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Between 25 August and 31 October 1451 Born Genoa, Republic of Genoa, in present-day Italy 20 May 1506 (aged 54) Died Valladolid, Crown of Castile, in present-day Spain Nationality Genoese Genoese: Christoffa Corombo Italian: Cristoforo Colombo Other names Catalan: Cristòfor Colom Spanish: Cristóbal Colón Portuguese: Cristóvão Colombo Latin: Christophorus Columbus Occupation Title Religion Spouse Partner Children Maritime explorer for the Crown of Castile Admiral of the Ocean Sea; Viceroy and Governor of the Indies Roman Catholic Filipa Moniz Perestrelo (c. 1455-1485) Beatriz Enríquez de Arana (c. 1485-1506) Diego Fernando Giovanni Pellegrino, Giacomo and Relatives Bartholomew Columbus (brothers) Signature
Christopher Columbus (c. 31 October 1451 ± 20 May 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer from Genoa, Italy, whose voyages across the Atlantic Ocean led to general
European awareness of the American continents in the Western Hemisphere. With his four voyages of exploration and several attempts at establishing a settlement on the island of Hispaniola, all funded by Isabella I of Castile, he initiated the process of Spanish colonization which foreshadowed general European colonization of the "New World". Although not the first to reach the Americas from Europe²he was preceded by at least one other group, the Norse, led by Leif Ericson, who built a temporary settlement 500 years earlier at L'Anse aux Meadows² Columbus initiated widespread contact between Europeans and indigenous Americans. The term "pre-Columbian" is usually used to refer to the peoples and cultures of the Americas before the arrival of Columbus and his European successors. The name Christopher Columbus is the Anglicisation of the Latin Christophorus Columbus. The original name in 15th century Genoese language was Christoffa Corombo (pronounced IPA: [kri t ffa ku rumbu][dubious ± discuss]). Columbus's initial 1492 voyage came at a critical time of emerging modern western imperialism and economic competition between developing kingdoms seeking wealth from the establishment of trade routes and colonies. In this sociopolitical climate, Columbus's farfetched scheme won the attention of Isabella I of Castile. Severely underestimating the circumference of the Earth, he estimated that a westward route from Iberia to the Indies would be shorter than the overland trade route through Arabia. If true, this would allow Spain entry into the lucrative spice trade ² heretofore commanded by the Arabs and Italians. Following his plotted course, he instead landed within the Bahamas Archipelago at a locale he named San Salvador. Mistaking the lands he encountered for Asia, he referred to the inhabitants as "indios" (Spanish for "Indians"). The anniversary of Columbus's 1492 landing in the Americas is usually observed as Columbus Day on 12 October in Spain and throughout the Americas, except Canada. In the United States it is observed annually on the second Monday in October.
See also: Origin theories of Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus was born between 25 August and 31 October 1451 in Genoa, part of modern Italy. His father was Domenico Colombo, a middle-class wool weaver, who later also had a cheese stand where Christopher was a helper, working both in Genoa and Savona. His mother was Susanna Fontanarossa. Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino and Giacomo were his brothers. Bartolomeo worked in a cartography workshop in Lisbon for at least part of his adulthood.  Columbus never wrote in his native language, but it may be assumed this was the Genoese variety of Ligurian. In one of his writings, Columbus claims to have gone to the sea at the age of 10. In 1470 the Columbus family moved to Savona, where Domenico took over a tavern.
In the same year, Columbus was on a Genoese ship hired in the service of René I of Anjou to support his attempt to conquer the Kingdom of Naples.
Columbus's notes in Latin, on the margins of his copy of The Travels of Marco Polo In 1473 Columbus began his apprenticeship as business agent for the important Centurione, Di Negro and Spinola families of Genoa. Later he allegedly made a trip to Chios, a Genoese colony in the Aegean Sea. In May 1476, he took part in an armed convoy sent by Genoa to carry a valuable cargo to northern Europe. He docked in Bristol, England; Galway, Ireland and was possibly in Iceland in 1477. In 1479 Columbus reached his brother Bartolomeo in Lisbon, while continuing trading for the Centurione family. He married Filipa Moniz Perestrelo, daughter of the Porto Santo governor and Portuguese nobleman of Genoese origin Bartolomeu Perestrello. In 1479 or 1480, his son Diego Columbus was born. Between 1482 and 1485 Columbus traded along the coasts of West Africa, reaching the Portuguese trading post of Elmina at the Guinea coast. Some records report that Felipa died in 1485. It is also speculated that Columbus may have simply left his first wife. In either case Columbus found a mistress in Spain in 1487, a 20-year-old orphan named Beatriz Enriquez de Arana. Intelligent and ambitious, Columbus eventually learned Latin, as well as Portuguese and Castilian, and read widely about astronomy, geography, and history, including the works of Ptolemy, Cardinal Pierre d'Ailly's Imago Mundi, the travels of Marco Polo and Sir John Mandeville, Pliny's Natural History, and Pope Pius II's Historia Rerum Ubique Gestarum. According to historian Edmund Morgan, Columbus was not a scholarly man. Yet he studied these books, made hundreds of marginal notations in them and came out with ideas about the world that were characteristically simple and strong and sometimes wrong, the kind of ideas that the self-educated person gains from independent reading and clings to in defiance of what anyone else tries to tell him.  Throughout his life, Columbus also showed a keen interest in the Bible and in biblical prophecies, and would often quote biblical texts in his letters and logs. For example, part of the argument that he submitted to the Spanish Catholic Monarchs when he sought their support for his proposed expedition to reach the Indies by sailing west was based on his reading of the Second Book of Esdras (see 2 Esdras 6:42, which Columbus took to mean that the Earth is made of six parts of land to one of water). Towards the end of life, Columbus produced a Book of Prophecies in which his career as an explorer is interpreted in the light of Christian eschatology and of apocalypticism.
With the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. Portuguese navigators. written around AD 723. 1490 in the Lisbon workshop of Bartolomeo and Christopher Columbus  Background Under the hegemony over Asia of the Mongol Empire (the so-called Pax Mongolica. sought to reach Asia by sailing around Africa. when Bartolomeu Dias reached the Cape of Good Hope. the land route to Asia became much more difficult and dangerous. on which ancient astronomy was largely based. Major progress in this quest was achieved in 1488. i. or Mongol peace) Europeans had long enjoyed a safe land passage to China and India. Christian writers whose works clearly reflect the conviction that the Earth is spherical include Saint Bede the Venerable in his Reckoning of Time. Where Columbus did differ from the view accepted by scholars in his day was in his estimate of the westward distance from Europe to Asia. The sphericity of the Earth is also accounted for in the work of Ptolemy. Columbus's ideas in this regard were based on three factors: his low estimate of the size of the Earth. In fact. In Columbus's time. who lived in the 4th century BC and whose works were widely studied and revered in Medieval Europe. the socalled "Silk Road. under the leadership of King John II. and his belief that Japan and other inhabited islands lay far to the east of . his high estimate of the size of the Eurasian landmass. spices. were beginning to be widely used by mariners. the techniques of celestial navigation. most educated Westerners had understood that the Earth was spherical at least since the time of Aristotle. together with the understanding that the Earth is a sphere. drawn ca. Geographical considerations Washington Irving's 1828 biography of Columbus popularized the idea that Columbus had difficulty obtaining support for his plan because Christian theologians insisted that the Earth was flat.Quest for Asia "Columbus map".. in what is now South Africa. which use the position of the Sun and the Stars in the sky. in the 1480s the Columbus brothers had developed a different plan to reach the Indies (then construed roughly as all of south and east Asia) by sailing west across the "Ocean Sea".e. Meanwhile. the Atlantic. and opiates."which were sources of valuable goods such as silk.
830 m) rather than the shorter Italian miles with which he was familiar (1. which directly influenced Columbus plans Columbus accepted Alfraganus's estimate that the degree of latitude (or a degree of longitude along the Equator) was equivalent to 56 miles. These measurements were widely known among scholars. whereas the correct value is 40. Columbus. leaving only 135 degrees of water." following Marco Polo) was much larger. Toscanelli's notions of the geography of the Atlantic Ocean.000 Italian miles (3.000 km (25. which he thought might lie not much further to the west than the Azores. but confusion about the old-fashioned units of distance in which they were expressed had led.200 mi). however.700 km. to some debate about the exact size of the Earth.255 kilometers at most. which put the longitudinal span of the landmass at 225 degrees. while the correct figure is 19. who corresponded with Columbus before his death in 1482 and who also defended the feasibility of a westward route to Asia. He also believed that Japan (which he called "Cipangu. Eratosthenes has correctly computed the circumference of the Earth by using simple geometry and studying the shadows cast by objects at two different locations: Alexandria and Syene (modern-day Aswan). but did not realize that this was expressed in Arabic miles (about 1. for his part. most scholars accepted Ptolemy's correct estimate that Eurasia spanned 180 degrees of longitude. Already in the 3rd century BC. In all three of these issues Columbus was both wrong and at odds with the scholarly consensus of his day. believed the incorrect estimates of Marinus of Tyre. Eratosthenes's results were confirmed by a comparison of stellar observations at Alexandria and Rhodes. No ship in the 15th century could carry enough food and fresh water for such a long voyage and the dangers involved in navigating through the uncharted ocean would have been formidable. Furthermore. He therefore estimated the circumference of the Earth to be 25. and closer to the Equator than it is. further to the east from China ("Cathay"). Most European sailors and navigators reasonably concluded that a westward voyage from Europe to Asia was unfeasible.600 km (12.the coast of China.238 meters). Columbus therefore estimated the distance from the Canary Islands to Japan to be about 3. and that there were inhabited islands even further to the east than Japan. carried out by Posidonius in the 1st century BC. In this he was influenced by the ideas of Florentine physician Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli. The Catholic Monarchs.300 statute miles). including the mythical Antillia. in Columbus's day. having .000 mi). or 2.
propelled Columbus's fleet for five weeks. By sailing directly due west from the Canary Islands during hurricane season. During his first voyage in 1492. commonly called "easterlies". Columbus returned home by following the curving trade winds northeastward to the middle latitudes of the North Atlantic. the brisk trade winds from the east. both of which he luckily avoided. He proposed the king equip three sturdy ships and grant Columbus one year's time to sail out into the Atlantic. . To return to Spain against this prevailing wind would have required several months of an arduous sailing technique. Columbus promised such an advantage. Funding campaign In 1485. There. the winds curve southward towards the Iberian Peninsula. Columbus's knowledge of the Atlantic wind patterns was. called beating.completed an expensive war in the Iberian Peninsula. where he was able to catch the "westerlies" that blow eastward to the coast of Western Europe. however. during which food and drinkable water would probably have been exhausted. were desperate for a competitive edge over other European countries in the quest for trade with the Indies. from the Canary Islands to the Bahamas. King of Portugal. Columbus and Queen Isabella. It is unclear whether Columbus learned about the winds from his own sailing experience or if he had heard about it from others. he did possess valuable knowledge about the trade winds. The corresponding technique for efficient travel in the Atlantic appears to have been discovered first by the Portuguese. skirting the so-called horse latitudes of the midAtlantic. Columbus risked either being becalmed or running into a tropical cyclone. Columbus presented his plans to John II. in turn. and return. Instead. Detail of the Columbus monument in Madrid (1885). who referred to it as the Volta do Mar ("turn of the sea"). which would prove to be the key to his successful navigation of the Atlantic Ocean. imperfect at the time of his first voyage. Nautical considerations Though Columbus was wrong about the number of degrees of longitude that separated Europe from the Far East and about the distance that each degree represented. search for a western route to the Orient.
to see if the English monarch might not be more amenable to Columbus's proposal. The Santa Maria was a carrack. a foremast. judging by our knowledge of ship-making in the 15th and 16th centuries. 6 feet. Henry's invitation came too late. Now that it looked like Portugal could soon have the eastern sea route to Asia under its control. reported back that Columbus had judged the distance to Asia much too short. and once again John invited him to an audience. Five sails altogether were attached to these masts. appointed governor of any and all lands he discovered. like their counterparts in Portugal. referred it to a committee.400 miles (3. who rejected it. the flagship of the Columbus fleet. The ship had a smaller topsail on the mainmast above the mainsail and on the foremast above the foresail. but he received encouragement from neither. However.Columbus also requested he be made "Great Admiral of the Ocean". It also proved unsuccessful. far too short.000 maravedis and in 1489 furnished him with a letter ordering all cities and towns under their domain to provide him food and lodging at no cost. and a mizzenmast. and given one-tenth of all revenue from those lands. This allowed it to carry more people and cargo. The king submitted the proposal to his experts. He had sought an audience from the monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. who had united many kingdoms in the Iberian Peninsula by marrying. . The vessel had three masts: a mainmast. It was their considered opinion that Columbus's estimation of a travel distance of 2. and were ruling together. In 1488 Columbus appealed to the court of Portugal once again. the sail on the mizzen was a triangular sail known as a lateen mizzen. and perhaps to keep their options open. permission having been granted. Columbus presented his plans to Queen Isabella. 25 feet. She had a deep draft. Columbus travelled from Portugal to both Genoa and Venice. The foresail and mainsail were square. to keep Columbus from taking his ideas elsewhere. Columbus had already committed himself to Spain. who.860 km) was. between 400 and 600 tons. In addition. in fact. After much carefully considered hesitation. After the passing of much time. ~ Flagship of Columbus ~ Fleet of Columbus ~ ~ 400th Anniversary Issues of 1893 ~ These US stamps issues reflect the most commonly held views of historians as to what Columbus's first fleet might have looked like. the Catholic Monarchs gave him an annual allowance of 12. King John was no longer interested in Columbus's project. in part because not long afterwards Bartholomeu Dias returned to Portugal following a successful rounding of the southern tip of Africa. on the bowsprit. Each mast carried one large sail. They pronounced the idea impractical. It was a merchant ship. in turn. and advised their Royal Highnesses to pass on the proposed venture. the ship carried a small square sail. Previously he had his brother sound out Henry VII of England. a spritsail. the savants of Spain. On 1 May 1486. The boat's length was 75 feet with a wide beam.
whom Columbus had already lined up. Columbus's coat of arms. The terms were unusually generous. but as his son later wrote.After continually lobbying at the Spanish court and two years of negotiations. Many of the smears against Columbus were initiated by the Castilian crown during these lengthy court cases. as depicted in his Book of Privileges (1502) According to the contract that Columbus made with King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. he would receive many high rewards. he would be given the rank of Admiral of the Ocean Sea and appointed Viceroy and Governor of all the new lands. the last Muslim stronghold on the Iberian peninsula. He had the right to nominate three persons. Columbus was to be made "Admiral of the Seas" and would receive a portion of all profits. Diego resumed litigation in 1512. After his death. Columbus was later arrested in 1500 and supplanted from these posts. Isabella turned Columbus down on the advice of her confessor. Isabella then sent a royal guard to fetch him and Ferdinand later claimed credit for being "the principal cause why those islands were discovered". The family had some success in their first litigation. Additionally. in the Alcázar castle. for any office in the new lands. which lasted until 1536. as a judgment of 1511 confirmed Diego's position as Viceroy. He would be entitled to 10% of all the revenues from the new lands in perpetuity. if Columbus discovered any new islands or mainland. known as the pleitos colombinos. although it was one of his demands. the monarchs did not really expect him to return. and they received Columbus in Córdoba. this part was denied to him in the contract. when Ferdinand intervened. took legal action to enforce their father's contract. About half of the financing was to come from private Italian investors. and he was leaving town by mule in despair. Financially broke after the Granada campaign. Diego and Fernando. but reduced his powers. Ferdinand and Isabella had just conquered Granada. and further disputes continued until 1790. Columbus's sons. the monarchs left it to the royal treasurer to shift funds among various royal accounts on behalf of the enterprise. from whom the sovereigns would choose one. he finally had success in 1492. In terms of power. he would also have the option of buying one-eighth interest in any commercial venture with the new lands and receive oneeighth of the profits.  Voyages .
why the American continent was named after the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci and not after Columbus. Columbus himself always insisted. and are thus of enormous significance in Western history.Main article: Voyages of Christopher Columbus Voyages of Christopher Columbus Between 1492 and 1503. These voyages marked the beginning of the European exploration and colonization of the American continents. Santa María. municipality of Palos de la Frontera) Replica of the Santa Maria Columbus claims the New World (chromolithograph by the Captain's Ensign for Columbus's fleet Prang Education Company. one larger carrack. First voyage First voyage Departure from Palos (Evaristo Dominguez. in the face of mounting evidence to the contrary. Columbus departed from Palos de la Frontera with three ships. Columbus completed four round-trip voyages between Spain and the Americas. in part. nicknamed Gallega (the Galician). 1893) On the evening of 3 August 1492. and two smaller . Columbus's refusal to accept that the lands he had visited and claimed for Spain were not part of Asia might explain. that that lands that he visited during those voyages were part of the Asian continent. all of them under the sponsorship of the Crown of Castile. as previously described by Marco Polo and other European travelers.
" Columbus also explored the northeast coast of Cuba (landed on 28 October) and the northern coast of Hispaniola. Here. .m. Because of this. by 5 December. nicknamed Niña after her owner Juan Niño of Moguer. but they made quite an impression on Seville. and govern them as I pleased. Columbus left 39 men and founded the settlement of La Navidad at the site of present-day Môle Saint-Nicolas. Columbus called the island (in what is now The Bahamas) San Salvador. "I could conquer the whole of them with 50 men. in order that they may learn our language. He landed on the Samaná Peninsula where he met the hostile Ciguayos who presented him with his only violent resistance during his first voyage to the Americas." He remarked that their lack of modern weaponry and even metal-forged swords or pikes was a tactical vulnerability. On 6 September he departed San Sebastián de la Gomera for what turned out to be a five-week voyage across the ocean. Today the place is called the Bay of Rincon. and when I made signs to them to find out how this happened. Columbus first sailed to the Canary Islands. they defend themselves the best they can. writing. I will take six of them to Your Highnesses when I depart. They were property of Juan de la Cosa and the Pinzón brothers (Martín Alonso and Vicente Yáñez). Pinta (the Painted) and Santa Clara. where he restocked the provisions and made repairs. they indicated that people from other nearby islands come to San Salvador to capture them. by a sailor named Rodrigo de Triana (also known as Juan Rodríguez Bermejo) aboard Pinta. the Santa Maria ran aground on Christmas morning 1492 and had to be abandoned. He was received by the native cacique Guacanagari. If it pleases our Lord. and the Ciguayos' use of arrows. Exactly which island in the Bahamas this corresponds to is an unresolved topic. Taíno or Arawak. Haiti. or San Salvador Island (so named in 1925 in the belief that it was Columbus's San Salvador). for they seem to have no religion. he called the inlet he met them. I think they can very easily be made Christians. were peaceful and friendly. in Samaná. The indigenous people he encountered. the Lucayan. They ought to make good and skilled servants. "Many of the men I have seen have scars on their bodies. who gave him permission to leave some of his men behind. but the monarchs forced the Palos inhabitants to contribute to the expedition. which were owned by Castile. Only seven or eight of the native Indians arrived in Spain alive.On January 13. Land was sighted at 2 a. The Bay of Arrows (or Gulf of Arrows). on 12 October 1492. 1493 Columbus made his last stop in the New World. for they repeat very quickly whatever we say to them. prime candidates are Samana Cay. Plana Cays.caravels. the Dominican Republic  Columbus kidnapped about ten to twenty-five natives and took them back with him. the natives called it Guanahani. I believe that people from the mainland come here to take them as slaves. From the 12 October 1492 entry in his journal he wrote of them.
There is increasing modern scientific evidence that this voyage also brought syphilis back from the New World. but "colonies of settlement" and conversion of the natives to Christianity. Columbus sighted a rugged island that he named Dominica (Latin for Sunday)." Columbus named the small island of "Saona . and soldiers. later that day. he set sail for Spain. his friend from Savona. After spending more than one week in Portugal. Second voyage Columbus left Cádiz on 24 September 1493 to find new territories. to honor Michele da Cuneo.. he landed at MarieGalante. which he named Santa Maria la Galante. sailed with Columbus during the second voyage and wrote: "In my opinion. following a more southerly course. He crossed the bar of Saltes and entered the harbour of Palos on 15 March 1493. which he explored between 4 November and 10 November 1493. Many of the crew members who served on this voyage later joined the army of King Charles VIII in his invasion of Italy in 1495 resulting in the spreading of the disease across Europe and as many as 5 million deaths. On 13 October the ships left the Canary Islands as they had on the first voyage.200 men to colonize the region. with 17 ships carrying supplies. The colonists included priests. On 3 November 1493. in Guadalupe (Spain). He anchored next to the King's harbor patrol ship on 4 March 1493 in Portugal. there was never born a man so well equipped and expert in the art of navigation as the said lord Admiral.First voyage Columbus headed for Spain. since Genoa was Genoa. but another storm forced him into Lisbon. The Saints). he arrived at Guadeloupe Santa María de Guadalupe de Extremadura. After sailing past Les Saintes (Los Santos. This was part of a new policy² not just "colonies of exploitation". Word of his finding new lands rapidly spread throughout Europe. farmers. Michele da Cuneo." . and about 1. The crew members may have included free black Africans who arrived in the New World about a decade before the slave trade began. after the image of the Virgin Mary venerated at the Spanish monastery of Villuercas.. Columbus¶s childhood friend from Savona.
and landed at Puerto Rico (originally San Juan Bautista. Nuestra Señora de las Nieves. and he also named the islands of Virgin Gorda (the fat virgin). Christopher?). Saint Ursula and the 11. a cumbersome name that was usually shortened. including: y y y y y y y y y Montserrat (for Santa Maria de Montserrate. where he intended to visit Fuerte de la Navidad (Christmas Fort). called Santa Maria la Antigua. Nevis (derived from the Spanish. Sint Eustatius (for the early Roman martyr. and located on the northern coast of Haiti. Saint Kitts (for St. . Christopher. Saint Martin (San Martin). which is located on the Mountain of Montserrat. Saba (also for St.Second voyage The exact course of his voyage through the Lesser Antilles is debated. meaning "Old St. One of the first skirmishes between native Americans and Europeans since the time of the Vikings took place when Columbus's men rescued two boys who had just been castrated by their captors. sighting and naming several islands. Spain). built during his first voyage. to Islas Virgenes). San Juan) on 19 November 1493. destroyed by the native Taino people. a name that was later supplanted by Puerto Rico (English: Rich Port) while the capital retained the name.000 Virgins. He also sighted the island chain of the Virgin Islands (and named them Islas de Santa Ursula y las Once Mil Virgenes. in Catalonia. He continued to the Greater Antilles. after the Blessed Virgin of the Monastery of Montserrat. Redonda (for Santa Maria la Redonda. because Columbus thought the clouds over Nevis Peak made the island resemble a snow-capped mountain). but it seems likely that he turned north. Spain. Spanish for "round". and Saint Croix (from the Spanish Santa Cruz. patron of sailors and travelers). On 22 November Columbus returned to Hispaniola. in honor of Saint John the Baptist. both on maps of the time and in common parlance. owing to the island's shape). meaning "Holy Cross"). Tortola. meaning "Our Lady of the Snows". St. Antigua (after a church in Seville. Eustachius). and Peter Island (San Pedro). Columbus found Fuerte de la Navidad in ruins. Mary's").
. Columbus then moved more than 100 kilometers eastwards. Columbus returned to Hispaniola on 19 August to find that many of the Spanish settlers of the new colony were discontented.. "From here one might send. He explored the southern coast of Cuba. as many slaves as could be sold. He explored the mainland of South America. He left Hispaniola on 24 April 1494. and the settlement was short-lived. in the present-day Dominican Republic." Since Columbus supported the enslavement of the Hispaniola natives for economic reasons. He was accompanied by the father of Bartolomé de Las Casas. likewise on the northern coast of Hispaniola. which he called La Isabela. An entry in his journal from September 1498 reads. including the Isle of Pines (Isla de las Pinas. Spain. in the name of the Holy Trinity. He retraced his route to Hispaniola. Columbus led the fleet to the Portuguese island of Porto Santo. Columbus left with six ships from Sanlúcar. as Catholic law forbade the enslavement of Christians. arriving on August 20. which he believed to be a peninsula rather than an island. he ultimately refused to baptize them. arrived at Cuba (naming it Juana) on 30 April. his wife's native land. having been misled by Columbus about the supposedly bountiful riches of the new world. From 4 August through 12 August he explored the Gulf of Paria which separates Trinidad from Venezuela. before he finally returned to Spain. The Evangelist). He then sailed to Madeira and spent some time there with the Portuguese captain João Gonçalves da Camara before sailing to the Canary Islands and Cape Verde.Among the ruins were the corpses of eleven of the first thirty-nine Spanish to have attempted New World colonization. establishing a new settlement. He also sailed to the islands of Chacachacare and Margarita Island and sighted and named Tobago (Bella Forma) and Grenada (Concepcion). including the Orinoco River. Third voyage Third voyage On 30 May 1498. Columbus landed on the south coast of the island of Trinidad on 31 July. for his third trip to the New World. later known as La Evangelista. . La Isabela proved to be a poorly chosen location. However. He reached Jamaica on May 5. and several nearby islands.
(modern Spain). Instead. with the ships Capitana. before arriving in Almirante Bay. and the new governor refused to listen to his storm prediction. on 11 May 1502. near Trujillo. 2 April 1502. On 14 August he landed on the continental mainland at Puerto Castilla. A hurricane was brewing. while Columbus's ships sheltered at the mouth of the Rio Jaina. and Costa Rica. Gallega. Columbus wrote a letter to the Governors of the Bank of St. Vizcaína and Santiago de Palos. Columbus's ships survived with only minor damage. On June 15. which was described as "long as a galley" and was filled with cargo. He sailed to Arzila on the Moroccan coast to rescue Portuguese soldiers whom he had heard were under siege by the Moors. A number of returning settlers and sailors lobbied against Columbus at the Spanish court. After a brief stop at Jamaica. Nicaragua. Fourth voyage Fourth voyage Before leaving for his fourth voyage. arriving at Guanaja (Isla de Pinos) in the Bay Islands off the coast of Honduras on 30 July. Panama on 16 October. 500 lives (including that of the governor. they landed at Carbet on the island of Martinique (Martinica). In addition to the ships. Here Bartolomeo found native merchants and a large canoe. He wrote "Although my body is here my heart is always near you. He spent two months exploring the coasts of Honduras. On his return he was arrested for a period (see Governorship and arrest section below). accusing him and his brothers of gross mismanagement. Columbus sailed to Central America. Honduras. Accompanied by his brother Bartolomeo and his 13-year-old son Fernando. the first Spanish treasure fleet sailed into the hurricane. Francisco de Bobadilla) and an immense cargo of gold were surrendered to the sea. so he continued on. hoping to find shelter on Hispaniola. dated at Seville." Columbus made a fourth voyage nominally in search of the Strait of Malacca to the Indian Ocean. Genoa. . He arrived at Santo Domingo on 29 June but was denied port. he left Cádiz.He had some of his crew hanged for disobeying him. while twenty-nine of the thirty ships in the governor's fleet were lost to the 1 July storm. George.
Columbus was physically and mentally exhausted. Nicolás de Ovando y Cáceres. Governorship and arrest During Columbus's stint as governor and viceroy. he had been accused of governing tyrannically. and the other ships were damaged (Shipworms also damaged the ships in tropical waters. Columbus and his crew found themselves in a storm unlike any they had ever experienced. the garrison was attacked. detested Columbus and obstructed all efforts to rescue him and his men. At the same time. and some natives paddled a canoe to get help from Hispaniola. Columbus learned from the natives of gold and a strait to another ocean. the flashes came with such fury and frightfulness that we all thought that the ship would be blasted. All this time the water never ceased to fall from the sky. naming them "Las Tortugas" after the numerous sea turtles there. and the lightning broke with such violence that each time I wondered if it had carried off my spars and sails. Never did the sky look more terrible. Spain. hence we were forced to keep out in this bloody ocean. but offered no opportunity to run behind any headland for shelter. On 10 May he sighted the Cayman Islands. A Spaniard. Columbus left for Hispaniola on 16 April heading north. Jamaica. on 29 June 1504. so high. successfully won the favor of the natives by correctly predicting a lunar eclipse for 29 February 1504. The wind not only prevented our progress.Columbus impresses natives by predicting lunar eclipse On 5 December 1502. His ships next sustained more damage in a storm off the coast of Cuba. in a desperate effort to induce the natives to continue provisioning him and his hungry men. no thanks to the governor. and Columbus and his men arrived in Sanlúcar. Unable to travel farther. his body was wracked by .). In Panama. Help finally arrived. Eyes never beheld the sea so angry. In his journal Columbus writes. That island's governor. without hope of life. I do not say it rained. The men were so worn out that they longed for death to end their dreadful suffering. On 6 April one of the ships became stranded in the river. for it was like another deluge. on 25 June 1503 they were beached in St. In the meantime Columbus. For nine days I was as one lost. seething like a pot on a hot fire. for one whole day and night it blazed like a furnace. After much exploration. so covered with foam. on 7 November. in January 1503 he established a garrison at the mouth of the Rio Belen. Ann's Bay. For a year Columbus and his men remained stranded on Jamaica. Diego Mendez. using the Ephemeris of the German astronomer Regiomontanus.
restored their . They made me pass eight of them in discussion. Once in Cádiz. There the royal couple heard the brothers' pleas. I was incontinently arrested and sent home loaded with chains. Bobadilla was immediately peppered with complaints about all three Columbus brothers: Christopher.. In October 1499. Columbus and his two brothers. states: "Even those who loved him [Columbus] had to admit the atrocities that had taken place. however. to read all my papers. Columbus... a Spanish historian. On 1 October 1500. The accusation was brought out of malice on the basis of charges made by civilians who had revolted and wished to take possession on the land." Columbus before the Queen. and Diego. and at the end rejected it as a thing of jest. with the zeal of faithful Christians in whom their Highnesses have confidence. his authority stretched far beyond what Columbus had requested. In seven years I. by the divine will. He was 53 years old. asking the Court of Spain to appoint a royal commissioner to help him govern. he sent two ships to Spain. and to consider how I.700 islands. were sent back to Spain. According to an uncatalogued document supposedly discovered very late in history purporting to be a record of Columbus' trial which contained the alleged testimony of 23 witnesses claiming that Columbus regularly used barbaric acts of torture to govern Hispaniola.. had manacles placed on his arms and chains on his feet and was cast into prison to await return to Spain. wherein is neither justice nor mercy. Columbus and his brothers lingered in jail for six weeks before busy King Ferdinand ordered their release. Not long after.. 1843 As a result of these testimonies and without being allowed a word in his own defense. the king and queen summoned the Columbus brothers to the Alhambra palace in Granada. I beg your graces. and more than 1. Over there I have placed under their sovereignty more land than there is in Africa and Europe. likewise in chains. The Court appointed Francisco de Bobadilla. Bobadilla was given total control as governor from 1500 until his death in 1502..arthritis and his eyes by ophthalmia.. upon his return.. who came from so far to serve these princes.. Consuelo Varela. made that conquest. At a time when I was entitled to expect rewards and retirement. Nevertheless I persisted therein. Bartolomé. a member of the Order of Calatrava. imagined by Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze.. a grieving Columbus wrote to a friend at court: It is now seventeen years since I came to serve these princes with the Enterprise of the Indies. Arriving in Santo Domingo while Columbus was away.. now at the end of my days have been despoiled of my honor and my property without cause.
Aragon and Navarre. The remains are borne by kings of Castile. Columbus' flagship in first voyage. Columbus produced two books during his later years: a Book of Privileges (1502). he grew increasingly religious in his later years. Probably with the assistance of his son Diego and his friend the Carthusian monk Gaspar Gorricio. in which passages from the Bible were used to place his achievements as an explorer in the context of Christian eschatology. Henceforth Nicolás de Ovando y Cáceres was to be the new governor of the West Indies. But the door was firmly shut on Columbus's role as governor. and. Later life Santa María. as stipulated in the Capitulations of Santa Fe. agreed to fund Columbus's fourth voyage. after much persuasion. Leon. at his Valladolid house Tomb in Seville Cathedral. and a Book of Prophecies (1505). Because he had been relieved of his duties as governor. While Columbus had always given the conversion of non-believers as one reason for his explorations. detailing and documenting the rewards from the Spanish Crown to which he believed he and his heirs were entitled. Columbus demanded that the Spanish Crown give him 10% of all profits made in the new lands. the crown did not feel bound by that contract and his . In his later years.freedom and wealth.
by Antonio Rodriguez Cuartero. On 20 May 1506. the remains were moved back to Spain. DNA extraction proved difficult.demands were rejected.  The location of the Dominican remains is in "The Colombus Lighthouse" (Faro a Colón). together with anthropologic and historic analyses led the researchers to conclude that the remains found in Seville belonged to Christopher Columbus. at about age 55. so it is unknown if any of those remains could be from Columbus's body as well. At his death. Columbus died in Valladolid. in Santo Domingo. fairly wealthy from the gold his men had accumulated in Hispaniola. Columbus's remains were moved to Havana. Columbus's remains were first interred at Valladolid. only short fragments of mitochondrial DNA could be isolated. and conjunctivitis) were clearly evident in his last three years. his family sued in the pleitos colombinos for part of the profits from trade with America. DNA samples of the corpse resting in Seville were taken in June 2003 (History Today August 2003) as well as other DNA samples from the remaining of his younger brother Diego Colón and Christopher's son Hernando Colón. Such evidence. the symptoms of this illness (burning pain during urination. Commemoration ~ Christopher Columbus ~ . Department of Internal Medicine of the University of Granada. To lay to rest claims that the wrong relics had been moved to Havana and that Columbus's remains had been left buried in the cathedral at Santo Domingo. After Cuba became independent following the Spanish-American War in 1898. to the Cathedral of Seville. published in February 2007. However. a lead box bearing an inscription identifying "Don Christopher Columbus" and containing bone fragments and a bullet was discovered at Santo Domingo in 1877.  The authorities in Santo Domingo have never allowed the remains there to be exhumed. he was still convinced that his journeys had been along the east coast of Asia. In 1542 the remains were transferred to Colonial Santo Domingo. he died of a heart attack caused by Reiter's Syndrome (also called reactive arthritis). in the present-day Dominican Republic. According to his personal diaries and notes by contemporaries. The mtDNA fragments matched corresponding DNA from Columbus's brother. when France took over the entire island of Hispaniola. Cuba. giving support that both individuals had shared the same mother. According to a study. where they were placed on an elaborate catafalque. After his death. Initial observations suggested that the bones did not appear to belong to somebody with the physique or age at death associated with Columbus. then at the monastery of La Cartuja in Seville (southern Spain) by the will of his son Diego. pain and swelling of the knees. In 1795. who had been governor of Hispaniola.
In 1992 along with the United States. Spain also issued an almost identical series of Columbian issues. Identical to the first Columbian issue of 1892 a second Columbian issue was released 100 years later in 1982.S." explains historian Martin Dugard. The rounded shape of the earth has already been known since antiquity. as well as the Western world's Vikings at L'Anse aux Meadows. issuing a series of 16 commemorative stamps depicting Columbus. Queen Isabella and others in the various stages of his several voyages. Legacy Columbus Lighthouse (Faro a Colón). The World Columbian Exposition in Chicago. "Columbus's claim to fame isn't that he got there first. 1893. commemorated the 400th anniversary of the landing of Christopher Columbus in the Americas.(using 'Spain' instead of 'United States of America') celebrating the 500th anniversary of the voyages. ." The popular idea that he was first person to envision a rounded earth is false. commemorating the 500th anniversary. ~ 1893 ~ The U.US Postage Issue of 1893. Columbus was preceded by the various cultures and civilizations of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. "it's that he stayed. He is regarded more accurately as the person who brought the Americas into the forefront of Western attention. Over 27 million people attended the exposition during its six-month duration. These issues were made from the original dies of which the first engraved issues of 1892 were produced. Santo Domingo Although among non-Native Americans Christopher Columbus is traditionally considered the discoverer of America. Postal Service participated in the celebration. The issues range in value from the 1-cent to the 5-dollar denominations. The 400th anniversary Columbian issues were very popular in the United States. more than a billion of the two-cent editions were printed.
The name Columbia for "America" first appeared in a 1738 weekly publication of the debates of the British Parliament. Waldseemüller published a world map calling the new continent America from Vespucci's Latinized name "Americus". The preoccupation of European courts with the rise of the Ottoman Turks in the East partly explains their relative lack of interest in Columbus's discoveries in the West at that time. The use of Columbus as a founding figure of New World nations and the use of the word 'Columbia'. the British had downplayed Columbus and emphasized the role of the Venetian John Cabot as a pioneer explorer. a year after Columbus's death. but a new continent. Veneration of Columbus in America dates back to colonial times. the name 'Columbus' was given to the newly founded capital of Ohio. convinced Martin Waldseemüller that the discovered place was not India. San Marino special ¼2 coins issued in 2006 commemorating the anniversary of the death of Christopher Columbus Columbus monument near the state capitol in Denver. or simply the name 'Columbus'. In 1812. published 1502-4.Replicas of Niña. Colorado Historically. During the last two decades of the 18th century the name "Columbia" was given to . as Columbus always believed. and in 1507. but for the emerging United States. Pinta and Santa Maria sailed from Spain to the Chicago Columbian Exposition Amerigo Vespucci's travel journals. spread rapidly after the American Revolution. Cabot made for a poor national hero.
However. Some estimates indicate case fatality rates of 8090 % in Native American populations during smallpox epidemics. particularly those of Native Americans. the Columbia River. there are a number of Columbus relics worthy of note. Physical appearance In The Virgin of the Navigators. Pennsylvania. due to overwork and especially. less than five hundred Taino were left on the island. In another hundred years. Ohio and South Carolina. The main plaza in Mayagüez.the federal capital District of Columbia. Monuments to Columbus like the Columbian Exposition in Chicago were erected throughout the United States and Latin America extolling him. including the capital cities of two U. 56 years after Columbus landed.S. and streets have been named after him. South Carolina's new capital city Columbia.000. and numerous other places. where it may now be visited by the public. states. and those of later European governors and colonists on Hispaniola. towns. descendants of Columbus undertook to dismantle the Columbus family chapel in Spain and move it to a site near State College. More recent views of Columbus. The pre-Columbian population is estimated to have been perhaps 250. disappeared so rapidly after contact with the Spanish. some analyses of the question of Columbus's legacy for Native Americans do not clearly distinguish between the actions of Columbus himself. due to European diseases. Outside the United States the name was used in 1819 for the Gran Colombia. who died well before the first pandemic to hit Hispaniola or the height of the encomienda system. According to the historian Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo y Valdes by 1548. when the first pandemic struck Hispaniola. Puerto Rico is called Plaza Colón in honor of the Admiral. In 1909. where Columbus began a rudimentary tribute system for gold and cotton. The native Taino people of the island were systematically enslaved via the encomienda system. 1531±36 . A candidate for sainthood in the Catholic Church in 1866. a precursor of the modern Republic of Colombia. Numerous cities. This is because the native Taino of Hispaniola.000-300. perhaps only a handful remained. At the museum associated with the chapel. have tended to be much more critical. celebration of Columbus's legacy perhaps reached a zenith in 1892 when the 400th anniversary of his first arrival in the Americas occurred. including the armchair which the "Admiral of the Ocean Sea" used at his chart table. after 1519. counties.
the Italian playwright Dario Fo wrote a satirical play about Columbus titled Isabella. James W. light colored eyes. which turned to white early in his life. In 1997 Fo was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. tre caravelle e un cacciaballe (Isabella. an important historical figure. that includes a depiction of Columbus. Loewen. . has been depicted in fiction and in popular films and television. textbooks have used the Sebastiano del Piombo painting (which in its normal-sized resolution shows Columbus's hair as auburn) so often that it has become the iconic image of Columbus accepted by popular culture. author of Lies My Teacher Told Me. Popular culture Isabella and Columbus under dome of California State Capitol Columbus. three tall ships and a con man). In 1958. The painting was commissioned for a chapel in Seville's Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) and remains there to this day. as well as being a lighter skinned person with too much sun exposure turning his face red. most did not match contemporary descriptions. Sometime between 1505 and 1536.Although an abundance of artwork involving Christopher Columbus exists. In keeping with descriptions of Columbus having had auburn hair or (later) white hair. Accounts consistently describe Columbus as a large and physically strong man of some six feet or more in height. easily taller than the average European of his day. The Virgin of the Navigators. The play was translated into English in 1988 by Ed Emery and is downloadable on the internet. 71 alleged portraits of Columbus were displayed. These writings describe him as having reddish or blond hair. At the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition. no authentic contemporary portrait has been found. as the earliest known painting about the discovery of the Americas. Alejo Fernández painted an altarpiece. said that the various posthumous portraits have no historical value.
Here Comes The Judge). American author Mark Twain based the time traveler's trick in A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court on Columbus' successful prediction of a lunar eclipse during his fourth voyage to the New World. but the novel's action also deals with a group of scientists from the future who travel back to the 15th century with the goal of changing the pattern of European contact with the Americas. 1492: Conquest of Paradise. Civilization Revolution. a 1949 film starring Fredric March as Columbus. Columbus has also been portrayed in cinema and television. In Pastwatch: The Redemption of Christopher Columbus (1996) science fiction novelist Orson Scott Card focuses on Columbus' life and activities. 1492". and Burning Spear (Christopher Columbus). Culture (Capture Rasta). "Christopher Columbus and Queen Isabella of Spain Consummate Their Relationship. and the comedy. Scott presented Columbus as a forward-thinking idealist. author Salman Rushdie published a fictional representation of Columbus in The New Yorker. Christopher Columbus. Santa Fe. the third entry in the author's Time's Tapestry Series. he was portrayed by Gérard Depardieu in the 1992 film by Ridley Scott. British author Stephen Baxter includes Columbus' quest for royal sponsorship as a crucial historical event in his 2007 science fiction novel Navigator (ISBN 978-0-441-01559-7). The detractors include Peter Tosh (You Can't Blame The Youth. .In 1991. a 1992 biopic film by Alexander Salkind. including mini-series. Christopher Columbus appears as a Great Explorer in the 2008 strategy video game. Other productions include the TV mini-series Christopher Columbus (1985) with Gabriel Byrne as Columbus. Carry On Columbus (1992). Christopher Columbus is regularly referred to by singers and musical groups in the Rastafari movement as an example of a European oppressor. January. as opposed to the view that he was ruthless and responsible for the misfortune of Native Americans. films and cartoons. Most notably. Christopher Columbus: The Discovery.
I tried to convince King John of Portugal to pay for supplies. owned a book and map store. He just thought the world is much larger than I do. I was an obedient son. I wanted to write about my life so far so that when I return triumphantly. but most people know me as Christopher Columbus. and a crew to make the voyage to Marco Polo¶s amazing gold mine. but they agreed to supply me with the things I needed. I believe that the quickest and most direct route to this fascinating place is to cross the unknown waters that we call the "Sea of Darkness. I traveled to Lisbon. I was fascinated by Marco Polo¶s accounts of his journey to Asia in 1271. I read many of the books and studied the maps until I had taught myself all I could lea rn about navigation and mapmaking. I was a crewman on a ship that was attacked by French pirates. [Editor¶s note: King John was correct. I would go to sea. I was lucky and found a piece of what was left of the ship. the oldest of five children. Bartholomew. Columbus thought the world was much smaller than it really was. But I always loved the sea. Let the Portuguese sail all the way around Africa and across the Indian Ocean. I vowed as a young boy that as soon as I was old enough. It took me a couple of tries.The Journal of the Admiral of the Ocean Sea July 15. He refused to pay for my voyage saying that I would fail.] Starting in 1484. everyone shall remember my greatness! My name is Cristoforo Colombo. and I became a sailor in my early teens. Italy in 1451. I traveled to Greece and Portugal. In 1476. so I did not learn to read or write as a young boy. I had little schooling. At least he knew the world isn¶t flat like so many others. I was able to swim the six miles to shore. I was born in Genoa." [Editor¶s note: Europeans did not know that the North and South American continents and the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans all lay between the Indies and Spain. 1492 As I prepare for my expedition to the Indies. Fortunately. ships.] I decided to ask King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain to pay for my voyage instead. Portugal where my brother. That is the long way to go! The Portuguese king will regret not paying for my voyage! .
The crew has even threatened to push me overboard and sail back to Spain. There is even talk of turning back. the Pinta. From these signs I am sure land is near. They also paid for 90 crewmen and supplies. [Editor¶s note: The Ocean Sea that Columbus sailed across was actually the Atlantic Ocean. very different from my men and me. October 12. Columbus and the rest of Europe¶s explorers believed there was only one huge sea that connected Europe to Asia. October 7. Crewmen have spotted branches in the waters and birds that could not possibly go very far from land. but no land. and precious jewels. He believed that he was on islands off the coast of Japan. I am so excited! I cannot believe that I am the captain of my own voyage to find spices. 1492 I am growing impatient.] There are strange looking people here. gold. 1492 This is killing me! Where is land? We have sailed for days and days. I plan to sail to the Canary Islands and then make a long jump across the Ocean Sea to the gold trea sures of the Indies.August 3. I have decided to offer a reward for any sailor that spots land.] October 1. Land must be near. I only hope that the reward will buy me a few more days before the crew revolts. but my crew is angry and fighting. and the Santa Maria. Our giant ships with . According to my calculations. They wear little clothing and are of a different color. I believe that Japan is only a short distance to the west. I have gone too far to turn back now. We have had clear skies and steady winds. There are more signs. 1492 We have spotted land! I have named it San Salvador. and there has been no sight of land. I know. we should have spotted land many days ago. [Editor¶s note: Columbus landed in the Bahamas south of Florida. 1492 The rulers of Spain gave me three ships ²the Niña. I am not letting that happen.
1494 . 1492 As we prepared to return to Spain. but he believed he was in the Indies. It tore holes in the bottom of the ship. [Editor¶s note: Columbus had actually met members of the Taino tribe. we could not take everyone back to Spain with us. and there are no cities of gold like Marco Polo described. With only two ships. but we found only more Indians. The King and Queen will not be happy if I do not find gold! December 25. Despite terrible storms. My voyage is known by all. We traveled north to a much larger island.] I spotted several of them wearing GOLD! They tell me that islands to the north and south are where the gold will be found. This is why he called them Indians. I have received a letter from the king and queen. but still more Indians and no gold. 1493 We sailed back across the Ocean Sea. so I ordered my men to set sail for the gold! December 5. September 29. I am anxious to return to the land that I discovered because I still have not found the gold that I know is there. the Santa Maria ran into a coral reef. They have named me Admiral of the Ocean Sea and the governor of all of the islands that I discovered. 1492 We searched many different islands. so I found 40 volunteers to stay behind to build a small colony. We were forced to build a fort out of the wreckage of the Santa Maria. and I am a hero! I would like to see the look on King John of Portugal¶s face! I bet he regrets not paying for my voyage now.enormous white sails amaze them. March 15. my navigation skills have brought us back to Spain. These Indians are not what I expected. News of my discoveries has traveled across Europe. There were no cities and no gold.
1506. I have decided that my explorations have come to an end. but he did make it as far north as Cuba. I built a new village on another island. I still have not found the great cities that Marco Polo described. I found the fort and the men that I left behind from the first voyage dead. 1504 The king and queen realized their mistake and freed me from jail. and he would touch on South America and Central America. They even paid for another voyage across the Ocean Sea. Sadly. Unfortunately. only 90 miles from Florida.000 miles of ocean and was able to find the same island over and over. He never made it to the United States. My men found gold on this island! I sent a load of gold back to Spain. How dare them! I have now sailed across the Ocean Sea three times. never getting to the In dies. I have claimed many islands for Spain. The Indians were not as friendly this time. He sailed across almost 5. Columbus may have been the greatest sailor of his time. I do not know what happened to them. and this is how they treat me? November 7. He was the first European to travel to the island of the Caribbean Sea. my ships leaked so badly that I was stranded for an entire year on an island I called Jamaica.I have spent the last year on my second voyage across the Ocean Sea.] . without the knowledge of how a compass worked or an accurate map. 1501 The king and queen are ungrateful! They have thrown me in jail because the men in the new colony complain that I am not a good governor. October 9. and I was forced to kill many of them. At least I can retire a hero! [Editor¶s note: Columbus died on May 20. The king and queen refuse to pay for a fifth voyage. Still.
By 1502. Much concerned with social status.Christopher Columbus Man and Myth After five centuries. It is unique in preserving an unofficial transcription of a Papal Bull of September 26. led three more expeditions to the Caribbean. a national hero. The Library's vellum copy of the Book of Privileges is one of four that Columbus commissioned to record his agreements with the Spanish crown. such as an emerging continent next to islands and five golden anchors to represent the office of the Admiral of the Sea. as well as out of his considerable reading in geographical and theological literature. But intrigue and his own administrative failings brought disappointment and political obscurity to his final years. The widely published report of his voyage of 1492 made Columbus famous throughout Europe and secured for him the title of Admiral of the Ocean Sea and further royal patronage. Columbus remains a mysterious and controversial figure who has been variously described as one of the greatest mariners in history. Isabel and Fernando. After many difficulties. y Columbus' Coat of Arms . Columbus was granted a coat of arms in 1493. 1493 in which Pope Alexander VI extended Spain's rights to the New World. and awarded ten percent of any new wealth. he gained the support of the Catholic monarchs. By 1502. In Search and Defense of Privileges Queen Isabel and King Fernando had agreed to Columbus's lavish demands if he succeeded on his first voyage: he would be knighted. a naive entrepreneur. and a ruthless and greedy imperialist. He settled for a time in Portugal. a visionary genius. who never abandoned the belief that he had reached Asia. Columbus. Columbus had every reason to fear for the security of his position. he had added several new elements. made the viceroy of any new lands. before moving to Spain. a mystic. where he tried unsuccessfully to enlist support for his project. however. through a combination of good luck and persuasiveness. a failed administrator. Columbus's enterprise to find a westward route to Asia grew out of the practical experience of a long and varied maritime career. He had been charged with maladministration in the Indies. appointed Admiral of the Ocean Sea.
All three vellum copies have thirty-six documents in common. added a continent among the islands in the third quarter. the customary arms of his family. defining the line of demarcation of future Spanish and Portuguese explorations. The compilation of documents includes the 1497 confirmation of the rights to titles and profits granted to the Admiral by the 1492 contract of Santa Fe and augmented in 1493 and 1494. or the authenticating notarial signatures contained in the other copies. 1493. including the Papal Bull inter caetera of May 4.the castle and the lion -. the Spanish sovereigns granted Columbus the right to bear arms. the vividly colored Columbus coat of arms. and for the fourth quarter borrowed five anchors in fess from the blazon of the Admiral of Castille. y Book of Privileges The Book of Privileges is a collection of agreements between Columbus and the crowns of Spain prepared in Seville in 1502 before his 4th final voyage. The bull is the first document on vellum in the Library's copy and the thirty-sixth document in the Genoa and the Paris codices. In addition to the royal charges that were authorized in the top quarters. The Library's . and specifically acknowledging Columbus's contributions. 1493. The Library copy does not have the elaborate rubricated title page. Columbus adopted the royal colors as well. and in the fourth. help to define his personality and his sense of the significance of his service to the Spanish monarchs.As a reward for his successful voyage of discovery. In the third quarter would be islands in a wavy sea. The earlist graphic representation of Columbus's arms is found in his Book of Privileges and shows the significant modifications Columbus ordered by his own authority. three written on vellum and one on paper. Columbus's bold usurpation of the royal arms.but with different tinctures or colors. According to the blazon specified in letters patent dated May 20. Columbus was to bear in the first and the second quarters the royal charges of Castile and Leon -. as well as his choice of additional symbols. as well as routine instructions and authorizations related to his third voyage. We know that four copies of his Book of Privileges existed in 1502.
The First Trip: Columbus sailed for King Ferdinand II and Queen Isabella of Spain. They landed on an island they called Guanahani. many of whom were captured by Columbus' men and later sold into slavery. They set sail on Aug. 1492. 1493. Spain. The bull is folded and addressed to the Spanish sovereigns Christopher Columbus: Explorer Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) was an Italian explorer who sailed across the Atlantic Ocean in 1492. Columbus led an expedition with three ships. and on October 11.copy. He made a total of four trips to the Caribbean and South America during the years 1492 1504. and called its inhabitants Indians. however. On his first trip. the Pinta (owned and captained by Martin Alonzo Pinzon). Columbus thought he had made it to Asia. and called this area the Indies. and the Santa Maria (captained by Columbus). and about 90 crew members. 3. spotted the Caribbean islands off southeastern North America. 1492 from Palos. does have a unique transcription of the Papal Bull Dudum siquidem of September 26. They were met by the local Taino Indians. hoping to find a route to India (in order to trade for spices). the Niña (captained by Vicente Yáñez Pinzon). . but Columbus later renamed it San Salvador. extending the Spanish donation.
Columbus was the first European since the Viking Leif Ericsson to set foot on the mainland of America. 1493-June 11. The third ship.500 men to find gold and capture Indians as slaves in the Indies. and was captained by Columbus. 25. Columbus established a base in Hispaniola and sailed around Hispaniola and along the length of southern Cuba. a carrack.200 to 1. was a larger type of ship. . On the return trip. The Second Trip: On a second. to Trinidad and Venezuela (including the mouth of the Orinoco River). Columbus ret urned to Spain in the Nina. He spotted and named the island of Dominica on November 3. The Third Trip: On a third expedition (May 30. sailed with 17 ships and 1. 1493. Columbus' men traveled to the islands of Hispaniola (now divided into Haiti and the Dominican Republic). Columbus sailed from Spain with three ships. 1498 -October 1500). larger expedition (Sept. In 1492. the Santa Maria. 1493. Two of the ships. The ships were from 15 to 36 meters long. arriving on March 15. the Niña and the Pinta were small caravels.While exploring the islands in the area and looking for gold to loot. Columbus sailed farther south. Cuba. and many other smaller islands. the Santa Maria was wrecked and the captain of the Pinta sailed off on his own to try to beat Columbus back. 1496).
Columbus is buried in eastern Hispaniola (now called the Dominican Republic). The Fourth Trip: On his fourth and last expedition (May 9. Columbus sailed to Mexico. 1504). 1502 -Nov. 7. . Honduras and Panama (in Central America) and Santiago (Jamaica).Captain Christopher Columbus' ensign (banner) pictured a cross and the crown-topped initials F (for King Ferdinand of Spain) and Y (for Queen Isabella of Spain).