ]a  E, a + E [, for all n > m. In
other words, lim sll = a.
n>z
ii) This is entirely analogous to Part (i). You have nlerely to reverse tlle
inequalities.
ii) The sL7tement is false. For instance, consider tlle sequence (1, 0, 1. 0, ...). This
sequence does not converge. However (1, 1, 1, ...) is a subsequence ~ d l i c h
converges to 1.
then. "
I I sn1  1 s I I sn s I . [Refer to Unit 31.
Hence, 1 i s,, 1  ( s 1 I < whenever n > m.
E,
Hence ( / s, I ) converges to I s 1. Sequences
The converse is not true, as you can see by considering the nonconvergent
sequence (1, 1, 1, 1 ....).
E 11) A sequence ( s n) is said to diverge to w if, given any real number k < 0, there
is ni E N such that sn k, for all n 2 m.
L,et 1 < x < 0. Then, 0 1 ?: < 1.
Let E > 0 be given. Then
( 0  xnI = I x '"I. NOW,
I x l " ~ i f n log 1x1 ' l o g & .
Remembering that log 1 x I < 0 sinco 0 < ( x 1 < 1. Take
log E , ,
m > 
log 1x1
log E
Hence 10  xn I < E , for all n > 
1% 1x1 '
Hence ( x") converges to '0.
E 12) Let.lini
n+T
sn = s and n+m
l i ~ nt,, = t. Then, for E > 0,there exists integers m,, rn, EN
such that Isn SI < E, M n > m,, and Itn  tl < E, V n > m,. Let
m = max (m,, m,). Then, for n > m, both Isn  sJ < e and Itn  t( .< E holds.
This, in term, implies
=as+pt.
E 15) Let I s n ( K , f o r a l l n.
6.1 INTRODUCTION
In the Unit 5, you were introduced to the notion of a real sequence and its convergence to a
limit. It was also stated that one of the main aims of discussing the real sequences and its
convergence'was to find a method of obtaining the sum of an infinite number of real
numbers. In other words, we have to give a meaning to the infinite sums of the forms
1t2+3+4+5+ .............
where the ' ..................' is interpreted to indicate the remainiae infkite number of
additions which have to be performed. The clear explanation of this concept will, then, lead
us to conclude that it is possible to achieve the addition of an infinite number of real
numbers, by using the limiting pracess of the real sequences.
To give a satisfactory meaning tothe summation of the infinite number of the terms of a
sequence, we have to define a summation which is popularly known as an infinite series.
The infinite series have been classified mainly into two categories  the positive term
series and the general Series. What are, then, the positive term series and
the general series? We shall try to find answers for these questions. T h e
summation of an infinite series of real numbers is directly connected with the convergence of
the associated real sequences. We shall, therefore, give a meaning to the term
associated sequence for an infinite series and hence its convergence which
will lead us ultimately. to find the sum of an infinite series.
Although the famous Greek philosopher and mathematician, Archimedes had summed up the
wellknown Geometric Series, yet oqer results on infinite series did not appear in Europe
until the 14th century when Nicole Oresme [133013821showed that the Harmonic series
diverges. Since then, a lbt of work has been going on in thiS direction. There is evidence that
this type of work was known in 1ndia also as early as in 1550. Indeed, even modem work has
shown evidence of the discovery of a number of mathematical ideas pertaining to the infinite
series in China, India and Persia much before they came to be known in Europe. In the 17th
century, there seemed to be little concern for the convergence of the infinite series. But
during the 18th century, two ~rench$mathematicians D' Aleinbert and Cauchy devised
+ remarkable tests for the convergence of infinite series under certain conditions which we shall
discuss in this unit. Also, we shall discuss, in this unit, a few more tests for the
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