City Development Plan

Kayalpattinam
Final Report

August 2009

Infrastructure Professionals Enterprise Private Limited (IPE)

CDP - KAYALPATTINAM

FINAL REPORT

CONTENTS
CHAPTER– 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE CITY DEVELOPMENT PLANNING PROCESS ...........................................1

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

The CDP Initiative................................................................................................ 1 The JNNURM; its Thrust and Coverage ............................................................. 1 The UIDSSMT....................................................................................................... 1 CDP objectives under UIDSSMT ........................................................................ 2 Essential Features of a CDP ............................................................................... 2 A Brief on ULB’s in Tamil Nadu.......................................................................... 3 Scope of Work ..................................................................................................... 4 Directorate of Municipal Administration (DMA) –TNUDP-III Project ................ 6

CHAPTER - 2 CITY VISION AND THE REGIONAL CONTEXT ....................................................................................8

2.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 8 2.2 The State Context: Inputs ................................................................................... 8
2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 Political – Historic..............................................................................................................8 Urban Growth - Governance ...........................................................................................8 Location - Geography ....................................................................................................11 Demography – Economy ...............................................................................................11 Infrastructure – Industry ................................................................................................15 Location – Geographic ..................................................................................................15 Urban Growth – Governance ........................................................................................19 Historic – Political ..........................................................................................................20 Demography-Economy-Human Resource ....................................................................21 Infrastructure-Industry ...................................................................................................22

2.3 The District Context: Inputs.............................................................................. 15

2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8

Relevant District Profile .................................................................................... 24 Taluka Context: Inputs...................................................................................... 24 Inception Stage and the SWOT Analysis ......................................................... 25 Emerging Kayalpattinam Vision....................................................................... 27 Inputs from Kayalpattinam Vision: Proposals and Spatial Perspective .... 27

CHAPTER - 3 TOWN PROFILE .................................................................................................................................29

3.1 Town History and Growth................................................................................. 29 3.2 Climate and Physical Features......................................................................... 29 3.3 Demography ...................................................................................................... 29
3.3.1 Population Growth Trends.............................................................................................30

3.4 Literacy and Sex Ratio ...................................................................................... 31 3.5 Urban Economy................................................................................................. 32
3.5.1 3.5.2 3.6.1 3.6.2 3.6.3 3.6.4 3.7.1 3.7.2
DMA, GoTN

Occupational Structure ..................................................................................................32 Commerce and Industry ................................................................................................32 Residential Area ............................................................................................................33 Commercial Area...........................................................................................................33 Industrial Area ...............................................................................................................33 Transportation ...............................................................................................................33 Spatial Growth Trends/ Urban Sprawl...........................................................................33 Spatial Population Distribution ......................................................................................34 i
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3.6 Land Use............................................................................................................ 33

3.7 Spatial Pattern ................................................................................................... 33

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3.7.3

Future Growth Patterns .................................................................................................34

3.8 Emerging Issues................................................................................................ 34 3.9 Population Forecast.......................................................................................... 34
CHAPTER 4 URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE, ENVIRONMENT & SERVICE DELIVERY ...........................................36

4.1 Water Supply ..................................................................................................... 36
4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.1.6 4.1.7 4.1.8 4.1.9 4.1.10 4.1.11 4.1.12 4.1.13 4.1.14 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.4.4 4.4.5 4.4.6 4.4.7 4.4.8 4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.3 4.5.4 4.5.5 4.6.1 4.6.2 4.6.3 4.6.4
DMA, GoTN

Source and Availability of Water ...................................................................................36 Storage and Treatment Facility .....................................................................................38 Water Transmission and Distribution ............................................................................38 Consumer Connections .................................................................................................38 System Adequacy and Water Tariff...............................................................................38 Distribution Losses and Unaccounted Water Flow .......................................................39 Demand Collection Balance Sheet................................................................................39 Issues Emerged.............................................................................................................40 Key Issues .....................................................................................................................40 Demand - Supply Gap and Future Requirement...........................................................40 Designing the Services..................................................................................................41 Urban Indicators – Water Supply ..................................................................................41 Effective Practices .........................................................................................................41 Strategies and Time Frame...........................................................................................42 Current Disposal Systems .............................................................................................42 Coverage .......................................................................................................................42 Issues ............................................................................................................................43 Demand and Supply Gap-Future Requirement.............................................................43 Strategies and Time Frame...........................................................................................43 Performance Indicators – Sewerage & Sanitation ........................................................44 Designing the System ...................................................................................................44 Suggestions...................................................................................................................44 Existing Drainage System .............................................................................................45 Service Adequacy..........................................................................................................45 Key Issues .....................................................................................................................45 Suggestions...................................................................................................................46 Strategies and Time Frame...........................................................................................46 Waste Generation..........................................................................................................46 Waste Collection............................................................................................................47 Waste Transportation and Disposal ..............................................................................48 Staff Pattern...................................................................................................................48 Performance Indicator ...................................................................................................49 Demand Supply Gap-Future Requirement....................................................................49 Issues ............................................................................................................................49 Suggestions...................................................................................................................50 Existing Situation and Adequacy...................................................................................51 Issues ............................................................................................................................52 Gap Analysis .................................................................................................................53 Suggestions...................................................................................................................53 Strategies and Time frame ............................................................................................53 Existing Situation ...........................................................................................................54 Service Adequacy..........................................................................................................54 Issues Emerged.............................................................................................................54 Suggestions...................................................................................................................54 ii
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4.2 Sewerage and Sanitation System .................................................................... 42

4.3 Storm Water Drainage....................................................................................... 45

4.4 Solid Waste Management ................................................................................. 46

4.5 Traffic, Transportation & Roads....................................................................... 51

4.6 Street Lighting................................................................................................... 54

4.7 Social Infrastructure ......................................................................................... 55

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4.7.1 4.7.2 4.7.3 4.8.1 4.8.2 4.8.3 4.8.4

Education.......................................................................................................................55 Health ............................................................................................................................55 Issues ............................................................................................................................55 Air Quality ......................................................................................................................56 Water Quality.................................................................................................................56 Parks and Play Grounds ...............................................................................................56 Issues Emerged.............................................................................................................56

4.8 Urban Environmental Concerns....................................................................... 55

CHAPTER – 5 HOUSING, SLUMS AND THE URBAN POOR .....................................................................................57

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6

Introduction ....................................................................................................... 57 Housing Categories and Conditions................................................................ 57 Slums and BPL.................................................................................................. 58 Infrastructure Provision in Slums .................................................................... 58 Indicators, Basic Services Availability & Gaps ............................................... 59 Housing Demand and Housing Shortage ........................................................ 59

CHAPTER - 6 HERITAGE

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6

Introduction ....................................................................................................... 60 Heritage Components ....................................................................................... 60 Heritage Sites near Kayalpattinam................................................................... 60 Heritage Conservation ...................................................................................... 63 State Interventions ............................................................................................ 63 Issues and Concerns ........................................................................................ 64

CHAPTER - 7 URBAN GOVERNANCE AND URBAN REFORMS .............................................................................65

7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4

Introduction ....................................................................................................... 65 74th CAA: Tamil Nadu Urban Local Bodies Bill .............................................. 65 JNNURM Reform Agenda ................................................................................. 66 ULBs Organisational Structure ........................................................................ 67
Political Wing .................................................................................................................67 Executive Wing..............................................................................................................68

7.4.1 7.4.2

7.5 Reforms for ULB under UIDSSMT.................................................................... 69 7.6 Mandatory Reforms at Urban Local Body ....................................................... 69
7.6.1 Status of Mandatory Reforms in Kayalpattinam............................................................70

7.7 Multiplicity of Line Agencies ............................................................................ 70 7.8 Issues................................................................................................................. 70 7.9 Reforms Undertaken by Kayalpattinam ULB................................................... 71
7.9.1 7.9.2 7.9.3 Computerization Initiatives ............................................................................................71 E-Governance Reforms.................................................................................................71 Citizens Charter.............................................................................................................71

7.10 Recommended Organisational Structure ........................................................ 71 7.11 Suggestions....................................................................................................... 74
CHAPTER - 8 MUNICIPAL FINANCE ..........................................................................................................................75

8.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 75 8.2 Revenue Account .............................................................................................. 75
DMA, GoTN

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8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6

Revenue Receipts ............................................................................................. 76 Revenue Expenditure........................................................................................ 78 Trends in Income & Expenditure...................................................................... 79 Demand Collection Balance (DCB) Scenario .................................................. 80
DCB for Property Tax ....................................................................................................80 DCB for Professional Tax ..............................................................................................81 DCB for Water Charges ................................................................................................82

8.6.1 8.6.2 8.6.3

8.7 Ratio Analysis ................................................................................................... 83
CHAPTER - 9 DEVELOPMENT OF PERSPECTIVE AND VISION OF THE CITY......................................................84

9.1 Spatial Perspective for Kayalpattinam 2041.................................................... 84 9.2 Sector Specific Objectives and Projects ......................................................... 84
9.2.1 9.2.2 9.2.3 9.2.4 9.3.1 9.3.2 9.3.3 9.3.4 9.3.5 9.3.6 9.3.7 9.3.8 A Spatial Growth Strategy (Town Level) .......................................................................84 Spatial Growth Strategies – Regional Level..................................................................85 Short Term Projects (2008 - 2013)................................................................................85 Prioritisation of Projects.................................................................................................85 Water Supply .................................................................................................................86 Sewerage/ Under Ground Drainage..............................................................................86 Storm Water Drainage...................................................................................................87 Sanitation.......................................................................................................................87 Traffic and Transportation .............................................................................................88 Urban Poor and Slums ..................................................................................................89 Solid Waste Management .............................................................................................90 Tourism..........................................................................................................................91

9.3 Infrastructure Projects ...................................................................................... 86

9.4 Concurrence on Prioritized Projects................................................................ 91
CHAPTER - 10 CITY INVESTMENT PLAN (CIP)...........................................................................................................93

10.1 Backdrop Study................................................................................................ 94 10.2 CIP Process for Kayalpattinam ....................................................................... 94 10.3 Water Supply .................................................................................................... 94 10.4 Sewerage and Sanitation ................................................................................. 96 10.5 Storm Water Drainage...................................................................................... 97 10.6 Solid Waste Management ................................................................................ 98 10.7 Traffic and Transportation............................................................................... 98 10.8 Street Lighting.................................................................................................. 98 10.9 Basic Services to Urban Poor ......................................................................... 98 10.10 List of Projects for Kayalpattinam under different Sectors .......................... 98 10.11 Sectorwise City Investment Plan.................................................................. 109
CHAPTER - 11 ASSEST MANAGEMENT....................................................................................................................109

11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4

Introduction ..................................................................................................... 109 Benefits of Asset Management ...................................................................... 110 Asset Management Plan Methodology .......................................................... 110 Requirements of Asset Management............................................................. 112
Capital database..........................................................................................................112 Maintenance Management..........................................................................................112 Risk & Reliability Assessment .....................................................................................118 iv
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11.4.1 11.4.2 11.4.3
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11.4.4 11.4.5 11.4.6 11.5.1 11.5.2 11.5.3 11.5.4 11.5.5

Valuation......................................................................................................................118 Life Cycle Costing........................................................................................................118 Contracting Asset Management ..................................................................................119 Water Supply ...............................................................................................................121 Sanitation.....................................................................................................................121 Solid Waste Management ...........................................................................................121 Road & road Infrastructure ..........................................................................................121 Street Lights ................................................................................................................122

11.5 infrastructure Assets ...................................................................................... 121

11.6 Land, Buildings & Vehicles............................................................................. 122 11.7 Strategies and Recommendations ................................................................. 122

LIST OF ANNEXURE
Annexure – AnnexureI II Minutes of the Multi-Stakeholder Workshop held on 21 th Minutes of the Review Committee Meeting, 16 October ,2007 Contents of An Ideal Citizens Charter
ST

September, 2007

LIST OF FIGURES
Fig. 1.1: City Development Plan-Framework Fig 2.1: Urban Frame, Tamil Nadu Fig. 2.2: Proportion of Rural and Urban Population, Tamil Nadu Fig 2.3: Distributions of Towns by Size Class 2001, Tamil Nadu Fig. 3.1: Kayalpattinam - Beach Fig. 3.2: Kayalpattinam - Dense development Fig 3.3: Population Growth Fig 3.4: Decadal Growth Rate Fig. 3.5: Population Density Fig 3.6: Literacy Rate Fig 3.7: Population Forecast (Arithmetic, Incremental, Geometric and Exponential Method) Fig 4.1 Water Storage Tank Fig. 4.2: Primary Collection Fig. 4.3: Secondary Collection Fig. 4.4: A Glimpse of the Roads in Kayalpattinam Fig.6.1: Tiruchendur Murugan Temple Fig. 7.1: Existing Organizational Structure Fig 8.1 Trends in Revenue Income and Expenditure Fig 8.2 Source wise Revenue Income (%) Fig 8.3 Average Share of Revenue Income (%) Fig 8.4 Component wise share of Revenue Expenditure (%) Fig 8.5 Average Share of Revenue Expenses (%) Fig 8.6 Growth Rate in Revenue Income and Expenditure Fig 8.7 Collection Efficiency for Property Tax (%) Fig 8.8 Collection Efficiency for Professional Tax (%) Fig 8.9 Collection Efficiency for Water Charges (%) Fig 11.1 Assest Management plan Fig 11.2 High Resolution Imagery Quick Bird Fig 11.3 Use of hand held devices for data entry Fig 11.4 CityWorks GIS based Asset Management System
DMA, GoTN

2

10 10 10
29 29 30 30 30 32 35-36 39 48 49 52 62 68 76 77 78 79 79 80 81 81 82 112 116 117 117

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Fig 11.5 Map depicting the water supply network Fig 11.6 Map depicting the water supply network on GIS

118 118

LIST OF MAPS
Map 1: Administrative Transformation in Tamil Nadu (1951-2001) Map 2: Location Map of Tamil Nadu Map 3: Tamil Nadu Reference Districts Map 4: Physical Map of Tamil Nadu Map 5: Reference District-Tamil Nadu Inter- District Comparison Map 6: Reference District Road and Ral Network Map 7: Taluka Map of Thoothukudi District Map 8: Thoothukudi District showing the linkages Map 9: Administrative Map, Thoothukudi District Map 10: Tiruchendur Taluk, Thoothukudi District Map 11: Urbanised Taluks in Thoothukudi District Map 12: Tiruchendur Taluk Showing Rail Road Network and Towns Map 13: Diagrammatic Proposal for Spatial Development Map 14: Ward wise Population Densities in Kayalpattinam Town Map 15: Water Supply Coverage 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 23 28 31 38

LIST OF TABLES
3 Table 1.1: Tamil Nadu Urban Population (1961-91) 8 Table 2.1: Urban Population of Tamil Nadu, 1961-2001 12 Table 2.2: Indices of Human Development and Gender Development 12 Table 2.3: Reference Districts, Tamil Nadu: Comparative 13 Table 2.4 : Tamil Nadu Districts – According to the Levels of Poverty 20 Table 2.5 : Thoothukudi District; Taluk Boundaries, Urban Vs. Rural Taluks 21 Table 2.6: Talukawise Distribution of Total Workers by their Sector of Economy 30 Table 3.1: Population Growth Trend 31 Table 3.2: Ward – Wise Population 32 Table 3.3: Literacy Rate 32 Table 3.4: Sex Ratio 33 Table 3.5: Occupational Structure 33 Table 3.6: Land Use Distribution 35 Table 3.7: Population Growth Trend and CAGR 35 Table 3.8: Population Forecast 36 Table 3.9: Proposed Population 37 Table 4.1: Existing Situation Water Supply 38 Table 4.2: Location of Storage Tanks and Capacity 40 Table 4.3: Demand Collection Balance Statement 41 Table 4.4: Demand and Supply Gap 42 Table 4.5: Urban Indicators – Water Supply in Kayalpattinam 42 Table 4.6: Strategies and Time Frame – Water Supply 43 Table 4.7: Sanitation Facilities 44 Table 4.8: Demand-Gap Analysis 44 Table 4.9: Strategies and Time Frame – Sewerage and Sanitation System 44 Table 4.10: Performance Indicators 46 Table 4.11: Basic Data – Storm Water Drainage vi DMA, GoTN INFRASTRUCTURE PROFESSIONALS ENTERPRISE (P) LTD

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Table 4.12: Strategies and Time Frame – Storm Water Drainage Table 4.13: Quantity of Waste Generated Table 4.14: Waste Collection Table 4.15: Waste Collection Table 4.16: Existing Fleet of Vehicles Table 4.17: Staffing Pattern Table 4.18: Performance Indicator, SWM Table 4.19: Gap Analysis Solid Waste Management Table 4.20: Existing Road Network Table 4.21: Performance Indicators Table 4.22: Gap for Traffic and Transportation Table 4.23: Strategies and Time Frame Table 4.24: Details of Luminaries Table 4.25: Performance Indicators Table 4.26: Educational Institutions Table 4.27: Health Facilities Table 5.1 Housing Condition (for Roof, Floor, Walls) Table 5.2: Ward Wise Slum Population and BPL Population Table 5.3: Infrastructure Provision in Slums Table 5.4: Growth of Houses and Households Table 5.5: Housing Gap Table 5.6: Slum Housing Demand Table 6.1: Tourist Arrivals in Tamil Nadu Table 7.1: Staffing Pattern – Executive Wing Table 7.2: Line Agencies Operating in Kayalpattinam Table 7.3: Proposed Organization Structure for Kayalpattinam Table 8:1: Revenue Account (in lakhs) Table 8.2: Revenue Receipts (Rs. In Lakhs) Table 8.3 Revenue Receipts as Percentages of Total Revenue Receipts (value in %) Table 8.4: Break – Up of Revenue Expenditure (Rs. In Lakhs) Table 8.5 Revenue Expenditure as Percentage of Total Revenue Expenses (value in %) Table 8.6: Growth Rate in Revenue Income (%) Table 8.7: Growth Rate in Revenue Expenditure (%) Table 8.8: Demand Collection Balance for Property Tax (Rs. In lakhs) Table 8.9: DCB for Professional Tax (Rs. in Lakhs) Table 8.10: DCB of Water Charges (Rs in Lakhs) Table 9.1 : Water Supply Projects ; Prioritisation and Time Frame Table 9.2: Underground Drainage (Sewerage) Projects ; Prioritisation and Time Frame Table 9.3: Storm Water Drainage Projects : Prioritisation and Time Frame Table 9.4 : Sanitation Projects : Prioritisation and Time Frame Table 9.5 : Transportation Projects : Prioritization and Time Frame Table 9.6: Urban Poor Projects : Prioritization and Time Frame Table 9.7 : SWM Projects ; Prioritisation and Time Frame Table 9.8 : Tourism Projects ; Prioritisation and Time Frame Table 11.1: Information provided in the asset Module Table 11.2: Details on Water Supply System Table 11.3: Road Network of Kayalpattinam Table 11.4: Number of Lights by Type
DMA, GoTN

47 47 48 48 49 49 50 50 52 52 54 54 55 55 55 56 59 59 59 60 60 60 65 70 71 73 76 77 77 78 79 79 80 80 81 82 85 86 86 86 88 88 89 90 115 121 122 122

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Table 11.5: Details on Land, Building and Vehicles Table 11.6: Details on the Kodinar Project

122 126

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
BPL CAGR CCP CDP CIP DMA CMFRI CRZ DPR EO GIS GoTN IDSMT IHSDP JNNURM KM LPA LPCD MLD MOU MoUD NH NSSO OHT PPP PWD SFC SH SJSRY SWD SWM TNPCB TNUDP TWAD UIDSSMT ULB WPR : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Below Poverty Line Compounded Annual Growth Rate City Corporate Plan City Development Plan Capital Investment Plan or Programme Directorate of Municipal Administration Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Coastal Regulation Zone Detailed Project Reports Executive Officer Geographical Information System Government of Tamil Nadu Integrated Development of Small and Medium Towns Integrated Housing and Slum Development Program Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission Kayalpattinam Municipality Local Planning Authority Litres per capita per Day Million Litres per day Memorandum of Understanding Ministry of Urban Development National Highway National Sample Survey Organisation Over Head Tanks Public Private Partnerships Public Works Department State Finance Commissions State Highway Swarna Jayanti Shehri Rojgar Yojna Storm Water Drains Solid Waste Management Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board Tamil Nadu Urban Development Project Tamil Nadu Water Supply and Drainage Board Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme for Small and Medium Towns Urban Local Body Workforce Participation Rate

DMA, GoTN

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CHAPTER– 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE CITY DEVELOPMENT PLANNING PROCESS
1.1 The CDP Initiative
The City Development Plan (CDP) was first conceptualized under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) as launched in December 2005 by the Government of India through the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) to give a boost to the integrated Urban and Infrastructure Development of cities, taking into account the challenge of rapid urbanization, infrastructure and public services that under-serve increasing population, growing poverty and city management that cannot cope with rapidly changing urbanscape. The JNNURM has taken up 63 cities in the country to formulate CDP’s under an environment of reforms in the urban sector. The agenda foresees investments and reforms in the selected urban areas through measures as (a) Good Governance (service delivery mechanism) (b) Efficiency in Urban Infrastructure (c) Community Participation (d) Accountability of Urban Local Bodies (ULB’s). These are to be undertaken at all levels (State and ULB’s) for achieving the mission objectives. Key components envisaged for a CDP are, Vision/Perspective Plans, 5 to 7 yearly programs and Projects, prioritization of the identified projects, leveraging of funds and participatory based governance. 1.2

The JNNURM; its Thrust and Coverage

The thrust of the JNNURM are inter alia to ensure that the following are addressed and substantially achieved in the urban sector: • Planned growth of identified cities/towns including peri-urban areas, outgrowths and urban corridors leading to dispersed urbanization; • • • • • • Focused attention to integrated development and infrastructure provision in cities/towns; Establishment of linkages between asset-creation and asset-management through reforms for long term project sustainability; Ensuring adequate funds to meet the deficiencies in urban infrastructure services; Special focus on urban renewal programmes for old city areas to reduce congestion and focus on its heritage; Scaled up delivery of civic amenities and provision of utilities with emphasis on the inclusive city that incorporates the urban poor and other marginalized groups; Provision of basic services to the urban poor including improved housing, water supply and sanitation, and ensuring delivery of other existing services of the government for education, health and social security; • The prime focus however is on private public participation through down top governance requiring a slew of reforms.

1.3

The UIDSSMT

The Centrally sponsored Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme (UIDSSMT) 2005 is based on the guidelines of the aforementioned JNNURM, combines two previous Central schemes, Integrated Development of Small and Medium Towns (IDSMT) and Accelerated Urban Water Supply Program (AUWSP) and covers all small and medium towns as per census 2001 (except those already covered by JNNURM) for their planned growth and infrastructure improvement. Accordingly, The Government of Tamil Nadu (GoTN) have approved and initiated preparation of CDP’s
DMA, GoTN

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for third grade municipalities in the state under the UIDSSMT, wherein the GOI finances 80 percent with the state government and the ULB each contributing 10 percent of the costs of development.

1.4

CDP objectives under UIDSSMT

CDP preparation under the UIDSSMT envisages: (a) A “vision” for the future development of the city or town (b) Propose a set of objectives and goals which the city or town aims to achieve and (c) Identify thrust areas in various sectors which need to be addressed on a priority basis in order to achieve the objectives and the vision. It thus provides the overall framework within which projects are to be identified and put forward in a 5year Capital Investment Plan or Programme (CIP). Seen in this light, the CDP differs from a traditional Master Plan or Development Plan which focuses on development trends based on land use and related development controls. UIDSSMT funds are subject to implementing urban reforms. The follow up of the CDP are a series of Detailed Project Reports (DPR’s) which outline project costs and strategies for implementing the proposed CDP activities. Implicitly, through the UIDSSMT, a modest traunch of projects are funded, provided the bulk gets committed (sectorally or otherwise) in an integrated manner. The ULB’s are also required to make meaningful contributions including market borrowing. The basic inputs and outputs of CDP are envisaged in the diagram as below: Fig. 1.1: City Development Plan-Framework

City Development Plan
Incorporate Public View & Interest Vision Statement and Perspective Plan Data Analysis

• Strategies, Interventions & Sectoral Plans • Service outcomes & timeframes

5 year Projects Prioritization

Investment Plan

• Infrastructure Gaps • Alternatives & changes. • Sustainability • Investment Needs • Accountability

1.5

Essential Features of a CDP

A CDP is expected to have all or as many of the following features: (a) A 30 year horizon, based on past trends, existing strengths and limitations; (b) A planning horizon to be foreseeable and achievable; (c) Plans to integrate infrastructure requirements and environmental concerns together with Land-use patterns and development regulation; (d) To derive the vision, objectives and targets from socio-economic needs and quality of life needs as articulated by their citizens, their representatives and other stakeholders from civil society;
DMA, GoTN

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(e) Poverty alleviation and needs of urban poor as important elements of such a plan with proportionate allocation of resources; (f) To focus on available resources and to balance needs and priorities within the available resources; (g) Multiple stakeholder agencies are to be involved in such planning to ensure a shared and commonly owned vision, development objective and plan of action; (h) Private sector role in preparation of plans, financing and its implementation; (i) Institutional reforms and capacity enhancement measures of ULB’s and / or other civic agencies.

1.6

A Brief on ULB’s in Tamil Nadu

The constitution of India ordains that India is a union of states and union territories with residual powers vesting in Central Government. Though ULB’s existed even prior to British colonization, they were formally given the status of ‘democratic institutions of self government’ only in 1992, with the passing of the Constitution (74th Amendment) Act. The Act provides for direct election to three types of Municipalities; town Panchayats for areas in transition from rural to urban areas; Municipal councils for small urban areas and Municipal Corporations for larger urban areas. The state ULB’s comprise 6 Municipal Corporations and 151 Municipalities, including 49 erstwhile Town Panchayats upgraded to third grade municipalities in June 2004 (These upgraded towns form the reference point of the CDP preparation under study). They constitute towns with population over 30,000 and income over Rs.5 million as municipalities. Tamil Nadu is one of the most urbanized states of India with an urban population of 27.5 million, about 44 percent of the state population. The average decadal annual growth rate of urban population (1991-2001) has been around 4.2 percent. The urban populace of Tamil Nadu is well distributed over various classes of urban agglomeration and towns. Table 1.1: Tamil Nadu Urban Population (1961-91) Census Year Population Total 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 33.7 41.2 48.4 55.9 62.1 Urban In Million 9 12.5 16 19.1 27.2 Growth rate Urban % 2.3 3.9 2.8 1.9 4.2 % 27 30 33 34 44 Level of Urbanization

Source: Census of Tamil Nadu, 2001

Such rapid urbanization has put a strain on existing infrastructure deficiencies in the state. The formation of State Finance Commissions (SFC) every 5 years recommends principles to strengthen municipal finances through assigned taxes, devolved taxes and grants in aid from the state. The 1992 constitutional amendment delegates responsibilities for construction, maintenance and operation of infrastructure to local bodies. The GoTN has substantially increased financial devolution to local bodies (SFC recommended) which has permitted the ULB’s to maintain some operating surpluses on their revenue account. Despite this, capital investments based on sector wise service norms for infrastructure fall short. Thus ULB’s are encouraged to seek alternative sources of capital to supplement existing revenues and also build in cost recovery into the municipal finance system by tapping institutional and market based financing. The coverage of UIDSSMT over the admissible components of ULB’s in Tamil Nadu include: (a) Urban Renewal i.e. redevelopment of inner (old) city areas [this would include items like widening of narrow streets, shifting of industrial/commercial institutional establishments
DMA, GoTN

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from non-conforming (inner-city) to `conforming’ (outer-city) areas so as to reduce congestion, replacement of old and worn-out water pipes by new/higher capacity ones, renewal of sewerage/drainage/solid waste disposal systems, etc]; (b) Water Supply and sanitation (c) Sewerage and Solid Waste Management (including hospital and industrial waste); (d) Construction and improvement of drains/storm water drains; (e) Construction/ Up-gradation of roads, highways/expressways; (f) Parking lots/spaces on Public Private Partnership basis; (g) Adequate street lighting and controlled hoardings; (h) Conservation of heritage areas; (i) Construction of Abattoirs and electric crematoria; (j) Preservation of water bodies.

1.7

Scope of Work

The detailed scope of work as envisaged by Directorate of Municipal Administration is stated as follows: a) Study of existing setup of ULB and an analysis of various projects executed or taken in hand to formulate the background. The CDP should have future vision for the city in light of its strengths and weaknesses. b) Situation analysis, with regard to demographic and economic trends in the ULB and their implications for ULB governance and service delivery systems and structures referring to the jurisdiction of town level agencies involved in provision and regulation of urban public services (i.e. water supply, sewerage, sanitation, solid waste management, road network, urban transport, street lighting, redevelopment of inner (old) city area of the town, basic services to urban poor and other social infrastructure). The financial status of the municipality and agencies concerned with service provision including an analysis of their credit worthiness and efficiency of the institutional framework. c) A future perspective for the town area clearly showing the direction of change as well as economic and basic services vision. (Sectoral agenda, reform agenda, quality of life, urban services, social inclusion etc). d) Alternatives and development strategies for economic development, governance, landuse, urban poor, core municipal infrastructure, urban environment and cultural heritage with proper prioritization criteria and linkage with Reform Agendas. Preparation of a phased action plan with targets for physical and financial investments, reforms, capacity building project identification and prioritization. e) Assess the demand for the projects listed out by these Municipalities and analyze demand for the next 25-30 years. f) Financial Assessment of the ULBs an assessment of local finances (past 5 years) in terms of sources and uses of funds, base and basis of levy, revision history and impacts. State assignments and transfers base and basis of transfer and its predictability; uses of funds outstanding liabilities (loans, power dues, pension etc.) and, a review of revenue and service management arrangements. Levels of service, coverage and quality of municipal
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services in both poor and non-poor localities. Staffing and management arrangements in delivery of services. g) Outline the issues of revenue realization, quality of existing assets in relation to service levels and coverage, and institutional constraints. Develop quick indicators of performance, based on – • Current coverage and additional population in the medium term (10 years) and unit costs, indicate town level investment requirement for upgradation of infrastructure. • To improve service coverage and asset quality. h) Preparation of comprehensive Asset Management Plan and use fiscal notes policy analysis to assist in making informed investment choices to achieve sector/ city goals. i) j) Define priority assets and indicative costs of rehabilitation. Conduct fiscal impact analysis of investments: life cycle O&M costs, revenues from project, and costs/ impacts on finances and of not doing the project k) Explore funding options for rehabilitation of facilities. l) Prepare a Financial and Operating Plan (FOP). The FOP is a medium term framework of the ULBs, and shall present the following. m) Assess the impact of upgrading these as municipalities from town panchayats. Additional data to be collected : • Break-up of energy cost on water supply, street lighting and other EB charges etc. • Salary for all the departments including staff and payments to private operators • Finding out the benchmark cost i.e. at ideal condition what will be the cost of the identified investments, a table indicating the investment plan for nest 5 years with identified source of finance. Areas of reduction of expenditure: • Energy audit resulting in savings in energy • Leak detection resulting either in connections or in the tariff (or) maintaining the same supply and achieving a reduction in energy cost. • Privatizing the MSW collection and identifying a BoT operator for eliminating, composting etc. items for revenue can be identified. • Laying of cement concrete road/ fly ash and savings on maintenance cost resulting in increasing operating surplus. • Water recycling/ reuse. • Rejuvenation of tanks and reduction of cost/ liters of water produced • Privatization and option for revenue rising. Options for increasing the revenues through non-traditional methods including land development for raising revenue (not the traditional commercial complexes) and suggestions for improvement of revenues.

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n) Initiate consultations with council and local stakeholders on the priorities; redefine priorities (rerun FOP if required) and work with the Council to resolve on adoption of the City’s FOP and CCP actions. o) Draft Report and Final Reports are proposed to be presented to the Council. p) Finalize Action Plan for the Town, with a resolution from the Council on the priorities and commitment to implement revenue and management improvement measures. q) To prepare MoU between ULB and State Level Nodal Agency to implement UIDSSMT/ IHSDP. r) To assist and encourage full participation and formulate consensus within the town to arrive at an adequate, appropriate and agreed strategy. The objective of this assistance is to ensure that the process receives adequate and appropriate methodological and technical guidance in examining the full range of environmental, social, economic and health issues in the city and through communication, consultation and consensus building. s) To review all studies, plans and previous experience in the town, government, quasi- or non-government, academic or private sector. This will include economic development, urban and financial management, environmental protection, municipal service delivery, slum improvement, social development and any other relevant initiatives or studies. t) To analyze findings and draw out useful lessons to inform the Action Plan. The process shall primarily focus upon the areas of concern that emerge out of the CDP process. Indicative focus areas are: Urban Economic Development Social Assessment Urban Infrastructure Human Resources and Institutional Issues Financial Management Urban Performance Indicator Environmental Management At all stages, the consultants will have to encourage the institutionalization of the planning methodologies and processes in the ULBs. This includes identifying and working alongside counterparts, involving and supporting stakeholders in the working with new methodologies, assisting the management of the process and building constructive relationships with key stakeholders. This must be followed with proper documentation.

1.8

Directorate of Municipal Administration (DMA) –TNUDP-III Project

In the State of Tamil Nadu, Directorate of Municipal Administration (DMA) is the nodal agency responsible for planning and management of municipal government, be it Municipal Corporations or Municipalities of various grades. DMA has been entrusted with responsibility of capacity building of Grade – III municipal towns for which preparation of CDPs is a must, taken under the aegis of TNUDP-III Project. DMA intends to strengthen and improve financial position for effective capital investment management and urban service delivery in selected Grade-III municipalities. These towns are service centres offering marketing, physical and other social infrastructure facilities to the surrounding rural areas. These centres have been chosen by DMA as they have great potential for future growth and immediate implementation of financial reforms in these centres are necessary so that these ULBs can join the mainstream of urban development in the State. 6 DMA, GoTN INFRASTRUCTURE PROFESSIONALS ENTERPRISE (P) LTD

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The objective of the TNUDP-III Project is to improve the delivery of urban services through enhancing the quality of urban infrastructure and strengthening the industrial and financial framework. The proposed continuing project would build on and consolidate the achievements of TNUDP II, continuing to improve urban infrastructure services in Tamil Nadu in a sustainable manner. To maintain the tempo of TNUDP-II and consolidate the achievements and sustain the benefits accrued from the earlier programmes, and further strengthen, upgrade and enhance the levels of capacity and capabilities developed so far and to support the next generation urban reform strategies with a focus on improving urban infrastructure and reducing urban poverty, a five year TNUDP-III has been proposed with World Bank assistance to the tune of US $ 300 million. DMA has entrusted Infrastructure Professionals Enterprise Pvt Ltd (IPE) with the responsibility of preparation of CDPs of 10 Grade-III municipalities viz., Anaiyur, Avaniyapuram, Ambasamudram, Gudalur, Kayalpattinam, Keelakarai, Rameswaram, Thirupparankundram Thiruthangal and Vikramasingapuram.

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CHAPTER - 2 CITY VISION AND THE REGIONAL CONTEXT
2.1 Introduction

Formulating a CDP involves envisioning the city future through a SWOT analysis. At the same time to provide perspective to this vision, references have to be drawn from the larger context so as to demarcate aspects that will help in realizing the vision. The State, district and taluk have accordingly been taken up for the study so as to strengthen the city vision and are brought out as follows.

2.2
2.2.1

The State Context: Inputs
Political – Historic

Politically and historically, the State has been ruled from ancient times to present without being war torn. Ancient history representing Dravidian culture saw the emergence of four great kingdom’s which rose to th eminence and patronized meaningful growth till the 10 Century. These were the Cholas, Cheras, Pandyas and the Pallavas. A short unstable Muslim rule, the arrival of the East India Company later substituted by the British Empire were happenings in the transition to India becoming independent in 1947. The erstwhile Madras Presidency lost Andhra Pradesh initially (1956) and Karnataka and Kerala th subsequently (1967) got renamed Tamil Nadu and has today emerged as the 4 largest state, with a 44% urbanization level and districts which have consistently been changing boundaries (Map 1). Long periods of peacetimes in the State have yielded rich dividends in buildings of archaeological and architectural interests specially of temple buildings (3000 in numbers), sites, including two UNESCO identified World Heritage Sites at Mahabalipuram and Thanjavur. State archaeology department is further protecting buildings and towns spread over several locations to safeguard and conserve them. A part of this heritage is also located in and near the selected town Kayalpattinam (Thoothukudi District) and within the six districts studied for CDP formulation. 2.2.2 Urban Growth - Governance

Urban growth in Tamil Nadu has shown upward trend growing 145% from 1961 which had 339 towns to 832 towns in 2001 (Table 2.1). As a proportion too the urban population has increased from 27% in the same period to 44%. Table 2.1: Urban Population of Tamil Nadu, 1961-2001 Year 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 No. of Towns 339 439 434 469 832 Urban Population 89.90 124.64 159.5 190.77 272.42 Urban Population (%) 26.69 30.26 32.95 34.15 43.86 Decadal Growth (%) 22.59 38.64 27.98 19.59 42.79 Annual Growth Rate (%) 2.04 3.27 2.47 1.79 3.56

Source: Census of India, 2001

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Source: Administrative Atlas- Census of India 2001, Tamil Nadu

Map 1: Administrative Transformation in Tamil Nadu (1951-2001) The Tamil Nadu urban frame provides a picture of how the urban units are disposed (Fig 2.1). Together the Corporations, Census Towns and Municipalities constitute nearly 25% of the total urban units.

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Fig 2.1: Urban Frame, Tamil Nadu Fig 2.3: Distributions of Towns by Size Class 2001, Tamil Nadu Predominantly urban to predominantly rural districts (Fig. 2.2) indicate that half of the thirty-one districts have higher proportion of (>50%) of urban population. Of these six of them are aligned along the Kerala border, three surrounding Chennai and including it are aligned along the Bay of Bengal coastline, with Thoothukudi lower down. This leaves the other four as landlocked districts of Madurai, Salem, Erode and Tiruchchirirapalli which are more urbanized.

28 25 79 60 32 56 4 5 4 5 67 26

Urban Reference District

Source: Administrative Atlas of India, 2001 Note: Figure below districts indicates the number of towns.

Fig. 2.2: Proportion of Rural and Urban Population, Tamil Nadu The state has a governance system of Corporations (6 No.s.) for larger urban areas, Municipal Councils (152 No.s.) for smaller urban areas, Town Panchyats (385) for areas transiting to urban from rural and village panchayats for the rest. District headquarters are named after the district. Taluk is the sub-district level. Towns in the state are small sized (Fig 2.3) but poised for growth. Urban issues resolved here will have 10 DMA, GoTN INFRASTRUCTURE PROFESSIONALS ENTERPRISE (P) LTD

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less chance to magnify if dealt with early and into a monitored future. Some notable indicators are the State’s sex ratio of 986 females per 1000 males, growth rate of 11.2% decadal, population density of 478 persons per square km, and a slum population of 16.5%. The sex ratio and growth rate have increased overtime which is a positive trend. Census 2001 provides records of slum population in towns with 50,000+ population. Slums are the downside to urban growth. Tamil Nadu’s economy and infrastructure is well placed for future growth. It has 24 National highways of 2,000 km length, a rail length of nearly 7,000 km with 690 railway stations, 3 major and 8 other ports and air links to Chennai across 20 countries with more getting added with the new aviation policies of the government. 2.2.3 Location - Geography Map 2: Location Map of Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu is the southernmost Indian State with the Bay of Bengal on its east, Indian Ocean on its south, Western Ghats on its west and the adjoining states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala on its north and west. Its geography is diversified and has coastal plains, tropical forests, river valleys and hills. The state is defined by Kanyakumari at southern tip, Pulicat lake at the northern, its eastern tip is Kodikarrai (point Calimere) and the western tip is Madumalai Sanctuary, with their respective latitudes at 8° 5’ N and 13° 35’N and the respective longitudes at 80° 20’ East and 71° 15’ E. Its five physiographic divisions are mountaneous (Kurinji), forests (Mullai), Arid (Palai), fertile (Marudham) and coastal (Neidhal). Eastern ghats of low rocky hills are another mountain chain in the state. Main river Cauvery 760 kms long flows through the entire breadth of the state, with other rivers being Palar, Pennar, Vaigai and Tamirapani. The state has the highest urbanization level, is the sixth most populous and the eleventh most dense. A number of urban corridors have begun to emerge along with large urban agglomerations. Madurai is one of such urban growths. The state also has a number of national highways which impact its development (NS NH7 being one of them) 2.2.4 Demography – Economy

Source: Administrative Atlas- Census of India 2001, Tamil Nadu

The state occupational structure shows 50% primary sector workers, 23.6% secondary and 26.1% tertiary sector workers. Share of agricultural income in the GDP has declined from 25% to 18% during 1994-04, with a consequent rise in urban incomes in the other two sectors. Literacy levels are getting raised, there is improved life expectancy at birth and fertility rates are declining which spells out human development achievement. Ditto for gender development (Table 2.2). Other references for Sex ratio, Literacy, Female literacy and % Main workers can be drawn for the 6 studied districts as given in Table 2.3 for getting a comparative statistics.

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S. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

District Chennai Kancheepuram Thiruvallur Cuddalur Villupuram Vellore Thiruvannamalai Salem Namakal Dharmapuri Erode Coimbatore Nilgris Tiruchirapalli Karur Peramballur Thanjavur Nagapattinam Thiruvarur Pudukkottai Madurai Theni Dindigul Ramanathapuram Virudhnagar Sivagangai Thirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanyakumari State India

HDI Value 0.757 0.712 0.654 0.644 0.587 0.658 0.612 0.626 0.636 0.584 0.658 0.699 0.685 0.671 0.647 0.596 0.63 0.654 0.637 0.618 0.661 0.628 0.641 0.629 0.651 0.64 0.658 0.703 0.711 0.657 0.571

GDI Value 0.766 0.71 0.651 0.643 0.582 0.655 0.608 0.625 0.631 0.582 0.656 0.697 0.686 0.671 0.641 0.592 0.629 0.652 0.633 0.615 0.661 0.628 0.638 0.626 0.649 0.635 0.656 0.703 0.711 0.654 0.533

Source: Tamil Nadu HRD 2003

Table 2.3: Reference Districts, Tamil Nadu: Comparative N District Pop Area Growth Density (sq.k 1991-01 per/sq. m) (%) km 1 Madurai 2578201 3693 7.41 698 2 Virudhnagar 1751301 4281 11.9 409 3 Ramanthapuram 118760 4181 6.12 284 4 Thoothukudi 1572273 4624 7.99 340 5 Tirunelveli 2736988 6809 8.88 400 6 Theni 1093950 2871 4.25 381
Source: Tamil Nadu Census (2001)

Sex Ratio 978 1012 1036 1050 1042 978

Literacy (%) 77.8 73.7 72.96 81.52 76.09 71.58

Fem Lit (%) 69.35 63.64 63.36 75.13 67.43 61.19

Main Worker s (%) 36.93 45.82 36.5 37.44 41.14 43.3

Map 3: Tamil Nadu Reference Districts

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Map 4: Physical Map of Tamil Nadu

Table 2.4 : Tamil Nadu Districts – According to the Levels of Poverty Poverty Ratio Range No. of Districts Name of Districts High poverty (> 40 %) 6 Cuddalore, Thiruvanamali, Dindigul, Thoothukudi, Thirunelveli, and Kanniakumari Moderate Poverty (30-40%) 5 Chennai, Vellore, Salem, Thanjavur, and Madurai Low Poverty (<30%) 11 Kaancheepuram, Dharmapuri, Nilgiris, Tiruchy, Pudukkottai, Sivagangai, Coimbatore, Virudhunagar, Ramanathapuram, Nagapattinam & Erode.
Source: Tamil Nadu HRD 2003

Poverty studies (Table 2.4) show high to low poverty districts; coastal districts appear economically better. Low income and BPL population correlate as several town level studies have shown.
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High literacy, poverty and high marginal workers in the Worker Participation Rate (WPR), a restructuring economy going away from primary sector, and a fast urbanizing community pose questions for further course in policy. Diversifying agriculture, entrepreneurship in farm and non-farm based activities; exploring tourism as a growth agenda for the state’s natural/manmade heritage tourism appear viable options to promote. Other non invasive, service-based economy should be appropriate and put on offer. Map 5

Code 1 2 3

District Madurai Virudhnagar Ramanathapuram

Code 4 5 6

District Thoothukudi Tirunelveli Theni

Source : Working Paper No. 1
R.J. Chelliah and K.R. Shanmugam

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2.2.5

Infrastructure – Industry

The state has a well endowed road and rail network (Map 5) which has been outlined for the six districts being studied. Tamil Nadu is India’s third largest economy with strategic choices for Electronics, Software, Auto parts, Agro-food processing, Chemicals, Mining, Leather, Textiles, Road-power-port development. The industrial policy delineates scenario, policies-projects, scale, location and incentives in specially designed parks-complexes-zones under state sponsored institutions.

2.3
2.3.1

The District Context: Inputs
Location – Geographic

Thoothkudi district, once a part of Tirunelveli district, came into being as a separate district in 1986, bringing with it, eight taluks viz., Kovilpatti, Vilattikulam, Ottapidaram, Thoothukudi, Srivaikuntam, Thiruchendur, Sathankulakm and Ettayapuram. Their geographical area covers 4621 sq.kms and the district is positioned between 8° 3’ and 9° 37’ north latitude, 77° 72’ and 78° 36’ east longitude. The district has a total population of 15,72,273, 42% being urban and the remaining rural. It is surrounded by the districts of Ramanathapuram, Tirunelveli, Virudhnagar and the Gulf of Mannar on its east (Map 8)

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Map 7: Taluka Map of Thoothukudi District

Rivers Tamirabarani, Vaipar, Manimuthur and Karumeni irrigate the district. NH7, the NS corridor passes partially through the district at the western side; besides NH 7A connecting Tirunelveli to Tuticorin; SH 44 from Sankarankovil to the coastal end at Vembar; SH 40 from Tirunelveli to Kayalpattinam which is the coastal municipality for which the present CDP is being formulated. As the district is fairly large, the road and rail network is more dense and organized at the southern end of the district, towards the urban taluks Thiuchendur and Thoothukudi. (Map 8) The district has a coastline of 164 kms, 2.5% land under forests, 41% under crops with around 70% workers in agriculture occupation. Important crops are cholam, cumbu, ragi, varagur, samai and cash crops of cotton, chillies, sugarcane and groundnut. Palmgur or jaggery, Banana and vegetables are cultivated in the taluks of Tiruchendur, Srivaikundam, Sattankulam and Vilaithikulam. A large amount of land, attributed as waste due to the sea air, is also where salt production takes place contributing 30% of the salt produced in the country. Tuticorin Port is a major catalyst for GDP growth in the region exporting raw material and products to 20 international countries. Certified as International status, it handles 1600 cargo vessels and 2 crore tonnes of cargo. Prawn culture, deep sea fishing, pearl and chunk fishing are other economies practiced in the district and technical support in the form of education/training/research institutions/fishseed farms/processing is made available through the public sector.

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Map 8: Thoothukudi District showing the linkages

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Map 9: Administrative Map, Thoothukudi District

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2.3.2

Urban Growth – Governance

Thoothukudi district has 2 Municipalities (Thoothukudi and Tiruchendur), 26 towns and 436 villages in the district. Thoothukudi district is primarily rural (42.3% urban population against 57.7% rural) but urbanizing. Most urban units are clustered along the coast in the two urban taluks with urban growth moving inwards along state or national highways. Urban growth is very sparse towards the mid and north of the district. Total population in the district is 15,72,273. Ottapidaram is totally a rural taluk, with Sathankulam, Ettayapuram and Srivaikuntam also showing high proportion of rural population (Table 2.5). Kayalpattinam, the municipality under reference is one the towns aligned long the coast facing Gulf of Mannar as does Tiruchendur, the other municipality in the Taluk, which is also the taluk headquarter. There are 3 such urban areas which are coastal, another three (Arumganeri, Kanam and Athur) which agglomerate with the former, and the remaining three (Nazerath, Thenthiruperai and Alwarthirunagiri) which are more westwards, of which two abut the reserve forest area. (Map 10). Map 10: Tiruchendur Taluk, Thoothukudi District Urban growth in the district is based on the economy from Industry, Port activity, Salt pans and Agriculture. Power, Fisheries, IT and Chemicals are the main domain for Industry; Kovilpatti and Thoothukudi are locations for the Industrial estates set up by the state government (SIDCO/SIPCOT); Ottapidaram taluk produces readymade garments; a number of small scale industries (2500 units), are engaged in production of various items from both resources based and other material.
rd

The Port (3 largest container terminal in India), facilitates export to several international destinations and is being perceived as a major catalyst for IT, Tourism and trade Source: Administrative Atlas, Census of India, 2001 growth in the region following the laying of the undersea cable landing station (initial bandwidth 20 going to 160 gigabits per second) as well as the execution of the Sethusamudram project. Agriculture products, as paddy, cotton, groundnut, fruits (bananas) which are grown in abundance add to the GDP of the district.
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Map 11: Urbanised Taluks in Thoothukudi District

Rural Urban

Table 2.5 : Thoothukudi District; Taluk Boundaries, Urban Vs. Rural Taluks Taluk Population Urban Population Rural Population (Persons/Percentage) (Persons/percentage) (Persons/percentage) Kovilpatti 262249 127127 135122 100.00 48.48 51.52 Ettayapuram 73991 12794 61197 100.00 17.29 82.71 Vilathikulam 135285 21633 113652 100.00 15.99 84.01 Ottapidaram 115254 0 115254 100.00 0.00 100.00 Thoothukkudi 405363 293995 111368 100.00 72.53 27.47 Srivaikuntam 191883 44723 147160 100.00 23.31 76.69 Tiruchendur 291428 150295 141123 100.00 51.57 48.42 Sathankulam 96820.00 14206.00 82614.00 100.00 14.67 85.33 Total 1572273.00 664773.00 907490.00 42.28 57.72 100.00
Source: Census of India, 2001

2.3.3

Historic – Political

Historically, Thoothukudi town was known for its pearl fishery and shipbuilding activity, and was the first port of the country to launch a ‘Swadeshi’ ship whilst the country was under British rule. The seaport developed during the Pandyan kingdom was taken over, in 1548, by the Portugese; later in 1658 it was captured by the Dutch and in 1825 ceded to the British. The lighthouse built in 1842 marked the onset of the harbour activity. The district has deep associations with leaders, poets, warriors such Chidambaram Pillai, Subramanya Bharti, Kattabomman who were great visionaries. The name Thoothukudi is claimed to have been derived from Thoorthu (dig) and Kudi (drink) implying wells as being the chief source of drinking water. Another interpretation is ‘thoortha’ being land reclaimed from sea, and, ‘kudi’ meaning colony or settlement. Tuticorin was what the Dutch named the town as.
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The association of the town with pearl fishery began in the 16 century (the Nayaks of Madurai, the Nawabs of Karnataka, The Portuguese and the tribes known as “Paravars” who were the traditional fishermen). Pearl oysters attach to pearl banks (locally called ‘parrs’) and have been known to exist at Keelakarai (which is one of the ten reference municipalities under this CDP formulation exercise), Thoothukudi and, Kanyakumari ; the “parrs” of Thoothukudi have outnumbered other sites. The seashore temple devoted to Lord Subramanya at Tiruchendur is a pilgrim centre, considered one of the six abodes of the lord which also marked his victory over the demon Surapadma. It finds mention in ancient literature of the Tamil Sangam period. The district is suffused with heritage. Between Tirunelveli and Thiruchendur there are 9 out of the 108 Vishnu temples, which collectively are called Aalwar Nara Tiruppatikal, the first being at Srivaikuntham th and the 9 at Aalwar Tirunagari. Some notable pilgrim centres, sites and historic places of note are:
• • • • • • • • • Nazhi Kinaru a well with sweet water central to another one which is brackish Sri Sankara Rameswarar temple (established during Pandyan Kings) Sri Vaikundapathy temple (established during Pandyan Kings) Panimaya Matha - Church built by Portugese in 1714 Manapad - Roman Catholic Church with cross brought from Jerusalem Kzhugu Malai – jain cave temples known for its Jain architecture th Murugan temple of Kalugasalamurthy Kovil built in 18 century Ettaiyapuram Palace where Pandayan Kings posted “watch keepers” who later became rulers of the place. The palace built in 1565 marks the occasion. The group of nine temples Navarathirupathi at Srivaikuntam Natham near Srivaikuntam Thiruppulingudi near Nathan Perunkulam Thirukullanthai near Srivaikuntam Irattai Thirupatti near Srivaikuntam Thola Villimangalam (temple inside the teak forest) Theni Thirupperai near Alwarthiruagari Alwarthirunagari Thirukolar near Alwarthiruagari Korkai Port, now 5 kms inland, an ancient port city during Pandyan Kings. Athichanallur, archaeological remains of a civilization that existed near river Tamirabarani.

th

• 2.3.4

Demography-Economy-Human Resource

Of all the districts being studied, Thoothukudi is the third largest populated, second largest in area and in the decadal growth rate (Table 2.3); has the highest sex ratio and literacy including female literacy. There is need to perk-up the proportion of main workers by improving employment prospects in the district. Comparative slum profiles show Thoothukudi as having a small proportion of slum dwellers (Table 2.6) Table 2.6: Talukawise Distribution of Total Workers by their Sector of Economy
Taluk Total Workers Nos WPR % 35.3 143241 106251 132516 39543 82651 74272 57525 42812 678811 36.5 50.5 40.8 43.1 54.9 49.9 57.9 43.17 Primary Cultivato rs 3952 6870 13575 3416 12420 16272 10855 6458 73818 Agri Labrers 7724 21927 27691 9601 30445 30896 25136 14482 167902 Primary (Total) Nos % 11676 28797 41266 13017 42865 47168 35991 20940 241720 8.15 27.10 31.14 32.92 51.86 63.51 62.57 48.91 35.61 HH Nos 4228 11227 8425 7373 6521 2421 2542 4403 47140 % 2.95 10.57 6.36 18.65 7.89 3.26 4.42 10.28 6.94 Others Nos 12734 66227 82825 19153 33265 24683 18992 17469 389951 % 88.90 62.33 62.50 48.44 40.25 33.23 33.02 40.80 57.45

Thoothukkudi Tiruchendur Kovilpatti Sathankulam Srivaikuntam Vilathikulam Ottapidaram Ettayapuram Total

Source: Census of India, IPE Analysis
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The district economy is primarily rural with six of the eight being rural taluks. • Percent workers to percent total population has a variation with urban taluks sharing 35-36 percent against rural taluks, where it varies between 40 to 58 percent . • Primary sector workers in urban taluks is only 8 percent for Thoothikudi and 27 percent for Trichendur with Kayalpatinam and Santhakulam not showing large variation.More rural taluks are Srivaikuntam and Ettayapuram. Very highly rural taluks are Vilathikulam and Ottapidaram. 2.3.5 Infrastructure-Industry

Industrial growth has been encouraged in the district. Twelve major industrial units (SPIC, TAC, Dharangadhra Chemical Works, Sterlite, Madura Coats, Loyal textiles, Kilburns are some big names) and quite large number of small scale units are registered, besides the PSUs such as Thermal Power Station, Port Trust and Heavy Water Plant. Salt pans add to the production value (70% of the State and 30% of the Country’s needs are met from here). Granite mining, pearl culture, sea food and port based economy are other add ons. The position with regards to infrastructure is as follows: • An average water supply of 30-40 LPCD in urban units, with Thoothikudi consuming a total of 153 LL whilst Tiruchendur was 19 LL. The population being denied access to potable water supply ranges from 10% (in municipalities) to 45 percent in town panchayats. There is no sewerage system, a total quantity of 239 LL of sewage is generated in the urban areas. SWM : 59 MT with 83 percent efficiency. Being partially industrial in some areas, the compostable waste is 52% with other components of waste being rubber and leather (10%), plastic (11%), glass (9%), metal brick stone (6%), wood (6%). Environmentally, the large scale industry has marked 17 as red category, and 9 as orange category, requiring control measures. Industrial emissions and air pollution are consequences. Discharge of industrial effluents affects surface and ground water as well as agriculture production, shrimp farming and pawn culture. A number of aqua culture units along the coastal area are functioning in the district. 20 island in the Gulf of Mannar (under control of wild life department of the State Government) are of declared Biosphere Reserve and Natural Marine Park. The group of islands constitutes Thoothukudi, Vembar, Keelakarai and Mandapam, now endangered due to a deteriorating coral reef eco-system, especially at Van, Koswari, Vilangushuli and Karashuli falling under the Thoothikudi group.

• •

• • • •

Tsunami also can cause irreversible damage to the coastal environment besides the physical devastation that was caused to 23 coastal villages and fisherman households.

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Map 12: Tiruchrndur Taluk Showing Rail Road Network and Towns

Tamirabarani River 4 6 SH 40 5 2 Gulf of Mannar 7 9 3

1

Legend

Taluk Boundary Water Body 8 Meter Gauge Railway Line Reserved Forest Metalled Roads Municipality Town Panchayat 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Tiruchendur Kayalpattinam Arumuganeri Athur Thenthiruperai Alwarthirunagiri Nazerath Udangudi Kanam

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2.3.6

Historic Footprint- Heritage

Heritage resources in the district as discussed earlier are briefly stated here: • The state department of archaeology have some protected monuments in Ettayapuram and Ottapidaram taluks of the District. • Tiruchendur temple, a renowned one devoted to Lord Muruga is located on the edge of the sea, is presumed to have been built 1000 years ago and had constantly been improved by the Pandya and Chola kings with the complex taking 72 years to build. The temple structure is gigantic with a gopuram (300 yrs old) in the west. • Srivaikuntam and Alwarthirunagari Vaishnav temples of ancient origin (dates not known). • Nava Thirupattis; 9 of the 108 holy shrines devoted to Lord Vishnu. • Settlement within a 10’ high mud wall enclosure where women (called Kattai Pillaimars) have never seen the outside world. th • Panchalamkurichi, fort of Kattaboman (17 century). • Manapad: Remnants of the Holy Cross from Jerusalem enshrined in this 400 year old church. • Kazhugumalai: Jain temples with bas relief sculptures and a nearby rock cut cave temple. • Kulasekarapattinam: Muttaramman temple and site of the enactment of the war of Ramayana every year on the beach during Dussera festival. • Birth places of Chidambaram, Kattaboman and Bharathiyan. A large population of floating tourists visit pilgrim sites, beaches, see marine life or are business visitors. There is year round tourist activity in the cities during the festive period or otherwise. Yet there has not been sufficient marketing for tourism growth or installing tourism infrastructure at popular places.

2.4

Relevant District Profile

The district is slightly skewed towards a rural composition, yet there is insufficient irrigation facility through surface water (rivers/canals). Tanks and wells remain commonly used sources. River systems of Tirunelveli district help irrigate some areas in taluks Vilathikulam, Sathankulam and Tiruchendur. Cropped area is 40% and forests cover 2.4%. About 38% land cannot be put to cultivation purpose; some of the soil is sandy coastal alluvium (27%) followed by red loam (21%) and black soil (14%). Red loam soil areas (near Tiruchendur) are locally believed to be free of crimes or land thefts and are good for palm trees, cashew and other indigenous dry arid area forests. Important agricultural crops are Paddy, Cereals, Pulses, Sugarcane / Jaggery, Groundnut and Gingelly, whilst cotton is an non-agricultural crop. Industry, salt production and marine economy are important to the district. Towns tend to cluster in the coastal southern part whilst the northern end (adjoining Virudhunagar district) has sparsely located urban areas. Punnakayal, near Kayalpattinam is a centre for fish curing. Thoothukudi is the main centre for deep sea fishing. It also has the State’s largest Thermal power station; Industries are in Kovilpatti (NH 7 passes through), Thoothukudi and Puthiampur Village (Ottapidaram taluk). Attempts are made to industrialize areas on the Western side of the district and to avail access by NH7A and SH40 from Tirunelveli. Kayalpattinam is closer to Tiruchendur, accessible by a Railway line as well as SH 40 coming from Tirunelveli. It is located in the heartland which produced a number of freedom fighters during the British regime.

2.5

Taluka Context: Inputs

Thoothukudi, the most urbanized, is also the highest populated; its location on the coast as an important historic port (now modernised to international standard), and as the terminal end of the railway line as well as NH7A has proved advantageous to the taluk growth. Tiruchendur on the other hand, has historic significance and regional recognition as a Temple town devoted to Lord Muruga and located on the sea face, unusual, as Murugan temples are sited on hills/.forests. Presumed to be ancient (from early Christian era) and recorded in the hymns and poetry of Tamil Sangam period, it is an important
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pilgrimage. Together, these two constitute the focal point of their taluka. Kayalpattinam, the reference ULB, lies in Tiruchendur taluk (close to the headquarter town Tiruchendur) is very near to where River Tamarabarni meets the sea. Along the district’s coastline, various religious groups are historically linked to settlements; Manpad has associations with Christianity, Kayalpattinam is Muslim dominated and Thiruchendur, Hindu. With common objectives of dependence on the sea the religious configurations remain harmonious in all sectors of the economy, occupations remaining central to social structures. Positioning taluka futures has become a dilemma in view of a declining primary sector and an almost oblivion pearl fishing/deep sea fishing/marine resource economy. Marine activists advocate non-interference with marine eco-systems which have destroyed large reserves of coral. The coast is now declared National Marine Park. Industrialization plays havoc and inspite of Pollution Control Laws/Acts, industrial effluents discharged find their way into the sea or leach into groundwater. High literacy in the district points to preference for service sector jobs. The taluk shows a continuity of urban areas along the sea coast. Together taken, these factors suggest the following: 1) The Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) should be adhered strictly and empty stretches should remain natural, unurbanized and replete with sand dunes. Protection is possible by preventing encroachment of fishermen huts. The study has observed that traditional patterns of fishermen settlement would have to be substituted by new non-invasive settlements away from the sea front. Urbanization is accompanied by real estate demand for sea front locations which are prime in value. Fishermen Housing, under some pretexts, is usurped as real estate, as examples in Maharasthra and Goa have shown. 2) A second zone be demarcated along sea fronts (which are available and accessible to public the sea face being perceived as ‘public’ good to be enjoyed by all) which are recreational in use (parks/beaches/playgrounds) Zones at S.No.1 and 2 would be NON-VIOLABLE Zones. 3) Shelter Zones/Structures be sited after due safety assessment considering disaster proneness of the east coast (Tsunami/earthquake) for Disaster Management purposes. 4) Organized Fisherman stations along the coast be instituted which provide meteorological data/other inputs to fishermen, as well as keep account of numbers gone to sea. This would be a watchdog/safety enabling station function preferably under joint control of coast guards-state govt.-fishermen associations. 5) Tourism Infrastructure, as sea side resorts for high-middle and low end tourists (ecotourism/business/pilgrim) should be encouraged at a sufficient scale backed with adequate marketing to allow Tourism growth. North Indians, many who have never seen the sea state Bombay as a favoured destination. This segment could be tapped by offering multiple opportunities and attractive discount for short and long stay holidays at quaint seaside village environment resorts as “never been before” environment. These resorts integrated with travel and sightseeing in nearby areas would be popular to budget tourists who form volumes in the business. 6) Sea fronting urban units almost like a chain should be planning for shared infrastructure provision, such as roads/water supply/solid waste management/sanitation and concur on financial /other arrangements in making this a reality. 7) Sea fronting urban units should explore sufficient local economic base which is service sector oriented, environmentally less damaging, involves and empowers women (in view of the high sex ratios in all the taluks), and can absorb a highly literate population. Special emphasis should be placed on employment policies in the district/taluk/towns. 8) Make possible a connection between local livelihoods- heritage and tourism –women’s empowerment- institutions imparting practical skills- seafront strategies – tourist infrastructure.

2.6

Inception Stage and the SWOT Analysis

The consultants visited Kayalpattinam on September 21, 2007 for a reconnaissance of the Municipality area and for a consultative meeting cum workshop with the Chairman, Councilors and other major stakeholders. Another meeting cum workshop was held in Madurai on October 16, 2007 for presenting the inception report, under the Chairmanship of JCMA where ULB Chairman and state level concerned functionaries were apprised, and views consolidated for the onward exercise of preparing the Draft CDP. A record of these meetings is provided in Annexure - I.
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The SWOT analysis and draft emerging vision for Kayalpattinam ULB is derived from this meeting and as incorporated in the inception report. The ULB’s regional perspective and interconnections with the district helped sharpen the Kayalpattinam Vision. STRENGTH • Kayalpattinam ULB is a part of the estuary of River Tamrabarani which discharges into the sea and therefore has part of nature’s wonders within the jurisdiction. This can be a strength for the town yet imposing responsibility for marine life/beach head and other environmental safeguards the town must take. Railway line passes through the town before terminating at Tiruchendur. The town has metalled road network connecting to SH 40 which goes between Tirunelveli and Tiruchendur. Presence of diverse religious communities has been continuously harmonious. Its beach is available to everyone with some parks developed alongside by the ULB. The town having a sea face is an advantage. Presence of large industrial unit (the DCW Chemical works) helps in generating jobs for workers. Diamond and gold jewellery making units are well established as a local business adding to the city income. The town has historical connections and is known to be an ancient capital enjoying prosperity. Later, in 842 A D it is stated to be under Khilji dynasty and is reputed to draw its name from Kahira in Egypt which later distorted to its present name.

• • • • • • •

WEAKNESS • • • • • • Low level of infrastructure availability, especially poor sanitation, solid waste disposal, insufficient street lights, poor drainage and roads. Lack of proper shopping centres of all hierarchies as, weekly markets, convenience shops, shopping centre etc. Very high proportion of slum residents, slum population being 25% of all population. Lack of planned utilities and facilities, as, cultural centres/libraries/sports stadium. Lack of effective landmark buildings/lighthouse/icon symbol city identity or sense of pride. Absence of recreational facilities.

OPPORTUNITY • Special integrated market for gold-silver-diamond jewellery making, displaying and enlargement into a regional centre for shopping for jewellery. • Special ‘haat’ like market for products made from natural resources, as palm fibre, articles from palm trees, innovatively designed products from stone mat weaving and other locally developed initiatives in the household industry. • Create a special “Meena Bazar” for creating the peculiar environment of traditional Muslim settlements. • Special marine based markets for fresh sea fish, boat making, repair and servicng; seaweed based health food production; shrimp/prawn farms or value added fishery in bracking/freshwater tank/fish farming for fishermen community. • Tourism based development, as small village like cluster resorts 100m away from high tide line zone in ethnic traditional buildings using low cost technology, create view points, allow boat rides, create ‘machans’, small amusement zones for children, food zones/plazas for ethnic foods. • Generally open up and liberalize the economy for outside tourists for them to take a ‘peek at the sea’ and enjoy regional tourism in day trips, and get the town ready for services of catering/transport/building accommodation/furnishing and managing tiny resorts to large hotels. • Arena for aquatic sports including training and managing emergencies. • Disaster Management shelters. • Improvement to HSCs.
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THREATS • Flooding due to improper drainage. • Natural disasters (Tsunami/cyclones/typhoons/earthquake) • Joblessness if delay in responding to economic opportunity • Shoreline maintenance • Environmental damage to mangroves • Lack of Identify and sense of pride for the city • Rapid decomposition in humid climate leading to aggravated problems due to lack of sewerage and garbage disposal. Disease proneness. • Slum growth

2.7

Emerging Kayalpattinam Vision

Leading Kayalpattinam growth from the front by aggressive pursual of a three pronged strategy for developing local business in a) coastal based activity b) skill and natural resource based cottage industry and c) tourism promotion for seaside resort experience and related activities performed with eco-sensitive measures will help sustain the town’s growth.

2.8

Inputs from Kayalpattinam Vision: Proposals and Spatial Perspective

The proposals for the town has taken into consideration the following factors which have a bearing on the proposal • • The vacant land available for development is about 200 hectares so a limited development agenda can be introduced into the urban fabric. This implies using peri-urban areas for future growth. The town configuration showing a central north to south development zone and an east to west one, leaving eastern sea face fairly a vacant area is a positive sign. The other vacant land is near ULB boundary in the northern and southern side.

The proposal for Kayalpattinam, based on the Vision has the following components. 1. Proposal for defining two sea face zones of (i) CRZ as a beach and (ii) a parallel running recreational zone which will be a green zone with cashew plantation – childrens park – exclusive women’s community centre and a women’s skill enhancement centre. 2. Tourism for ‘Sea Experience’ and Resort Zone 3. Business Zone of two parts (i) local micro businesses dealing with marine resources, and (ii) local micro businesses dealing with skills, as jewellery making (which are value added items) requiring security; and handicrafts (which express local traditions and are displayed better in ‘haat’ like environments.) 4. At least one project which symbolises the towns’ inherent strength/quality, OR, a landmark like a tall observation tower with a lift. 5. Special Fishermen Village planned holistically on a non sea facing site. 6. Disaster Preparedness Shelter Zone 7. Green Corridor along Major Roads (after reviewing onsite situation)

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Map 13: Diagrammatic Proposal for Spatial Development

ATHUR

KAYALPATTINAM

ARUMUGANERI KANAM

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CHAPTER - 3 TOWN PROFILE
3.1 Town History and Growth
Kayalpattinam lies in the southeast part of Indian peninsula, on the shore off the Bay of Bengal at 35° North and 78° east and 6 metres (19 feet) above MSL. The town is spread over an area of 6’ 6’ 12.50 square kilometres and lies on the State highway between Tirunelveli to Tiruchendur and is also connected via other major district roads to Thoothukudi (38 km), Tirunelveli (60 km) and Madurai. Kayalpattinam is a Grade III Municipality with a population 33, 264 persons (2001 Census) spread over an area of 1250 hectares. Kayalpattinam is an ancient historical city of India. It is a Muslim dominated town situated in Thoothukudi district (formerly it was in Tirunelveli district). The first settlement in Kayalpattinam dates to 633 A.D, followed by the second settlement which took place in 842 A.D. Kayal was the name of the place till the advent of Muhammad Khalji in 842 A.D. After his arrival, the southern part of Kayal was named Kahirfathan (after Khalji's home town Kahira in Egypt). Kahirfathan, which is Arabic, slowly changed to Kayalpattinam. Kayalpattinam is situated near the Tambraparni River - about a mile from its mouth - in Tirunelveli district (presently Thoothukudi district). Kayal means a very ancient place. Five thousand years ago, it was the capital of second Tamil Sangam, called Kapadapuram. According to historians, Kapadapuram was very close to Tiruchendur.

Fig. 3.1: Kayalpattinam - Beach

Fig. 3.2: Kayalpattinam - Dense development

3.2 Climate and Physical Features
Most of the geographical area (74 percent) of Kayalpattinam comprises of sandy soil. The climate of the town is generally hot and humid. The average rainfall is about 450 mm and the town receives maximum rainfall during the South West & North East Monsoon. Average temperature is around 28° C minimum and 35°C maximum. Most of the geographical area (74 percent) of Kayalpattinam comprises of sandy soil. The climate of the town is generally hot and humid. The average rainfall is about 450 mm and the town receives maximum rainfall during the South West & North East Monsoon. Average temperature is around 28° C minimum and 35°C maximum.

3.3 Demography
The population figures show an increasing trend over the years with the highest growth recorded during the 61-71 decade. The growth rate for the decade 1981-91 was 3.75 percent which is the lowest among the years under assessment. The growth rate has increased to 33.72 percent in 19912001.

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3.3.1

Population Growth Trends
Population Growth
35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 1961 1971 1981 Ye ar s 1991 2001

Population Growth Rate
1000
Percentage

Population (nos)

800 600 400 200 0
1971 1981 Ye ar s 1991 2001

Fig 3.3: Population Growth Table 3.1: Population Growth Trend

Fig 3.4: Decadal Growth Rate

Year Population Decadal Growth Rate Area (ha) Density (persons/ha) 1961 2,024 215 9 1971 18,925 835.03 5293 4 1981 23,544 24.41 2955 8 1991 24,428 3.75 1640 15 2001 32,664 33.72 1250 26 Source: Census of India, 2001 Note: The ULB land has undergone reorganization by the State Machinery and has decreased from time to time as shown in the table.

The administrative limit of the town covers an area of 1250 Ha with a gross density of 26pph (persons per hectare), as per the population in 2001. The population density is increasing over the years and has increased from 9 pph in 1961 to 26 pph in 2001. The town density suggests that there is enough room for densifying as suggested by guidelines for town development which recommends a density of 75-100 pph (persons per hectare) for towns with population less than 50,000 persons. Fig. 3.5: Population Density
Population Density (persons/ha)
30 Population Density (persons/ha) 25 20 15 10 5 0 1961 1971 1981 Years 1991 2001

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Table 3.2: Ward – Wise Population Ward No. Population Percentage to Total Population 1 2,983 9.13 2 1,079 3.30 3 1,708 5.23 4 908 2.78 5 1,441 4.41 6 1,629 4.99 7 1,348 4.13 8 1,697 5.20 9 1,097 3.36 10 2,230 6.83 11 1,802 5.52 12 2,050 6.28 13 2,163 6.62 14 2,432 7.45 15 2,746 8.41 16 1,875 5.74 17 1,239 3.79 18 2,237 6.85 TOTAL 32,664 100.00
Source: Kayalpattinam Municipality, 2007

Area (Ha) 90.00 35.00 45.00 40.00 50.00 50.00 60.00 85.00 65.00 60.00 85.00 80.00 95.00 75.00 90.00 70.00 65.00 110.00 1,250.00

Population density (Persons/Ha) 33 31 38 23 29 33 22 20 17 37 21 26 23 32 31 27 19 20 26

A ward wise distribution of population is presented in the table; the lowest percent of population is in ward 4 and the highest in ward 1. Map 14: Ward wise Population Densities in KayalpattinamTown

3.4 Literacy and Sex Ratio
The literacy rate has increased from 67 percent in 1961 to 77 percent in 2001, which is higher as compared to the District (73 percent) and the State (73.45 percent). Table 3.3: Literacy Rate Year Literates Literacy Rate 1961 1,356 67 1971 10,910 58 1981 15,606 66 1991 17,829 73 2001 25,177 77
Source: Census of India, 2001

Fig 3.6: Literacy Rate
Literacy Rate
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1961 1971 1981 Y ear s 1991

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Table 3.4: Sex Ratio Year 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001
Source: Census of India, 2001

Males 852 8,345 10,350 10,753 15,010

Females 1,172 10,580 13,194 13,675 17,654

Sex Ratio 1,376 1,268 1,275 1,272 1,176

In 2001 the sex ratio was 1,176 females per 1000 males. The sex ratio of the town is higher when compared to the state (986) and district (1033). This can be corroborated with the high literacy levels observed.

3.5 Urban Economy
The town is 38 km from Thoothukudi, which is famous port. Kayalpattinam is known for its chemical industries, salt pan, palm products and fishing. Many of the chemical exporting industrial units are located in Kayalpattinam offering potential for trading centres. The municipality has developed and beautified the sea shore as a recreational place by constructing parks, playground, and fountains. The town has a floating population of nearly 1500 people who come to visit its attractive beach front everyday. 3.5.1 Occupational Structure There is some structural change in the occupation structure of the town over the years. Primary sector has clearly declined from 13 percent (1961) to 0.32 percent (2001). Secondary sector as in small household industry has decreased from 17 percent (1961) to about 2.4 percent (2001). On the other hand the services sector has increased significantly from 70 percent (1961) to almost 97 percent (2001). The WPR has remained more or less constant over the years and is 25 percent in 2001. Table 3.5: Occupational Structure
Sector No. of persons % to total work force 30 41 29 100 No. of persons % to total work force No. of persons % to total work force No. of persons % to total work force No. of persons % to total work force 2 2.64 95.35 100

1961 Cultivators & Agri 1,413 Labourers Household 1,921 Industry Others 1,372 Marginal Workers Total Workers 4,706 Non workers 3,554 Total Population 8,260 WPR Source: Census of India, 2001

1971 1,620 22 2,331 3,353 7,304 8,566 15,870 32 46 100

1981 2,099 50 22 2,038 15 4,174 4,332 8,506 1 49 0.36 100

1991 2,112 40 2,030 923 197 5,262 5,264 10,526 39 18 4 100

2001 500 660 23,804

24,964 24,226 49,190

57

46

49

50

51

3.5.2

Commerce and Industry

Most of the commercial developments have taken place along West Great Cotton Road, Victoria Extension Road, South cotton road. Commercial activity is also observed along the major roads leading to Madurai, Tiruchendur, Palayamcottai and Ramanathapuram.
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The outer areas of Kayalpattinam are developing with concentration of industries and allied activities by agencies like DCW Factory. The total workers come under industrial activities are estimated to be 9800. The proposed area for industrial development is distributed at the end of the town along Sahupuram road.

3.6 Land Use
About 84 percent of the town comes under the developed area category and the rest is yet to be developed. The break –up of the land use is given in the table below. Table 3.6: Land Use Distribution
S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Land use Area (in ha) 703 52 17 58 82 138 1050 200 1250 % to Total Area 66.95 4.95 1.62 7.81 5.52 13.14 100.00 % to Total Developed Area 56.24 4.16 1.36 6.56 4.64 11.04 84.00 16.00 100.00 Residential Commercial Industrial Educational Public and semi-public Traffic and transportation Sub Total Undeveloped area Total Source: Kayalpattinam Municipality

3.6.1 Residential Area Residential development in Kayalpattinam is mostly concentrated along the railway line and along the major roads leading to Palayamcottai, Tiruchendur, Thoothukudi and Madurai. New residential developments are proposed on the outskirts of Thoothukudi 3.6.2 Commercial Area Commercial activities comprise only 4.95 percent of the total area and 5.7% (0.64 Sq.km) of the total developed area. Most of the commercial development has taken place along West Great Cotton Road, Victoria Extension Road, South cotton road, and, along the major roads leading to Madurai, Tiruchendur, Palayamcottai and Ramanathapuram. 3.6.3 Industrial Area Industrial area comprises 1.36 percent of the total area and 1.62 percent of the total developed area. The outer areas of Kayalpattinam are developing with concentration of industries and allied activities by agencies like DCW Factory. Industrial development is proposed along Sahupuram road. 3.6.4 Transportation The land under transportation is an important component in relation to the growth of tourist, population size, economic base of the town and its importance. The area under the circulation is 138 hectare and comprised 13.14 percent of the total area and 11.04 percent of the developed area.

3.7 Spatial Pattern
3.7.1 Spatial Growth Trends/ Urban Sprawl

The growth of the town in the 60s has led to the concentration of economic activities in the Koman Street (ward 1) where large number of household units are involved in fishing and associated businesses. New developments are observed in ward 7 and vacant lands exist in the peripheral areas. The lacking infrastructure deliveries may become impediments in furthering the sustainable growth of Kayalpattinam. Map 3.1: Spatial Growth Pattern KayalpattinamTown

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3.7.2

Spatial Population Distribution

While the core town (adjoining SH) comprises of commercial activities, the residential areas originate outwards from here. A large population resides in ward 10 near the State Highway. New residential localities have developed in ward 7 along C.D.Nainar Street. 3.7.3 Future Growth Patterns

Growth is constrained on the sea front towards east of the town leaving future growth possibilities towards westwards preferably acquiring land from peri-urban areas.

3.8 Emerging Issues
• The current population is largely concentrated in the core town area, resulting in enormous stress on the infrastructure concentration in core area and deteriorating quality of life, apart from increasing disaster vulnerability. • Fringe settlements including rural area population; make a demand on the town's infrastructure and the economic and other services of the town. These areas need to be considered while planning for infrastructure development in Kayalpattinam as they would eventually constitute part of the larger urban settlement. • Commercial areas encroachment upon roads and public spaces has to be properly dealt with. • Unsanitary conditions due to lack of proper infrastructure facilities, narrow streets with buildings devoid of proper light and ventilation as some of the common problems seen. • Natural areas and coastal areas would need special care and management

3.9 Population Forecast
The population of the town has shown an increasing trend over a period of time and has recorded the highest growth in the last decade. Table below indicates the growth rate and the CAGR for the town. Table 3.7: Population Growth Trend and CAGR Year Population Decadal Growth Trend 1961 2,024 1971 18,925 835.03 1981 23,544 24.41 1991 24,428 3.75 2001 32,664 33.72
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CAGR 25.05 2.21 0.37 2.95
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Source: COI, (2001) and IPE Analysis

Table 3.8: Population Forecast Year Arithmetic Increase Method 2011 40324 2021 47984 2031 55644 2036 59474 2041 63304
Source: IPE Analysis

Incremental Increase Method 48114 71353 102382 120818 141201

Geometric Increase Method 45755 64093 89779 106258 125761

Exponential Method 85013 152110 272164 364055 486971

Population Forecast - Arithm etic Increase 70000 60000 Population (nos) 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 2011 2021 2031 Years 2036 2041 Population (nos)

Population Forecast - Increm ental Increase 160000 140000 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 2011 2021 2031 Years 2036 2041

Population Forecast - Geom etric Increase 140000 Population (nos) 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 2011 2021 2031 Years 2036 2041 Population (nos)

Population Forecast - Exponential Increase 600000 500000 400000 300000 200000 100000 0 2011 2021 2031 Years 2036 2041

Fig 3.7: Population Forecast (Arithmetic, Incremental, Geometric and Exponential Method) The population growth rate indicates a increasing trend over the years. Arithmetic increase assumes a continuation of trend at the prevalent growth rate and thereby gives a relatively lower projection indicating that no efforts shall be made to boost the town’s economy. Incremental increase assumes the increase is again nominal with slight improvement because of adding the decadal increments. The third and fourth method assume faster rate of population growth with geometric progression, presenting a case of growth where economic change brings employment into prospect and thereby aggravates the growth process.
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Exponential method is for cities where high in migration causes a spurt in growth usually doubling over three decades. For population forecast for the town, we have considered its growth rate, compared it to the state growth and district growth rate, the prospect from the economic impetus that the CDP plans to make within a reasonable gestation period. It foresees the incremental method as a reasonable forecast, atleast for the first fifteen years when it can be reviewed again for project impacts, if any. For analytic purpose we are maintaining this for a 30 year forecast and keeping the geometric progression forecast as a contingency. Taking into account the above assumptions, population projection by incremental increase method was considered. Increments for the decades 1961-71 to 1991-2001 were taken as the base and the projected population is estimated to be 48114 persons in 2011 and 71354 persons in 2021. Population projection is given below: Table 3.9: Proposed Population Year Population Projection 2011 2021 2031 2036 2041
Source: IPE Analysis

48114 71353 102382 120818 141201

Chapter 4 Urban Infrastructure, Environment & Service Delivery
The Infrastructure profile of a town makes a direct reference on the quality of life within it. It’s one of the crucial consideration for the town’s economic development and its investment climate. Infrastructure services and its adequacy require an assessment be made of its coverage, quantity and quality, as also the demand supply gap. The cost of delivering services and recovering that cost is another matter for review. If ULBs are proposed to work on a given business model in future, they have to work towards assessing their existing levels of infrastructure and service delivery and measures to improve the same resulting in efficient cost recovery. The following sections relate to an analysis of the above mentioned factors for the various services within the town.

4.1 Water Supply
4.1.1 Source and Availability of Water

Kayalpattinam Municipality (KM) meets its water supply requirements through sub surface water source under the Authoor Combined Water Supply Scheme. Water for the town is drawn from the river bed of Ponnankurichi Tamirabarani River, with head work located 3kms. away from municipal limit. The source is being maintained by the TWAD Board and the distribution system by the KM. Water is
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extracted from 80HP turbine pump sets and conveyed to the booster station at Authoor trhough 450mm PSC pipes. Water is supplied for two hours daily. Table 4.1: Existing Situation Water Supply Head/ Year Total Area of Kayalpattinam (Sq. km) No. of House Service Connections No. of Households covered by House Service Connections (2006) % of total households served by House Service Connections No. of Commercial Connections % PT Assessments with Service Connections Total Water Supply Capacity (Ground and Surface) (MLD) Gross Supply as per municipal records(lpcd) Gross Supply, considering 2007(lpcd) Length of Distribution Net Work Distribution Network Reach (% of road length)
Source: Kayalpattinam Municipality, 2007 and IPE Analysis

2007 12.5 6200 6,182 60 18 46% 2.2 62.34 53.65 17km. 53

Map 15: Water Supply Coverage

Considering an optimum operation and utilization of these local sources and dependence on the availability of ground water and controlled drawl, the present yield from the in-use bore wells and open wells is only 2.2 MLD. However, with the long term goal of conservation of groundwater sources these local sources cannot be taken into consideration in the assessment of the demand-supply gap and capital facility requirements. These sources can only supplement the system. 37

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4.1.2 Storage and Treatment Facility The total storage capacity is of the order of 18.20 LL. Location of the OHTs is given below in table 4.2. Water storage facility is ample considering the existing population, but more would be required in future as per the growth of population. Table 4.2: Location of Storage Tanks and Capacity S. No. Location Over Head Tank 1 Anna Nagar 2 Kayethemilleth Nagar 3 Utchimaakaliamman Kovil Street 4 Alagapuri 5 Ottadakarai 6 Komaanputhur 7 Arunachalapuram 8 Singithurai 9 Thekai Padaga Salai (Anna Nagar) 10 Rathnapuri 11 Thevu Street 12 Appapalli Street 13 Sulochanapuram 14 New Bus stand 15 Near Municipal Office Total
Source: Kayalpattinam Municipality, 2007

Capacity ( Lakh Litres) 0.10 0.30 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 2.00 2.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 18.2

Fig 4.1 Water Storage Tank Pre-chlorination is the only type of treatment done before water is pumped into the elevated storage reservoirs from the river bed. Therefore, replacement of old water supply network as well as water treatment plant emerges as a foremost service in demand.

4.1.3

Water Transmission and Distribution

Water from the Storage tank is transmitted to the distribution network through feeder mains (200 mm dia. cement concrete pipes). The distribution network branches out from the feeder mains and covers a total length of 17 km. The distribution network varies between 100mm to 90mm dia. pipes made of PVC pipes. Furthermore there are 127 public stand posts supplying water to selected wards. About 53 percent of the road length in the town is covered by the distribution network. 4.1.4 Consumer Connections

All the water supply service connections are of ½” and ¾” dia pipes. There are 6,200 connections, out of which 6,182 (99.7 percent) are residential and 18 (0.3 percent) are commercial. 4.1.5 System Adequacy and Water Tariff

The gross supply in the town is at the rate of 62.34 LPCD implying that it needs to be improved by more than 50 percent to bring it to 135 LPCD standards in a phased manner. Water is supplied for two hours daily which is far less than the ideal situation of 24 hours. Moreover the supply gets further
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reduced during summers owing to the shortage of supply from the source. The main reason for this is unavailability of surface water sources and limited extraction of the ground water. Scanty rainfall of the region further aggravates this problem. Against a total of 13, 492 Property Tax Assessments in the town, there are 6,182 Service connections (domestic), indicating that the service coverage is 46 percent with respect to Property Tax Assessments. Moreover, the numbers of households in 2007 were 10250 (assuming household size of 4), comparing the total house service connection, only 60 percent of the households are covered under water supply system, explaining actually low coverage of the service. The house service connections are charged at a flat rate of Rs. 50 per month for residential connection and Rs. 100 per month for commercial connections with one time connection fee of Rs. 5,100 is collected and there is no collection of deposit for commercial connections. 4.1.6 Distribution Losses and Unaccounted Water Flow

There is significant water loss in the Kayalpattinam Water Distribution Cycle, from source to consumer end. Kayalpattinam stated the system losses as ranging from 20 percent to 25 percent. It is to be noted that identification of sources and the amount of losses is constrained because the network maps and consumer databases are inadequate or not completely available. Water losses may broadly be classified as physical losses and administrative losses. Physical losses are due to leakages from old, damaged, corroded pipe lines/ connections and leaking joints and overflow at overhead tanks. Consumer taps also cause significant waste of treated water. Administrative losses are due to theft, illegal tapping of water, unregistered connections, faulty meters and unrecorded supply due to poor records and billing errors. The distribution network mostly of PVC material is damaged though they are not aged, and pressure losses are reported. However, lack of adequate database and location maps of the network can only hide the physical losses as the leaks can be underground too. Though there is a need to initiate a Leak Detection Study and implement the recommended options, for the program to yield results, it is necessary to have sufficient and reliable database regarding the water supply systems. A good information base, willingness to follow-up on systematic replacement of leaking pipes, defective meters and connections as well as tariff revisions, etc are critical to the success of the program. Control on Unaccounted Water and loss minimization can be achieved through prevention of illegal tapping, water metering, education and information management, promotion of water conserving household appliances etc. 4.1.7 Demand Collection Balance Sheet

As per demand, collection balance statement collection efficiency of the municipality has remained average since 2003; lowest was observed in 2005 (60 percent). Current collection efficiency has remained higher than the arrears collection efficiency. A remarkable improvement in current collection efficiency was achieved in 2006, when current demand and collection both were Rs.4.84lakh (lowest when compared to other years demand). Table 4.3: Demand Collection Balance Statement S. No. Particulars FY03 A. Demand (Rs. Lakh) Arrears 5.44 Current 18.55 Total- Demand 23.99 B. Collection (Rs. Lakh) Arrears 2.14 Current 14.7 Total- Collection 16.84
DMA, GoTN

FY04 7.14 37.55 44.69 1.83 26.4 28.23

FY05 16.46 37.68 54.14 4.82 27.62 32.44

FY06 39.6 4.84 44.44 27.24 4.84 32.08

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S. No. C.

Particulars Collection Performance (%) Arrears (%) Current (%) Total- Collection Performance (%)

FY03 39% 79% 70%

FY04 26% 70% 63%

FY05 29% 73% 60%

FY06 69% 100% 72%

Source: Kayalpattinam Municipality, 2007 and IPE Analysis

4.1.8

Issues Emerged

Following issue emerged from the analysis of municipal water supply in the town: Low Supply Levels: Low per Capita supply is noticed; the situation becomes worse in summer season. Inadequate Treatment Capacity: Kayalpattinam town has no treatment plant for water. Ground water contains content of dissolved salts. The ingress of sea water is increasing gradually. According to the municipal records hardness in drinking water has already crossed permissible limit. Inadequate Service Coverage: 60 percent of the households are covered by house service connections. Inadequate Network Coverage: Distribution network runs approximately 53 percent of the Road Length. Considering the high population density within the core area, the network adequacy demand, as a percent of road length, is low. Rain Water Harvesting: The pattern of rainfall is erratic, therefore storing rainwater for recharging should be explored. Unfortunately, no action has been taken in this direction by the Municipality. Need for Source Augmentation: The extraction of water from the river bed and sub surface sources should be stopped and water should be supplied through surface water sources. Need for Asset Management Action Plan: It is required to maintain an O & M Schedule, for Water Supply Assets, for regular maintenance and energy consumption optimization. 4.1.9 Key Issues There always remains a clear gap between the revenue collected and the operation and maintenance cost. This gap generally remains due to following reasons: • About 20-25 percent of total water supply is wasted due to thefts and leakage. • Absence of proper mechanism of billing. • There exists high pressure difference and excessive pumping is required to reach higher areas. • The existing income sources of the municipality are not enough to meet the growing demand of water in the town. Tax revenues are providing resources to meet these needs for the time being but, even to meet the demand for the projected population of 2041, dependence on grant will not be adequate to fill the demand supply gap. 4.1.10 Demand - Supply Gap and Future Requirement For KM the recommended standard of 135 lpcd water supply has been followed. An additional 15% increase in population has been considered over and above, as contingency requirement. This also takes care of additional commercial requirement for water, and, other transmission losses. Table 4.4: Demand and Supply Gap
Year Projected Population with 15% Increase Daily Supply LPCD Water Demand MLD Gap in Demand MLD Storage Capacity MLD Treatment Plant Capacity MLD

(2007) 2011 2015 2021 2031
DMA, GoTN

48114 54294 71353 102382

53.65 90 108 108 120

2.2 4.98 7.33 8.86 14.13 40

1.49 2.68 5.13 6.56 11.83

1.8 1.66 2.44 2.95 4.71

4.98 7.33 8.86 14.13

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2041

141201

135

21.92

19.62

7.31

21.92

Source: IPE Analysis

Presently, supply of water is only 2.2 MLD against requirement of 3.69MLD creating a gap of 1.49 MLD (as per the standard of 90 LPCD). However, in order to meet the demand for the projected population, the town would require an additional supply of about 6.56 MLD by 2021 and 19.62 MLD by 2041. The town would require 7.31 MLD of storage capacity and 21.92 MLD of Treatment plant capacities. Overall target of KM would be to ensure treated piped water supply to all its habitants in the short term – i.e. by 2011. 4.1.11 Designing the Services A summary of thumb- rules generally referred for designing water supply services include: (i) Distribution is best in a grid pattern with interconnected mains keeping dead ends to a minimum; this way any point is fed at least from two different directions. Smaller water supplies may resort to tree system when smaller mains branch off from single trunk main. (ii) Distribution should ensure equalization of supply throughout the area. If adjoining zones differ in elevation by 15m-25m, then each zone needs a separate system. Zoning of water supplies takes into account population densities/locality type/topography and the ease with which the system can be isolated when leaks occurs. (iii) When water supply is fed through a single reservoir, it is economical to place it at a central place. Difference in elevation should be used to advantage when locating reservoirs at ground level. Difference in pressure between same zones/same system should not exceed 3m to 5m. Tail end reservoirs are desirable for the more distant direct locations, and are fed by supply either by boosting or during lean hours. (iv) Storage provision, as recommended should be for 24 hours water requirement of command area at the reservoir site. Since a number of sources are used, at least one day storage is expected (for any eventuality). Storage volume for 2041 projected water demand is suggested along with provision for future augmentation. (v) Various water zones for the town must be created to ensure proper coverage. As per practice, R.C.C construction is used, proper protection ensured and unnecessary utility services, disinfection, ground and security wall is provided. (vi) Water losses need to be minimized. Classified as physical (due to leakage, old damage and corroded pipes, leaking joint connections, overflow at OH Tanks, poor plumbing at consumer end) or administrative (as theft, illegal tapping, unregistered connections, faculty meters, unrecorded supply, poor recording, faulty billing) water audits and leak detection studies become necessary to curb such menaces. An information base of reliable data (preferably GIS enabled) can ensure efficient delivery and conserve a scarce resource. 4.1.12 Urban Indicators – Water Supply Table 4.5: Urban Indicators – Water Supply in Kayalpattinam S. No. Strategy Current Situation 1 2 3 4 5 6 Per Capita Supply T&D Losses/ Total Supply Supply Frequency Distribution Network Reach (% of Road Length) Treatment Capacity/ Total Supply Percentage of PT Assessments with HS Connections 62.34 LPCD 20-25% Daily 2 hours 53 46

Benchmark 135 LPCD 5% Daily 24 hours 100 100% 100

Source: Kayalpattinam Municipality, 2007

4.1.13 Effective Practices Certain practices, adopted across countries could serve to guide ULB water supply systems in Tamil Nadu including in the reference ULBs. 41 DMA, GoTN INFRASTRUCTURE PROFESSIONALS ENTERPRISE (P) LTD

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• • • • • •

Water audits for ascertaining unaccounted for water (especially in underground pipes) O&M Plan. Adopting an O&M Plan with a schedule; with private participation (e.g. Management contracts). Mapping & GIS is important in laying of services, detecting dilapidation and renewing etc. Tariff Revision is essential to enlarging the coverage and recovering costs/debt servicing/modernizing/installation of equipment etc. Performance Monitoring for better service delivery, consumer satisfaction and continued service. Capacity Building and institutional strengthening Training needs for field staff is required for operating, maintaining and servicing the water supply system.

4.1.14 Strategies and Time Frame The following strategies and time frame has been adopted to overcome the identified gaps in water supply sector. Table 4.6: Strategies and Time Frame – Water Supply S. No. Strategy 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Source: IPE

Asset Management Plan Leak Detection Plan Mapping & GIS Piloting 24/7 water supply Source Augmentation Coverage for General Households Coverage for Slum Households

4.2 Sewerage and Sanitation System
Sewerage, the core element of physical infrastructure, determines the environmental status of any settlement. Development of appropriate sewage carriage system with efficient treatment is a prerequisite for facilitating balanced and harmonized development. Augmentation of existing systems/ treatment facilities as well as adoption of new technologies of waste treatment is now being focused by every town, which aspires to cover its total population under sewerage network system. In Tamil Nadu, TWAD Board is responsible for planning under-ground drainage system while for implementation and operation and maintenance individual ULBs are responsible. 4.2.1 Current Disposal Systems

Kayalpattinam does not have a sewerage system for disposal of sullage and night soil. The disposal system consists of septic tanks and public conveniences. Roadside drains, Pucca or otherwise, carry all the liquid waste of the town. Untreated sewage is let out in to the low lying area which acts as a breeding place of mosquitoes and flies creating health hazards and an unhygienic environment. Part of the population of the town, especially slum dwellers and other low-income population defecate in the open. 4.2.2 Coverage

80 percent of the house hold in town has septic tanks, serving approximately 26577 persons. With respect to the Property Tax Assessments, the coverage is average of 74 percent. The present sanitation facilities in the town include septic tanks and Pay & Use toilet. About 26% of the households are devoid of adequate sanitary facilities. The lack of safe sanitation for such a large population especially slum population is a matter of concern. It is advisable to the Municipality, that it should make use of the funds under IHSDP/ BSUP/ UIDSSMT to make the city free of open defection practice. Table 4.7: Sanitation Facilities
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Description Area of the Town (Sq.Km.) Total Population (Lakhs) No. of Septic Tanks No. of Pay & Use Toilets No.of Seats
Source: Kayalpattinam Municipality, 2007

Year 2007 12.5 0.33 10,000 1 6

4.2.3

Issues

(a) Lack of Sewerage Facilities and Associated Impacts The absence of safe sanitation facilities for such a large population has resulted in occasional outbreak of water borne diseases in the town. The associated impacts on human health to city dwellers will increase. (b) Mixing of Sewage with Storm water and Solid Waste in Several Areas Absence of safe and adequate disposal systems has also led to the disposing of sullage and night soil into the storm water drains and other natural water course in the town. In addition, the untreated waste is let out into the sea creating a hazard to the environment. As there is no sewerage facility the user charges cannot be imposed and municipal finance is affected. Uncontrolled solid waste dumping and encroachments results in silt formation; open SW drains become easy dumping places of waste in the town and often block flow in the drains resulting in overflows. (c ) Demand and Supply Gap-Future Requirement It has been recommended that planning for sewage treatment should be considered at 80 percent of the total water consumption. Accordingly @ 108 LPCD, for the projected population of 1.6lakh persons (year 2041), the sewage generated will be to the tune of 16.9 MLD for which the treatment facility needs to be provided. 4.2.4 Demand and Supply Gap-Future Requirement

Planning for sewage system considers 80 percent of the water consumption. Accordingly for 108 litres per capita sewage generated per day in 2041, 16.9 MLD of treatment facility would be required for the town. Table 4.8: Demand-Gap Analysis Year Population Per Capita Sewerage Treatment Plant Capacity (Persons) Generated (LPCD) (MLD) Current Status 42.92 2011 48114 72 4.0 2015 54294 72 5.8 2021 71353 72 7.71 2031 102382 86.4 10.2 2041 141201 108 16.9
Source: IPE Assessment

Note: 1. Assuming there is no increase in road length network. Future growth will be as infill re-densification 2.The length of the distribution network will depend on spread of future urban areas and the associated network of roads. 4.2.5 Strategies and Time Frame

Table 4.9: Strategies and Time Frame – Sewerage and Sanitation System
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S. No. 1 2 3 4 5

Strategy Asset Management Plan Sewerage for unserved areas Mapping & GIS Network Coverage of Slum Households Pilot Project for Decentralised STP

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Source: IPE Analysis

4.2.6

Performance Indicators – Sewerage & Sanitation

Table 4.10: Performance Indicators
S. No. 1 2 Strategy Unit Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Current Status 60 74 Normative Standard 85 80 85 70 85 -

Roads covered under UGD Network Sewage Treatment Capacity with respect to Water Supplied 3 Water Supply Connection Having Access to UGD Facility 4 Assessment having access to UGD Facility 5 Population Covered by UGD (Year 2007) 6 Property Tax Assessment Covered under Septic Tanks Source: IPE Analysis

4.2.7 Designing the System A summary of thumb-rules generally referred for designing sewerage services include: (a) Sewage treatment is dependent on how the final product has to be utilized and who will regulate it to ensure it is of un-polluted form. The by products of sewage treatment (manure, gas and liquid waste) can be used, as done in different cities in India. (b) Treatment plants require to be decentralized to meet neighborhood needs for all the end products. Large scale treatment plants should be designed and completed in not more than 1-2 years and should normally meet the requirements of a 30 year period. (c) Reduction of BOD, SS, and total coliforms are expected of the sewage treated for primary, secondary and tertiary levels. Settled sewage or sludge should be mixed with peat/ manure, composted completely (ensuring dehelminthization) and then sold for use on farms. (d) Conventional Systems require large amount of land for treating effluent before discharging. The sewerage system developed on “Green” principles, envisages development of decentralized STPs as friendlier solutions, both in facilitating compact thereby low energy development and utilizing new technology spread over smaller land area whilst eliminating the need for digging deep sewers which have proved hazardous. 4.2.8 • • • • • • • • • • • Suggestions Low income households should be taken up for sanitation on a priority. A regular sewerage and storm water system should be designed and laid in the town. Buffalo / cow dung and other objectionable material entry into sewers have to be prevented. As far as possible sewers should be cleaned with modern suction and other jet washing machines reducing manual labour to a minimum and only in dire circumstances. Unauthorized connections (if existing) have to be detected/ penalized and later regularized within short time frames. People, especially slum dwellers have to be prepared to accept sanitary system and understand how to maintain hygiene. Messages needs to spread through advertisement and other local media on safe sanitation methods. O & M plans are important and private management contracts can be operationalized for the same. Assets created in the town need to be well managed. Mapping and GIS are important for detailing the sanitary system, repairing it, and renewing it after it has outlived its life. Needless to say that performance of the sewerage system has to be consistently monitored. Sanitation facilities in slums in KM could be covered under IHSDP or BSUP schemes. 44
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• Slum communities need to be organized to involve slum improvement programs for ensuring their sustainability. • It is important to have individual HH’s avail independent toilet facilities and HSC’s so as to be part of the standard city population.

4.3 Storm Water Drainage
Drainage is an important element of physical infrastructure and constitutes removal and disposal of surplus rainwater from the land. Since urban expansion is inevitable, increase run-off would require remodelling of the existing drains as well as provision of new/ supplementary drains. Provision of appropriate drainage in marginal settlements consisting of slum clusters, informal/ unauthorized colonies etc. requires due attention. 4.3.1 Existing Drainage System The present system of drainage in the town consists of natural as well as manmade drains. In fact, the man-made drains are linked to the natural drains for disposal. The storm water drains carry mainly the waste water comprising the sullage and sewerage from the houses. This has created enormous environmental problems. The length of the roads including State Highways in the town is 32.17 km. Drainage system comprise of pucca open drains of length 0.5 km., covering only 1.55 percent of the entire road network. The slope of the town is towards east. Storm water from west flows into the open low lying areas of east. Almost 70 percent of the town area remain flooded during the rainy season, mainly wards 1, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14, 15, 17, and 18. The rainfall is generally irregular and intermittent; the average annual rainfall is 450 mm. During monsoons the above mentioned low-lying areas gets flooded with water and become breeding ground for various water borne diseases. Open drains also carry sewage and sullage are a cause of health and environmental concern. Table 4.11: Basic Data – Storm Water Drainage Drain type Length (km) Open Drains (Pucca) 0.5 Uncovered road length 31.67
Source: Kayalpattinam Municipality, 2007

Storm water drainage system in the town is in poor shape. The topography of the town is undulating, draining in varying directions. Man made drains empty themselves into natural drains which are not lined. This situation not only degrades the environment by generating foul odour due to stagnation at number of points, but also pollutes the land and ground water through seepage. It is therefore of prime importance, that drains be made and integrated to each other following basic principles of topography management. As in case of most of the ULB’s there is no separate system for sewerage and drainage. Monsoon period in the region is spread over two-three months during which rainfall is intermittent. During heavy rains, the waste water from toilets and kitchens get highly diluted, rendering the flow almost harmless in pollution level. During the rest of the months, which are normally dry, only sewage and sullage flow through the drains. 4.3.2 Service Adequacy At present only 1.55 percent of the total road length is covered under storm water drain, which is highly inadequate. Almost 70 percent of the town area remains flooded during the rainy season. Rainfall in this region is average, but even then there are frequent flash flood situation in some areas. Ward No. 1, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14, 15, 17, and 18 are prone to Water Logging/ Floods as compared to rest of the area. A system of quick disposal of rain water in natural systems/ or water harvesting sump is required for the town. 4.3.3 Key Issues (a) Disposal of Domestic Sewage into Storm Water Drains In the absence of a sewerage system and inadequate sanitation facilities domestic sewage is let into
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the storm water drain. This has resulted in pollution at the final disposal points. In addition, the storm water drains and natural drainage channels are susceptible to uncontrolled garbage dumping resulting in blockage and stagnation. (b) Silting of Storm Water Drains Silting added with uncontrolled solid waste dumping and encroachments on the banks are interrupting the storm water flow thereby spilling into the neighbouring residential and commercial areas. (c ) Stagnation and Health Risks in Newly Developed Areas Several areas like extension area of the entire ward in the town are yet to be provided with good infrastructure like roads, street lights, drains etc. These are some of the newly developed areas which are low lying. Regular stagnation of drainage waters in these areas have become the root cause for health risks. (d) Demand-Supply Gap and Future Requirement At present, there is 0.5 km of open kutcha drain. There are no primary drains, therefore for covering total town area the requirement for storm water drainage for the town will be about 64.34 km on both sides of the municipal road (including existing drains) i.e. 64 km of new drains (both sides) would be required to meet the present demand. 4.3.4 Suggestions • Storm water that drains into water bodies is a preferred option for recharging ground water. The town has a few water bodies that help drain the area. • Alternative ways of drainage can be tested on pilot basis as water harvesting structures. • Well designed drains ensure environmental health and hence it should be designed following basic principles of topography management. • Provide proper wire mesh at entry and open outlets. 4.3.5 Strategies and Time Frame

Table 4.12: Strategies and Time Frame – Storm Water Drainage S. No. Strategy 2009 1 Constructions/ Redevelopment of Drains 2 Rejuvenation and Rehabilitation works for Water Bodies 3 Operation and Maintenance Schedule 4 Pilot Study of Alternate Drainage Models
Source: IPE Analysis

2010

2011

2012

2013

4.4 Solid Waste Management
Solid Waste Management, a mandatory function of Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) is poorly performed in most ULBs, resulting in problems of health, sanitation and environmental degradation in most of the towns. Unless concentrated efforts are made to improve the flow of resources to solid waste management and build up systems that incorporate the basic requirements of a proper waste management practice, the problem will keep aggravating. At present, all the waste collected is dumped at an existing disposal site at Tattarapillai located within the town. Efforts to improve the solid waste management in the town are taken by the Health Department. The waste generated is collected and dumped at the road side compost yard. The total quantity of solid waste generated is 12MT and collected is 9MT per day having collection efficiency of 75 percent as per estimates of the municipality. The municipality handles 100 percent of the waste collection and is planning to give fresh tenders for primary and secondary collection. ULB is also planning to issue fresh tenders for primary and secondary collection. 4.4.1 Waste Generation The total quantity of waste generated in Kayalpattinam town is 12 MT per day. This works out to 290 gm per capita per day, which is higher than the standard considered in CPHEEO Manual for small 46 DMA, GoTN INFRASTRUCTURE PROFESSIONALS ENTERPRISE (P) LTD

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town of 250gm per capita per day. This is attributed to the presence of commercial activities, particularly hotels, and restaurants generating large quantity of waste as also the waste generated by visitors. Table 4.13: Quantity of Waste Generated Type Quantity (MT) Domestic 8 Commercial and Markets 3.6 Hospital Waste 0.4
Source: Municipal Records, Kayalpattinam

Percentage 67 30 3

Domestic Waste Domestic waste is generated at the household level and varies amongst wards and on an average ranges between 200 to 250gm. Of the total waste, domestic waste is about 8 MT, constituting 67 per cent of the total waste generated. It comprises of organic material that could be easily disposed. Commercial Waste and Markets The commercial waste includes the waste from hotels and eating establishments, from shops, trading units, small time street traders’ etc. Kayalpattinam has a daily market along the Parimar Street. The daily waste segregated is about 3.6 MT, which is 30 percent of the total waste generated in the town. The waste from shops mainly comprises of paper, plastics and other in-organics, which are finding their way to the disposal yard along with the domestic waste and organic waste is generated in weekly markets. Bio-medical waste No scientific method of disposal of Bio-Medical waste is followed by the municipality and at present this waste is getting mixed with the other waste collected by the Municipality estimated at 0.4MT of generation per day. 4.4.2 Waste Collection

The system of primary collection followed is cleaning, sweeping and collection of MSW stored in dustbins/ closed container by handcarts. The town is not divided into sanitary divisions and looked after by one sanitary inspector and two sanitary supervisors. Table 4.14: Waste Collection Particulars Indicators Generated 12MT Collection 9MT Collection Efficiency 75 %
Source: Municipal Records, Kayalpattinam

Door-to-Door Collection & Source Segregation Door-to-Door collection is not followed in Kayalpattinam. However, there are no dustbins placed across the town. There are 16 collection points at various locations from where waste is collected once in a day. Street sweeping and drain cleaning is conducted every day and organic waste generated by the slaughter house, kalyana mandapam’s etc is also collected on a day-to-day basis. Table 4.15: Waste Collection Head Hand carts (0.3 MT) Collection Points (1 MT) Frequency of Collection Numbers 7 10 Daily Once
Source: Municipal Records, Kayalpattinam

The inadequacy of the system in this area is being felt clearly, with overloaded transfer
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vehicles and left over waste.

Fig. 4.2: Primary Collection Street Sweeping: Street sweeping is time consuming and labour intensive activity in SWM. Drain desilting is also essential due to the open drain system in the town. Kayalpattinam carry out street sweeping and drain de-silting in all the wards. Hand brooms and brooms with metal blade ends are used for street sweeping while shovel and push are used for drain de-silting activities. 4.4.3 Waste Transportation and Disposal Table 4.16: Existing Fleet of Vehicles Type of Vehicle No. Age (years) Total Trips/ day Capacity of each Vehicle (mt) 1.5 3.5

Secondary Collection and Transportation and Disposal Tractor with trailer 1 4 3 Mini lorry 1 4 3 Mazda 1 2 3
Source: Municipal Records, Kayalpattinam, 2007

The municipality has 1 tractors of capacity 1.5 tons, one mini truck with a capacity of 3.5 tons and one Mazda, all used for secondary collection as well as transportation to disposal site. Each vehicle makes three to four trips per day from the collection points to the disposal sites. The fleet of vehicles available for the purpose includes tippers, tractors and mini trucks. As per the estimates of the municipality the 75 percent of the waste being generated in the municipality is being collected and transferred to the disposal site. The frequency of transportation of waste to disposal sites from various collection points is once a day and is conducted during forenoon. The total capacity of the fleet is 5 tons, which is 75 percent of the waste generation. Road length per conservancy staff at 328 m is near the prescribed norms for a town of its size. However at present, on an average each vehicle makes more than 3 trips per day to collect and transfer 75 percent of the waste i.e., 9 tons is collected every day and the rest 25 percent of the waste is either left uncollected.

Fig. 4.3: Secondary Collection No scientific method of disposal is followed in the municipality. Heaps of waste is dumped in open on disposal sites at Tattarapillai, located within the municipal limit of the town. The area of the land at Tattarapillai is 2cent. The disposal site is serving since 30 years and is saturated. Municipality has identified 5 acres of land in Kayakudi for waste disposal, located within the municipal limit, for which No-Objection Certificate from the Pollution Control Board and Directorate of Town and Country Planning for acquisition of this land is awaited. 4.4.4 Staff Pattern 48
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At present, there are 27 sanitary workers in the Municipality and 6 posts are vacant. The staffing pattern is given in table below: in order to improve the efficiency in public health sector, more workers need to be recruited or private sector/SHGs/RWA need to be involved for SWM. The staffing pattern is given in table below: Table 4.17: Staffing Pattern Designation Sanitary inspector Sanitary supervisor Sanitary Workers Truck Drivers No of Workers needed 1 2 33 1 No of Present Workers 1 2 27 1

Source: Municipal Records, Kayalpattinam, 2007

4.4.5

Performance Indicator

Table 4.18: Performance Indicator, SWM Indicator Per-Capita Generation Collection Performance (% Collected to Generated) Area Coverage per Collection Point 4.4.6 Demand Supply Gap-Future Requirement

Current Situation 290g. 75 % 0.78 Sq.km

Benchmark < 250 g. 100.0 % 0.16 Sq.km

The total Solid Waste Generation in 2007, according to Municipality, for a per capita generation of approximately 290 grams/day is estimated at 12 MT. However as per Solid Waste Handling Rules, 2000, per capita generation of solid waste in small town should be 250 grams/ day. The Present Disposal system is open waste dumping, which is creating potential health and environment hazard considering the quantity of waste generation, location of disposal site and its environs, hence further option for Scientific Waste Disposal and Composting can be explored on priority basis. Assuming that the waste generated per capita per day is 290g., gap analysis is given in table below: Table 4.19: Gap Analysis Solid Waste Management Year Population Waste Sweepers Door to Hand Tricycle Black + Tractors generated required door carts green required per capita collectioncontainers labour (4.5MT) Current Status 12 27 2 2011 64 64 2 16.0 48114 55 58 31 2015 64 64 2 19 54294 66 70 33 2021 64 64 3 23.8 71353 82 86 33 2031 2036 2041 4.4.7 102382 141201 48114 Issues 34.1 40.3 47.1 64 64 64 118 139 162 64 64 64 124 146 171 37 39 41 3 4 4

Source: IPE Analysis

Issues emerged from assessment of town’s SWM systems are narrated below: (a) No Dustbins Dustbins are not provided by the ULB, waste is dumped in open, on the sides of the road and transportation is undertaken through open vehicles. This is dangerous to the environment as well as a 49 DMA, GoTN INFRASTRUCTURE PROFESSIONALS ENTERPRISE (P) LTD

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hazard to the community. (b) Absence of Effective Primary Collection Mechanism Door to door collection system is not practised in the town. Segregation of waste is almost absent moreover collection of waste is not done on a daily basis from all places of the town. Specialized Vehicles for transporting night soil, and sewage suction Lorries need to be used, even on hire for keeping sewerage lines from blocking. (c) Transportation of Wastes in Open Vehicles The wastes are being transported through open vehicles and there is no net coverage in the vehicle resulting spillage of the waste, leading to environmental and health concerns. (d) Lack of Scientific Waste Disposal No system of scientific disposal of waste is followed at present; thereby dumping in open is practiced. The waste is disposed of improperly posing a problem to environment and health. Composting of waste has not yet been attempted but it could be a possibility in a near future. The Medical Practitioners Association has agreed to bear a part of the cost of procuring the incinerator; delay in finding a site for the location of the incinerator is compounding the problem. (e)Occupation Health Hazards The waste collection, loading and unloading operations are done manually. The sanitary workers have not provided with any protective equipment posing health hazards. (g) Inappropriate Siting and Lack of Effective Technology for Scientific Disposal of Waste at the Composting Yard. Disposal site is located within the town at Tattarapillai. Infrastructure at the disposal site is absent and crude dumping is resorted due to lack of an effective scientific method of disposal. (f) Other Issues • Biomedical and construction waste requires serious consideration for disposal. • Waste not being scientifically treated and managed. Absence of covering the waste daily with inert material. • Waste not compacted on disposal site. • Source segregation not ensured. • No separate community bins for bio and non biodegradable waste. • Absence of community composting at ward level/ city level. • Absence of rag pickers organized for waste resource recovery. • Absence of information systems/ penalties/ periods campaign for ensuring clean town. 4.4.8 Suggestions

• Priority has to be accorded to segregation and storage of waste at source irrespective of area of generation so as to adopt environmentally acceptable waste management measures. • The adoption of four R’s - Reuse, Recover, Recycle and Reduce can help ease pressure on compost sites and affords resource recovery. • Varieties of waste have to be differently dealt with; construction waste should be stored in proper skips at the premise and directly emptied by the generator at notified sites; slaughter houses need to keep separate container for animal and other wastes; Commercial – Hotel – Market waste should be privately collected and disposed. • A number of campaigns / community awareness should be organized for introducing source segregation. • Manual waste handling operation should be minimized; non – biodegradable waste from premises should have organized collection. • Primary collection should cover all areas of the town with even innovative but safe transporting arrangements. • Street sweeping should be gradually fully privatized to include market and other areas /desilting of drains /collection of green waste /hospital and hazardous waste / gardens and other recreational areas /Religious and other public places etc. • Recycling efforts by self employment SHGs should be encouraged 50 DMA, GoTN INFRASTRUCTURE PROFESSIONALS ENTERPRISE (P) LTD

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• KM should co-ordinate with State Government for clustering in regional engineered land fill site for waste disposal involving other neighbouring ULBs. This ensures scale and viability to the private participation mode.

4.5 Traffic, Transportation & Roads
Urban economy is seen to improve with urban transport infrastructure. Roads and circulation is an important city land use allowing efficient functioning of the city’s activities. Conversely, it can drag down and prove detrimental to its GDP. The objective of studying town level transportation is to understand and analyze the present travel scenario of the town and to focus on existing potentials and scope of development. 4.5.1 Existing Situation and Adequacy

Kayalpattinam is known for its chemical industries, salt pan, palm products and fishing. Moreover, it is a tourist destination with nearly 1500 tourists visiting per day. At certain places pedestrian traffic dominates especially in commercial and tourist areas of the town. The congestion due to the mixing of pedestrian and vehicular traffic is high near the Temple. There are no mass transportation facilities within the town and surrounding hamlets.

Fig. 4.4: A Glimpse of the Roads in Kayalpattinam The municipality has a total road length of 32 Km. As regards the surface condition, around 47 percent of the road length is tarred/ bituminous black topped, 8 percent stone paved and 7 percent concrete and about 1 percent are earthen roads. A preliminary survey of the road condition in the town reveals all the roads especially the earthen roads are in bad condition. The circulation network forms the nervous system of the town to move, to interact, and interlink the houses, the work places, and other activity centres. A good road network is a necessity not only for growth and development of habitats but also to sustain it in a progressive mode. Table 4.20: Existing Road Network Roads Surfaced Roads Black topped Concrete WBM Un-surfaced Roads Gravel/ Earthen Total length
Source: Municipal Records, Kayalpattinam

Length (km) 15.20 7.26 8.24 1.48 32.17

Percentage 47.23 22.56 25.61 4.60 100

(a) Road Network No fixed street pattern is observed in Kayalpattinam. State Highway passes through middle of the town and all the important roads in the town are connected to the highway. The road network
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comprises of black topped, cements concrete and, stone paved roads. The main roads of the town are: • Tiruchendur - Kayalpattinam Road • Arumuganeri - Kayalpattinam Road • By-pass (Thoothukudi – Tiruchendur) Road Table 4.21: Performance Indicators Indicator Road Density Per Capita Road Length % CC Roads to Total Road Length % Municipal Surfaced Roads
Source: Municipal Records, Kayalpattinam

Current situation 2.57 Km/ Sq.km 0.91 m 23% 95 %

Benchmark 10.0 – 15.0 Km/ Sq.km 1.75 m 15.0 % 100.0 %

(b) Travel Pattern The travel pattern in the town is guided by the road network and land use. There is concentration of commercial activities in the core area and on both the sides of the State Highway. There is also a lot of thorough traffic from Tirunelveli to Tiruchendur & Thoothukudi to Tiruchendur which passes through the centre of the town in the absence of ring roads/ bye-pass roads. (c) Parking Facilities In the absence of any assigned parking facilities in the municipal area, abrupt and indiscriminate roadside parking is noticed. This has led to reduction in the effective carriageway of the roads leading to congested travel and accidents. (d) Public Transport Public transport system in the town is operated by private sectors plying mini-buses between various localities in and around the town. There are about 10 to 15 such mini buses plying within the municipal limits and also towards Tiruchendur town. Apart from these buses, there are a number of auto-rickshaws operating in the town. These autos are widely used mode of Public Transport. Pedestrian mode of transport is also significant in the town especially in commercial and temple area. 4.5.2 Issues (a) Congestion in Core Areas The central areas of the town are very narrow and are surrounded by heavily built areas. These roads also carry large volumes of traffic that cater to the commercial trading and tourism. These factors make these lanes highly susceptible to air pollution and delayed travel times. (b) Improper Connectivity of Peripheral Areas Recent developments were towards the peripheral areas of the town. The growth in these areas has been considerable; the connectivity of these roads with the main corridors is inadequate. (c) Operation & Maintenance of Roads Monsoons and wind erosion make the roads highly susceptible to damages. The condition of the roads worsens with every monsoon resulting in periodic re-laying involving high operation and maintenance cost. (d) Encroachments The margins of roads are encroached upon at several sections by small time street vendors, illegal parking and other informal activities. With no margins left on the roads, the effective carriageway is reduced drastically leading to congestion and accidents. (f) Other Issues The emerging issues are summarised as follows: • Poor Visibility at Junctions • Tirunelveli-Kayalpattinam State Highway passes through the centre of the town and is highly congested at several points due to the commercial activities extending onto the margins of the 52 DMA, GoTN INFRASTRUCTURE PROFESSIONALS ENTERPRISE (P) LTD

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roads. This has made the road highly susceptible to several accidents. Several other important roads in the town also have sharp turns and encroachments creating poor visibility for riders on these roads. • Absence of organized traffic in the town. • The town doesn’t have any organised parking facilities and this has added to the congestion on the roads. Lack of pedestrian sidewalks also adds to the traffic problem. 4.5.3 Gap Analysis

The gap analysis and performance indicators clearly show that the transportation facilities in Kayalpattinam are inadequate and requires up gradation to reach to the prescribed standards. The deficient transport facility may result in negative growth of tourists and economic loss to the town. Table 4.22: Gap for Traffic and Transportation Indicator Existing Conditions Standards Road Density 2.57 Km/ Sq.km 10-15 Km./Sq.Km. Road Length per Capita 0.91 m 1.75m % Town Area under Roads/ Circulation 25% Average Road Width 7m 6.50 Distribution of Road by Type (%) I Concrete 23 15 Ii Black Top 47 85 Iii WBM 25 0 Iv Cut Stone/ Earthen/Others 5 0 Public Transport System (bus shelters and other Mini buses-Private Required facilities) Traffic Management/ Junction Improvements Required Parking Required
Source: IPE Analysis & Municipal Records, Kayalpattinam

4.5.4 • • • •

Suggestions Traffic Surveys will give an assessment of all the traffic related problems. Signals, crossings, sidewalks, road markings, intersection treatment, bus bays & shelter, landscaping & street furniture are areas needing attention. Campaigns for road safety, driving behaviour, road education are important for citizen safety. Essential road furniture includes Kilometers stones / signboards Road painting with reflectorised thermoplastic paint. Regulatory / cautionary sign boards Street lights of standard intensity and at standard distances. High mast lights at all major junctions. Other signs as required Policy on advertisements / hoardings. Strategies and Time frame

4.5.6

Table 4.23: Strategies and Time Frame S. No. Strategy 1 2 3 4
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2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Up – Gradation of Roads Formation of New Roads Pedestrianisation & Signages Parking Management 53
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5 6

Junction Improvement Widening & Strengthening

Source: IPE Assessment

4.6
4.6.1

Street Lighting
Existing Situation

Provision and maintenance of street lights is a mandatory function of any ULB. This includes their installations, replacement/ repair, operation and maintenance. There are 1114 streetlights poles at approximately 29m intervals. The table below presents details about the municipal streetlights in the town, with fluorescent lamps (tube lights) constituting 76 percent of the total light fixtures, followed by sodium vapour lamps about 24 percent.

Table 4.24: Details of Luminaries Luminary Type High Mast Lamps 25 WSV Lamp Tube Lights Total
Source: Kayalpattinam Records, 2007

Quantity 3 269 842 1114

Percent 0.27 24.15 75.58 100.00

4.6.2 Service Adequacy Development of effective road network in the town, which will form the base for the provision of other services. The average spacing of street light in the town is 29 m which is as per the required standards and 90 percent of the town is well lit. With respect to the composition of lights in the town, there are a larger number of tube lights and a very low proportion of high mast lights. Table 4.25: Performance Indicators Indicator Spacing between Lamp Posts % Tube Lights % High Power Lamps
Source: Municipal Records, Kayalpattinam

Current Situation 28.88 m 75.58% 24.15%

Benchmark < 30.0 mt. 70.0 – 80.0 % 20.0 – 30.0 %

4.6.3

Issues Emerged

Key issues are related to power fluctuation and short circuit problems leading to low carrying capacity of the cables. Improper street lighting in the newly formed extension areas and major junctions is another major problem. 4.6.4 Suggestions • Standards for illumination have to be adhered in all the areas, although the town is meeting the standards in certain areas. • Timers to street lights ensure less wasteful culture. • Energy audits and low energy adoption measures need to be undertaken for reducing energy expenditure by municipality. • Solar lamps (sponsored by business houses/ communities/ other active participants) should be adopted. Solar panels and Photovoltaic Cells are being marketed with government subsidy. • Residential area safety with adequate illumination should be ensured. • Privatisation in the form of maintenance contract may be explored by the ULB.
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4.7
4.7.1

Social Infrastructure
Education

There are four government and five private primary schools having about 1200 students. The municipality has five private higher schools which accommodates 395 students. The municipality has fourteen Anganwadis. The town does not have any provision for higher education (Engineering, Polytechnic). Table 4.26: Educational Institutions S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 4.7.2 Institution Govt. Primary School Private Primary School High School Private Higher Secondary School Anganwadi No. 4 5 1 5 14 Students 450 750 650 395

Source: Kayalpattinam Municipality, 2007

Health

The town consists of a government hospital with 74 beds. In addition, there are 5 private hospitals/ clinics managed by private practitioners. Table 4.27: Health Facilities Type Govt. Hospital Private hospitals Private Doctors
Source: Municipality, Kayalpattinam, 2007

No. 1 5 10

The town has highly inadequate health facilities provided by government. For a population of 33, 264 persons there is only one government hospital whereas norm is 1 health centre for every 5000 population. However, the town has good number of private clinics run by private practitioners. (a) Disease Pattern The disease pattern in the town could not be put under comprehensive analytical scanner, as the data from the private institutions were not available. However, the data available from the government hospital infers that there is frequent occurrence of malaria, typhoid and water borne diseases. 4.7.3 Issues

The social infrastructure components have the potential to contribute to the development of effective population absorbing capacity of the town. Apart from the conventional components of health and education infrastructure, recreation facilities, open spaces are some of the other important aspects. The principal of equity would require the needs of the poor should not be overlooked and flexible norms should be adopted to generate resources to develop the specific social infrastructure.

4.8

Urban Environmental Concerns

Environment, in its broadest sense, is a sum of the social, physical or chemical factors surrounding man. Environment plays a crucial role in establishing the base for future development. Kayalpattinam enjoys a relatively clean environment, which can be attributed to a number of factors like presence of water bodies and open areas etc. However, there exist some micro areas where the environment quality is deteriorating due to excessive extraction of ground water, presence of sand, slums, low-lying areas, areas with poor garbage disposal etc. 55 DMA, GoTN INFRASTRUCTURE PROFESSIONALS ENTERPRISE (P) LTD

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4.8.1

Air Quality

Significant vehicular movement, petty commercial activities and pedestrian movements coupled with unpaved margins of the roads result in high levels of dust suspension and in turn high SPM levels. Presently no monitoring arrangement exists for Air Quality assessment, monitoring stations are required to create data base so that appropriate remedial measures can be suggested. 4.8.2 Water Quality

Water sourced for drinking is extracted from sub-surface and excessive extraction has caused salinity and hardness. The storm water drainage in the town is through open channels which are used for the dumping of sewage and sullage which finally end up in the water bodies. This leads to the contamination of the water sources and land. Moreover, the rapid urbanisation during the last decades along the water bodies has aggravated the problem of open defecation. In fact, this is a common picture in most of the polluted inland rivers and water bodies of India leading to several water borne diseases. Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board (NPCB) frames the rules for environment protection and sets required standards for control. However, it is necessary that the Municipality play an important role in protection and conservation of its environment. For the purpose the citizens of the town need to be educated through environmental education campaigns to be taken up by the Municipality. 4.8.3 Parks and Play Grounds

The park is located along the beach covering an area of 1 ha. The park has 3 fountains and stylishly trimmed lawns which adds to the beauty of the park and is a frequented place by people of all ages. 4.8.4 Issues Emerged

Issues emerged from assessment of the environmental concerns include the following: • Frequent blockage of natural drainage; • Non-utilization of tanks as rain water harvesting structures; • Dumping of solid waste in open drains; • Lack of proper landfill site; • Clean beaches should be maintained; and • Ecological fragile zone and should be maintained in that manner.

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CHAPTER – 5 HOUSING, SLUMS AND THE URBAN POOR
5.1 Introduction

Housing is a crucial requirement in a city no matter what the size. It is also the largest Land use constituting nearly half of all Land uses in the city. It can be available in many forms as: • • • • • • • Government and Municipal Housing Rental Housing Co. operative housing in lots or apartments. Privately developed colonies Unauthorized occupation of government or other private lands Squatting and temporary hutments Core area dilapidated housing etc.

Several variations of these types exist in almost all small, medium or large towns, the commonest being self occupied self owned, or rental housing, with the rest being driven to marginal options as slums, squatting or pavement dwelling. Towns in Tamil Nadu, as the ones in our reference study have very little speculative housing because of a poorly organized real estate market. Most housing plans have no provision for housing for the poor, thus depriving them of adequate housing. State intervention is necessary in this matter and for enjoying a dignity of life; the vulnerable population has to be covered for housing. Currently, central programs are specially committed to resolve this dilemma and special funds devised to execute the schemes for housing the poor.

5.2

Housing Categories and Conditions

National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) of India had categorized houses into three types i.e. Pucca, Semi-Pucca and Kutcha. Census data on housing conditions in urban area especially for district and taluk is available in Census of India 2001, only through typologies of houses with various types of roof, walls and floors. (a) Houses with Various Types of Roofs Housing roof made up of Grass, Thatch, Bamboo, Wood, Mud, Plastic and Polythene are in Kutcha category. Roofs made of Tiles, Slate, GI, Metal and Asbestos sheets are in Semi-Pucca category and Brick, Stone, Concrete are in Pucca category. (b) Houses with Various Types of Walls Housing walls made up of Grass, Thatch, Bamboo, Plastic and Polythene are in Kutcha category. Walls made of Timber, Iron, GI, Metal and Asbestos sheets are in Semi-Pucca category and Brunt Brick, Stone, Concrete are in Pucca category. (c) Houses with Various Types of Floor Floors made up of Mud and Wood are in Kutcha category. Floors made of Brick and stone are in Semi-Pucca category and Cement, Mosaic is in Pucca category. Core areas have G+1 or G+2 developments and mixed landuses and pucca construction. Housing condition is briefly described in table 5.1:Table 5.1 Housing Condition (for Roof, Floor, Walls) Building Type Houses (Nos.) % Kutcha Roofs 4350 37.83 Walls 4350 37.83 Floors 4350 37.83 Semi Pucca Roofs 3306 28.75
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Walls Floors Pucca Roofs Walls Floors Total Houses
Source: Census of India, 2001

3306 3306 3843 3843 3843 11499

28.75 28.75 33.42 33.42 33.42 100.00

Affordability for a pucca house in Kayalpattinam is extremely low with nearly 37 pecent of the houses being of temporary nature.

5.3

Slums and BPL
Slum HHs (No.) 842 224 242 234 132 202 439 504 302 3,121 BPL Pop (persons) %BPL to Ward Slum Pop. 58.25 39.32 21.88 38.37 20.16 25.42 79.41 77.71 44.57

Table 5.2: Ward Wise Slum Population and BPL Population Ward Slum Name Total Slum Area No. Ward Population Under Area (Persons) Slum (Ha) (ha) 1 Arunachalapura 90 2060 16.80 m 1 Mangalavadi 90 597 6.80 12 Alagapuri 80 1196 6.80 12 Poonthottam 80 457 24.80 12 Rathnapuri 80 1180 25.20 12 Thaikapuram 80 490 12.80 14 Kadayakudi 75 923 6.80 14 Lakshmipuram 75 848 19.60 14 Odakkarai 75 506 18.80 Total 245 8,257 138.40
Source: Kayalpattinam Municipality and IPE Analysis

1,200 569 100 188 102 304 937 659 4,059

Almost 57 percent of the ward area is under slums in ward 12, 35 percent in ward 14 and 22 percent in ward 1.

5.4
S. No.

Infrastructure Provision in Slums
Slum Pocket PSP (Nos) Length of BT Roads (km) No. of households with septic tanks (Nos.) No. of Tube lights (nos.)

Table 5.3: Infrastructure Provision in Slums

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Alagapuri Arunachalapuram Kadayakudi Lakshmipuram Mangalavadi Odakkarai Poonthottam Rathnapuri Thaikapuram Total

3.00 8.00 3.00 4.00 2.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 1.00 30

0.20 2.10 0.83 1.70 4.83

87 692 132 228 17 67 201 392 102 1918

7

18 25

Source: Kayalpattinam Municipality, 2007

(a)

Water Supply Most of the slums have their water supply through public stand points.

(b)

Sanitation Though many households in the slums have the provision of septic tanks, the overall sanitation facilities in the slums are poor with lack of drainage, uncleaned filth and garbage. People also 58 DMA, GoTN INFRASTRUCTURE PROFESSIONALS ENTERPRISE (P) LTD

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follow the practice of open defecation. Such conditions lead to environmental health risks such as water borne diseases like hepatitis B, typhoid, gastro enteritis as well as malaria. (c) Roads and street lights Only 4.3 kms of road length is available indicating an inadequacy. Similarly a total of 25 street lights indicated that there is insufficiency with one light pole for every 193m of road length.

5.5
• • • • • • •

Indicators, Basic Services Availability & Gaps
Persons per public stand point : 275 persons against a benchmark of 50 persons Distance of Street Lights : 193m against BM of 30m % Slum Households to Total Households : 43% against the benchmark < 6.5 % Slum population constituted 25 percent of all population. Together BPL and Slum population are nearly 40 percent of total population. Most slums don’t have basic services. proposal, the access of basic services Rate of growth of slum population is likely to match the growth rate of the city’s population

5.6

Housing Demand and Housing Shortage
Average Family Size 4.8 4.3 4.5

Table 5.4: Growth of Houses and Households Year Population Household (Nos) (Persons) 1981 23,544 4,938 1991 24,428 5,662 2001 32,664 7,320
Source: Census of India, 2001

Table 5.5: Housing Gap Year Gap 2001 2011 2021 2031 2041
Source: IPE Analysis

Note:

735 797 6736 14665 24586

Assumptions • Population as forecasted in this report has been adopted • The present HH size of 4.5 has been projected for determining gap.

(2001 HHs 11499; Population 32664)

An assessment of housing gap is made in table 5.5. Slum housing estimates of demand are given in table 5.6. Note: Assumptions • A total 25% of population consisting of Table 5.6: Slum Housing Demand slum HHs and BPL HHs has been Year Housing Demand assumed up to year 2021 2001 1633 • Beyond 2021, it is expected that slum 2011 2767 population will not exceed 10% of the 2021 3282 total. 2031 2355 2041
Source: IPE Assessment

3248

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CHAPTER - 6 HERITAGE
6.1 Introduction
Heritage, an aspect neglected so far in urban plans, is now an integral part of city development. The country with its ancient history is dotted with architectural, cultural and archeologically remains that impart pride and are worthy of conservation. Tamil Nadu, with its 2000 years of continuous cultural history, has a vast repertoire of magnificent temples, hills, forests and wildlife, beaches, a coastline and typical settlements abutting it. That these manmade and natural resources need to be conserved is without a doubt. Thankfully, legislation that helps heritage conservation to be an integral part of development plans, is now in place. The JNNURM has a toolkit to ensure that this component has credence in its framework, has made it doubly sure that its neglect is now passé

6.2

Heritage Components

These include sites and buildings of archaeological, historical, architectural, cultural, religious and ecological value. The incorporated sites and buildings shall be those listed by the Archaeological Survey of India; State Archaeological departments and their acts; Ministry of Forest and Environment/ supporting state departments under this acts; listing done under the State Town Planning Acts, and lists approved, supported and mandated by Trusts city Heritage groups/ registered societies for Heritage/ other concerned individuals. Since listing is a prerequisite to conservation and perceived as an obstructive mechanism for realizing a property’s real estate worth, it has a hesitant acceptance. Heritage properties are also mired in ownership issues/ multiple tenancy, and are not easily subject to any Heritage based projects. Several Heritage houses, monuments and sites have been lost as a result of weak intervention in policy, objectives and serious action. It is important to map the entire (a) immovable natural heritage sites and (b) immovable manmade heritage sites. Thoothukudi district shares part of the heritage wealth of Tirunelveli having once been part of it, and having secured prominence very early in history during the Pandyan period. Temple architecture in Tamil Nadu is iconic to the region having evolved over several dynasties, as, the Pallavas, Cholas, Pandyas, Vijayanagara and the Nayakas which ruled for 1000 years from 600 A.D. Chronologically Tamil Nadu has representative works during the Pallavas, (with the Shore temple at Mamallapuram); the Kancheepuram Temples by the Cholas as does the Brihadeshwara Temple at Thanjavoor; similarly Pandyas brought in monumental gateways or Gopurams as an element; the Nayakas later built Gopurams which were even more monumental such as those in Rameswaram and the Meenaksi Temple at Madurai. Several structural temples were enriched with sculptural forms in high relief with an exuberance of detail which marked beauty and matured into an significant art. The temple at Tiruchendur belongs to the family of temples as discussed and is a prominent pilgrim site.

6.3

Heritage Sites near Kayalpattinam

Kayalpattinam itself has local deities is lesser known temples. However being part of ancient history of the pre-Christian era, a large reservoir of heritage, both tangible and intangible, exists within the Tiruchendur taluk as well as in other taluks of Thoothukudi district. Tourism has emerged as an instrument for employment generation, poverty alleviation and sustainable human development. Tourism promotes international understanding and gives support to local handicrafts and cultural activities. It is an important segment of the country's economy, especially in terms of its contribution towards foreign exchange earnings, generation of additional income and creation of employment opportunities. Tourism is the third largest foreign exchange earner for India.
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Some note worthy heritage sites in the reference taluk are listed here followed by those which constitute heritage on the district: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 6.3.1 Swami Kallapiran – Srivaikundam, Swami Vijayasanar – Natham, Swami Kasinavendan – Thiruppulingudi, Swami Devarpiran - Irattai Thiruppathi, Swami Aravindalochanar – Thiruppulingudi, Swami Maharanedungkuzhaikadar – Then Thirupperai Swami Aathipiran, Swami Nammalwar and Swami Vaithimanithi, Swami Madhurakavi Alwar

Tiruchendur

Tiruchendur is situated on the coast of Mannar. It is 40 Kms from Thoothukudi. Nearest airport is in Madurai or Thiruvananthapuram. It can also be reached by Bus and train from other important places. Tiruchendur is very popular for the seashore temple of Lord Subramanya. The temple tower and the sculptures of the temple are worth seeing. It is also ideal for sea bathing. Fig.6.1: Tiruchendur Murugan Temple Thiruchendur Temple is a very well publicised pilgrim site which has references in ancient literary Sangam works by several authors (Puranaanooru, Akannanooru, Illango in his Silappadi Kaaram). Mythology states that Lord Murugam slaughtered the demon Surapadma (an event which is annually reenacted here) and built a shrine to worship Shiv his father. Six battle camps and the vanquishing of the th enemy on the 6 day is celebrated as Skanda Shasti. The shrine is old, but structures are dated from th th the 19 century. 9 century inscriptions from Pandy rulers are exhibited in the temple. Temple has a 9 tiered gopuram (137’ high). In front of the temple is a Mandapam with several carved pillars. The main entrance faces south though sanctum is east faced. There are two prakarms; inner prakarm has images of 63 nayanmars with shrines to several gods, as well as to the two consorts of Muruga. Similarly the outer prakarm has several shrines. Specific worship protocols are observed during the day, week, auspicious months/seasons/occasions within the temple, Murugan is portrayed as a child god and as one with 6 heads & 12 arms. In a rock cave behind the sanctum are placed 5 Shiva lingams. 6.3.2 Nazhi Kinaru

Near the Thiruchendur temple, on the shore, is a unique occurrence. A small well within a larger well, from where steps to go down to the contained well, has sweet water whilst the outer well has sulphurous and brackish water. There are mythological connections with this well. Sandalwood paste is used and offered to devotees for smearing. 6.3.3 Melaputhukudi

There is an Ayyanar Temple located within a bamboo grove which has a natural spring located just 10 km from Tiruchendur. 6.3.4 Thoothukudi

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• • 6.3.5 •

Ancient Temple established during Pandya, known as, Sri Sankara Rameswarar Temple devoted to lord Siva Sri Vaikundaphy Temple Ancient church built by Portuguese in 1714, called Paninaya Matha Kazhugumalai Jain Cave Temple with bas relief are excellent pieces of art, Rocks have carved figures of the Tirthankars, Yakshas and Yakshinis. The place is located near Sankaran koil in Tirunelveli district. Unique Muragan Temple carved from a piece of rock, a vimana differing from usual being of octagonal shape embellished with lion heads. Most figures of gods/ goddesses are shown with musical instruments and with the image of Siva holding a cobra looking life like in the carving. Srivaikuntam and Alwarthirunagari Two Vaishnav shrines on way to Tiruchendur from Tirunelveli, the former having a Nataraja Shrine within 8 carved pillars; so placed to receive early morning sun’s rays on a particular day of the month. The idols are exquisitely carved with animals. Another unique event is a settlement enclosed in a 10’ high mud wall from where women of a particular clan ‘Kattai Pillaimars’ have never seen the outside world. Nava Thirupathis

6.3.6 • • 6.3.7

9 of the 108 Vishnu Temples is located at close proximity to each other in the district, in taluks Srivaikuntam / Alwarthirunagari. 6.3.8 Manpad

An ancient 400 years old roman catholic church believed to have the relics of the cross on which Christ was crucified and brought from Jerusalem. The association of St. Xavier with this and several other small churches in the area has given it the nickname Chinna (small) Jerusalem.

6.3.9

Ottapidaram

Memorial to freedom fighter Chidambran

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6.3.10 Ettaiyapuram • • Palace devoted to Ettapar, a ruler in 1565 who was a tax collector for the Pandya kings. Memorial devoted to Subramanya Bharti poet and freedom fighter.

6.3.11 Panchalankurichi • • • • A historic village and home to warrior Kattoboman, 17th century fort under the Archaeological survey of India Temple of Jakamma, a family deity of Kattoboman’s British cemetery near fort Kayathru, where Kattoboman was hanged for treason, also a Vishnu Temple at that place.

6.3.12 Athichanallur A settlement on the banks of Tamirabarani where an ancient civilization existed. The state archaeological department has discovered evidences of the existence of an ancient race. 6.3.13 Korkai Port Believed to have been a port city during Pandyan rule (in Srivaikuntam taluk) and now fairly inland as is being discovered through research.

6.4

Heritage Conservation
All temple precincts other religious structures, archaeological sites and other heritage areas should be mapped and a Heritage precinct be demarcated. A Heritage renewal plan for improvement and conservation be prepared. Temples within forests or on river banks should be safeguarded from discharge into rivers / damage of any kind. Sustainable source of water is important for tourism. Temple and heritage trails could be created with pilgrim facilities en route of especially the group of a Vaishnav Temples Most temples could do with improvement works for pilgrims and visitors and could contain within their premise, a small information kiosk, historic/records centre, picture post cards, “know your temples”, a research and documentation centre, a training school for understanding religious texts, their recording studios, accompanying musical verses, musical instruments, the making of traditional prasadams, an interpretation centre for allowing visitors a glimpse into traditions and culture, building construction manuals of traditional wisdom now available only to shilpakars and sthapatis etc. A whole new service sector industry for job creation could build around temples, historic places, natural sites etc including rural tourism/exotic location & camping sites which are well publicized on web sites of Tourism department, so that they are marketed well and have drawing power.

• • •

6.5

State Interventions

There are several agencies/ institution of the state incharge of heritage aspects, as, Government Museums; Archeology department; Dept. of archives and historical research; Governmental Oriental Manuscript Library; a directorate of art and culture; regional cultural centres; government music colleges and music schools; government college of architecture and sculpture; Tamil Nadu archieves; the TN Iyal Isa; Nadaga Mandram; the TM Ovia Nunkalai Kuzhu. In various ways they are required to keep alive and grow in the realm of fine arts, music, sculpture, architecture, dance and other forms of cultural expression. The department of government museums is entrusted the function of restoring old heritage buildings. There are a number of museum on the anvil, the Rock art gallery, consolidation and modernization of 8 Archeological sites, conserving monuments and temples etc. Theni district and the heritage sites within it should be earmarked for funds and development activities in highly professional ways to give boost to 63 DMA, GoTN INFRASTRUCTURE PROFESSIONALS ENTERPRISE (P) LTD

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tourism aiming to generate jobs and incomes. The Tourism and Culture department are aware of the economic benefits of Tourism and consider that domestic tourists show keen interest in beaches, waterfalls, temples, temple festivals etc. preferring a weekend for the purpose; the national tourist spends around a week by combining two weekends whilst the foreign tourists are interested in exploring historical monuments and heritage sites and can spend larger (15-30 days) time with almost a week devoted to Tamil Nadu. Table 6.1: Tourist Arrivals in Tamil Nadu Year Domestic 2002 246.61 2003 270.59 2004 300.77 2005 323.39 2006 392.14 Source: Department of Tourism, Tamil Nadu 2007.

Foreign 8.05 9.02 10.58 11.79 13.35

Total (in lakhs) 254.66 279.61 311.35 335.18 405.50

Evidently the growth is good but can be improved to cover other less explored areas of Tamil Nadu, for the various types of tourism that can be on offer, as, Leisure Tourism; Pilgrim Tourism; Heritage Tourism; Adventure-Rural Tourism etc. In the plans reflected by the State Government in Tamil Nadu, there are more than 3000 temples which have given the state the title “Land of Temples’. Exclusive temple circuits are popular tourist circuits in the state for domestic and international tourists. However, most of these tourist centres are characterised by poor investments in heritage development and inadequate infrastructure. Concerned by the deterioration in general environment and the worsening of sanitary conditions in our priceless heritage towns in particular, the Government of Tamil Nadu has taken up conservation. This conservation programme is based on the principle that efforts should go beyond preservation of monuments and encompass already built up areas. As part of the action programme for conservation and development of historical, cultural and ‘priceless monuments’, the GoTN has identified 38 towns as Heritage areas ad constituted a Working Group. The Department of Town and Country Planning has been requested to function as the nodal agency and has been entrusted with the task of preparing development plans for the identified towns.

6.6

Issues and Concerns

Heritage conservation is a total concept. It drives development through interplay of several forces as explained in the SWOT Analysis. Its impact can be felt when factors are orchestrated for synergies in the physical, economic, environmental and cultural domains, when it can produce structural change, improve and enhance natural environments and link up skills that make change a reality. As such for Kayalpattinam and nearby heritage it is proposed to: • • • • Develop and integrate natural areas with heritage areas Involve community into conservation of heritage areas. Integrate employment generation and land policy to safeguard heritage/natural areas under a Conservation Master Plan for ULB, Taluk and District. Heritage natural area connections must be strengthened by preparing Conservation Master Plan for all Heritage area, and employment –income generation should be built in into the program. Involve NGOs and private partners in Tourism growth. High end Tourist accommodation using sea front location for a high end Hotel complex, between Tuticorin and Tiruchendur, preferably closer to Kayalpattinam and declaring it, as a “Leisure Recreation Zone” to trigger mega investment into Tourism sector in the region.

• •

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CHAPTER - 7 URBAN GOVERNANCE AND URBAN REFORMS
7.1 Introduction

The institution of Municipal governance has been in existence in Tamil Nadu since long (District Municipalities Act. 1886). The Twelfth Schedule (73rd and 74th Amendment) Act. 1992 has restated the relation of the state to the ULB in matters of their executive functions, taxation arrangements, revenue sharing with state, representation of women and weaker section of society. The 74th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992 has imparted constitutional status to the Urban Local Bodies and has assigned appropriate functions to them. The Act proposes mandatory elections and greater devolution of functions to the urban local bodies including city corporations. A constitutional backing is given to the relationship of the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) with the State Government with respect to their functions and powers, ensuring of timely and regular elections, arrangements for revenue sharing etc. Urban Local Bodies are given additional powers including preparation of local development plans, programmes for ensuring social justice, environmental management etc. making them responsive and responsible towards local needs. This is facilitated by Section 243 (W) of the Constitutional Amendment (74th) Act, 1992. With the passing of Tamil Nadu Urban Local Bodies Act, municipalities in the state have got additional functions to perform such as regulation of land use, economic and social development aspects, etc.

7.2

74th CAA: Tamil Nadu Urban Local Bodies Bill

The Tamil Nadu Urban Local Bodies Bill, 1997, proposed to bring into effect a common legislation governing all Urban Local Bodies in the State including Municipalities and City Corporations. This new bill provides for several changes when compared to the existing Act and devolves more powers and functions to the ULBs. The TN ULBs Bill has particularly focussed upon issues related to finances, taxation, levy of tolls, levy of fines, by- laws, service charges for solid waste removal, and specific provision for urban planning. Provisions – Tamil Nadu Urban Local Bodies’ Bill Issue of Municipal Bonds Enhanced Sanctioning Limits Property Taxation based on Carpet Area and Use of Building Provision for levy of Tolls on Roads and Bridges Powers enhanced to assess escaped assessment Provision for levy of fine for non-filing, non-payment and false filing of property tax Compulsory connection to underground drainage, if available Disconnection of water supply for non-payment of property tax, water charges or for any other valid reason Provision for bylaws to control pollution Provision to introduce modern methods to collect service charges on solid waste disposal Provision to make Urban Town Planning as a function of the ULB

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Box -7.1: Provisions – Tamil Nadu Urban Local Bodies Bill Head Provisions under TN ULBs bill, 1997 Specific provision for issue of bonds – Sec. 66 (1) Finance Monetary Limit for Sanction of The limit has been enhanced to Rs. 500 Lakhs – Sec. 76 Estimates Taxation Property Tax to be collected based on the carpet area and use of the building, used as a base; additional factors such as location, type of construction and age of the building to be loaded on to the base- Sec. 83 & 84 Specific provisions have been made with respect to water, sewerage & education tax. Water Tax- not to exceed 30 % of the Property Tax- Sec. 89 Sewerage Tax- Not to exceed 15 % of the Property Tax- Sec. 90 Education Tax- Not to exceed 5 % of the Property Tax- Sec. 91 Provisions to levy tolls on any road or bridge- Sec. 95 Tolls Powers to assess escaped Powers to assess escaped assessment only upto 6 years (12 half years- Sec. 97 assessment Non filing of return and/ or non- (i)Levy of fine for non- filing of returns- Sec. 82 (6) (ii) Levy of fine for non- payment of property tax- Sec. 99 (1) payment of property tax (iii) Levy of fine for filing a false return- Sec. 99 (2) compulsory connections to the Provision made to make connection to Underground Drainage Underground Drainage System System compulsory, if connection available- Sec. 155 (3) Disconnection of water supply Disconnection of water supply in case of non- payment of property tax, water charges or for any other valid reasons- Sec. 160 Bylaws to regulate Industrial Provision made to draft bylaws to control Pollution- Sec. 161 Wastes Modern methods for clearance Specific provision to introduce modern methods & to collect service charges for solid waste removal & disposal- Sec. 176 & 177 of solid wastes Urban/ Town Planning Specific provisions made to include Urban Planning & Town * Planning as a function of the council- Sec. 40 (2) - includes Regulation of land use and construction of buildings Planning for economic and social development Fire services Urban Forestry, protection of environment and promotion of ecological aspects
Note: * Subject to delegation by Government after consulting with the concerned administrative departments.

Box -7.2: Specific Provisions under TN ULBs bill, 1997

7.3

JNNURM Reform Agenda

Municipal reforms have been mandated under the JNNURM program and Municipalities have to take a relook at the way they had been functioning especially in the area of generating and utilizing funds. So far they had been accustomed to receiving funds requested from their State government for urgently carrying out essential Capital works as well as their day to day operational costs, since their capacity and competence was limited to simple task performance. It has now become important to have a firm grip on the totality of their functions, the deliverables expected of them, and sourcing funds for carrying them through. In the process they have to ensure that innovative ways are used to shape their Form, Functions and the arrangement for Funds. They are essentially expected to adopt the modern Double Entry Accrual based Accounting System which presents the municipality’s financial health on an yearly basis; Reforms for augmenting their tax base by using technology backed Information and Management systems; levying user charges commensurate with realistic costs and thereby recovering O&M costs for services delivered; preparing budgets with sufficient allocations for the poor; ensuring basic services reach them .Rent control reforms are expected to safeguard landlords against short practices by tenants as well as improve the rental market; Tamil Nadu proposes to amend their Building (lease and rent control) Act 1960 by this year end. Reforms of Stamp Duty were undertaken in 2003 bringing it down from 13% to 8%; the ULCRA already stands repealed in Tamil Nadu; Community Participation is expected to be in operation as a law for carrying out watchdog functions for all the listed functions of the municipalities. E-governance too is an 66 DMA, GoTN INFRASTRUCTURE PROFESSIONALS ENTERPRISE (P) LTD

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important reform expected for inducing transparency into all the listed functions and services delivered. Similarly Property Tax, an important revenue resource for all ULBs is required to be made simple, transparent, non-discretionary and equitable. However, the report is incorporating the reforms expected under UIDSSMT with the understanding that they are more or less in line with the intent of the JNNURM reforms.

7.4

ULBs Organisational Structure

Post 1992 and the amendment in the Twelfth Schedule (73rd and 74th Amendment) Act, changes were brought in the Municipal functioning to clarify relation of state to ULB for the functions of taxation arrangement and revenue sharing as well as affording adequate representation of weaker section in power sharing. A host of new arrangements ensured that the ULB be professionally equipped to handle development and governance issues, and a listing of the 18 functions that were required to be operated by them. Kayalpattinam Municipality is a Grade-III Municipality regulated by the TN District Municipal Act, 1920. The town has 18 wards with adequate representation of women and SC/ST persons. The Act specifies three types of Municipalities (a) Nagar and Town Panchayat, (b) Municipal Councils for smaller urban areas and (c) Municipal Corporations for larger urban areas The set up of ULB comprises of the Political Wing and the Executive Wing, the former consisting of elected councillors from different wards in the town and is headed by the Chairman. The Executive Wing is headed by the Executive Officer helps in the functioning of the ULB by supporting the political wing in the decision making process. Fig. 7.1: Existing Organizational Structure Chairman Vice Chairman
Manage r Municipal Engineer Revenue Officer * Municipa l Health Officer/ SO Town Plannning Officer * Asst. Programmer

Executive Officer

Elected Councillors one from each ward

Accountant

AEE AE/JE

ARO * RI / RA

S.I /S.O

ATPO * TPI

Committees-Tax -Appointment

* These posts are vacant but they have persons in-charge from neighbourhood municipality

7.4.1 Political Wing The municipal council, the political arm of the municipality consists of 18 elected councillors, each representing a ward. The chairman (elected from among the councillors) heads the municipal council, which performs its duties as per the provisions of the District Municipalities Act. The political wing provides an overall direction to the municipality and performs its functions through a set of committees (not exceeding three in number) constituted for different purposes. There is no ward committee in the local body. However, as per the act, two committees’ viz., taxation appeals committee and appointment committee have been formed consisting of the chairman, the Executive Officer and elected representatives as members.
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Taxation Appeals Committee This committee addresses the appeals filed by the public against the orders on the revision of taxes. The committee consists of four members; the chairman of the municipality is the chairman of the committee and three councillors. Appointment Committee The committee is responsible for appointments to all posts for which the pay exceeds Rs. 50/- per month under the municipal council. It consists of three members comprising the EO, the chairman and one member elected by the council. 7.4.2 Executive Wing The executive wing is responsible for day to day operations of the municipality, and is headed by the Executive Officer (EO). The EO is the administrative head of the municipality and is supported mainly by four departments in the operations. The organisational structure of the municipality comprises of four functional departments. Kayalpattinam municipality consists of four functional departments; general administration, engineering, public health, and revenue. Each department consists of a head who reports to the EO and functions as per the responsibilities prescribed in the act and as delegated by the EO.
General Administration/Personnel Department
Kayalpattinam Municipality is the Third Grade Municipality. Head Clerk is the head of Administration next to Executive Officer in the branch of General Administration, and is responsible for general supervision and administration of office. All establishment matters are dealt with in the General Administration.

Revenue Department
It is another wing of the Municipality, headed by the Bill Collector and he is responsible for tax collection such as house tax, water charges, professional tax and entire Revenue collection.

Public Health Department
The Municipal Sanitary Inspector is the overall in-charge of the Health Section. He looks after the prevention of food adulteration, conservancy work, sweeping of streets, maintenance of drainage, controlling of epidemic diseases, ensuring of license to D&O trades, Birth and Death Registration, issuing certificate to birth and death registrants. The sanitary supervisor and sanitary workers are assisting the municipal sanitary inspector.

Engineering Department
The Engineering Department is responsible for all Public Works, and maintenance of civic facilities. This Department is responsible for: • Public Works (Construction and maintenance of roads and storm water drains), • Maintenance of school buildings, • Construction and Maintenance of Public Conveniences, • Maintenance of other facilities viz., Bus stand, Markets, etc. • Street Lighting (Maintenance of Street Lights) • Water Supply and Sewerage (Provision and operation and maintenance of water supply and sewerage system) • Parks & Gardens (Maintenance of parks and gardens) The engineering department co-ordinates with Tamil Nadu Water supply & Drainage Board (TWAD) and other state government agencies to implement water supply and other developmental works. The department is responsible for ensuring the quality of works and their timely completion. The municipal engineer (of executive engineer level) heads the engineering department, and is assisted by assistant engineers and other staff.

The staffing pattern of Kayalpattinam municipality is given in Table 7.1 on next page. Table 7.1: Staffing Pattern – Executive Wing Name of the Post General Administration Executive Officer Office Assistant Accounts Department
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No. of Posts Sanctioned 1 1 68

Permanent 1 1

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Name of the Post Head Clerk Junior Assistant Bill Collector Public Health Sanitary Inspector Sanitary Supervisor Sanitary Workers Water supply Night watchman OHT watchman Fitter Grade II Driver Total

No. of Posts Sanctioned 1 3 4 1 2 33 1 1 1 1 50

Permanent 1 3 3 1 2 27 1 1 1 1 43

Posts Vacant 1 6 7

Source: Municipal Records, Kayalpattinam

Against the total of 50 posts, 43 are in place. Vacancies are at lower range of 6 sanitary workers. The proportionate divisions of jobs are as: Top job :1 Managerial job :4 Support /Technical Jobs :9 Lowest range unskilled jobs : 36 Though not very vertical in structure, the lowest level jobs tend towards a larger base due to several manually performed operations.

7.5

Reforms for ULB under UIDSSMT

Some mandatory reforms are foreseen to enable efficient ULB management and delivering reliable services, which entails restructuring reorganization so that to routine /other functions are performed in a streamlined way, speedily and with transparency. The mandated reforms are: • Adopting Modern Accounting procedures (double entry accrual based) • Introducing e-governance with IT applications of GIS and MIS for services provided by the ULB • Property tax reforms, using GIS, and improving collection efficiency to 85 percent in next 7 years. • Levying user charges to recover O & M costs fully within next 7 years. • Introducing budgetary provisions for the urban poor. • Providing housing, basic services, secure tenure and other social services by the Government to the urban poor. The optional reforms revolve around: • Speeding and revising approval process for building activity. • Simplifying process for conversion of land to Urban Land uses. • Introducing property tax certification. • Earmarking 25 percent land to EWS/LIG and arranging cross subsidy for their living. • Introduce water harvesting. • Use recycled water. • Reduce administrative costs by cost cutting measures on non essential staff. • Encourage PPP.

7.6

Mandatory Reforms at Urban Local Body

Mandatory reforms as mentioned by the local body include: • Adoption of modern, accrual-based double entry system of accounting in Urban Local Bodies / Parastatals
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• Introduction of system of e-governance using IT applications like, GIS and MIS for various services provided by ULBs / Parastatals. • Reform of property tax with GIS, so that it becomes major source of revenue for Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) and arrangements for its effective implementation so that collection efficiency reaches at least 85% within next seven years. • Levy of reasonable user charges by ULBs/Para-statals with the objective that full cost of operation and maintenance or recurring cost is collected within next seven years. • Internal earmarking within local body, budgets for basic services to the urban poor. • Provision of basic services to urban poor including security of tenure at affordable prices, improved housing, water supply, sanitation and ensuing delivery of other already existing universal services of the Government for education, health and social security. 7.6.1 Status of Mandatory Reforms in Kayalpattinam

• Accrual-based double entry system of accounting is in process. • Kayalpattinam has initiated e-governance system, but IT applications like GIS and MIS for various services are still to be initiated. • Reform of property tax with GIS is to be initiated. • Rs.227.40 lakhs is estimated for the provision of basic services to urban poor under IHSDP.

7.7

Multiplicity of Line Agencies

In addition to the Local Body, there are various other organisations, State and Central that plays an important role in the town’s management. However, the functions of each department are in accordance with the agency’s commitments and responsibilities. Works taken up are based more on the regional context, however, not necessarily in line with the town’s requirement. Works, which could be handled by the available expertise and facilities of a concerned agency, are invariably never taken up, as they do not fall under the planned operations of the agency. A typical example (given below) makes evident in the case of a typical example of how functions overlap in for, say, monitoring of pollution in a town by different line agencies. Table 7.2: Line Agencies Operating in Kayalpattinam Agency Responsibility Local Planning Authority (LPA) Town Planning – By-laws for Pollution Control Public Works Department (PWD) Maintenance of Tanks & Drainage Channels incorporating anti-pollution measures. State Highways & Rural Works Planning, Strengthening & Upgrading State Highways/ Roads (safety measures) National Highways (NHAI) Planning, Strengthening & Upgrading National Highways (safety measures) Tamil Nadu Water Supply & Capital Works- Water Supply & Underground Drainage Drainage Board (TWAD) (Sewerage) – incorporating treatment/ adherence to standards Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Monitoring Industrial Pollution in Town and Region. Board (TNPCB)
Source: IPE’s Assessment

7.8

Issues

The municipality, in the interest of the town’s residents, has taken numerous steps in addressing the service related problems. Issues remain unaddressed due to gaps in management and efficient accounting procedures. Two notable issues are presented as under. (i) Lack of Awareness and Expertise: There is a general inability of personnel in the Municipality and specifically the engineering department to comprehend planning issues and correlate them in the engineering designs. This has also resulted in the area not receiving adequate attention and importance.
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(ii) Lack of effective HR Management: There is a general lack of effective communication & support systems, outdated systems, identity crisis, low job esteem and constant interference from the state government subjects which is observed to have been making the Municipality employees’ redundant and declining morale. The productivity is generally very low in the present competitive environment between the urban local bodies. On the whole it is the lack of human resource management at the Local Body level that has resulted in the ineffective discharge of duties and finally the service delivery to citizens of the town.

7.9
7.9.1

Reforms Undertaken by Kayalpattinam ULB
Computerization Initiatives

The Kayalpattinam Municipality is maintaining Computer centre and electronically records/ issues all birth and death certificates on the spot. The general particulars are all computerised. Municipal office issues Birth & Death Certificates without any delay. The municipality has computerised the bill collection system for property taxes. • The activities of the municipality are computerised and linked to the Regional Directorate of Municipal Administration, Tirunelveli (RDMA). • The municipality is currently in the process (since 1/4/2007) of preparing data base for the all property tax assessments, annual accounts and assets. The infrastructure details, town planning details and mapping (GIS) will be taken up soon. • This database will help the municipality in effective collection of the current as well as the arrear dues. 7.9.2 E-Governance Reforms

The computerisation effort has improved the collection efficiency of the municipality and this can be termed an important tax reform. 7.9.3 Citizens Charter

Tamil Nadu government has decided to issue a "citizen's charter" in order to make its functions transparent, responsible and friendly. The government has issued orders directing the local bodies to frame such citizen's charters defining clear and basic principles. Kayalpattinam municipal council has also framed citizen's charter for the people of this town. The content of the one such ideal Citizens Charter is provided in Annexure-II.

7.10 Recommended Organisational Structure
Overseeing the list of functions, it is observed that the functions relating to urban planning, land use, regulating the construction of building, are not yet being performed by the municipal authority. Very little is being done by the municipalities in relation to basic service to urban poor, though DPR for BSUP’s is new under the ULB’s urgent attention. The present organizational structure of municipal authority is designed only to meet the present needs and is not adequate to perform all the functions envisaged in the 12th Schedule of the Constitution. Reforms will be needed in governance by • Clearly identifying the tasks and sub tasks that Kayalpattinam is required to perform • An information module which is accessible electronically and otherwise to the citizens of the town as an interface between them and the Municipality • It is prudent to agglomerate ULBs for infrastructure requirements water, sewerage, solid waste management, transportation and other infrastructure so as to create scale and facilitate development in a holistic way. These should be more external oriented rather than inward based. • There should be forums for continuing dialogue between people and councillors on a regular periodic basis, preferably as calendar events which should be well publicized.
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The Municipality needs to undertake more functions under the 74th CAA for which the organizational structure must modify and accommodate. A suggested structure is provided in Table 7.3 • The structure envisages 6 functional heads which are coded as Code 1: GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Code 2: ENGINEERING & PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE Code 3: SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE Code 4: POVERTY SLUMS & HOUSING Code 5: URBAN PLANNING, DESIGN AND HERITAGE Code 6: BUDGET AND ACCOUNTS • These functional heads are further split into SEGMENTED FUNCTIONAL CODES as Eg.: 1A & 1B; 2A to 2 F; 3A to 3B; 4A to 4 F; 5A to 5B; 6A to 6C. (For details see Table 7.3) • Under each Segmented functional code are the delivery TASKS. (For details see Table 7.3) Table 7.3: Proposed Organization Structure for Kayalpattinam Code Functional Head Sub Code Wings/ Tasks 1 Central Administration 1A General Administration matters 1A.1 Establishment matters 1A.2 Personnel policy, Career growth, Training Appointments, Promotions, vigilance 1A.3 matters 1B IT 1B.1 IT Networking 1B.2 IT Support, IT Training 1B.3 Website management 1B.4 Trouble shooting, General maintenance 1B.5 Archival, 1B.6 IT Upgrade Engineering 2 2A Water Supply 2A.1 Internal network design 2A.2 O&M Asset management 2A.3 Water testing 2A.4 Complaints redressal 2A.5 Repair and renewal 2A.6 Any other 2B Sewerage 2B.1 Internal network design 2B.2 O&M Asset management 2B.3 Waste water treatment & disposal 2B.4 Waste water recycling 2B.5 Testing 2B.6 Regulating discharge 2B.7 Composting / gasplant / any other 2C Roads and Drains 2C.1 Design and civil works for roads and drains 2C.2 Storm water disposal 2C.3 Maintenance of roads / drains 2C.4 Road furniture Road junctions, sidewalks, markings and 2C.5 signage 2C.6 Bus bays 2C.7 Traffic related trouble shooting 2C.8 Parking lots, selecting sites 2D Street lighting
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Code

Functional Head

Sub Code 2D.1 2D.2 2D.3 2D.4 2E 2E.1 2E.2 2E.3 2E.4 2E.5 2E.6 2E.7 2E.8 2E.9 2E.10 2E.11 2E.12 2F 2F.1 2F.2 2F.3 2F.4 2F.5

Wings/ Tasks Procurement Design & laying of UG cables O&M Asset management Sub-station / others Parks / playgrounds TOI lots Parks and playgrounds Recreational sites Horticulture, water bodies, water catchment area protection Roadside plantation and avenues Urban vegetable / fruit gardens Forest protection Wet area conservation Quarry sites improvement / renewal Degraded areas improvement Nurseries, fisheries, zoos, agro area, other Ecological safeguards Solid Waste Management Primary collection Storage and collection Disposal site Engineered landfill / O&M management construction Vehicle asset management Recycling, composting, segregating, on site recycling, on site composting, community groups / organisation / SHGS / involvement of NGOs in Waste management Any other like project and site development Education Monitoring / site selection for primary, secondary, Higher secondary Colleges / Institutions Any other Health Monitoring / site selection for establishing Hospitals/ Clinics /Nursing homes Ensuring Hazard free environments Any other In situ slum improvement Slum relocating / replanning Poor Services Provision Livelihoods and Community, Poverty assessment, Program, design, executing, monitoring, evaluation General Planning Urban plan making, Environmental considerations Plan monitoring, regulation, encroachment prevention
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2F.6 2F.7 3 Social Infrastructure 3A

3A.1 3A.2 3A.3 3B 3B.1 3B.2 3B.3 4 Poverty, Slums and Housing 4A 4B 4C 4D 4E 4F 5 Urban Planning Design and Heritage 5A 5A.1 73

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Code

Functional Head

Sub Code

5A.2 5B 5B.1

Wings/ Tasks Ward area plans, ward assessment monitoring Building and Design

area

need ,

5B.2 5B.3 5B.4

Building rules, structural safety, Green building, guidelines, architectural elements and components, vernacular architecture guidelines, environment guidelines Plan enforcements, Building law enforcement Conservation guidelines and enforcement Heritage section, Heritage improvement Heritage conservation and regeneration Heritage based promotional activities Heritage-tourism promotional activities Marketing section Taxation and Revenue related activities Finance and accounts related activities Any other

6

Budget and Accounts

6A 6B 6C

7.11 Suggestions
• • • • • Speeding up e-governance in the taluk and improving the tax collection system. Capacity building to the ULB staff on performance efficiency and benchmarking it with use of performance indicators. It is feasible that ward level plans be prepared for effective community participation. Local governance strengthening is important, especially having a separate tax domain. Community participation as an ongoing process, should be facilitated by the ULB as a periodic calendar event, with a monitoring cell in place to ensure that participation results in community supported actions (It is not necessary to always have laws to tell people how to do what). As city scales enlarge, participation may be segmented to go up to neighbourhood level. Rent control Laws, if any, have to be reviewed. Water supply, user charges, leaking systems, billing systems, illegal connections, discretionary supply are matters where reforms have to be ensured, so that O & M costs are recoverable. Documenting and disclosing published information by the ULB on decisions taken, including financial statements, projects details and other information of common interest to the citizens, will ensure an accountable ULB. Most municipalities have proportionately high wage bills and pension payouts; the reforms underway suggest that 35% of revenue expenditure only should go to salary bills. This entails cost cutting on wages for unnecessary personnel and reducing the number of employees. New Municipal Accounting systems have already been suggested elsewhere. Making room for PPP signifies sharing of risks, opportunities, responsibilities and rewards and paves the way for a smoother and more satisfactory development culture.

• • • • • •

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CHAPTER - 8 MUNICIPAL FINANCE
8.1 Introduction
Kayalpattinam Municipality used to maintain accounts on a single entry cash basis till the financial year 2001-02. The ULB was upgraded from Town Panchayat to Grade III in the financial year 2004. In the financial year 2002-03 & 2003-04, the ULB maintained accounts as per Town Panchayat Accounting Manual i.e. Double entry accrual based accounting (non-fund based). The ULB is supposed to maintain Fund Based double entry accrual accounting as per Tamil Nadu Municipal Accounting Manual from FY 2004-05. However, this switchover has not been fully made functional. Under the present system the ULB prepares Income & Expenditure and Balance sheet at the financial year end. The account of this ULB has been audited up to FY 07. The accounts of ULB can be broadly segregated into receipts and payments. The receipts are classified into income and liabilities and the payments are classified into expenditure and assets.

8.2

Revenue Account

The revenue account comprises of recurring items of receipts (taxes, fees, grants etc.) and payment account essentially transactions related to the ULBs operations. The table below summarizes the status of the ULBs revenue account. Table 8:1: Revenue Account (in lakhs) Particular Revenue Income Revenue Expenditure Surplus/Deficit
Source: Kayalpattinam Municipality

FY03 101.54 110.70 -9.16

FY04 123.00 106.08 16.91

FY05 126.96 186.05 -59.09

FY06 119.12 125.40 -6.28

Fig 8.1 Trends in Revenue Income and Expenditure

The CAGR for Revenue Income is 5.47 percent while the CAGR for Revenue Expenditure is 4.24 percent. The Municipality has shown a deficit in all the years except in FY 04. Highest deficit was shown in FY05. 75 DMA, GoTN INFRASTRUCTURE PROFESSIONALS ENTERPRISE (P) LTD

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8.3

Revenue Receipts

Receipts under this head include taxes, fees, grants, income from properties and special services. i) Taxes - own sources – This includes property tax, professional tax and other taxes collected by the Municipality. In FY 06, the tax receipts accounted for Rs.28.43 Lakhs. ii) Taxes - Assigned Revenue - Taxes collected by other agencies include entertainment tax, duty on transfer of property, taxes on carts and animals etc this accounted for Rs. 4.61 lakhs in FY 06. iii) Non-tax Revenue - This head includes Income from Fees, Properties, Special services & Miscellaneous. This head amounts to Rs.45.83 lakhs in the FY 06. Table 8.2: Revenue Receipts (Rs. In Lakhs)

S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Particulars Property Tax Other Taxes Service Charges & Fees Sale & Hire Charges Other Income Assigned Revenue Devolution Fund Grants & Contributions Total

FY03 14.36 6.92 26.23 0.82 1.83 21.94 29.44 0.00 101.54

FY04 15.29 7.06 32.04 0.00 6.04 17.09 45.48 0.00 123.00

FY05 17.56 9.19 41.01 0.25 16.13 11.04 31.73 0.05 126.96

FY06 19.31 9.12 45.83 0.00 10.36 4.61 29.89 0.00 119.12

CAGR 10.37 9.66 20.44 -100.00 78.18 -40.56 0.51 5.47

Source: Kayalpattinm Municipality

Table 8.3 Revenue Receipts as Percentages of Total Revenue Receipts (value in %)

S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Particular Property Tax Other Taxes Service Charges & Fees Sale & Hire Charges Other Income Assigned Revenue Devolution Fund Grants & Contributions Total

FY03 14.14 6.81 25.83 0.81 1.80 21.61 28.99 0.00 100.00

FY04 12.43 5.74 26.05 0.00 4.91 13.90 36.97 0.00 100.00

FY05 13.83 7.24 32.30 0.20 12.70 8.70 24.99 0.04 100.00

FY06 16.21 7.66 38.47 0.00 8.70 3.87 25.09 0.00 100.00

Average 14.15 6.86 30.66 0.25 7.03 12.02 29.01 0.01 100.00

Source: Kayalpattinam Municipality

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Fig 8.2 Source wise Revenue Income (%) • • • The amount under most of the heads is growing however their share to the revenue receipts in the respective years is varying. Revenue receipts have increased from Rs.101.54 lakhs in FY03 to Rs.119.12 lakhs in FY06. It has shown an increasing trend over past 4years. Property tax has shown a promising upward trend. Devolution funds and service charge and fees occupy a significant share of the revenue income over the years.

Fig 8.3 Average Share of Revenue Income (%)
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As seen from the graph, Service Charges and fees (30.66%) and Devolution Funds (29.01%) share a significant component of the revenue income, followed by Property tax (14.15 %).

8.4

Revenue Expenditure

Kayalpattinam municipality uses the resources for general administration, operation and maintenance of services and public works. Revenue expenditure during FY03 was Rs.110.70 lakhs and in FY06 it increased to Rs. 125.40 lakhs. i) Personnel Cost - This constitutes one of the major components of expenditure. It has increased from Rs. 32.10 lakhs in FY03 to Rs. 35.44 in FY06. ii) Operating Expenses - This includes the O&M of core services and it accounts to Rs 39.72 lakhs in FY06. iii) Finance Expenses - This is an important component and amounts to Rs. 0.03 lakhs in FY06. Table 8.4: Break – Up of Revenue Expenditure (Rs. In Lakhs) S. No. FY03 FY04 1 2 3 4 5 6 Personnel Cost Operating Expenses Programme Expenses Administration expenses Finance expenses Depreciation 32.10 52.34 0.00 6.88 8.00 11.39 33.12 54.23 0.03 3.41 0.00 15.29

FY05 35.46 69.00 0.00 33.65 17.48 30.47

FY06 35.44 39.72 0.00 3.61 0.03 46.60

CAGR

3.36 -8.78 -19.35 -84.49 59.93 4.24

Total
Source: Kayalpattinam Municipality

110.70

106.08

186.05

125.40

Table 8.5 Revenue Expenditure as Percentage of Total Revenue Expenses (value in %) S. No. FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06 Average 1 2 3 4
DMA, GoTN

Personnel Cost Operating Expenses Programme Expenses Administration expenses

28.99 47.28 0.00 6.21 78

31.22 51.12 0.03 3.21

19.06 37.09 0.00 18.09

28.26 31.68 0.00 2.88

26.88 41.79 0.01 7.60

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5 6

Finance expenses Depreciation

7.23 10.29 100.00

0.00 14.41 100.00

9.39 16.37 100.00

0.02 37.16 100.00

4.16 19.56 100.00

Fig 8.4 Component wise share of Revenue Expenditure (%)

Fig 8.5 Average Share of Revenue Expenses (%) As seen from the graphs above, on the expenditure side the ULB a significant percent of the expenditure is spent on personnel followed by operating expenses and depreciation.

8.5

Trends in Income & Expenditure

Income has increased at an average of 6.6% over past few years on the other hand expenses have increased at an average of 12.87% over the years. Income & Expenditure trend of the municipality is shown in the following tables and figure. Table 8.6: Growth Rate in Revenue Income (%) S. No. Expenditure FY04 1 2 3
DMA, GoTN

FY05 14.85 30.26 27.98

FY06 9.96 -0.78 11.75

Average 12.40 14.74 19.87

Property Tax Other Taxes Service Charges & Fees

6.47 2.02 22.17 79

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4 5 6 7 8 S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Sale & Hire Charges Other Income Assigned Revenue Devolution Fund Grants & Contributions Total Expenditure Personnel Cost Operating Expenses Programme Expenses Administration expenses Finance expenses Depreciation Total

-100.00 229.63 -22.10 54.48 21.13 FY04 3.19 3.62 -50.40 -100.00 34.20 -4.17 99.27 75.38 167.12 -35.40 -30.23 3.23 FY05 7.05 27.24 -100.00 886.56

-100.00 -35.75 -58.28 -5.79 -100.00 -6.18 FY06 -0.05 -42.44 -89.28 -99.83 52.96 -32.60 62.14 12.87 6.06 Average 3.40 -3.86 248.96 65.68 -46.84 -18.01

Source: Kayalpattinam Municipality

Fig 8.6 Growth Rate in Revenue Income and Expenditure

8.6

Demand Collection Balance (DCB) Scenario

The following tables are with respect to property tax, professional tax and water tax which are the major sources of income to the Municipality. 8.6.1 DCB for Property Tax

In FY06, the total demand for property tax (including arrears and current) stood at Rs.20.13 lakhs of which only Rs.16.26 lakhs has been collected with a collection performance of 81 percent. The average total collection efficiency over the years is 94 percent. Table 8.8: Demand Collection Balance for Property Tax (Rs. In lakhs)
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Sl. No. A. Demand 1. 2. B.

Particulars Arrears Current

2002-03 0.31 14.36 14.67 0.00 14.32 14.32 0% 100% 98%

2003-04 0.15 15.29 15.44 0.00 15.17 15.17 0% 99% 98%

2004-05 0.02 15.81 15.83 0.00 15.82 15.82 0% 100% 100%

2005-06 0.83 19.31 20.13 0.00 16.26 16.26 0% 84% 81%

3. Total Collection 1. 2. 3. Arrears Current Total

D.

Collection Analysis Arrears (%) Current (%) Total (%)

Source: Kayalpattinam Municipality

Fig 8.7 Collection Efficiency for Property Tax (%)

8.6.2

DCB for Professional Tax

The total demand in FY06 was Rs.13.97 lakhs and Rs 6.30 lakhs was collected with a collection efficiency of 45 percent. Table 8.9: DCB for Professional Tax (Rs. in Lakhs)

Sl. No. A.

Particulars Demand 1. Arrears

2002-03 Rs. In lakhs 2.25
81

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2.31

2.06

4.85

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2. 3. B.

Current Total

6.92 9.17 0.20 6.66 6.86 9% 96% 75%

7.06 9.37 0.47 3.84 4.31 20% 54% 46%

9.19 11.26 0.22 9.42 9.64 11% 102% 86%

9.12 13.97 0.00 6.30 6.30 0% 69% 45%

Collection 1. Arrears 2. Current 3. Total Collection Analysis 1. Arrears (%) 2. Current (%) Total

C.

Source: Kayalpattinam Municipality

Fig 8.8 Collection Efficiency for Professional Tax (%)

8.6.3

DCB for Water Charges

The total demand in FY06 was Rs.44.44 lakhs and Rs.32.08 lakhs was collected with a collection efficiency of 72 percent. Table 8.10: DCB of Water Charges (Rs in Lakhs) 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 Water Charges A. Demand 1. 2. 3. B. 1. 2. 3. C.
DMA, GoTN

Arrears Current Total Arrears Current Total

5.44 18.55 23.99 2.15 14.70 16.85

7.14 26.21 33.35 2.60 26.12 28.72

16.46 37.68 54.14 4.82 27.62 32.44

4.84 39.60 44.44 4.84 27.24 32.08

Collection

Collection Analysis 82
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1. Arrears (%) 2. Current (%)

40% 79% 70%

36% 100% 86%

29% 73% 60%

100% 69% 72%

Source: Kayalpattinam Municipality

g 8.9 Collection Efficiency for Water Charges (%)

8.7

Ratio Analysis

Ratio of revenue expenditure to revenue income has been mentioned below. FY 03 – 1.09 FY 04 – 0.86 FY 05 – 1.47 FY 06 – 1.05 The OR for financial year is more than 1 for all the years except FY 04, which could be attributed to instability in the efficiency of revenue management, or, a high dependency on state devolved funds for revenue income.

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CHAPTER - 9 DEVELOPMENT OF PERSPECTIVE AND VISION OF THE CITY
9.1 Spatial Perspective for Kayalpattinam 2041

A comprehensive view of Kayalpattinam was derived and several fronts explored for preparing a draft vision for the ULB. These included a SWOT analysis, stakeholders meeting, interviewing citizens, officials and key stakeholders, and consolidating their views, as well as a detailed analytical assessment of the state and district potential to contribute to the ULB’s growth. On the basis of these datasets, a Spatial Perspective Plan for Kayalpattinam 2041 was prepared (see Map 13) The plan, indicative of the new focal developments and its sustaining infrastructure, on approval, with or without adjustments, would help generate a City Development Plan (CDP) along with a five year project profile in a draft suggestive form, as incorporated later in this chapter. To mandate the CDP into an implementable document would need preparation of schemes and ward plans for actualizing listed projects and covering deficient development in the city. This would require fast tracking approval by the ULB/ State for a healthy development process.

9.2
9.2.1

Sector Specific Objectives and Projects
A Spatial Growth Strategy (Town Level)

Kayalpattinam’s spatial development relies on preparing the town for its future role as a leading urban area in a region where economic growth has had a late start. The district economy is a mix of agriculture-port and marine oriented-industry; the urban areas in the district show heavy reliance on service sector growth (a larger literate work force) so strategies for jobs in service sector will shape economic growth. • Accordingly, the town can use its strength as a sea facing one and permit entry of Tourism (pilgrim-eco tourism – port / industry / business tourism) and aggressively market it as resort town for short stay. The estuary area Tamirabarani river and its vicinity can be an appropriate for such an activity in small village like environments and indigenously designed buildings, close to nature, independent and secluded from city functions etc. subject to feasibility studies and land availability. The town lacks identity with a near absence of any landmark. Introducing one at the sea edge as an Observation Tower for metrological purpose / tsunami and disaster warming station / telescope fitted viewing space for young astronomers / general viewing tower for a panoramic view of the sea could be an interesting project for the town. Electronic display of time/temperature/humidity/ other messages in the tower would be an added advantage. An elevator to reach a 30m. high tower would be an exciting project for town dwellers, especially the youth and children. It would symbolise entry into modernism. 50m wide beach as stipulated under the CRZ would require removal of encroachments of any kind. Another 50m. wide parallel green zone would enable cash crop of cashew plantation whilst also acting as green zone / recreation zone. A business hub in two parts could be located on the site between Railway line and SH 40; one for sale of fish (fresh cured-dried-other marine products); and two, for high value jewellery making / sale in secure environments alongside local traditional handicraft displaysale-fabrication in open ‘haat’ environment. The town growth would have to infill vacant sites and gradually redensify its housing 84
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9.2.2 • • • • • • • 9.2.3

components. Spatial Growth Strategies – Regional Level Regional tourism circuit should be promoted. Heritage traits should be demarcated. Ecotourism is possible due to Marine Reserve Park in Tuticorin, and several islands along the coast line. Disaster Management should be built into town growth strategies. Local initiatives / partnerships for tourism projects, their marketing – transport – accommodation – catering – other services must be developed. Develop local and regional skills, talent and entrepreneurship upgrading them to present day needs. Re-densify existing town with infill development also improve physical – social infrastructure and create aesthetic environment for enhancing Quality of Life (QOL). Short Term Projects (2008 - 2013)

• Initiate site selection, conduct feasibility studies for new development areas in the town and periurban zones. • Project CRZ Zone. Develop parallel Green Zone, thereby protect 100m inland of sea. • Improve roads – drains – footpaths – road markings – signage – road furniture. • Set-up information centres for registering skilled persons, SHGs, informal sector groups. Use best practices of ‘Reddy’s LABS’ for organising informal sector activities. • Fill gaps in community toilets, public conveniences. • Plan and execute bus stand project (with 30 year perspective for traffic growth). • Substitute all street lights with low energy luminaries; cover gaps in illumination. • Improve garbage removal by composting – segregation – exploring recycling possibilities in Kayalpattinam. • Build community halls at appropriate locations. • Establish Tourism Information & Promotion Centre within the Tourist Home Zone. • Establish task force and design teams for Ecological Resource and Water Body Improvement. • Prepare ward plans for re-densifying residential areas. • Establishing / outsourcing GIS mapping centre. 9.2.4 Prioritisation of Projects

Projects have been prioritized to ensure that; • They represent projects across sectors, • Are short term, implementable in five years • Preferably executed in public private partnership mode, • Okayed by stakeholders, • Have innovative elements for achieving ‘newness’/ demonstration effect. On the basis of the detailed discussion with the Stakeholders of the town and analysis of the existing situation prioritized project list for the ULB was prepared, as below: 1. Water Suppy ( Pipe Upgradation for 5 Km) 2. Sewerage System 3. Road 4. Street light ( High Mast – 4 Nos) 5. Solid waste Management 6. Community Hall 7. Compost yard 8. E – Governance 9. Others The wish list which was presented by the ULB was very limited and was not in compliance with the sustainability of the town. Therefore a comprehensive proposal was developed by the consultant in
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conformity with the standards set in UIDSSMT scheme and CPHEEO manual which is presented in the chapter 10.

9.3
9.3.1 (i)

Infrastructure Projects
Water Supply

Objective

Increasing the coverage and service levels for piped water supply with assurance of its potability. (ii) Identified projects Ensuring that water supply to Kayalpattinam Municipality, required for 2011, 2021, 2031 and 2041 are available to the acceptable standard. - For timely augmentation, DPR made must be implemented at the earliest possible. - Mapping and GIS - Long term water supply demand calculated over 5 year periods beyond 2012. - Treatment and storage facilities for above discussed demand with pumping facilities. Table 9.1 : Water Supply Projects ; Prioritisation and Time Frame S. No. Identified Projects 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 1 DPR implementation for augmenting future water supply 2 Covering Deficient demand upto 2012, construction of ESR/UG sump, supply network 3 Mapping & GIS Source: IPE’s Assessment

9.3.2 (i)

Sewerage/ Under Ground Drainage

Objective

To prevent health risks due to poor sanitation, and create healthy communities by covering the entire town, including slums, with sewerage network. Short Term Strategy Introduce sewer lines, by first designing a network to cover existing HHs through a system of STPs in decentralized way for micro zones and planning for population projected to 2011. Serialize the network construction for every 5 years prioritizing it as per local demand Construction of Community Toilets as per requirement especially in slum localities. Funds under BSUP and IHSDP Programmes could be utilised for the purpose. Connecting community toilets to sewers. Connecting septic tanks to network in phased way. Ensuring no blocking of sewer takes place. Ensuring re-use of waste water after its primary treatment. Moving animal population away from inhabited areas in a phased manner.

(iii) Long Term Strategy Providing sewer connection to 100% HHs by 2041. Recycling of all liquid waste for non drinking purpose. Ensuring non mixing of sewerage and storm water Ensuring storm water drains are unlittered and year round functional.

(iv) PPP - Innovative community toilets must be explored/ constructed after pilot testing, and by involving private sector in its construction. 86 DMA, GoTN INFRASTRUCTURE PROFESSIONALS ENTERPRISE (P) LTD

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-

Innovative management should be practiced to attract investment into sewerage projects (incentives). Compost/ manure, as commercial output from STPs may be used for ULB incomes (through contractual arrangements) Effluents, if discharged into water bodies or elsewhere used, must conform to environmental guidelines as prescribed by TNPCB for safety. All private commercial/ industrial units will install and recycle their waste water independent of the sewerage system.

(v) Identified Projects - Capital assets are required to provide a sewerage system with safe disposal facilities for the entire population existing in 2021, 2031 and 2041. - Mapping and GIS, topography surveys. - Designing sewerage network as decentralized STPs for specified population till 2021 and further for every 5 year increments of population growth. - Constructing the STPs. - Connecting community toilets, septic tanks to the sewerage network. Table 9.2: Underground Drainage (Sewerage) Projects ; Prioritisation and Time Frame S. No. Identified Projects 2009 2010 2011 2012 1 Topography Surveys, Mapping & GIS. 2 Design of new sewerage network for decentralised STPs for existing town 3 Construction of Sewer system with STPs 4 Connecting Community Toilets / Septic tanks to sewers
Source: IPE’s Assessment

20013

9.3.3 (i)

Storm Water Drainage

Objective

To ensure that the town is protected from flooding, and that the drainage network performs efficiently. (ii) Identified Projects All roads should be properly designed with drains on both sides of the road. All drains should be engineered to perform year round (dry weather/ heavy rains) drainage. - All water bodies are rejuvenated and no untreated sewage/ sullage be discharged with them. - Alternate methods may be used for lining of drains. - Rain harvesting structure (roof tops/ paved/ unpaved areas/ arresting run-offs and infiltering water into ground/ storing water under controlled conditions; these may all be introduced as practices. Table 9.3: Storm Water Drainage Projects : Prioritisation and Time Frame S. No. Identified Projects 2009 2010 2011 2012 20013 1 Construction of drains along all primary roads (both sides) 2 Adopting alternative lining methods for secondary drains (pilot projects) 3 Development of Water harvesting structures 4 Treatment of waste water before discharge into water bodies Source: IPE’s Assessment

9.3.4 (i)

Sanitation

Projects 87
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-

Constructing New Community toilets at specified standards for the entire existing and projected population (till 2012) Upgrading existing community toilets. Creating a framework for their planning/ designing, executing and management. Constructing ‘pay and use’ toilets near large commuter flow areas (bus stand/ market/ pilgrim places).

Table 9.4 : Sanitation Projects : Prioritisation and Time Frame S. No. Identified Projects 2009 1 Construction of new community toilets for slum dwellers 2 Upgrading existing toilets 3 Devising framework for planning / Design / Construction / Management / Financing New Community Toilets 4 Constructing Pay & Use toilets at busy locations
Source: IPE’s Assessment

2010

2011

2012

20013

9.3.5 (i)

Traffic and Transportation

Objective:

To achieve efficient transport network and improve traffic management in city and its peri-urban areas. (ii) Short Term Strategy: Improve access to core area through core city improvement; Improve access to peri-urban areas by introducing land use conversions, developing organised commercial market and avoid haphazard sprawl by integrating land use and transport. Remove all road encroachments highway as well as internal roads as a pre requisite to road improvement. Organize parking lots with demarcated pitching spaces and ensuring definite number of car spaces. Provide street lights, signage, road markings on roads and intersections. Widen roads in core area to house entry level with demarcated foot paths on both sides. Pave all roads in slum clusters; provide drains to engineering designs. Fix road levels permanently and adopt re-carpeting in a way as not to change levels affecting drainage and other parameters. Traffic regulation and scientific guidelines should be adopted from IRC standards.

(iii) Long Term Strategy A proper Transport Development Plan be prepared. A registration base for vehicle be prepared for future demand management. Green policies be implemented to permit cycles/ rickshaw/ pedestrians to operate in safe road environments. Drains be well designed for peak summer flow as well as monsoon discharge, along with effective monitoring of storm water drainage system. For lining of storm water drains, use environment friendly materials. Policies and strategies be prepared as Special provisions for enhancing economic opportunities, for developing designated commercial zones. Improve all main arteries, Bus stands, develop a new Bus stand which will form part of Transport Development Plan, and, several Bus shelters at suitable locations.

(iv) PPP Overhead signage on major roads and highways to be erected to international standards. All residential areas be provided with direction/ indication boards along with maps well designed and executed by reputed art agencies. - All parks, public buildings, offices be similarly provided with name boards etc as above. 88 DMA, GoTN INFRASTRUCTURE PROFESSIONALS ENTERPRISE (P) LTD -

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Advertisement rights to private agencies may be given for the same for a specified period (say 3 years).

(v) Identified Projects Development of Traffic Management Plan. Development footpaths on all main roads Provide zebra crossings and other markings Provide proper illumination and drainage Improve road junctions/ intersections Modernize and improve bus stand circulation – parking areas – public conveniences – shops – Provide parking in heritage areas; pedestrianize; use bollards and signage’s. Provide modern petrol filling stations Provide slum areas paving

Table 9.5 : Transportation Projects : Prioritization and Time Frame S. No. Identified Projects 2009 1 Traffic Management Plan 2 Developing street junctions / Sidewalks / Landscape / Road Markings 3 Developing parking lots 4 Siting/ Constructing of new Bus stand 5 Junction / Intersection development 6 Providing Metalled access road to slum and paving inner slum streets
Source: IPE’s Assessment

2010

2011

2012

20013

9.3.6

Urban Poor and Slums

(i) Objectives: (ii) To provide basic housing to poor with effective roof protection; Provide micro-credit for individual toilet construction and connection to septic tank. Provide health care and literacy in slums. Short Term Strategy:

Allocating at least 25 percent of the budget in slum improvement measures. Deciding and implementing slum housing as either/or in-situ or replanned slum location. Deciding on housing design, construction methods/ technology, women’s workplaces, cost cutting frameworks. - Toilet construction with innovative design - maintenance – management methods. - HSCs to 100 percent slum housing. - Incentives to small real estate companies and business models for slum rehousing with ULB partnership. (iii) Long Term Strategy: Reducing slums to not exceeding 15 percent of the total population. Providing transit housing for slum projects. Focus on non-formal skills for town building and construction activities for slum dweller organisation against wage employment. - Introduction of Vocational training courses for skill development/ enhancement for relevant jobs. (masons, drivers, carpenters, accountants-book keeping, production on machines/ mechanics, chefs-cooks-waiters). - The need for a policy especially tailored to reduce poverty and its impacts in a non-political, meaningful way is recommended. (iv) Identified Projects: - Networking Slum Communities for infrastructure - skills – employment – participation. DMA, GoTN

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Preparing feasibility reports and DPRs for Pilot projects using IHSDP/ BSUP funds to cover at least 50% slums. Organising community built and managed, eco-toilets for all slum areas. Establishing micro-credit societies as well as Feasibility Funds to undertake financially attractive projects that can attract Bank Finance.

Table 9.6: Urban Poor Projects : Prioritization and Time Frame S. No. Identified Projects 2009 1 Preparation of DPR Pilot Project (weaver/other slums) 2 Implementation of DPR 3 Construction of Community toilets 4 Landscaping / Greening Slum area
Source: IPE’s Assessment

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9.3.7 (i)

Solid Waste Management

Objective

To provide a waste management system with safe waste disposal in environmentally sustainable ways to all residents. (ii) Short Term Strategy Explore partnering neighbouring ULBs for cluster landfill for cost sharing and scale of operation. Select suitable options for selection (both primary and secondary points) with simple equipment, labour intensive and low energy methods. Strategise health care and hazardous waste disposal. Define collection routes, transit storage of recyclables, safe working conditions, incentives for innovation and incentives for rationalizing operations. Establish monitoring systems for vehicles/ materials/ repair/ maintenance/ landfill. Establish composting using windrows method on special site (designated site)/ and regionally within landfill site with small recycling activities en-route to landfill. Dedicate a fund for SWM for its treatment and disposal.

(iii) Long Term Strategy SWM Plans be prepared for implementation Continuous awareness using and selecting an effective medium Hazardous waste collection, storage, disposal in scientific way. Building bye laws and layout plan to incorporate refuse collection bins to optimise the refuse collection routes.

(iv) PP Partnership (v) Establish possibilities for PPP in the SWM chain. Select contracts – tasks – services for private participants. Deliver efficient SWM operation process within collaborative mode. Ensure that PPP engages in minimizing risks to either party, pays employees regularly, bids transparently, benefits workers, is non-hazardous and has a stable operation. Identified Projects Based on sustainable parameters select site for cluster engineered landfill. Adopt innovative arrangements for door-to-door collection and waste segregation at source. Purchase equipment or arrange loans for vehicles and equipment. Set-up composting plants at a pre-designated site. Contracting privately, tipping the waste operation at a pre decided cost per ton basis. 90
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Table 9.7 : SWM Projects ; Prioritisation and Time Frame S. No. Identified Projects 1 Selecting and Construction of Land Fill Site on cosharing basis 2 Private Contracting of waste tipping 3 Hiring pvt. waste pickers for HH garbage collection under new arrangement 4 Setting up Composting Plant 5 Purchase of essential equipment
Source: IPE’s Assessment

2009

2010

2011

2012

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9.3.8 (i)

Tourism

Objective

Encourage economic growth in Kayalpattinam by enhancing tourism resources, developing tourism infrastructure, promoting tourism information and establishing an Institution for Local Initiative in Heritage Conservation, Regeneration, Urban Design and Natural area Conservation. (ii) Strategy Develop a Tourist Zone in Kayalpattinam, devising development partnership with Local development group/ trust, opening an area planning office (expert views/ consultation/ committees); put on offer investment opportunities to private sector for projects in leisure, recreation, and water body improvements, commerce; establishing a Tourist Souvenir shop in well designed buildings etc. (iii) Major Initiative / Projects Accommodation/ Resorts/ Restaurants/ Cafes/ eating places. Entertainment and Leisure facilities. Transportation facilities. Information and Communication facilities.

(iv) Identified Projects (1st Phase 2007- 2012) Conservation of built heritage sites Conservation of water bodies and heritage if any. Tourist Guest Houses and Tourist Information Centres Tourism Circuits 2010 2011 2012 20013

Table 9.8 : Tourism Projects ; Prioritisation and Time Frame S. No. Identified Projects 2009 1 Conservation of water bodies 2 Construction of Tourist Guest Houses & Information centres 3 Developing tourist circuits
Source: IPE’s Assessment

9.4

Concurrence on Prioritized Projects

It is necessary to involve all town stakeholders in concurring that projects have been conceptualized and prioritized as per their crucial requirements, have cut across all sectors specified under the program, entail partnership modes in their implementation and management, and are implementable in the first few years of the programme.
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Successful execution will not only embolden the ULB to accept and asset more challenging projects amiably and in a conflict free development environment. After concurrence on the identified projects, the Capital Investment Plans will be prepared. The Capital Investment Plans for the sectors Road network and Transport projects; water supply, sewerage storm water drains; solid waste management; slum improvement; Heritage conservation; Environment and Governance, will cover Project summaries, Cost Estimates, Project Implementation phasing and Institutional arrangements. The implementing ULBs will decide the manner in which efficiencies can be achieved in project cost, implementing and financing as well as in projects development and management through PPP arrangements.

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CHAPTER - 10 CITY INVESTMENT PLAN (CIP)
10.1 Backdrop Study
The long –term vision for Kayalpattinam town has already been set out in the Interim Report of its CDP. The long-term goals of the community are expected to be driven by fiscal, financial and policy initiatives of the ULB for making informed investment choices for preparing the city’s Capital Investment Plan. A CIP provides the level of investment that will be needed to implement the CDP and is an estimate and approximation for determining the cost of implementing the stipulated projects under the reform agenda. The Capital Investment Plan which is an operational plan to actualize the goals and strategies of the CDP is a multi year scheduling of the short term [usually 4-6 years] plan for identifying capital projects and equipment purchase as well as identifying the options for financing the plan. In real terms the plan provides effective links between the ULB and the various city departments/ other state level agencies for identifying as well as balancing competing needs and consequently developing short[and later long] term capital finance plan. This way the city’s capital investments, both new and O&M, as well as technical capacity for construction and O&M, through the linked strategic plans spelt out in the CDP, get reflected in the Municipality’s annual budget. 10.1.1 Benefits of CIP

The Benefits of a CIP are; 1 2 3 Potential projects can be systematically evaluated at the same time. Debts can be stabilized and projects consolidated to reduce the costs of borrowing. It can serve as an public relations and economic development tool.

It also ensures the efficient use of public funds for preserving the ULB’s infrastructure whilst promoting cooperation between the ULB and other public service structures. 10.1.2 Features of CIP

The typical Features of a CIP include; • • • • • A list of capital projects [or equipment] to be purchased. A ranking of the projects as prioritized. The plan for financing them. The timetable for constructing or completing the projects. Justification for the projects.

As understood, capital projects are tangible with a life expectancy beyond one year. As the CIP includes financial issues, it involves reviewing the ULB’s current finances. Subsequent to its adoption, it is required to take count of a series of tasks, as, inventorying existing capital assets, evaluating incomplete projects, assessing financial capacity, compiling/ evaluating new projects, prioritizing them, developing the Financial Plan, adopting the CIP, monitoring / managing the approved projects, and updating the existing and ongoing Capital Projects. As part of the preparation of a CIP, it is prudent to consider the prevailing norms/ standards of infrastructure services, and options for their provision, e.g. high, medium, low or mixed. The agreed
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option should match public expectations and the technical capacities of the ULB. Needless to say that they should be rationally chosen.

10.2 CIP Process for Kayalpattinam
The framework for the long –term vision has already been provided in the CDP in the previous chapters taking cognizance of the town’s hinterland economy and its potentials favouring port / marine oriented activities and regional tourism services .This chapter focuses on the Infrastructure needs and Capital Investment Plan for the following urban sectors (i) Water Supply; (ii) Sewerage and Sanitation; (iii) Storm Water Drainage; (iv) Solid Waste Management; (v) Traffic &Transportation; (vi) Slums &Basic Services for the Urban Poor; (vii) Others such as Urban Renewal, Urban Governance Sector wise projects as identified cover the following; • Project Summary; A description of the projects is made and its requirements assessed as per Norms in Manuals/ standard reference documents as well as other stated guidelines • Cost Estimation of Projects identified; Project costs are assessed on the basis of PWD Schedule of Rates for Tamil Nadu for Roads & Buildings the Water Supply project emerged during the consultation process as given in the interim report of the CDP after a due evaluation of the service levels, growth trends and future needs of the city. Kayalpattinam needs up-gradation/ improvement of the service apart from meeting the needs of incremental growth in population. The KM also needs to strengthen its financial capacity for an effective service delivery.

The prepared list of projects intend to meet the ULB’s goals for efficiency, a prompt service delivery, strategic growth in house service connections and consequently an increase in its revenue, are environmentally sustainable, benefit the community, and meet the growing demands and incorporate the O&M needs. • • Phasing Plan for Project Implementation; The Phasing Plan presents the Project Implementation Schedule during the period 2009-2014. Institutional Arrangements; This presents the Institutions/ULB/ Others responsible for undertaking projects under the different sectors.

The implementing institutions for projects in Kayalpattinam are the Kayalpattinam Municipality, the Tamil Nadu Water and Drainage Board (TWAD), the TN Public Works Department (PWD) the TN Town Planning Department, the TN Tourism Department, the TN Forest & Environment Department, the TN Fisheries Department

10.3 Water Supply
10.3.1 Overview The Water Supply project emerged during the consultation process as given in the interim report of the CDP after a due evaluation of the service levels, growth trends and future needs of the city. Kayalpattinam needs up gradation/ improvement of the service apart from meeting the needs of incremental growth in population. The KM also needs to strengthen its financial capacity for an effective service delivery.

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The prepared list of projects intends meeting the ULB’s goals for efficiency, a prompt service delivery, strategic growth in house service connections and consequently an increase in its revenue, be environmentally sustainable, benefit the community, and meet the growing demand whilst incorporating the O&M needs. 10.3.2 Estimates of Costs and Project Phasing Broad cost estimates proposed are based on the unit costs. Investments are required to be scheduled through an iterative process, taking into account aspects such as; Developed areas taking precedence over future development areas; Considerations for complementary investment for sewerage & sanitation and the linkages thereof; Considerations for project size, the duration for implementation; Linking house service provision with the geographical expansion of the project 10.3.3 Project Summary The identified projects on preparing their DPRs can be classified under: 1 2 3 4 Production System Storage System Distribution System Monitoring System

Locations of these components need to be put on maps The Production System Presently KM is dependant on sub surface water drawn from the river bed of Ponnankurichi Tamirabarani river under a Combined WS Scheme located at Authoor, about 2 kms.in the adjoining ULB, where it has its booster station. WS Scheme was executed in 2004. The scheme was designed for 7.2 MLD with an allocation of 2.2 MLD to KM as treated water. The city’s gross supply at present is 62 lpcd with only 60% households having HSCs, and a distribution network reach of only 53% of the road length. Clearly there is need for source creation, improvement in supply, construction, operation and maintenance of new assets in water supply system. These would include the following: Head works Transporting raw water from surface source/ infiltration well at existing source Treatment of water Water pumps Water transmission main Booster station at Feeder mains Service reservoirs Distribution system with energy savers Distribution mains in previous omitted areas The share of ground water shall be brought down to 75% and surface water utilization to 25% during the project implementation stage. (i) Water Treatment plant of 7.33 MLD: Water treatment plant of 7.33 MLD capacity is to be constructed upstream of the Tamirabarani river to meet 25% of water demand through surface sources. The intake point and water treatment plant will be located as per the design proposed in the DPR and cater to the design population in the KM area.

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(ii) Proposed Tube wells and Pumps: Tube wells are to be constructed and pumps are to be installed with design period of 15 years. These tube wells are to be drilled at average distance of 500m spread over the KM area. The locations of the tube wells and their storage tanks shall be to the designed requirements. These tube wells will also be utilized for online pumping of water in the rising mains. The Storage System The present storage system in the KM area is below stipulated norm of 35% of total supply. The storage system should support continuous water supply for the city. The locations should ensure that a water head of 4m. is available at the tail end of the distribution system. (i) CWR of 1.75ML Capacity: In order to counter the problem of power failure, the design should propose to store water in CWR of 1.75ML capacity at a specified location shown in a Map. Overhead Reservoirs: OHRs of specified capacity (in LL) will be constructed with the minimum staging height for improving water head at the tail end of the supply network. These are to be connected to rising main for water intake and appropriately shown in a Map.

(ii)

The Distribution System The Distribution System comprises of rising main, sub main and primary distribution network. KM has fair amount of losses which have to be monitored. And new network laid in the non serviced areas of the town. The rising mains shall provide for pumping of water to the service reservoir. Details of length and pipe sizes shall be as per the prepared DPR. The distribution system including laying of pipes for reorganizing and augmenting piped water supply and coverage of new areas shall follow the DPR The Monitoring System This involves monitoring both quantity and quality as well as minimizing losses of water and the installation of Metering system for Bulk and end user consumption. Essentially these should be done using energy efficient methods in a regime which ensures water quality which is free of bacteria /other physico-chemical contaminants. It is suggested that reliance be placed on automated water generation rather than human intervention. Initial high costs of technology are compensated by efficient and reliable service delivery. Cost Estimates of Water Supply Projects These have been provided in the consolidated CIP at the end of this chapter and are followed by a phasing plan. Cost estimates follow unit rates derived from the Schedule of rates (SoR) for each component.

10.4 Sewerage and Sanitation
10.4.1 Overview KM does not have a Sewerage system. A new one has to be put in place by the TWAD Board. For doing this it is important to know the general and flood levels in the town as well as the general slope of the city. The ridge formation too should be known. At present the major modes of disposal are through individual septic tanks and low cost sanitation through community toilets which are required to be periodically cleaned by the municipality. The general practice of letting out wastewater into low lying area or nearby stream is adopted creating insanitation. While designing a new system it is important to ensure that sewer and water lines do not intercede for avoiding contamination. In no case should the water line be laid below the sewer line. GIS mapping for utilities is important and a prerequisite for a well designed system. 10.4.2 UGD Projects
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Projects for Sewerage would include; An Underground Drainage System with provision for (a) Collection and Disposal network; (b) Treatment System, Individual Sanitation System operated by a network of Septic Tanks Low Cost Sanitation System. 10.4.3 The Underground Drainage System The Development of Disposal System would incorporate Laying of the Trunk Network of the desired length of specified size & diameter for coverage of the existing town and future development area as per the design; Laying of the Sub-Main Sewer Network; Laying of the Lateral Sewer; Household Connection Sewer as well as construction of Public Toilet complexes to serve slums, bus stands, shopping centers and other recreational or other public areas. The Individual sanitation system presently operative in old city areas or the isolated residential and commercial areas are dependant upon on-site septic tanks or soak pits and will gradually be phased out to make room for standard UGD system beyond 2014. Similarly the Low Cost Sanitation system would be phased out to be replaced by the UGD system beyond 2012. Till then it may be necessary to provide for LCS system of sewage disposal for low income communities living in degenerated areas, preferring the introduction of eco toilets. The Operation and Maintenance system would entail procurement of equipment for ensuring an efficient function and zero blockage through appropriate technology (sewage Lifting Stations, Sewer Flushing machines, Sewer Jetting machines, CCTVs etc.) Related aspects of the sewerage system would require that an effective Monitoring arrangement be instituted by networking of STPs, establishing Testing Labs., automation and computerization of the system at a Central Control Room. The STP location and setting should ensure nuisance free environment by proper afforestation. Personnel have to be trained for their new roles, and, people have to be made aware about adopting the new system. 10.4.4 Cost Estimates of UGD Projects These have been provided in the consolidated CIP at the end of the chapter followed by Phasing Plan. Cost estimates follow SoR for each component.

10.5 Storm Water Drainage
10.5.1 Overview KM is a coastal town with a general topography sloping towards the Gulf of Mannar and with a natural drainage pattern as expected of nallahs, outfalls into the tributaries of the nearby Tamiraparani River and the estuaries they form at the river mouth. On account of violating its natural drainage several wards in the city are flooded during monsoons making them dysfunctional.The city’s existing drainage partially served by some pucca and katcha drains along with the non-existence of a sewerage system further exacerbates loading on roadside drains which receive in addition the sewage and sullage of the city. The open katcha and pucca drains need to be upgraded and a closed drainage system introduced , besides the construction of New Drains and desilting the existing ones. 10.5.2 SWD System & Design Considerations

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Whilst the Detailed Project Report for Drainage would identify specifics with regard to ward level, area level and city level design details, the projects for Improvements in the Drainage system would comprise of (i) Construction of New Drains, (ii) Upgrading open & katcha drains to closed drainage system, and (iii) Desilting blocked drains Where the topography flattens making difficult the draining of the area, there would be need for Pumping Stations at pre decided locations after a proper topographic assessment Trapezoidal sections with cunette at the base for dry weather flow gives hydraulic efficiency to drains and should be adopted discarding rectangular sections The Operation and Maintenance of the drainage system by KM staff should assign due importance to safety and disaster prevention plus environmental hazards by use of a monitoring system and vigilant handling. Flood prone wards should integrate their drainage network by remodeling and even constructing new drains to enhance system efficiency. It is a preferred option to design a drainage system with outfall into a receptive water harvesting structure for enabling ground water recharge. Building bye laws/ rules be made mandatory for Rain Water Harvesting. 10.5.3 Cost Estimates of Storm Water Projects These have been provided in the consolidated CIP at the end of the chapter followed by Phasing Plan. Cost estimates follow SoR for each component.

10.6 Solid Waste Management
10.6.1 Overview The projects in solid waste management were identified considering the diverse aspects of waste management and prioritizing based on level of services, city growth, and possible options in solid waste management. Presently 75% of the 12 MT waste produced in KM is disposed is primitively handled by disposal on road sides within the town. The earmarked site of 5 acres appears insufficient in the long run. 10.6.2 SWM System The SWM Collection system comprises of 1. Primary collection system The system of primary collection followed is cleaning, sweeping and collection of MSW by handcarts. In future it is proposed to be dustbin free city except in the commercial areas. This is possible by means of having a systematic door to door collection. Pilot Project for Ragpickers: A pilot project for primary collection of waste (door to door) will act as towards employment generation for the urban poor whilst serving a important city level function. Three wards geographically representing the different areas of the KM shall be selected for the purpose of the pilot projects. 2. Secondary collection system The secondary collection comprises of collection bins of 4.5 MT are required to be placed at conveniently placed for efficiency and covers the entire municipal area. 3. Development of Transportation System
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For primary collection of waste energy efficient transports such as handcarts designed for selected load and convenient loading shall be used whilst vehicular transport - trucks/tractors for collecting waste from secondary collection points to disposal sites. 4. Development of Disposal System The disposal systems need to take into account longer perspective and designed for atleast 30 years. Thereby, requiring a larger site effectively afforested (for nuisance free environment) and integrating on site screening, composting and recycling activities as well as sanitary landfill with arrangements of safe handling of hazardous wastes. Alternatively scientific landfill at cluster level is an option exercised only through concurrence and discussion by other ULBs. For the former proposal a site of 23 -25 acres is sufficient. Miscellaneous Works/Activities: Organizing waste workers and citizens into action in the activity a series of capacity building and public awareness campaigns will be necessary. PPP, SHGs and other appropriate mechanisms can be used to advantage as per the State Policy. 10.6.1 Cost estimates of projects The various projects for solid waste management include waste collection, transportation, disposal and monitoring facility. These have been provided in the consolidated CIP at the end of the chapter followed by Phasing Plan. Cost estimates follow SoR for each component.

10.7

Traffic &Transportation

10.7.1 Overview Roads form the main component of transportation system of any towns along with public transport system, parking, signage, bus stop / shelters, etc. They are like arteries of any settlements having economics and society heavily depended on them. It has been observed that with the growth of urban areas many of the larger cities starts facing the problem of traffic congestions, jams, larger travel time encroachments, traffic mismanagement, erupting the day to day life of urban people. On the similar track, one day, smaller urban settlements will also move, where, if the problems are not resolved at this stage, can amplify and lead to unplanned growth. During our visit to Kayalpattinam Municipality it was observed that the roads were in poor condition, the down town streets were very narrow and it was difficult for a single four to pass through them. During the consultation process the main points emerged were, the entire transportation system of Kayalpattinam Municipality need to be up-graded especially focusing on widening of roads, removal of encroachments, parking and construction of new roads for better linkages. Generally the projects under this section can be divided into two groups (i) short-term improvement measures and (iii) long term improvement measures. Short term improvement measures are regulatory measures and immediate remedial measures on low investment cost. These include converting roads with two-way traffic to one-way traffic; restricting entry of goods vehicles in core area etc. The long-term measures involve construction of bridges, flyovers and new roads respectively. 10.7.1 Interim Measures The short-term measures should be taken up as an immediate priority and attempted within a 1-3 year framework they are likely to give results with immediate effect for a low investment proposed. These involve civil works of minor nature or simple rearrangements for better efficiency. These are: 1. Preparation of Traffic Management Plan Current and anticipated traffic of both regional and local level impacting KM would require to be assessed and a Plan prepared for project to be taken up un the short and long term. 2. Improvement of Traffic Corridors KM has two main corridors where bulk of region and local traffic concentrate, and which qualifies them for improvement. The entire road lengths would need widening for easing core area congestion. Detailed surveys would yield the desired lengths and Right of Ways of the selected roads which have 99 DMA, GoTN INFRASTRUCTURE PROFESSIONALS ENTERPRISE (P) LTD

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been estimated here. Other roads which need to be remodelled or upgraded to desired service levels have been considered here. 3. Intersection Improvements Intersection improvement is an essential task to be undertaken in order to regulate traffic and smoother movement of vehicles. In KM 2 major intersections are to be redesigned and 2 minor ones to be examined for their efficiency. This would include signalization, if required and justified. 4. Removal of Encroachments and Provision of Sidewalks The commercial encroachments on roads and sidewalks as well other encroachments such as squatter and garbage dumps are common phenomenon in urban settlement in the Municipal area. These encroachments are extension of built-up properties; parking of vehicles of shopkeepers/ customers and informal vegetable and cloth market on major roads. The carriage ways have to be kept free and sidewalks restored for pedestrian movement and traffic efficiency. 5. On Street & Off Street Parking All unauthorized on-street parking to be banned and designated locations (identified by demand levels and feasibility) to be auctioned for private operation. The off street parking is one of the important projects for the town. Around 30% of the roads are encroached with the on street parking of private and commercial vehicles (Tempo, Taxi, Auto Rickshaw etc). 6. Provision of appropriate street / traffic infrastructure (Street furniture, signage’s, hoardings, etc): Street furniture, signage, hoardings etc. also forms the part of short term improvement measures. These components add quality to the overall traffic management system. 7. Other Short Term Improvement Measures: The other measure for traffic improvement involves Training of Traffic Police on Traffic Management; Public Awareness and Traffic Enforcement Drives and Registration of vehicles. 8. O & M of Projects 2 to 6. 10.7.2 Long Term Measures All medium term solutions are to be implemented in a 5-10 year time horizon. These will involve some investment (high or average). These will require some redesigning, civil construction works, organizational changes, etc. 1. Construction of New Road The per capita road length is 1.46mt as against the standard of 1.75mt and will keep on increasing with increase in population. The need is to identify part of the municipal area needs proper connectivity. This can be done when DPR of roads is prepared. 2. Introduction of a Formal Public Transport (bus) System This requires development of bus stands and public/private operators to facilitate town level as well as regional transportation. 3. Other Improvement Measures The other measure for traffic improvement involves Installation of CCTV, Speed Radar, and Video Camera for traffic management. Apart from the above three the other project which can be taken under consideration in Traffic and Transportation section are construction of the flyover, construction of pedestrian over bridge, widening of regional roads/by-pass roads, utilization of water transport system etc. At present in Kaylpattinam these projects are not required till next 15 years, thereafter if the need will arise these can be taken into consideration for improving traffic management.

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10.8

Street Lighting

10.8.1 Overview Street lights form an essential component of the infrastructure and is generally looked in conjunction with the roads and transportation system of any towns. Provision and maintenance of street lights is a mandatory function of any ULB. This includes their installations, replacement/ repair, operation and maintenance. Street lighting is important because it: • Allows the safe movement of motorists or pedestrians; • Enhances the amenity of an area • Acts as a deterrent to crime Minimum Street light spacing required between successive lampposts is dependent on the road width, traffic volume and land use on a particular road. Ideally street lights have to be placed at an interval of 30 m. The spacing between street lights KM has sufficient number of lights with a given spacing of 29 m, however, the type of lighting requires consideration. 10.8.2 Strategies In conventional street lighting energy wastage is due to: • Irregular switching off and switching on • Over design in selected areas • Ad hoc installation of lighting systems as load patterns Increase • Manual switching practices Road and street lighting is one of the largest single expenditure items for Corporations. As a result, it is important for Corporations to keep up-to-date with developments in lamp and light fitting technology. This will allow them to take advantage of opportunities to reduce the cost, energy use and emissions associated with street lighting, while providing a better service to road users. Savings measures include: Use of Solar Lights Solar lamps (sponsored by business houses/ communities/ other active participants) should be adopted. Solar panels and Photovoltaic Cells are being marketed with government subsidy, this should be fully utilized. These systems should be provided with automatic ON/OFF time switch for dusk to down operation and overcharge / deep discharge prevention cut-off with LED indicators. Energy Audits and Energy efficiency opportunities Energy audits and low energy adoption measures need to be undertaken for reducing energy expenditure by municipality. Timers to street lights ensure less wasteful culture. Replacing inefficient lamps Reducing the number of lights operating Reducing operating hours Replacing inefficient switching equipment Changing type of energy used Improving maintenance practices Improving data management Automatic lighting controls Installing a device to automatically switch off one or more fittings should only be considered after lighting density has been addressed, as lighting power density tends to be cheaper to fix and the savings generated are more reliable. Privatization Options Privatisation in the form of maintenance contract may be explored by the ULB.

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10.8.3 Cost Estimates of Project The various projects under street lights have been provided in the consolidated CIP at the end of the chapter followed by Phasing Plan. Cost estimates follow SoR for each component.

10.9

Basic Services to the Urban Poor

10.9.1 Overview KM has nearly 7.5 thousand households. Out of these 3.5 thousand constitute slum households living in slum areas of wards 1, 12, and 14.In general it is observed that the affordability for a pucca house is very low with 37% houses having temporary roofs. As such it is prudent to estimate the demand for housing in two categories, (i) (ii) All slum households in the notified slums which need shelter upgradation plus provision of basic services, and All other households living in temporary non weather proof houses in non slum areas.

10.9.2 Strategies The policy to deal with poverty is largely recommended through the following strategies: • • • facilitating house reconstruction as a permanent structure with regular provision for HSCs for water supply and sewerage system whenever installed with interim arrangement for septic tanks(for categoryii) in-situ upgradation & rehabilitation in permanent housing with regular provision for HSCs to water supply and sewerage system whenever installed, and an interim arrangement for PSPs and Community Toilets as per laid down norms (for category ii) making available rental units to new migrants and potential squatters/ slum tenants (@ 25% of all slum households) in single room / shared accommodation for short or extended stay at affordable rental which is reviewed every 2 years for change depending on the rental market in KM. in properly serviced and well maintained housing areas and managed through PPP arrangements.

Preparation of a DPR will cover all slum pockets and, all katcha shelter units per ward, and quantum of housing units needed as rental ones. Action plans maybe phased with the first phase devoted to detailed surveys quantifying demand, and upgrading 50% of the identified slums/ katcha nd houses/rental housing construction, with the 2 phase covering the remainder. 10.8.3 Cost Estimates of Project • Costs for in-situ upgradation includes paved paths, drainage, street lighting, piped water supply, individual and community toilets, community facilities for health/ education/recreations. The cost per hectare of Rs1 crore is assumed to be spread over 3 years. Costs for 50% reconstruction and 50% in-situ upgradation assumed @ Rs. 3 crore per hectare spread over 3 years Provision of rental units in pre determined sites within new/ existing housing areas/near new employment nodes for which estimates have been assumed

• •

The above have been reflected in the consolidated CIP at the end of the chapter followed by Phasing Plan.

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10.10 List of Projects for Kayalpattinam under different Sectors
10.10.1 SECTOR: Water Supply S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Project / Initiatives Streamlining House Service Connections into legalized ones Enhancing water supply infrastructure by source creation, laying of pipes /pumps etc. Enhancing water treatment plant capacity upto 1.5MLD upto 2015 Developing water storage(underground &overhead) for present & future population up to 2015 Pumping system in new developing adjoining areas for present and future development up to 2015 Piping work for present & future development up to 2015 Awareness Programs O&M Reforms(PPP/ water tax/laws/strategies) Remarks In - house activity Preparation of DPR Preparation of DPR Preparation of DPR Preparation of DPR Preparation of DPR NGO/SHG/In-house In-house State and ULB driven

10.10.2 SECTOR: Sewerage S. No. 1 Project / Initiatives Laying of sewer network for present municipal area including connection of septic tanks, pumping facility (present density @ 30pph, increased density @ 70pph by 2021) Construction of STP (6 MLD )for 2021 O&M Laying of sewer for adjoining future development areas Construction of community toilets (seat & bath) complexes Remarks Preparation of DPR

2 3 4 5

Preparation of DPR In-house Preparation of DPR Preparation of DPR

10.10.3 SECTOR: Drainage S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 Project / Initiatives Reconstruction/ Remodeling of 50% pucca drains Conversion of katcha to pucca drains Construction of new drains De silting existing drains O&M Developing new drainage infrastructure for new adjoining developing areas. Remarks Preparation of DPR Preparation of DPR Preparation of DPR In-house In-house Preparation of DPR

10.10.4 SECTOR: Urban Transport S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
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Project / Initiatives Improvement of major corridors (total length 15 kms.) Upgrading, remodeling of all other roads (total length 30kms.) Improvement of major & minor junctions/ intersections Construction of sidewalks, bus bays and service roads for transport stops ( at least 20 locations) O & M of listed projects Development of parking areas at least on 5 locations Construction/ remodeling of bus stand, truck depot, and 103

Remarks Preparation of DPR Preparation of DPR Preparation of DPR Preparation of DPR In-house Preparation of DPR Preparation of DPR

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8 9 10

11 12

warehousing Encroachment removal and decongestion measures Public Awareness program on traffic discipline Signage, Road markings, road furniture, provision of automatic signals, Indication boards/ Road and Area Maps Site development for petrol filling stations Adopting scientific guidelines for traffic regulation

In-house In-house Preparation of DPR

In-house/State Town Planning Based on Consultancy

10.10.5 SECTOR: Solid Waste Management S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Project / Initiatives Equipment for solid waste management for Y2015 Sanitary Landfill (landfill development, construction & equipment) for 2031 Infrastructure Facilities at solid waste disposal site(roads/ green belt/land development)by 2031 Incineration for biomedical waste Awareness Campaign and Capacity Building O&M Increasing coverage to 100% through a PPP model Developing a Composting plant for 2031 (site development/ construction and equipment purchase) Remarks Preparation of DPR Preparation of DPR Preparation of DPR Preparation of DPR In-house/NGO/SHG In-house In-house Preparation of DPR

10.10.6 SECTOR: Heritage and Tourism S. No. 1 Project / Initiatives Conservation of all religious, historic and other note worthy buildings 2 Conservation of Water Bodies and their surroundings, especially estuaries 3 Development of beach front and a parallel green belt of indigenous plantation for 2031 including ornamental Baghs and Playgrounds 4 Development of watch tower at existing light house for disaster monitoring 5 Conservation of beach and regulation of CRZ 6 Development of Picnic spots/ recreation spots and Eco Tourist Resorts near estuaries 7 Inner city development 8 Public sanitation facilities 9 Development of two Micro Business Zones for Handicraft and High Value Marine based businesses 10 Exclusive Tourist road and water transport service. 11 Establishing a special cell for Heritage conservation and Inner city Renewal 12 O&M 10.10.8 SECTOR: Basic Services for Urban Poor S. No. 1 2 3
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Remarks Preparation of DPR By Consultancy & Preparation of DPR By Consultancy & Preparation of DPR By Consultancy Preparation of DPR By Consultancy & Preparation of DPR Preparation of DPR In-house Preparation of DPR Preparation of DPR State and ULB In-house

Project / Initiatives Preparing DPR for Slum Development Provision of housing Provision of PSPs @ 1 PSP for 15 households (interim 104

Remarks Preparation of DPR Preparation of DPR Preparation of DPR

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4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

measure) Laying the WS network for present and future development up to 2015 House Service Connections to 100% slum households Construction of Community Toilet complexes for present and future population Construction of new drains Remodeling/ reconstructing/de-silting katcha drains and converting them to pucca ones Connecting drains to city wide network and improvement works in flood prone wards Widening roads and paths Converting katcha roads to pucca ones Installing street lights Solid waste management Constructing Community services centre Constructing primary school as per standard Constructing community level shopping centre Construction of interim rental units for independent/ shared stay at select sites near employment nodes Construction of workshop spaces Development of Fishermen Village O&M

In-house Preparation of DPR Preparation of DPR Preparation of DPR Preparation of DPR Preparation of DPR Preparation of DPR Preparation of DPR In-house Preparation of DPR In-house In-house In-house In-house In-house Preparation of DPR In-house

10.10.9 SECTOR: Disaster Management S. No. 1 2 3 4 Project / Initiatives Preparation of Environmental base maps& Impact Area Diagrams Preparation of Disaster Management Plan Installation/ Equipment/Erection/ other accessoriesinstruments as identified in the DMP Awareness and Implementation of regulations as identified in the DMP Remarks Based on Consultancy Based on Consultancy Preparation of DPR In-house

10.10.10 SECTOR: Environmental Aspects S. No. 1 2 Project / Initiatives Canalisation of nallahs/ streams Construction of Rain Water Harvesting structures within green/ open spaces; harvesting rain water in buildings; Implementing bye laws for same Sea front Development Development of Sewerage system Development of Drainage system Awareness Programs on Environmental Issues Shift towards reduction in carbon emissions/ adoption of clean fuel Remarks Preparation of DPR Preparation of DPR

3 4 5 6 7

Preparation of DPR Preparation of DPR Preparation of DPR In-house/NGO Campaigns Based on Consultancy

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10.11 Sector wise City Investment Plan
Investment till 2011-12 (Rs. Lakhs) 855 154 183 109 9 400 1,782 1,357 290 132 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2021 2041

Sector/ Component Water supply Total Investment 1 2 3 4 5 6 Source/ system capacity augmentation Treatment capacity augmentation Distribution network augmentation Elevated Storage capacity augmentation Refurbishment of old Distribution Network Metering and Monitoring System

(Rs. Lakhs) 241 221 174 117 102 189 716

61.56 73.30 21.86 4.67 0.00
79.94 394.61 271.47 96.75 26.39

46.17 73.30 21.86 0.00 0.00
79.94 394.61 271.47 96.75 26.39

30.78 36.65 21.86 4.67 0.00
79.94 394.61 271.47 96.75 26.39

15.39 0.00 21.86 0.00 0.00
79.94 297.86 271.47 26.39

0.00 0.00 21.86 0.00 0.00
79.94 297.86 271.47 26.39

43.36 36.13 34.13 7.23 0.00
67.84 351.48 267.65 57.81 26.02

141.75 118.13 111.56 50.93 63.75
229.51 774.05 500.00 189.00 85.05

Sewerage Total Investment 1 2 3 4 5 UGD - Network UGD - STPs UGD - Pumping Machinery Refurbishment of Old Distribution Network 2 2.00

Procurement of sewer maintenance equipment (CCTV, Sewer Jetting Machine, Septic Tank Cleaner et.al) Roads & Urban Transport Total Investment 1 Roads Up-gradation Bituminous to CC Water Bound/Earthen to BT 2 3 Roads New Formation Imp. Road (Widening, beautification, ROBs, bridges, utility shifting etc) 106

954.78 26.52 126.36 636.90 75.00

179.65

186.28 6.63

186.28 6.63 25.27 127.38 15.00

186.28 6.63 25.27 127.38 15.00

186.28 6.63 25.27 127.38 15.00

344.16 8.43 270.73 25.00

1,465.00 157.50 260.00 892.50 100.00

25.27 127.38 15.00

25.27 127.38 15.00

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4 5 6

Public Transport/ Improvements Traffic Management/ Junction Improvements Parking 60.00 30.00 4.13 4.13 12.00 7.50 0.83 0.83 12.00 7.50 0.83 0.83 12.00 7.50 0.83 0.83 12.00 7.50 0.83 0.83 0.83 0.83 12.00

25.00 15.00

25.00 30.00

Drains Total Investment 1 2 3 Drains Upgradation Drains New Formation Desilting of Primary Drains 81 11 70 40 5.57 34.93 40 5.57 34.93 24.98 81.67 175.50 175.50 702.00 702.00

Street Lights Total Investment 1 2 3 4 Replacement - Tube Lights New Installation - Tube Lights New Installation - High power Lamps New Installation - High Mast Lamps 277.04 3.05 40.00 50.00 89.15 8.34 86.50 1,369 812 507 50 107 192.15 0.61 20.00 50.00 33.38 1.67 86.50 274 162.36 101.48 10.00 274 162.36 101.48 10.00 274 162.36 101.48 10.00 274 162.36 101.48 10.00 274 162.36 101.48 10.00 19.92 1.67 19.92 1.67 7.97 1.67 7.97 1.67 23.78 0.86 20.00 112.93 9.20 106.50 22.20 0.61 22.20 0.61 30.25 0.61 20.00 10.25 0.61 44.69 0.06 271.73 3.11 40.00

Conservancy (SWM) & Sanitation Total Investment 1 2 3 4 5 6 New Vehicles (Primary Collection) New Vehicles (Secondary and Disposal) Acquiring New Disposal Site Infrastructure at Disposal Site and Composting Plant DLDPs & Container Bins Research, Training and Awareness

Urban Poor/ Slums Total Investment 1 2 3 Slum Improvement - Rehabilitation/ Housing Slum Improvement - Infrastructure Slum Improvement - Land acquisition

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E gov./Land use/ Dev. Planning Total Investment 1 2 2 E Governance Survey and Mapping(GIS) Capacity Building of ULB Staff 51 10 39 3 115 15 25

51
10.0 38.8 2.5 40 15 6 6 6 6 25 25 25

Others Total Investment 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Heritage and Conservation Street Furniture Tree Plantation & Gardens Night Shelters/ Travellers Bungalows Fire System Water Body Conservation Others (System Studies etc) 75 5,489 19 1,373 19 1,165 19 1,077 19 931 871 1,105 3,928

Grand Total

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CHAPTER - 11 ASSEST MANAGEMENT
PART I- INTRODUCTION TO ASSET MANAGEMENT 11.1 Introduction

Assets by definition include, but are not limited to information in all forms and media, networks, systems, material, real property, financial resources, employee trust, public confidence and international reputation which are the tangible or intangible things of the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs). These assets of the ULB whether in the form of water distribution networks, sewerage, roads, buildings, equipments deteriorate over a period of time due to use, climatic and geological conditions. Certain components of the infrastructure are neglected and proper maintenance/ remedial measures are not undertaken due to lack of adequate funding and appropriate support technologies. ULBs are not in a position to take up repair, rehabilitate or reconstruct their assets on their own in the absence of complete data base, inadequate funds. This leads to a reduction in the asset value to an extent where excess costs have to be incurred in renewal of the assets and excess expenditure in creating new ones. The deterioration of the assets also affects the existing financial situation of the ULBs by ways of reduction in revenues. For strategic, operational and financial reasons, asset management is becoming an increasingly important area of decision making for municipal governments. New demands for better service provision, trends towards decentralized systems of public sector management in emerging economies, potential synergies and changing roles in the public and private sectors are creating the need for better management and accountability of municipal resources. A management information base on assets and their condition which can be regularly updated shall further help the ULB. Asset management has many definitions, as per the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) definition: “Asset management is a systematic approach of maintaining, upgrading, and operating physical assets cost effectively. It combines engineering principles with sound business practices and economic theory, and it provides tools to facilitate a more organized, logical approach to decision-making. Thus, asset management provides a framework for handling both short- and long-range planning” ULB should prepare an asset management plan, which will include an inventory on the existing assets, prioritization of maintenance and repairs and help decision-makers in optimising investment strategies which shall in turn improve the quality of services. Past successful cases of municipal management indicates that effective use of the asset base is an important factor contributing to increases in municipal revenues and successful performance, with the value of fixed assets of a municipality increasing to more than four times its yearly expenditures (400%). Asset management planning provides optimal solutions which match assets to programs and service delivery strategies. All decisions should be made keeping that in mind as part of the
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framework for decision making in an organization. An attempt has been made to provide an inventory of the assets of the municipality in this chapter. 11.2 Benefits of Asset Management Some of the benefits associated with developing an asset management plan are: improved service delivery based on municipal asset use; effective management of built assets and increase in revenue base; assistance in decision making for resource allocation and maintenance expenses; enhance the environment and improve quality of life Improve land valuation (for example, through relocation of public properties, sale and leases, and improvements in infrastructure such as better roads) that make land assets attractive for productive and real estate purposes; evaluation of the associated risks and impacts, reduction of risks and need of emergency interventions; life cycle analysis of investment decisions 11.3 Asset Management Plan Methodology Futuristic asset management plan is very necessary for strategy development. The process should integrate current asset supply to match with the asset demand serving the utility for infrastructure development. The process diagram (figure 8.1) and the steps have been detailed below: Level of Service The current assets are evaluated in terms of their functionality, physical condition, use, financial performance. New assets – determine the asset needs for delivering the required level of programs and services. Gap analysis – at this level planning will provide a comparison between assets required to support program/ services and currently available assets or in the process of acquisition. In this manner the comparison aims to find out the gaps between the requirements and the capacity, the surplus assets that are not required can be disposed off, and the requirements to be fulfilled. Decision Making Risk assessment: Asses the financial risks and life cycle costs involved in each alternative considered. Optimal cost – The option selected should be most economical based on a technoeconomic feasibility analysis done by the asset mangers or responsible officer in charge. Implementation The implementation process includes many decisions as mentioned below: Maintenance incorporates carrying on routine maintenance, repair and rehabilitation works. Renewals and replacements assessment suggests assets which do not meet service levels and need to be replaced by new assets or revived, refurbished. Creation of new assets based on the gap analysis to ensure satisfactory service delivery considering the economics, timing and capital inflows required. Disposal of asset – surplus and obsolete assets can be disposed to create value
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addition to the total asset bank. Non- asset Solutions are like outsourced services, reduced demand for asset can be done by o re-designing the service system to maintain with existing assets; o employing outsourced equipment and services; o increasing the usage of existing assets. Finally the decision process is performed through working out financial plans, and various plans for acquisition, disposal etc. Figure 11.1: Asset management plan Assets Level of service New assets Current assets • • Inventory & condition analysis • Asset supply analysis Asset demand analysis Gaps

Decision making Identification, evaluation & gap analysis • • Risk assessment Optimal cost assessment

Maintenance

Renewal

Asset creation

Disposal

Routine maintenance repair/ rehabilitation

Replacement

Capital investment/ leasing/

Disposing non functional, poor programs/ equipments

Implementation: • Organizationa l approach. • Financial strategy

Performance Monitoring, Operation & Maintenance Plan, Financial Plan, Acquisition Plan, Disposal Plan

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11.4 Requirements of Asset Management There various important aspects for infrastructure assets are capital database (inventory); maintenance management, service life prediction; risk & reliability assessment and valuation life cycle costing To accomplish the above, a varied number of techniques/tools are available which can help in minimizing the maintenance costs and maximise the value of the assets for the municipality. Some of the techniques/tools are listed below:
11.4.1 Capital database

Preparation of a capital database shall include data collection, usage of consistent terminology, a consideration of betterment versus maintenance and integration of Geographical GIS and other tools which have been further elaborated in the sections below.
11.4.2 Maintenance Management

A) Computerised Maintenance Management comprises of two main components: a relational database containing the asset data, and a set of add-on analysis and decisionsupport modules. There are many software available in the market which can help in this regard, a brief glimpse of a popular model City Works is given below: City Works (2005) is a GIS-based solution for operational and maintenance management of municipal assets and supports functions including asset data management, work order management, recording inspection and condition data, and report generation. It delivers various benefits to organizations by delivering information to maintenance engineers and managers1. Stage 1 : User Interface

1

Manual City Works
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Stage 2: Selection of Asset Module

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Information provided in the asset module Asset module gives a detailed inventory of the asset with the following entries so that every asset is recorded and maintained systematically. Table 11.1: Information Provided in the Asset Module S. No Field Description 1 Asset No. A unique number assigned to an asset. 2 Asset Description of the asset. Description 3 Location Code assigned to a location and its description. 4 Department Code assigned to a department and its description. 5 Asset Different types of assets are grouped together under an Category asset category. This enables easy management of asset data and retrieval. 6 Asset Status The current asset status describes which operational state the asset is in. A code assigned to an asset status and its description. Options are: Active = an asset which is currently in service and on site In-active = an asset which is not in service Disposed = an asset which has been taken out of service permanently. Lost = an asset which cannot be accounted for in an audit, therefore no disposable details. In-storage = an asset which is currently in service but not kept on site. 7 Criticality Defines the criticality depending on the usage of the equipment. 8 Authorised An employee who has been given the rights and Employee accountabilities for that particular asset. 9 Serial Enter the serial number of the asset which can be Number obtained from the warranty card or on the asset nameplate 10 Manufacturer Enter the manufacturer of the asset in this field. 11 Contractor Warranty Assets which are within the manufacturer warranty period Contract Assets which are under service contracts Warranty Date Expiry Enter the date of the warranty expiry. Enter additional notes on the warranty or contract, if applicable 12 Supplier A supplier is a company which supplies the assets. 13 Purchase Current Value Calculated field based on a linear depreciation rate. Current Value = Purchase Price – [{(Today’s Date) – (Date Acquired)}/ Estimated Life] 14 Date Enter the date when the asset was disposed (if Disposed applicable)

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B)

Engineered Management Systems

This assigns a Facility Condition Index (FCI) for an asset based on a number of factors including the number of defects, physical condition and quality of materials or workmanship. With these data it is possible to predict the FCI well into the future, given the degradation curve and the effect of remedial action. FCI can be calculated using the formula mentioned below, FCI = Deferred Maintenance Cost/ Capital Replacement value, If FCI is < 0.05 is good FCI 0.05 – 0.1 is fair FCI More than 0.1 is poor C) Condition Assessment Survey

A Condition Assessment Survey (CAS) is a tool which helps in the decision making by establishing the existing condition of the asset and aids in producing a benchmark between different types of asset and also for the same asset at different times. CAS is a tool which records the deficiencies in a system or component, the extent of the defect, as well as the urgency of the repair work; in some cases the estimated cost of repair is provided, at the time of inspection, projected, remaining life and future use. This type of systematic inspection is essential for asset management as it provides data for the "maintenance management", "service life prediction" and "risk analysis" enabling technologies, mentioned earlier2. D) Geographical Information Systems with Asset Management

Software tools are used to support the tracking, analysis, and reporting of asset and related information. Geographic Information System (GIS) integrates the technical information to geographical information. This helps in the efficient management of an asset inventory. GIS enables map-based views of the asset helps in forming a database relationship between the spatial data in the GIS and details of the assets and the work performed on these assets, extended graphical display and data analysis functionality. Asset-related information can be spatially analyzed to help identify trends or to determine impacts of proposed operations. Analysis results and trends can be displayed on a map to further assist in the decision making process. Figure 11.2 High Resolution Imagery Quick Bird

2

Technical Paper on Municipal Infrastructure Investment Planning: Asset management by D.J. Vanier and N.H. Danylo

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Figure 11.3. Use of hand held devices for data entry Using hand held devices for field data entry is effective and time saving. The case of City of Saco, Maine shows that there was a 20% cost reduction due to usage of hand held devices for information recoding regarding the condition and characteristics of sewer, drains, pavements, pipe size.

Figure 11.4 CityWorks GIS based Asset Management System

An example of application of GIS in India has been given below. Mirzapur Municipality in Uttar Pradesh is one of the first to use GIS for municipal applications. It started with the purpose of Property Assessment with the help of the Government of Netherlands and Government of India. The spatial database has proved useful for many activities and later integrated with the utility networks. Since its implementation, it had raised the increased the number of property tax assessments by ten times and tripled its property tax revenue (1995-2000 bases). This was later expanded to include water supply, street record, street drains, solid waste management (its distribution network model, vehicle optimization, garbage bin location and staff deployment) etc. The procedure adopted for the same has been mentioned below3.
3
Ref: www.mirzapur.net

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Existing infrastructure water distribution network, street network etc. is added to GIS and existing paper records were transformed to layers on GIS map. • Information on various infrastructure components (such as material, condition etc.) is collected to represent physical proximity of assets so that strategies can be devised while considering their management plans. • Update conditions of recently built and mapped facilities • Establish the mapped location and condition of the vast bulk of the municipal infrastructure system. • Considering the urban infrastructures as a single system with relationships between the different elements. Fig 11.5: Map depicting the water supply network •

Fig 11.6: Map depicting the water supply network on GIS

E) Global Positioning Systems (GPS) technology assists in accurate data collection, precise identification of building or service locations, calculations of areas and lengths, estimation of building height, and more importantly the easy, clear and unambiguous documentation of physical location of identified defects and potential problems. These techniques represent valuable tools for the municipality to minimise their maintenance costs and maximise the value of their assets. On the whole, the system will help the local body manage its own assets in terms of location, land use, litigations, encroachments, property values, revenues and expenditure.

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11.4.3 Risk & Reliability Assessment

Condition assessment and risk and reliability analysis varies from the simple to the complex process and is not a “one-size fits-all” process. Risk & Reliability analysis gives the probability of an asset to failure. This can be carried out considering the trends in output of the assets, and life cycle functioning. The Risk assessment considers various alternatives and risk involved in ownership of an asset. Effective risk management requires as a first step an inventory of each class of assets, standardized condition assessment, and a method to evaluate the reliability of these assets and consequences of unsatisfactory performance. The reliability assessment aids in decision making for whether the existing assets are in favourable condition to provide desired or increased level of services and their accountability to the services in future.
11.4.4 Valuation

The various components which need to be considered for valuation are – present value of the asset; depreciation in the cost of assets; costs incurred in the betterment or having a new asset visa-a-vis maintenance of the existing asset; documentation for the purpose of audit; capitalization of carrying costs are incurred in the acquisition, construction or development activity of an asset; contributed assets include municipality’s assets contributed by others, including developer contributed assets, even though these were acquired at no cost to the municipality; Betterment (new) vs. maintenance.
11.4.5 Life Cycle Costing

Asset life cycle comprises of different stages – procurement plan, acquisition, operation and disposal. Life cycle cost assessment gives a holistic cost over these phases so as to integrate the fragmented costs and give the total expenditure required for the asset’s life cycle and the components included are: 1. Capital cost – Cost of acquiring an asset. This may also include costs for conducting feasibility study, tendering etc. 2. Recurrent cost – This includes operating costs for energy, manpower, maintenance, cleaning, etc. 3. Refurbishment cost – Planned refurbishment or improvement costs, or enhancement cost which may be a non asset solution leading to reducing capital investment. 4. Disposal cost – It is the cost of disposal and could be significant in some cases like for example the demolition cost of a building can be greater than its salvage value. 5. Environmental costs – the environmental considerations shall be made while evaluating the costs of an asset. For example the public transport if not performing as per the environmental standards they might incur pollution taxes or replaced in parts or as whole. The relative significance of capital and recurrent costs as a proportion of total life cycle costs will depend on the nature of the asset. The cost of operating and maintaining an asset over its useful life often is greater than its acquisition cost. In such cases the use of full life cycle costing in evaluating alternatives which are imperative to ensure overall program costs are recognized and minimized.
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A typical life cycle cost assessment is given in the diagram below. Year 1 depicts the capital cost, the O & M expenses begin from Year 2 and drastically increase at Year n if replacement is not done and the costs incurred are much more than the disposal costs. Environmental costs also added to the O & M costs increasing the overall O&M costs.

11.4.6 Contracting Asset Management

One of the most practiced methods of asset management is private sector participation. Another method is organizing the framework of local bodies to involve asset management by means of involvement of professionals or dedicated officers as asset managers while keeping the municipal authorities in the loop. The two approaches have been described diagrammatically below. Approach 1 Approach 2

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Municipality

Municipality

Asset Manager / Executive

Physical works Contract

Asset Management Cell

Physical Works Contract Professional Management Consultant Asset

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PART II- ASSET MANAGEMENT IN KAYALPATTINAM 11.5 infrastructure Assets

11.5.1 Water Supply

The municipal water supply assets comprises of head works, treatment plant, transmission mains, pump rooms, pumping mains, storage tanks, feeder mains, distribution network including all valves, connections, meters, quarters for watchmen and all related facilities. The head works and booster station are located 3 km away at Authoor outside Kayalpattinam Municipality’s limits. Transmission & Distribution Network The transmission mains run to a length of 3 km from the Authoor to the town. The total distribution network length is 17 km. These mains and the entire distribution network is mostly made of PVC material. Storage facilities are in the form of Ground Level Reservoirs (GLRs) and OHTs. More than 90% of the house services connections are metered where as only 56% of the commercial connections are metered. Table 11.2: Details on Water Supply System S. No Particulars 1 Details of the Reservoirs (a) Ground Level Reservoirs (GLRs) (b) Overhead Tanks (OHTs) 2 Details on Service Connections (a) Domestic / Residential (b) Non-Domestic / Commercial (c) Industrial (d) Bulk Water Supply (e) No. of Public Fountains (Stand Posts) (f) Hand Pumps Source: Municipality, Kayalpattinam
11.5.2 Sanitation

Description 1 ( Capacity- 60000 ML) 11 (Capacity -16 lakhs) 6190 nos. 10 nos. Nil Nil Nil 127 nos.

The town does not have any provision of underground drainage and the people are dependent on septic tanks and low cost sanitation units. The total number of HHs with septic tanks is 30265. In addition to this, there are 2 public convenience units (free) with a total of 16 seats.
11.5.3 Solid Waste Management Solid waste management gap analysis shows that for efficient collection and disposal of solid waste there would be requirement for additional infrastructure and manpower. There about 60 dustbins with a capacity of 100 kg/bin located in the various parts of the city. 11.5.4 Road & road Infrastructure

Details on the various types of roads are given in the table below. Considering the road density and other percentage of road length, the present network is highly inadequate for the town.

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Table 11.3: Road Network of Kayalpattinam S. No Particulars 1 Concrete 2 Asphalted / Black Top 3 WBM 4 Stone Slab 5 Gravel 6 Earthen Source: Municipality, Kayalpattinam
11.5.5 Street Lights

Length (km) 7.257 15.200 1.560 8.226 1.560 1.477

Kayalpattinam being on the coastal belt has a well developed beach. As regards the composition of lights in the town, though there are a good number of tube lights, there are no high mast lights. In addition to this there are 269 sodium vapour lights. Table 11.4: Number of Lights by Type S. No Particulars 1 Tube Lights (Fluorescent Lamps) 2 Sodium Vapor Lamps 3 Mercury Lamps 4 High Mast Lamps Source: Municipality, Kayalpattinam 11.6 Land, Buildings & Vehicles

Nos. 638 269 Nil 3

Municipality does not maintain any computerized maintenance management system hence keeping a track and updating of the assets is a problem. The buildings with the municipality can be classified as remunerative and non-remunerative asset’s the latter are those which are either acquired or purchased or gifted on which the municipality incurs considerable expenditure for operation and maintenance. The remunerative assets include commercial complexes, shops in the bus stand, markets, slaughter house, pay & use toilets etc. Non-remunerative assets of the municipality include office buildings, burial ground, compost yard, etc. A summary of these are presented in the table below. Table 11.5: Details on Land, Building and Vehicles S. No Remunerative Assets Nos. 1 Bus Stand 1 2 Office Buildings 3 3 Commercial Complexes 1 4 Markets - Local Body - Daily 1 5 Slaughterhouse 1 6 Community Hall 1 Source: Municipality, Kayalpattinam 11.7 Strategies and Recommendations

Area (sq. m) 3200 3000 1200 1000 1000 1500

Asset management is the tool in decision making and shall help in economising the costs. The various recommendations under the different components have been detailed below:
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Water Supply and Sewerage Inventory of all the components of water supply and sewerage (length, condition, age, no. of valves, maintenance history, condition ratings etc.) Mapping the network on to GIS. It provides the graphical interface to view asset data directly, w.r.t its location and corresponding asset related information. Validating the information by ground survey using GPS etc. This information should also be linked to the existing land use so as to facilitate the maintenance and repair in a manner without interrupting the neighbourhood regular activities. Solid Waste Management Inventory on collection points, transfer station, equipments and schedules and integrating it with GIS. Assessment of equipments based on the level of service and customer satisfaction. Assessment of shortest route to disposal site covering all collection points to economise on the costs, assessing the maximum trips possible and procurement of vehicles accordingly. Continuous monitoring is effective in improving the management of assets and level of services. Street Lights Inventory of the streetlights and assigning each of them a code, the code depicting various attributes such as manufacturer’s name, year of purchase, warranty etc. This should be then mapped on GIS as layers which shall help in overall maintenance and replacement of the street lights on a priority basis and assessment of the cost of shifting to solar lamps in the longer run. Involving the resident welfare association in the maintenance and replacement charges. Franchising lighting and street furniture maintenance to private companies. Roads Assign a link number to each road and attributes to every link and prepare digitized GIS maps. The attributes which shall be depicted as different layers would include age, material, construction period, etc. Life cycle management plan - This section of road asset management plan identifies the process required to effectively manage, maintain, renew and upgrade the road assets. It also highlights the expected future expenditure required to effectively manage the road assets. Past maintenance records and expenditure is required for life cycle management. Roads can further be rated in the ArcGIS database map on various factors such as tear and shear, cracking, potholes, and tendency to degrade within two years or specified time frame and preparing a logical and capacity supported strategic plan. This can also help in the financial analysis of the roads which require repair or replacement on priority basis. This shall also include the evaluating the cost options and preferred life span of the road, and considerations overlapping with future investments for widening or new projects like diversions, grade separators while making the allotments. Land and Building Assets A detailed inventory of the assets (lands and buildings) and mapping on a GIS map supported by ground survey. Each plot/ building to cover various attributes such as number of floors, use, age, maintenance charges, rent, revenue generated etc. Plotting and marking of vacant lands for the purpose of acquisition and creation of new
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assets for public purpose. Involvement of the community or private sector can be considered in this regard. Dilapidated and overburdening building assets should be leased out if the market value of the structure is anticipated to go down. The economic life of the assets is an important factor in this respect; when the land value is high and the asset becomes expensive to maintain it is better to retain the ownership of the land and opt for PPP options to continue the services. An ideal inventory for asset management is provided in the Part IV. Case Studies of best practices by ULBs which have successfully implemented Asset Management have been enclosed in Part III. A separate study is necessary for the purpose of preparing a detailed inventory of land and infrastructure and land assets to minimise their maintenance costs and maximise the value of their assets. Creation of maps for all assets will help cross check and update the necessary information using GIS and GPS systems.

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PART III- CASE STUDIES Case – I Solid Waste Management, Park Development and Maintenance, Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation The solid waste management in Bodakdev area of western Ahmedabad was a huge burden on Bodakdev Nagar Panchayat with 8- 10 tons of waste being generated entailing an expenditure of Rs. 40,000- 50,000 for collection and disposal. The privatization and PPP model being adopted for collection changed with the assets being managed by the local body and a private organization. The Local Govt. played the role of facilitator along with AUDA and other stakeholders such as resident associations, and even Gram Panchayats. Together they collaborated to make the city clean and green. Another problem in Bokadev was scarce and ill maintained vacant lands. These reserved lands were encroached upon or became dump yards. This created unhygienic situations at important junctions and locations of the city. AUDA initiated partnership with private sector for developing and maintaining the land parcels designated for open space/recreational and park development as well as traffic islands. Park development & Maintenance Strategies Adopted • In the new zoning plan, a virtual green belt was developed with private sector participation. • Up to 5% of all land in the Town Planning Schemes is being earmarked for parks and open spaces. • AUDA has identified various pockets of land and traffic islands for development of parks/gardens. • Several leading organizations from private sector have been approached to carry out the development and maintenance of these parks. • These organizations are required to initially pay a fixed amount to AUDA as token money based on the area of the plot. • AUDA carries out the garden development, which has to be maintained by the organization on yearly contract basis. • All the maintenance charges including water charges, electricity bills, lighting repairs and labour wages have to be borne by the private organization. • In return, the private organizations are entitled to install their booths/stalls and advertising hoardings at the particular park within the area permitted by AUDA. • AUDA inspects the maintenance carried out by the private organizations on a regular basis and the contract is renewed on yearly basis if it is found satisfactory. Achievements Finances are generated to carry out works for improving the environmental conditions. Dilapidated plots are developed and maintained as green spaces of the city.

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Case – II Kodinar Municipality: Public Private Partnership Project – River Cleaning, Check Dam construction, rain water harvesting. Situation before the Initiative • The riverbed of Singoda River, which passes through the center of the city, was used as a dumping site for the solid waste generated since the past 25 years. This waste formed almost 10-12’ ft deep layer over a stretch of 700m to 800 m lengths and 150m width. This comprised of organic decomposed waste and silt. • It created an unhygienic environment in the heart of the city. During monsoons as the sufficient depth was not available for the river to carry the rainwater, it would overflow into the surrounding areas, these led to difficulties in ground water recharge. • The land abutting the riverbed was beginning to be encroached by shanties. Strategies & Achievements • The total cost estimated for the project was Rs. 60 lakhs, of which the major cost was of excavating the garbage up to 10 to 12’ by excavators that were to be rented. • A retaining wall was built to support the edges of the river stretch. The existing wells on the riverbed were protected during the excavation activity and deepened later. • Three percolation wells have been constructed to increase the ground • water recharge. The encroachments (houses &shops) consisting of 32 families were relocated at the land reserved for EWS housing and provided with houses/shops till the plinth level & provided with water connection.

Table 11.6: Details on the Kodinar Project Function Financing Agency Excavating the Garbage Ambuja Cement Foundation Protecting the existing wells Ambuja Cement Foundation and building retaining wall Relocate 32 families and Kodinar Municipality provide them with housing Relocate the shops Kodinar Municipality River Deepening Ambuja Cement foundation, Bilashwar Sugar Mills co-op society and Kodinar Municipality Source: ICMA website

Expenditure 6 lakhs 5 lakhs 10 lakhs 10 lakhs 14 lakhs

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Annexure - I
Minutes of the Multi-Stakeholder Workshop on CDP for Visioning Exercise for Kayalpattinam Municipality, Tirunelveli Region A. Agenda of the Meeting B. Venue C. Date & Time D. Workshop Participants : Formulation of Consensus on Vision for the Town of Kayalpattinam for preparation of CDP and Identification of key areas of concern for sustainable development of the town.

: : :

Municipal Conference Hall, Kayalpattinam Municipality
21 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
st

September, 2007 Mr. Sundaram, Executive Officer Mr. K.K.C.Prabhakara Pandian, Chair Person Mr. R.Anthonysamy, Vice Chair Person Mr. N.Subbiah, Ward No. 11 Councilor, Mr. K.VijayaBalaji, Ward No, 5 Councilor Mr. Annadurai, Ward No. 12 Councilor Mr. S.Vinayakamoorthy, Ward No. 21 Councilor Mr. A. Murugesan, Ward No. 8 Councilor Mr. L. Ramasamy, Secretary, Chamber of Commerce.

10. Mr. K.P.Shanmugam, Citizen 11. Mr. A.Jeevanandham, Citizen 12. Mr. Kaajamokaideen 13. Mr. Sivasubramaniyan, Ward No. 20 Councilor 14. Mr. R. Muthudurai 15. Mr. S.Balasubramaniyan 16. Mr. G.Sudalaimani CPI (M) 17. Mr. Anthony 18. Mr. S.Radhakrishnan 19. Mr. S. Thiraviam 20. Mr. A. Saravanan 21. Mr. V.Adhimoolam 22. Mr. R.Subbiah 23. Mr. K.Selvaraj 24. Mr.S.Chellapa 25. Mr.R. Paramasivan 26. Mr. Murugesan 27. Mr. S. Veyilumuthu 28. Mr. R. Maniraju
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29. Mr. Isaki 30. Mr. S. Shek Abdul Khader 31. Dr. Abdul Haneef Professor, Ambai Arts College 32. Mrs.K. Arokiamary 33. Mr. P.Sivanparvathy, Ward No. 2 councilor 34. Mrs. G.Isakiammal, Ward No. 12 councilor 35. Mrs. K. MariamSamla, Ward No. 18 councilor 36. Mrs. Ramalakshmi, Ward No. 14 councilor 37. Mrs. S.Jothikala, Ward No. 4 councilor 38. Mr. K. Umamakeshwaran, Ward No. 10 councilor 39. Mrs. E.Loganayaki, Ward No. 6 councilor 40. Mrs. V. Saraswati, Ward No. 19 councilor 41. Mrs. M.S.D.Rukmani shantha School correspondent 42. Mrs. KasthuriBai Guruvammal, JE, Ambai Municipality 43. Mr. A.K.Gomathi Nayagam, Kalimagal Kalvi Sangam 44. Mrs. K.Prema, Kalimagal Kalvi Sangam 45. Mrs. E.Jeyamani, Dr.Ambedkar Maliar Sangam 46. Mrs. R. Rajeswari 47. Mrs. A. Kasthuri Devi 48. Mrs. P.Kalarani 49. Mr. T.P.Ganeshan 50. Mr. P.Vanaraj E. IPE Project Team : 1. Dr. Veena Garella, Senior Urban Planner 2. Ms. Shilpi Raonka, Project Coordinator 3. Mr. Thomas Findo, Analyst- Municipal Finance 4. Ms. Kanmani.M, Associate Consultant 5. Mrs. Kavitha.P, Associate Consultant F. Workshop Proceedings The Multi-Stakeholder Workshop held at Municipal Conference Hall, Kayalpattinam Municipality was attended by the eminent citizens of the town including elected representatives, Municipality Staff, Professors, Teachers, Government Officials etc. The workshop started with the Welcome Address of the Chairperson of the municipality He introduced IPE team and requested IPE officials to make a presentation before starting the discussions. Giving an overview of CDP, IPE officials explained in detail the purpose and importance of multi-stakeholders workshop in preparation of CDP. The workshop proceeded by seeking valuable suggestions for improving infrastructure facilities, opinions for future development and their proposed approach to accelerate local economic growth. Participants were also asked to put forward their vision for the town in 30 years perspective.
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Following data/ information summarized as below was provided by various town representatives during the workshop. 1. General Kayalpattinam Municipality was upgraded to Grade III Municipality in the year 2004. Kayalpattinam has 12.50 sq. kms area under its jurisprudence. It has 18 administrative wards. The estimated present population of Kayalpattinam is approx. 40 thousands as against 32,664 persons (2001 census). 2. On Going Projects & Their Status Following DPR have been prepared for the municipality: • Prepared DPR for water supply scheme. • Prepared DPR for slum improvement under Integrated Housing Slum Development Programme Scheme. 3. Suggestions from Citizens & Officials of Kayalpattinam Town Following sectoral issues came forward during the discussions: 3.1 Water supply Supply of water to the town is once in three days due to the combined Authoor water supply scheme. The municipality requires separate water supply scheme for its town Protected water supply needs to be distributed. 3.2 Under Ground Drainage Demand for under ground drainage facilities to avoid environmental deterioration and unsanitary condition. 3.4 Industries Inadequacy of Industrial Setup. Lack of Employment opportunities due to the out migration of people. 3.5 Roads Road network to all important towns and city needs to be improved to promote employment opportunities. Roads should be improved in selected wards. 3.6 Recreation Existing Parks and Playgrounds should be maintained by municipal authorities with special facilities for women folk. 3.7 Sanitation and Water bodies Preserve, Restore and Conserve water bodies Public Sanitation needs to be improved by constructing pay and use toilets. Municipal Sweepers collect dust in dustbins and in all the commercial centers and same is transported through municipal SWM vehicles. Storm water drains should be provided on either side of the roads 3.8 Streetlights
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Inadequacy of High mast lamps. 3.9 Social Infrastructure Demand to renovate Primary Health Center. Lack of Electric crematorium. Lack of adequate Shopping Complexes Inadequate sanitary workers.

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Minutes of the Review Committee Meeting on Inception Reports on CDP for Grade III Municipal Towns in Madurai & Tirunelveli Regions held on 16th October ,2007 at the Conference Hall of Madurai Corporation.
The Review Committee Meeting on Inception Reports on CDP for Grade III Municipal Towns in th Madurai & Tirunelveli Regions was held on 16 October, 2007 at the Conference Hall of Madurai Corporation, Madurai. Thiru. Hitesh Kumar Makwana, I.A.S. Joint Commissioner of Municipal Administration (JCMA) chaired the session. RDMAs of Madurai & Tirunelveli regions, Regional Executive Engineers, Chairpersons and Executive Officers of Grade-III municipal towns, Overseers, Representatives from DTCP, and TNUIFSL and IPE professionals attended the Review meeting. Welcoming the Participants, the JCMA explained the significance of preparation of CDPs for the municipalities as the Hon’ ble Minister for Local Administration during the Budget speech for the year 2007-08 announced that CDPs would be prepared for all ULBs in a phased manner. Further, the JCMA explained the key components of CDP including perspective plan, Consultation with stake holders of development thro’ city opinion forms, regional workshop, Demand Assessment of Infrastructure facilities for the towns, prioritization of identified projects, 5-years capital invest programmes, funding mechanisms and a participatory approach in preparation and implementation of CDPs and urban reforms. Following this, IPE consultants made a presentation on the Inception report in four parts for the 10 Grade III municipal Towns (Anayur, Avaniyapuram, Thiruparankundram, Gudalur, Rameswaram and Keelakarai Grade - III Municipal Towns in Madurai Region and Vikramsingapuram, Ambasamudram, Kayalapattinam and Thiruthangal in Tirunelveli Region) in as detailed below: Part-I : Brief On the CDP Initiative Part-II : City Images for 10 towns Part III: Data Analysis –ULBs Comparative Picture Part IV: Future Perspective & Vision Following the presentation, the participants discussed various issues and sought clarification. The JCMA and consultants clarified issues. The following are the record note of the discussion during the Review Meeting: • • Regarding growth of population, the consultants should not project the population of the towns for the plan period based on the existing trend. The urbanization trend in the region must be taken into account. Stake holders’ meetings should be conducted in each municipality and regional workshop be conducted at regional level for better participation of the stakeholders. At the regional workshop, officers from PWD, TWAD, Highway & Rural works should be invited. It would be better to hold the workshop under District Administration. The City opinion form must be collected from a cross-section of the society including NGOs, residential association, Local Chamber of Commerce and Industry and economically weaker section of the town. Study of Urban Performance Indicators should form part of the study report. At each stage the municipal council must be consulted and the Draft Final Report and Final report must be approved by the Council. The employment opportunities, social infrastructure are to be assessed in each town not only for the present and future population and provision of physical & social infrastructure should be considered at the specific ULB level to meet the present and future demands. The revenue enhancement through new initiatives and also finding the new Remunerative projects in these ULBs should be explored. The opportunities of optimum utilization of municipal assets should be examined. 131
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• • • • •

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• • • •

• • •

• • • • • • •

Capacity building and Institutional Strengthening component for the ULBs need to be critically considered in the next draft. The present strength of ULB staff and post vacant must be high lighted in the next report. The three towns namely Anaiyur, Avaniyapuram & Thiruparankundram report are under JNNURM. The CDPs for the three towns should take into account the proposals contemplated in the CDP for Madurai City. The ULBs should take initiatives to achieve House Service Connections for 75% of the Properties from the present level. The consultant may look into the cash flow statements adopted by TUFIDCO for appraising the projects for financial evaluation. While formulating projects under ULBs, projects for integrated development of the region may also be also considered. CDPs prepared for Grade-III municipalities by consultants, will be posed to multiple agencies for funding various projects, and not necessarily under UIDSSMT Programme, so one should not transfer the message to ULBs contribution being limited to 10 per cent only. In reality, the contribution of ULB may be floating depending upon the scheme and funding agencies. With regard to lack of updated maps of the project towns, it was informed that GIS Maps of the outgrowths of Madurai city like Anaiyur, Avaniyapuram Thirupparankundram has been given to st another consultant and that they are expected to start their work from 1 Nov, 2007. The same would be available through O/o CMA after Nov 2007. For other towns, Local Planning Area (LPA) maps could be collected from the Office of Local Planning Authorities / Regional offices of Dept of Town & Country Planning and customised as per the requirement. A copy of approved CDP of Madurai was given to the consultant and IPE project team was requested to take into consideration the proposal of CDP for Anaiyur, Avaniyapuram, Thirupparankundram towns as they will be accessing funds primarily under JNNURM Programme of Government of India, being the urban outgrowths of Corporation of Madurai. IPE was requested to recheck the authenticity of the infrastructure related data provided by ULBs based on their past experiences. The project team to collect details of the land resources available with ULBs, especially the unutilized and vacant land. Regarding the ULB financial positions, it was stated that the Grade-III municipalities might show good share of revenue income but, in reality it may not be the case, as better figures enable them to access the loan 4 times their revenue income. IPE project team was asked to include implementation framework, strategies for prioritized project, institutional strengthening and capacity building measures for ULBs, and urban reforms in the CDP. It was asked to collect data on existing staffing pattern and propose institutional framework in rd th light of 73 and 74 Constitutional Amendment Act. With regard to existing staffing pattern in Grade-III municipalities copy of the past ‘Government Orders’ may be collected for reference. It was requested to enhance public participation in preparation of CDPs by holding intensive Focused Group Discussions with various stakeholder groups in respective project towns. Rural/ Ethnic Tourism could be promoted in the towns which has good potential for the same. Realistic estimates could be made wherever data gaps exist in the municipalities based on available urban standards. IPE project team was asked to hold a separate meeting with TNUIFSL to identify about the projects/ proposals in the towns/taluks/ district under consideration and the projects should also be taken into consideration, while preparation of City Investment Plan. The presentation made by IPE on classifications of towns on homogenous geographical characteristics and asked to continue with matrix method for comparing various urban indicators across the towns of same homogenous geographical characteristics.

The consultants should restrict the scope of the study as per the TOR. However they are free to indicate the project for detailed study and preparation of DPR like i. Improve Transport infrastructure, Core city improvement, main arteries, bus stand, bus shelters, landscaping etc. 132

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ii. iii. iv. v.

Organize public-private land development entities at the town level which will operate as real estate units for implementing development & renewal with participation of Local community and private enterprise. Develop a system of Industrial Areas limited to medium size, clean and safe manufactures Develop Green areas, large and small as well as linear parks interconnecting neighborhoods along selected streets, Community spaces which serve as focus of Residential areas. Enhance Cultural / Heritage areas and promote tourism Develop on unique natural heritage advantages.

The JCMA requested the DD Town & Country Planning, RDMAs and Executive Officers of the municipalities to cooperate with the consultants in providing maps, data particularly the land and building register and list of land and buildings owned by the local bodies and organising the consultative meetings to make the CDP reports pragmatic and realistic. The meeting was concluded thanking the participants for active participation. The presentation made by IPE project team was appreciated. The inception report presented by the Consultant is accepted with above remarks.

Sd./Hitesh Kumar Makwana, I.A.S., Joint Commissioner of Administration

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Annexure – II Contents of An Ideal Citizens Charter Aims of the Charter (i) To render expeditious and Quality service. (ii) Fixing time schedule for rendering Civic Services. (iii) To improve the transparency and efficiency of administration. For Efficient Administration Report on the Public Service of the Municipality Streamlining the local administration for the welfare of the people the municipal council will adopt the following guidelines for implementing its specified objective of civil services. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Charging for its functions honestly and justify. Special attention will be bestowed in executing the works and in performing the services. Maintenance of punctuality and efficiency. Improved methods of planning, execution and maintenance in respect of the following items of essential Public Service: • • • • • Drinking Water Public Health-Solid Waste Management. Roads. Drains and Drainage. Street Lighting.

Stipulating time limits for prompt discharge of duties. In particular (i) Reply to letters within 15 days (ii) For various functions, the following time limits are prescribed for disposals of the issues. Services Provided by Citizen Charter are: (i) House Service Connection (ii) Special Requests (iii) Complaints / Grievances (iv) Rectification of Defects (v) Septic Tank Clearance (vi) Maintenance of Roads and Pavements (vii) Street Lights
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(viii) Licenses under Public Health Act (ix) Renewal of Licenses (x) Public Health and Solid Waste Management (xi) Birth and Death Certificates (xii) Issue of Certificates In Respect of Cases Already Registered (xiii) Grant of Building License (xiv) Permission for Advertisement Boards and Hoarding (xv) Property Tax (xvi) Assessment 0f Tax (xvii) Transfer of Titles (xviii) General

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