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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

In this chapter, the researcher focuses on the background of the study, as well as
providing and explanation of the aims and research questions. Furthermore, he
presents the limitations of the research and finally the structure of the thesis.

1.1 BACKGROUND

As Information Technology (IT) has been integrated into education, E-leaning has
grown rapidly over the last several years. E-learning can be defined as instruction
delivered electronically via the Internet, Intranets, or multimedia platforms such as
CD-ROM or DVD (Hall, 2003; O’Neill, Singh, & O’Donoghue, 2004). Many users
today have access to internet connection, so e-learning is often identified as web-
based learning (Hall, 2003). Therefore, the term “online learning” and “web-based
learning” can be used interchangeably. This is the approach that will be taken in this
study.

In searching for more effective ways to deliver instructions, many universities have
expanded their use of e-learning. Those systems of education have enabled students
to access several diverse contents anytime, anywhere. This allows the learners further
dominance on their learning experiences, and qualifying the learners to collect the
educational courses the students need, and study where as they have enough time
(Bhatia, 2011). Therefore, it is extremely significant to design an effective scheme for
instructions, education, human resources and well-trained administration staff for
higher education (Nelasco, Arputharaj, & Paul, 2007).

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While several studies suggest that e-learning can be as effective as traditional
classroom approach, few studies have focused on learner satisfaction with online
instruction.

So far, most discussions on the use of e-learning in Higher Education have focused
on ways for the teacher to incorporate the new technology into their teaching.
Discussions, or even knowledge, about e-learning from the student perspective seem
to be sparse. However, there are reports of students preferring to take class using e-
learning than traditional course. They felt that e-learning was a helpful tool in their
learning (Brotherton & Abowd, 2002)

There are IT platforms available that enable universities and other institutions all over
the world to offer some of their programs through e-learning. These platforms are
called, Learning Management Systems (LMS). In King Abdulaziz University
(KAU), Blackboard is used for External and Distance Learning programs. It supports
the learning process through a combination of synchronous and a-synchronous online
instructions and communication. There are future plans to use Blackboard as a
support teaching method for the full-time program. There are about seven thousand
students join the university every year in the full-time program.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The Saudi education sector has forced many challenges in its core role in order to
provide quality education. Some of the Saudi Universities have unclear strategies to
incorporate certain motivational components into their systems (Alamri, 2011).
Although there are online programs offered in King Abdulaziz University, the
problem is that the motivation of the students to join or participate in these programs

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drops significantly. The majority of the fresh students are used to the traditional
classroom teaching methods. A few has ever tried on-line learning.

1.3 THE AIM OF THE STUDY

The aim of this study is to analyze factors, according to students’ perception towards
e-learning, that could be important to overcome problems of implementing e-learning
in campus-based education. There are specific aims of the study:
• To explore Saudi students’ attitude to e-learning in the university level.
• To analyze the relation between those attitudes and specific background factors
such as, students’ previous experience of IT, and their attitudes towards new
technologies.
• To explore the advantages and disadvantages the students find in e-learning.

1.4 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It is observed that few studies have investigated the students perception of online
education in the Saudi universities. This study examines the perception of the online
learning by the students in the Preparatory Year Program of King Abdulaziz
University. The study also has both theoretical and practical significance as it
provides the knowledge to improve the services of e-learning systems offered by the
university. In addition, the study states recommendations to promote the students’
experience and to enhance the design of e-learning programs in the university.

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In order to address the research aims, the following questions are raised:
1. What is the attitude of the KAU students towards e-learning?

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2. What are the perceived advantages and disadvantages of e-learning from the
KAU students’ perspective?
3. What are the effects of some specific student-related factors such as, age,
previous experience with computers and internet, and level of English?

1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

1. There is a statistically significant relationship between students attitudes


towards E-learning, and the students perceived of the advantages of E-
learning.
2. There is a significant association between the student age, and their
attitudes towards E-learning.
3. There is a significant association between the student level, and their
attitudes towards E-learning
4. There is a significant association between having a personal computer,
and the students attitudes towards E-learning
5. There is a significant association between having an internet access at
home , and the students attitudes towards E-learning
6. There is a significant association between previous experience in
computer, and the students attitudes towards E-learning

1.7 LIMITS OF THE STUDY

The study is conducted in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia on Saudi Preparatory Year Program
students studying at King Abdulaziz University in 2018. Thus, it will not be
appropriate to conclude that the findings of this study cover all the students in the

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country. It should also be noted that the sample subject of this study were studying at
the Preparatory Year Program.

1.8 RESEACH METHODOLOGY

In this study the researcher used a questionnaire as a qualitative research method. The
questionnaire includes 14 questions. The questionnaire was covered with an
introductory form, which informed the participants that completing the questionnaire
precisely meant effectiveness to the results of the study.

1.9 DEFINITION OF KEY CONCEPTS

Electronic Learning (E-learning)


E-learning is any form of education that is facilitated by the internet and its
technologies, and encompasses the use of the World Wide Web (www) to
support instructions and to deliver course content (Marsom, 2007)
There are different definitions of e-learning, three types (fully-online, blended
and web assisted) and there are also two forms (synchronous and
asynchronous). This study does not refer to any particular type or form. The
term e-learning is used interchangeably to refer to any of the types or forms of
e-learning.
LMS
A learning management system (LMS) is a software application or Web-based
technology used to plan, implement, and assess a specific learning process.

PYP
Preparatory Year Program (PYP) is an intensive program delivered to the
students in order to enhance their skills and facilitate their college entry.

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CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 INTRODUCTION

Advances in technology as well as the increasing competition among education


providers are reshaping higher education, driving universities to apply ICT to their
teaching and learning in order to meet their stakeholders' needs. In this chapter, the
definitions of ‘e-learning’ are covered. It also includes discussion on the three types
of e-learning, its forms and their assorted tools that make them possible. This chapter
also includes discussions of previous studies related to the topic and the theoretical
framework of the study.

2.2 DEFINITIONS OF E-LEARNING

Electronic learning (e-learning) has various definitions. It is obvious that the


definitions of e-learning were based on the medium of conduction that the authors are
familiar with. For example, the author that thinks e-learning is done through the
internet, his definitions will be around that area. Then as well, the author that thinks
e-learning is conducted through CDs and other multimedia channels, his definition
will reflect this view. One of them – it is the use of computer network technology,
primarily over or through the internet, to deliver information and instructions to
individuals (Ong & Lai, 2006; Welsh et al., 2003). Another definition is that: e-
learning is any form of education that is facilitated by the internet and its

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technologies, and encompasses the use of the World Wide Web (www) to support
instruction and to deliver course contnent (Masrom, 2007)
Kaplan-Leiserson has developed an online e-learning glossary, which provides this
definition: E-learning: covers a wide set of applications and processes, such as Web-
based learning, computer-based learning, virtual classrooms, and digital
collaboration. It includes the delivery of content via Internet, intranet/extranet
(LAN/WAN), audio- and videotape, satellite broadcast, interactive TV, and CD-
ROM.
Finally, learning is based on the students' activity and autonomy (Pritchard, 2009).

2.3 TYPES OF E-LEARNING

E-learning comes in three different types: fully-online, mixed mode (hybrid or


blended), and web assisted. In the fully-online learning, there is not physical contact
between the instructor and the learner. Learning materials, assignments, teaching and
learning are all done online. Fully-online learning aims at satisfying the needs,
interests, learning styles, abilities of the learners because it is self-directed (Buzzeto-
More, 2013).
Hybrid or blended learning combines face-to-face interaction with online learning.
Some aspects of the teaching and learning are done online, while some are done face-
to-face. Hybrid learning is said to be the future of learning, and is predicted to cause
paradigm shift in higher education in the coming years.
Web-assisted mode of e-learning is operated much like the fully-online class with the
exception that it includes online discussions and interactions between the learners and
the instructions. The main difference between fully-online learning and web-assisted
learning is that web-assisted is synchronous in nature and allows live interaction

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between the learners and the instructor, while fully-online learning is asynchronous in
nature and does not allow live interaction.

2.4 FORMS OF E-LEARNING

There are two forms of e-learning; asynchronous and synchronous. Asynchronous


e-learning, commonly facilitated by media such as e-mail and discussion boards,
supports work relations among learners and with teachers, even when participants
cannot be online at the same time. It is thus a key component of flexible e-learning.
In fact, many people take online courses because of their asynchronous nature,
combining education with work, family, and other commitments. Asynchronous e-
learning makes it possible for learners to log on to an e-learning environment at
any time and download documents or send messages to teachers or peer learners.
Students may spend more time refining their contributions, which are generally
considered more thoughtful compared to synchronous communication.

Synchronous e-learning, commonly supported by media such as video conferencing


and chat, has the potential to support e-learners in the development of learning
communities. Learners and teachers experience synchronous e-learning as more
social and avoid frustration by asking and answering questions in real time.
Synchronous sessions help e-learners feel like participants rather than isolates

Thus, the difference between asynchronous and synchronous e-learning is often a


matter of degree.

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2.5 RELATED STUDIES

There are a few previous studies had been done that tried to investigate the perception
of the students towards e-learning in Saudi Arabia. One of these studies is titled
“Saudi Students’ Perceptions of Online Education versus On-ground Education in
Saudi Arabia” which was done by Razak Abdella, Jamie Pinchot, Najwa Samrgandi
and Rana Al-Masri in 2014. The study compared between the students’ perceptions
of online education versus on-ground education. The researchers found that the
responses of the Saudi students, in the study, are positive for on-ground education
and less positive for online education. Their results showed that Saudi students
believed there is a big difference between the online and on-ground education in
quality and accreditation. (Razak, Jamie, Najwa, Rana; 2014)

Another study titled “Distance Learning Students’ Evaluation of E-learning System


in University of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia” done by Mefleh B. Al-Juda’. The study
concluded that there are three distinguishing factors of e-learning systems were found
to influence the positive perceptions of the students towards e-learning systems.
These factors include ease of the learning system; manuals, instructions and
guidelines. According to the study, these three factors have significant influence on
the students’ perceptions regarding e-learning. The study finding suggests that the
university authorities and the Ministry of Education should revisit e-learning policies
and content design to iron out problems affecting the overall effectiveness of e-
learning system in the sampled university and others. The study also emphasizes the
importance of appropriate training, publishing useful resources on e-learning web
portals, and improving the overall e-learning system. Al-Juda’ suggested future
studies to use mixed methods approach to capture compressive understanding and
other potential factors of the e-learning system. (Al-Juda’, 2017)

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In 2010, Manuela Paechter, Brigitte Maier and Daniel Macher conducted a study
titled “Students’ expectations of, and experiences in e-learning”. The study aimed to
obtain a general view of students’ expectations of, and experience in e-learning. The
researchers investigated those expectations and experiences contributing to perceived
learning achievements and course satisfaction. Their objective was to survey a large
sample of students to obtain a broad picture of e-learning as it is offered in Austrian
universities. The study concluded that there are two aspects contribute to learning
achievement and course satisfaction: students’ achievement goals and the instructor.
The results emphasize the instructor’s expertise and role as a counselor and facilitator
in learning. The researchers suggest that the instructors need a high didactic
expertise in the implementation of an online course.

2.6 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Technology Acceptance Model Theory (TAM)


As this thesis seeks to explore students’ perception of e-learning. The Technology
Acceptance Model theory (TAM) is used. TAM is an empirically validated
theoretical model used to explain and predict users’ behavior towards information
technology acceptance and use. (Legris, et. al, 2003). The TAM model also helps to
explain why a user may accept or reject information technology. The model provides
the basis with which one traces how external variables influence belief, attitude and
intention to use a technology.

In more detail, TAM is an information systems theory that models how users come to
accept and use a technology. The model suggests that when users are presented with a

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new technology, a number of factors influence their decision about how and when
they will use it, notably:

• Perceived usefulness (PU) – This was defined by Fred Davis as "the degree to
which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or
her job performance".

• Perceived ease-of-use (PEOU) – Davis defined this as "the degree to which a


person believes that using a particular system would be free from effort".
Figure 1 shows the original TAM (Davis, 1989)

Figure 1: Original Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

Applying PU in this study helps to discover how students perceive e-learning as an


alternative means of acquiring their educational knowledge. Perceived usefulness
can, therefore be defined as the extent to which students believe using e-learning will
boost their learning.

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PEU is also defined as “the extent to which one believes using e-learning will be free
of cognitive effort” (Park, 2009). As technology use is an important part in e-
learning, one requires a certain comfort level with the computer and web technologies
in order to be able to participate in e-learning. Therefore, students require sufficient
knowledge of a variety of modern hardware and software applications to easily make
use of the e-learning system (Lee & Witta, 2001). It is argued that lack of these
required skills could be a source of anxiety and could form a barrier to e-learning,
thus impacting on how the students perceive e-learning to be.

Attitude towards using technology in TAM is defined as the positive or negative


feeling about a technology, based on perception or experience. Attitude is also said to
be “the degree to which an individual evaluates and associates the target system with
his or her job” (Davis, 1993)

In this study, the model implies that attitude towards using e-learning are the positive
or negative feeling of the students, which impacts their reaction and intention to use
e-learning (Ajzen & Fishbein, 200). It is deduced from the model that if e-learning as
a system is not easy to use, it will most likely be perceived as not useful, and vice
versa. (Davis, 1989)

The objective of this study is to identify the perception students have towards e-
learning. Therefore, in order to fulfil the research aim, the following questions were
asked to the students: how do students think e-learning tools are easy to use; to what
extent students think e-learning is useful for their study; how do students think e-
learning can increase their communication with their colleagues and instructors.
TAM is found to be appropriate to be used as theory guiding this study, because it

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noted to be a good model for researchers to get students’ perception of technology, e-
learning in this case (Jung et. al., 2008). TAM is empirically tested and supported for
being robust in predicting technology perception and adoption in various contexts,
including e-learning (Gao, 2005)

“TAM has its roots in the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) which was brought
forward by Fishbein and Ajzen in 1975. TRA is based on the premise that intention is
the main determinant of a person's actions or actual behavior. Two constructs
influence a person's behavioral intention: attitude toward a behavior and subjective
norm or social pressure to carry out the behavior or not. In TRA the beliefs and
evaluations affecting attitude refer to what the individual thinks about the
consequences that could arise from the behavior as well as the personal evaluation of
desirability of these consequences.” (Jung, Loria, Mostaghel, Saha, 2008)

Constructivism and e-learning


It should be noted that e-learning can be achieved through different theoretical
approaches, including, among others, also constructivism. The modern systems for e-
learning allow the achievement of all stated constructivist principles. Therefore,
instead of focusing on creating, collecting, grouping and delivering information
(Miller, 2000) which was a feature of Web 1.0 systems, Web 2.0 applications allow
users to create content independently through mutual communication (Mason and
Rennie, 2008). One of such systems is Moodle (Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic
Learning Environment). Although this system can also be used for the delivery of
educational content, it is designed primarily to facilitate learning based on
constructivist and constructionist principles. Constructionist philosophy assumes that
people learn best when they, through the interaction, create educational content for
the others (Rice, 2011). For the realization of the interaction in the Moodle system it

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is possible to use a variety of activities such as forums, chats, dictionaries, Wiki and
workshops.

Research agrees that constructivism learning theory, which focuses on knowledge


construction based on learner’s previous experience, is a good fit for e-learning
because it ensures learning among learners (Harman & Koohang, 2005; Hung, 2001;
Hung & Nichani, 2001).

Entrenched in learning theories advanced by Dewey (1916), Piaget (1972), Vygotsky


(1978) and Bruner (1990), constructivism learning theory is defined as active
construction of new knowledge based on a learner’s prior experience. Woolfolk
(1993, p. 485) states the following:
... The key idea is that students actively construct their own knowledge: the
mind of the student mediates input from the outside world to determine what
the student will learn. Learning is active mental work, not passive reception of
teaching.

Murphy (1997) presented an excellent summary of characteristics of constructivism


learning theory based on a comprehensive review of literature. These characteristics
are as follows:
1. “Multiple perspectives and representations of concepts and content are
presented and encouraged.
2. Goals and objectives are derived by the student or in negotiation with the
teacher or system.
3. Teachers serve in the role of guides, monitors, coaches, tutors and
facilitators.

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4. Activities, opportunities, tools and environments are provided to
encourage metacognition, self-analysis -regulation, -reflection & -
awareness.
5. The student plays a central role in mediating and controlling learning.
6. Learning situations, environments, skills, content and tasks are relevant,
realistic, authentic and represent the natural complexities of the 'real
world'.
7. Primary sources of data are used in order to ensure authenticity and real-
world complexity.
8. Knowledge construction and not reproduction is emphasized.
9. This construction takes place in individual contexts and through social
negotiation, collaboration and experience.
10. The learner's previous knowledge constructions, beliefs and attitudes are
considered in the knowledge construction process.
11. Problem-solving, higher-order thinking skills and deep understanding
are emphasized.
12. Errors provide the opportunity for insight into students’ previous
knowledge constructions.
13. Exploration is a favored approach in order to encourage students to seek
knowledge in- dependently and to manage the pursuit of their goals.
14. Learners are provided with the opportunity for apprenticeship learning
in which there is an increasing complexity of tasks, skills and knowledge
acquisition.
15. Knowledge complexity is reflected in an emphasis on conceptual
interrelatedness and interdisciplinary learning.
16. Collaborative and cooperative learning are favored in order to expose
the learner to alternative viewpoints.

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17. Scaffolding is facilitated to help students perform just beyond the limits
of their ability. 18. Assessment is authentic and interwoven with
teaching.” (Murphy 1997)

Learning is a situational process. Lave and Wenger (1991) believe that the situational
learning is achieved through participation in certain social and cultural circumstances.
Learning cannot be reduced to the process of acquiring knowledge, but it implies
taking an active role in the permanent community of practice (Lave, 1991).

“In a technology enhanced environment, one major distinction between social and
cognitive constructivism approaches is the focus on interaction with people and co-
construction of knowledge in the former, and interaction with content and individual
construction of knowledge in the latter, although this should not be seen as
exclusively the case in either,” (Făt, 2010). Many online classrooms platforms allow
for multiple modules which would offer different topics or different lessons to be
split from each other while being in the same environment. In these online
classrooms, capabilities are expanse. Instructors are able to separate the class into
smaller breakout sessions to help get a more social and collaborative experience.
These sessions will allow for online learners to get to know one another and help
each other peer to peer if needed. Groups can have their own space to work on
projects and activities with each other as well. When a student wants to do learning
outside of the teacher-lead instruction or provided textbooks, online classroom
environments allow for e-learning resources. “E-learning resources can give students
authentic as well as up-to-date information that is not necessarily available in
textbooks,” (Sultan, 2011). These resources are often vital to supplement classroom
resources and aid in student learning. Different learning systems will place the
resource section in different places, but it will almost always be there.

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The social side of constructivism, “emphasizes that it is through interaction and
collaboration with others that new knowledge is developed and how the individual
gains new understanding,” (Staupe, 2010). How does this play into education? The
social side of constructivism is all about being social. Whether a student is in a
physical classroom setting or in an online classroom, instructors have a way to make
social activities. Often, when working with other students who are in the same
situation, maybe unsure of what the classwork includes or what the information that
was taught is about. Having social constructivism in classes gives students time with
their peers and sometimes that is the best way to build knowledge from prior
knowledge. This can also go in the category of collaboration learning which
emphasizes group activities as a mode of learning. This can also shape behavior in
learning. It can shape cognitive learning. Within constructivism there are also
psychological views that vary apart from the social view.

Cognitive constructivism can play a role with social, but also set itself apart. It works
with the psychological views as well. According to Jack Martin, “As a cognitive
perspective, constructivism ascribes primacy to the role of the individual in learning
and psychological development. Constructivists conceive of hypothetical learning
mechanisms or processes intrinsic to the nature of human individuals,” (Martin,
1997). In this claim, the focus is put on the student at the center of the learning role.
All in all, both types have similarities, but differences as well.

It has been argued that e-learning does not directly apply to the constructivist learning
theory. “ Based on case study analysis, Ruey (2010) argued for constructivist-based
instructional design in online learning but, in sharp theoretical contrast, concluded
that ‘‘in order to maintain high-quality learning, appropriate assessment plans and

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adequate facilitation must be particularly reinforced’’ (p. 706)” (Johnson, 2014). My
argument for this conclusion is that e-learning can be facilitated. Learning can be
assessed. I am not familiar with every single learning management system, but in my
experience between work, school, and creating my own module and inputting it on an
LMS, assessment plans are used. An assessment plan 100% needs to be thought
through before uploading a module into the LMS of your choice. If there wasn’t a
plan then there would be no direction of information, therefore would not be a truly
effective e-learning module. As discussed prior, different learning management
system platforms allow for instructor-led real-time lessons.

There are other fears that come up when talking about e-learning classrooms.
According to Alana Phillips, “While in an online class and using a learning
management system (LMS), students deal with both computers and communications
(Brown, Fuller, & Vician, 2004), which can be challenging and contain uncertainty
on their own. Individuals may experience computer anxiety, communication
apprehension, or a combination of both. Brown et al. (2004) proposed that different
types of computer applications may cause different types of anxiety,” (Phillips,
2016). Although these are things that should be paid attention to, I think that when
Phillips pulled information from 2004 these points were much more relevant now.
Almost everybody who would have to take online classes or modules has, or has
access to a computer. We are in the age of technology and the expanse of the internet.
It is definitely an intimidating thing when we first learn a new computer program and
are expected to know it immediately. In that case yes, it is understandable to have
anxiety or fears about it. Luckily, besides minor issues that learning management
systems can sometimes have, these systems are typically very user friendly and quick
to learn.

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CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 INTRODUCTION

The research methodology is a wide concept, it includes all process of how to


conduct the research on a scientific basis. In this chapter, the researcher is to present
how he conducts his research in order to achieve the main objectives of the study.
Therefore, in this chapter the research approach is outlined, the research methods
used for data collection including the survey questionnaire, and the statistical
techniques used for data analysis, in addition to that the population from which the
sample or participants of the study were selected.

3.2 THE RESEARCH DESIGN AND APPROACH

As stated by (C.R. Kothari, 2004, P:11) the research methodology is a way of to


systematically solve the research problem, in addition to that it may be understood
as a science of researching how research is done scientifically, and the logic behind
that. Briefly he stated that research methodology has many dimensions and
research methods do constitute a part of the research methodology. Thus, the scope
of research methodology is wider than that of research methods, which means that
researchers should consider the logic behind the methods use in the context of their
research study and explain why they use a particular method or technique and why
not use others so that research results are capable of being evaluated by either the
researcher himself or by others.

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Harvey Maylor & Kate Blackmon (2005) argued that the research methodology is
intended to describe how to translate the research perspectives into a way of
researching the world. A research methodology may be implemented through
several different research designs, the plan for conducting the research, through
translating the research methodology into specific research methods, the
techniques you use to collect and analyses data.

This current research is based on quantitative approach, whereby the hypotheses of


the proposed research framework can be tested. Quantitative research approach
was defined by Creswell (2012, P: 15), as the type of research that is explaining
phenomena by collecting numerical data that are analyzed using mathematically
based method. With regard to this current research, the research is aiming to
answer the research questions, which concentrate on examining Saudi students’
attitude towards e-learning in the university level, and to explore the main factors
that affect the students perceptions.

3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY

Population was defined by McMillan and Schumacher (2010, P: 129) as "a group
of elements or cases, whether individuals, objects, or events, that conform to
specific criteria and to which researchers intend to generalize the results of the
research."
In this current study, the population of the study was determined as all Saudi male
students who study English courses in the preparatory year in King Abdulaziz
University in Jeddah who are estimated to be equal to 5000 students.

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3.4 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

The sample is the group of elements, or single elements, from which data are
obtained. When the researcher specifies the sampling procedure used to select the
sample, he will choose this sample from the population of the study. The purpose
of sampling is to obtain a group of subjects who will be representative of the larger
population or will provide specific information needed. Generally, as argued by
(Adam, 2008) that samples are divided into two broader categories: random and
non-random. They are also called respectively probability and non-probability
samples. Each type of sample is subdivided into 4 categories. Random samples
include: simple random sample, stratified random sample, the systematic random
sample and the cluster random sample. On the other hand, non-random sample
include: convenience samples, quota samples, purposive or judgmental samples,
and snowball samples. In this current study, the sample was selected on the basis
of a convenient sampling techniques.

3.5 DATA COLLECTION SOURCES


Actually there are various sources from which data can be obtained such as official
documents, published data, or interviews, and surveys ,books, previous
researches…. Etc. In this research two sources of data collection were used.

3.5.1 SECONDARY SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION


Secondary data are collected from previous studies, published and non-published
researches, books, that is to provide information for the literature reviewed and
theoretical background about the issue under investigation .

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3.5.2 PRIMARY SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION
To achieve the objectives of this research, and to provide answers to research
questions and testing the research hypotheses, a questionnaire as an instrument of
data collection was constructed. One of the reasons behind using the questionnaire
is that, the study is about to explore the preparatory years students’ perceptions
towards E-learning applied in King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah, so there is a
multi-objective behind using the questionnaire, first, is to take idea and information
from who were involved in English courses who study through E-learning program
in the University and to assess and evaluate advantages and disadvantages of E-
learning courses .

3.6 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION


To achieve the research objectives, the researcher uses the survey questionnaire as
a method of data collection. The survey questionnaire is designed by the researcher
based on literature reviewed in the field of the theories of E-learning. The
constructed questionnaire consists of two types of information, related to the
participants of the study such as age, academic level, having a personal computer,
having access to internet, and experience of using computer. In addition to that the
questionnaire consists of two main dimensions as follows:

Dimension One: which is aiming to examine the attitude of the KAU students
towards e-learning, which include 8 statements.
Dimension two: is aiming to understand the perceived advantages and disadvantages
of e-learning from the KAU students’ perspective, which consist of 6 statements.

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3.7 THE QUESTIONNAIRE RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY
To measure the questionnaire validity and reliability, Person’s correlation
coefficient was conducted, while to measure the survey questionnaire reliability
Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient was run, and the results are presented as in the
following :

3.7.1 THE QUESTIONNAIRE VALIDITY


Prior to the actual commencement of the study, two instructors who had doctoral
degrees in applied linguistics in addition to the supervisor of this thesis were asked
to review each item in the questionnaire and provide their suggestions concerning
its appropriateness as a data-elicitation tool.

The validity of the survey questionnaire was also tested by using Person's
correlation to measure the degree of association between each item scores and the
overall scores of the dimension to which it related, and the results are shown as in
the table (3.1)

Table 3.1, shows the questionnaire validity

Dimension two: perceived advantages and


Dimension One: attitudes of the KAU
disadvantages of e-learning from the KAU
students towards e-learning,
students’ perspective,

Item No. Correlation coefficient Item No. Correlation coefficient


1 0.717** 9 0.767**
2 0.614** 10 0.711**
3 0.721** 11 0.559**
4 0.649** 12 0.715**

23
5 0.287** 13 0.457**
6 0.732** 14 0.633
7 0.433**
8 0.611**
** indicated that correlation coefficient is significant at the (0.01) significant level

It could be noticed from the results in the table No.(3.1), that all statements
included in survey questionnaire are statistically correlated with the scale or
dimension to which it related, and it was obvious that the values ranged between
(0.287-0.767), and all values of correlation coefficients are statistically significant
at the (0.01) level. Hence, it could be concluded that all items achieved the
purposes of measurement in the survey questionnaire method.

3.7.2 THE QUESTIONNAIRE RELIABILITY


To gain reliability of the results and to avoid any misunderstanding on the part of the
students, the questionnaire was translated into Arabic, the learners’ mother tongue
(see Appendix C). In addition, the questionnaire was piloted by these students to test
its internal consistency and reliability. The questionnaire was administered to a
sample of 5 students. The reliability of the questionnaire method was also tested by
using Cronbach's Alpha coefficient as shown in table (3.2):

Table 3.2, survey method reliability


No. of Cronbach's Alpha
Dimensions
items coefficient
Dimension One: attitudes of the KAU students
8 0.712
towards e-learning,

24
Dimension two: perceived advantages and
disadvantages of e-learning from the KAU students’ 6 0.619
perspective.
Overall reliability 14 0.835

It was noticed from the results in table No.(3.2), that the overall survey
questionnaire reliability was reaching (0.835) which was highly sufficient to
guarantee that the questionnaire method has a very high reliability. That means the
questionnaire is suitable to collect the data need to achieve the research objectives.

3.8 STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR DATA ANALYSIS

The statistical techniques used to analyze the data collected by the survey
questionnaire method, includes the descriptive statistics methods such as
frequencies, percentages to describe the sample of the study and to measure their
attitudes towards E-learning, in addition to that the mean values and standard
deviations were employed to interpret the sample responses. While Cronbach's
Alpha coefficient is used to test the reliability of the questionnaire. Person
Correlation Coefficient is used to test the survey questionnaire validity. Also
Spearman’ correlation coefficient was used to examine if there are statistically
significant association between some of specific students’ related factors, and their
attitudes towards E-learning . In addition to that multiple regression was used to
examine the impact of some of specific students’ related factors on their attitudes
towards E-learning.

25
The sample responses to the questionnaire method statements are assessed and
interpreted according five-points Likert scale, and according to the following
standard of measurement:

Table 3.3, Likert Scale


Scale
From 1- to 1.79 Strongly Disagree
From 1.80- to 2.59 Disagree
From 2.6- to 3.39 Neutral
From 3.40- to 4.19 Agree
From 4.20- to 5.0 Strongly agree

26
CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATIONS

4.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter was devoted to the statistical analysis of data collected by the
questionnaire survey method. The main objective of the study is to explore the
students’ attitudes towards E-learning in King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah. To
conduct data analysis Statistical Program of Social Science (SPSS) was used for
data entering after coding and labeling. Suitable statistical methods were used
including descriptive and inferential statistical methods.
The data analysis in this chapter would concentrate on answering the research
questions. Based on that, the data analysis will proceed according to the following
scenario: Analysis of information related to students sample of the study, Research
questions, and Testing research hypotheses.

4.2 SECTION ONE: ANALYSIS OF INFORMATION RELATED


TO STUDENTS SAMPLE OF THE STUDY

Table 4.1, participants distribution according to age


Age classes Frequency Percentages%
15 to 20 years 58 69.0
21 to 25 years 23 27.4
More than 25 year 3 3.6
Total 84 100.0%

27
The results in table 4.1 showed that the majority of students participants of the
study with around (69.0%) at the age class (15- to 20) years old, while 27.4%of
participants at the second age class (21- to 25) years, whereas only 3.6% their age
was more than 25 years old.
Thus, it could concluded that the majority of students participants of the current
study are in the first age class (15-to 20) years old.

Table 4.2, participants distribution according to academic level


Academic Level Frequency Percentages%
101 14 16.7
102 21 25.0
103 9 10.7
104 40 47.6
Total 84 100.0%

The results in table No. 4.2, showed that there are about 47.6% of the students in
the academic level 104, while 25.0% were at the academic level 102, whereas
16.7% were at the academic level 101, where only 10.7% were at 103 course level.
Therefore, it could be concluded that the majority of the students were registered in
the course level 104 of the academic level .

Table 4.3, students perceptions regarding having a personal computer


Having a personal computer Frequency Percentages%
Yes 62 73.8
No 22 26.2
Total 84 100.0%

28
The results in table No.4.3, showed that the majority of the students by 73.8%
confirmed that they have a personal computer, while 26.2% don’t have a personal
computer. Hence, it could be concluded that the majority of the students having a
personal computer, which means that they are ready to join the program of E-
learning in the university.

Table 4.4, students’ perceptions regarding having access to internet at home


Having access to internet at home Frequency Percentages%
Yes 83 96.8
No 1 1.2
Total 84 100.0%

The results in table No. 4.4, revealed that the majority of the students by 96.8%
confirmed that they have access to internet at home, while only one student (1.2%)
don’t have access to internet at home. Therefore, having an internet access at home
for all students is one of the most important technology options to join E-learning
in the university.

Table 4.5, students’ perceptions regarding their experience in using computer


Frequency Percentages%
Less than 1 year 17 20.2
1-5 years 11 13.1
More than 5 years 53 63.1
Never use computer before 3 3.6
Total 84 100.0%

29
The results in table No. 4.5, showed that the majority of the students by 63.1%
confirmed that they have been using computer for more than 5 years, whereas
20.2%) they have been using computer for less than one year, while 13.1% have
been using computer for (1-5) years, where only 3.6% believed that they never use
computer before. So, it could be noticed that the majority of students have been
using computer for more than 5 years, which indicated that students have a good
knowledge in using computer which is considered as one of the requirements for
joining the classes of E-learning in the university.

4.3 RESULTS OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS


In this section of data analysis, the researcher would concentrate to provide answers
to the set research questions, which are as follows:
1. What is the attitude of the KAU students towards e-learning?
2. What are the perceived advantages and disadvantages of e-learning from the
KAU students’ perspective?
3. What are the effects of some specific student-related factors such as,
previous experience of computers, attitudes to new technologies on e-
learning?

For the analysis of the participants perceptions regarding questions 1, and 2, the
descriptive statistical methods including frequencies, percentages, mean, and standard
deviation are used in order to examine the students attitudes towards e-learning, and
examining the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning as will be shown, while for
answer research question 3, Chi-Square test was run.

30
4.3.1 RESULTS OF RESEARCH QUESTION ONE
Question one stated that: “ What is the attitude of the KAU students towards e-
learning?”. The attitudes of the students towards e-learning are presented as in table
4.6, below:

Table 4.6, Present the participants perceptions regarding the students attitudes
towards e-learning in King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah.
Item No.

Strongly

Strongly
disagree

disagree

ranking
neutral

Mean
agree

agree
SD

Studying through e-learning


F 33 23 22 3 3
can increase my learning 3.95 1.06 3
1
effectively. % 39.3 27.4 26.2 3.6 3.6

The E-learning platforms is F 24 30 21 5 4


3.77 1.08 5
2 easy to understand and use. % 28.6 35.7 25.0 6.0 4.8
The use of the E-learning F 29 30 16 6 3
3 3.90 1.07 4
will facilitate my study. % 34.5 35.7 19.0 7.1 3.6
The use of the E-learning will
F 23 25 17 7 12
6 improve communication with 3.48 1.36 7
the colleagues. % 27.4 29.8 20.2 8.3 14.3
I don’t see any usefulness F 9 10 13 21 31
9 2.35 1.37 8
of e-learning % 10.7 11.9 15.5 25.0 36.9
Using e-learning can enable F 42 31 7 3 1
10 me to accomplish tasks 4.31 0.86 1
% 50.0 36.9 8.3 3.6 1.2
more quickly.
I’m afraid employers may F 27 23 23 5 6
11 not prefer to hire e-learning 3.71 1.19 6
% 32.1 27.4 27.4 6.0 7.1
graduates
12 I prefer combination of F 37 26 15 5 1 4.11 0.98 2

31
online learning and face-to-
% 44.0 31.0 17.9 6.0 1.2
face learning.
Overall mean value 3.70 0.65

The results in table 4.6, showed the participants of the current study perceptions
with regard to their attitudes towards e-learning in King Abdulaziz university. It
was noticed that the overall mean value to participants responses is equal to (3.70)
with standard deviation (0.65). So, this mean value indicated that generally
participants have positive attitudes towards e-learning in King Abdulaziz
university, which means that the students have a will to study through using E-
learning .

The detailed analysis of the students perceptions with regard to their attitudes
towards e-learning will be examined as follows:
It was noticed from the statistics in table (4.6) when students were being asked to
show their attitudes regarding the statement No.10 stated that “Using e-learning
can enable me to accomplish tasks more quickly” the results showed that the
majority of the students by 86.7% confirmed that using e-learning will enable them
to accomplish their tasks more quickly, while 8.3% were neutral, whereas only
4.8% holding negative attitudes towards the role of e-learning in enabling them to
accomplish their academic tasks quickly. Therefore, it could concluded that the
majority of students provides positive attitudes regarding the effect of using e-
learning to accomplish their tasks as quickly as possible. This positive attitudes
was supported by the mean value equal to (4.31) with standard deviation (0.86),
which indicated that the majority of the students strongly agreed that using e-
learning will enable the students to accomplish their academic tasks more quickly.

32
While when the students participants of the study were being required to present
their views regarding the statement No.12, stated that “I prefer combination of
online learning and face-to-face learning” the statistics in the table (4.6) revealed
that there are around 44.0% of the participants strongly agreed , while 31.0% of
them were agreed, whereas 17.9% have neutral views, where those provide
negative perceptions comprised only 7.2%. Thus, it could be concluded that, the
majority of the students participants of this study believed that they prefer
combination of online learning and face-to face learning. This high positive
response of the students is supported by the mean value equal to (4.11) with
standard deviation (0.98). therefore, it could be noticed the preference of the
students for the combination of online learning and face-to face learning might be
related to the students beliefs that the two types of learning will make understand
their academic courses more successfully.

Whereas, when the students were being required to show their perceptions
regarding the statement No.1, stated that “Studying through e-learning can increase
my learning effectively” the results in table 4.6, showed that there are about 39.3%
of the students strongly agreed that studying through e-learning can increase their
learning effectively, while 27.4% agreed, whereas 26.2% stand at the neutral way,
where those holding negative views comprised 7.2%. Therefore, it could be
concluded that, the majority of the students confirmed that studying through e-
learning can increase their learning effectively. This positive attitudes towards the
influence of e-learning in increasing the students learning effectively was
supported by the mean value reaching (3.95) with (1.06) standard deviation.

Continuing to participants perceptions regarding their attitudes to e-learning, when


the students were being asked to present their attitudes regarding the statement

33
No.3, stated that, “The use of the E-learning will facilitate my study” it could be
noticed from the statistics in table 4.6, that there are about 34.5% of the students
strongly agreed that the use of e-learning will facilitate their study, whereas 35.7%
agreed, while the neutral views constituted 19.0%, where the negative perceptions
comprised only 10.7%. Hence, the majority of the students with around 70.0%
confirmed the use of e-learning will facilitate their study. This might be related to
that e-learning has the advantage of saving time, and it is characterized by the easy
access to information through using the internet, and also it was easy to contact
with the teacher.

In line with that, when participants of the study were being asked to present their
thoughts regarding the statement No.2, stated that “The E-learning platforms is
easy to understand and use, the statistics in table 4.6, showed that there are about
28.6% of the students strongly agreed, whereas 35.7% agreed, while the neutral
views comprised 25.0%, whereas those with negative response constitute 10.8%.
Thus, it could be conclude that, the majority of the students believed that the E-
learning platforms is easy to understand and use, as the mean value to their
responses is equal to (3.77) with standard deviation (1.08).

Whereas, when the students were being required to show their attitudes regarding
the statement No.11, stated that “I’m afraid employers may not prefer to hire e-
learning graduates”, the statistics in table 4.6, showed that there are about 32.1%
of the students strongly agreed, whereas 27.4% agreed, while the neutral views
comprised 27.4%, whereas those with negative response constitute 13.1%. Thus, it
could be conclude that, the majority of the students with nearly 60.0% confirmed
that they afraid employers might not prefer to hire e-learning graduates, as the
overall mean value is reaching to (3.71) with standard deviation (1.19). therefore,

34
employers preference not to hire e-learning graduates may be one of the problems
that face the students to join e-learning education.

While, when the students were being asked to show their attitudes regarding the
statement No.6, stated that “The use of the E-learning will improve communication
with the colleagues”, the statistics in table 4.6, showed that there are about 27.4%
of the students strongly agreed, whereas 29.8% agreed, while the neutral views
comprised 20.2%, whereas those with negative response constitute 22.6%. Thus, it
could be noticed that, most students support that the use of e-learning will improve
communications with the colleagues, as the mean value to their responses is
reaching (3.48) with standard deviation (1.36).

Finally, when students were providing their perceptions regarding the statement
No.9, stated that “I don’t see any usefulness of e-learning” the results in table 4.6,
revealed that there are about 10.7% of the students strongly agreed, while 11.9%
agreed that they don’t see any usefulness of e-learning, whereas 15.5% have
neutral perceptions, whereas the majority with 61.9% provide negative
perceptions, which means that the majority of the students don’t think there is no
any usefulness of e-learning. The high negative response is supported by the mean
value equal to (2.35)with standard deviation (1.37).

In conclusion to the analysis of the students participants of the current study


perceptions regarding their attitudes towards e-learning, it was noticed that the
students have positive attitudes towards e-learning program in the University. The
most important things that support the students positive perceptions towards e-
learning is that the majority of them confirmed that using e-learning can enable the
students to accomplish tasks more quickly, and most students prefer combination

35
of online learning and face-to-face learning, in addition to that the majority
believed that studying through e-learning can increase the students learning
effectively, and finally the use of the E-learning will facilitate the students study.

4.3.2 RESULTS OF RESEARCH QUESTION TWO


Question two stated that: “What are the perceived advantages and disadvantages of e-
learning from the KAU students’ perspective?”. The students perceptions regarding
this question two are presented in table 4.7.

Table 4.7, Present the perceived advantages and disadvantages


of e-learning from KAU students perspectives
Item No.

Strongly

Strongly
disagree

disagree

ranking
neutral

Mean
agree

agree

SD

The use of the E-learning


F 30 35 10 3 6
will improve
4 3.95 1.13 3
communication with the
% 35.7 41.7 11.9 3.6 7.1
teachers.
The use of the E-learning F 20 37 12 9 6
5 will improve the pedagogic 3.67 1.17 5
% 23.8 44.0 14.3 10.7 7.1
value of the courses.
The use of the web platform F 27 28 19 7 3
7 has been disrupted by 3.82 1.09 4
% 32.1 33.3 22.6 8.3 3.6
technical problems
E-learning can help me ask
F 35 25 17 2 5
8 questions and get immediate 3.99 1.12 2
feedback. % 41.7 29.8 20.2 2.4 6.0
E-learning costs more than F 17 14 21 14 18
13 2.98 1.42 6
classroom learning. % 20.2 16.7 25.0 16.7 21.4
14 E-learning provides me F 48 21 11 3 1 4.33 0.92 1

36
with easy access to the
learning materials. (e.g.
% 57.1 25.0 13.1 3.6 1.2
recorded videos, reading
documents … etc.)
Overall mean value 3.79 0.72

The results in table 4.6, showed the participants of the current study perceptions
with regard to the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning from the
perspectives of the students in King Abdulaziz university. It was observed that the
overall mean value to participants responses is equal to (3.79) with standard
deviation (0.72). So, this mean value indicated that there are many advantages of e-
learning from the students’ perspectives .

The detailed analysis of the students perceptions with regard to the advantages and
disadvantages of e-learning in King Abdulaziz university will be carried out as
follows:

It was noticed from the statistics in table (4.7) when students were being asked to
show their attitudes regarding the statement No.14 stated that “E-learning provides
me with easy access to the learning materials. (e.g. recorded videos, reading
documents … etc.)” the results showed that the majority of the students by 82.1%
confirmed that e-learning provides them with easy access to the learning materials
such as recorded videos, reading documents, ….etc. , while 13.1% were neutral,
whereas only 4.8% holding negative attitudes towards the role of e-learning in
providing the students with easy access to the learning materials . Therefore, it
could concluded that one of the most important advantages of e-learning is that, it

37
provides the students enroll in its learning program by easy access to the learning
materials .

While when the students participants of the study were being required to present
their views regarding the statement No.8, stated that “E-learning can help me ask
questions and get immediate feedback” the statistics in the table (4.7) revealed that
there are around 41.7% of the participants strongly agreed , while 29.8% of them
were agreed, whereas 20.2% have neutral views, where those provide negative
perceptions comprised only 8.4%. Thus, it could be concluded that, the majority of
the students participants of this study believed that one of the most important
advantages of e-learning is that, it can help students to ask questions and get
immediate feedback. This high response is supported by the mean value equal to
(3.99) with standard deviation (1.12).

Furthermore, when the students participants of the current study were being
required to present their perspective regarding the statement No.4, stated that “The
use of the E-learning will improve communication with the teachers” the results in the table

(4.7) showed that there are about 35.7% of the students strongly agreed , while
41.7% of them were agreed, whereas 11.9% have neutral views, where those
provide negative perspectives comprised only 10.7%. Thus, it could be concluded
that, the majority of the students confirmed that one of the most important
advantages of e-learning is that it will improve communication with the teachers.
So this positive response is supported by the mean value equal to (3.95) with
standard deviation (1.13).

In addition to that, when the students participants of the study were being asked to
show their perspective regarding the statement No.7, stated that “The use of the web

38
platform has been disrupted by technical problems” the results in the table (4.7) revealed

that there are about 32.1% of the students strongly agreed , while 33.3% of them
were agreed, whereas 22.6% have neutral views, where those provide negative
perspectives comprised only 11.9%. Hence, it could be concluded that, most
students participants of the study confirmed that the technical problems during the
use of web platform is considered as one of the disadvantages of using e-learning.
So this positive perspective is supported by the mean value equal to (3.82) with
standard deviation (1.09).

While when the students participants of the study provide their perceptions to the
statement No.5, stated that “The use of the E-learning will improve the pedagogic value of
the courses” the results in the table (4.7) showed that there are about 23.8% of the
students strongly agreed , while 44.0% of them were agreed, whereas 14.3% have
neutral views, where those provide negative perspectives comprised only 17.8%.
Therefore, it could be noticed that, most students confirmed that one of the
advantages of the use of E-learning is that it will improve the pedagogic value of
the courses. This positive perspective is supported by the mean value equal to
(3.67) with standard deviation (1.17).

Finally, when students participants of the current study provide their perspectives
to the statement No.13, which stated that “E-learning costs more than classroom
learning” the results in table 4.7, found that there are about 20.2% of the students
strongly agreed, while 16.7% of the students were agreed, whereas 25.0% stand at
the crossroad, where the negative perceptions constituted the majority with 38.1%.
hence, it was noticed that students were different in opinion regarding the E-
learning cost compared to classroom learning, as the mean value to the overall
responses is equal to (2.98) with standard deviation equal (1.42).

39
In conclusion to students perspectives regarding the advantages, and disadvantages
of e-learning the study concluded that there are various advantages of e-learning,
among the most important ones is that: E-learning provides the students with easy
access to the learning materials. (e.g. recorded videos, reading documents … etc.),
E-learning can help student to ask questions and get immediate feedback, the use
of the E-learning will improve communication with the teachers, in addition to that
the use of the E-learning will improve the pedagogic value of the courses.

4.3.3 RESULTS OF RESEARCH QUESTION THREE


Question three stated that: “What are the effects of some specific student-related
factors such as, previous experience of computers, attitudes to new technologies on e-
learning?” . To examine the effects of some specific student-related factors such as
age, level, have a personal computer, having access to internet at home, and previous
experience in using computer, multiple regression model techniques was performed
and the results are presented as in the table below:

Table 4.8, the results of multiple regression analysis to examine the effects of specific student-
related factors on their attitudes towards e-learning
Variables Coefficients (B) T-test P-value
Cons. 38.021* 0.763 0.45
Age 1.595* 1.544 0.13
Level -0.057* -0.118 0.91
Having a personal computer -3.589*** -2.882 0.005
Having internet access at home -2.605* -0.519 0.61
Previous experience in using computer 0.966* 1.486 0.14
R =0.426
R2 = 0.18

40
Adj. R-Square = 0.13
F (5,78) = 3.452
Prop > F = 0.007
***, **, and * indicate significant at the confidence level at 1, 5 and 10% respectively.

Table 4.8 shows the multiple regression analysis that examine the factors that
expected to effect on students perspectives towards E-learning in King Abdulaziz
University in Jeddah. It should be noted here that F-statistics value equal to (3.452)
is statistically significant at the (0.01) level indicating that the multiple regression
model fits the observed data, that is it can predict the proportion of variance in the
dependent variable (student attitudes towards E-learning. The Adj. R2 value
reached 0.13 indicating that the independent variables included in the multiple
regression model are capable of estimating and interpreting the changes in students
attitudes towards E-learning 13.0%. This means that 13.0% of the variations in the
dependent variables (attitudes towards E-learning ) is related to some specific
students related factors included in the model. Therefore, based on the previous
Adj R2 value the variables included in the multiple regression model can be
considered as predictors for life students attitudes towards E-learning .

Also, table 2 shows that (having a personal computer ) is the only significant factor
contributing on the change of students attitudes towards E-learning. While the
other factors such as age, and experience in using computer has a positive effect,
but this effect is insignificant as the p-values of the regression coefficient is greater
than (0.05) level. The factors including such students level, and having an internet
access have a negative effect, but is also not significant.

41
Furthermore, the regression model showed that the multiple correlation coefficient
between the independent variables (factors) included in the model and the students
attitudes, is reaching (0.426) indicating that there is a significant association
between these factors and students attitudes towards E-learning.

4.4 RESULTS OF TESTING RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

In this section of data analysis, the research attempt to test the research hypotheses,
which are aiming to find if there are statistically significant correlation relationship
between students attitudes towards E-learning , and some of the factors . to test the
research hypotheses, Spearman Correlation coefficient was used .

4.4.1 RESULTS OF TESTING HYPOTHESIS ONE


Hypothesis one of this research stated that: “There is a statistically significant
relationship between students attitudes towards E-learning, and the students
perceived of the advantages of E-learning”. The result of testing this hypothesis is
presented as in table 4.9, below:

Table 4.9, showed the correlation relationship between students attitudes towards E-learning and
the students perceived of the advantages of E-learning
Variables Students perceived of the advantages of E-learning
Students attitudes towards Spearman’ correlation P-value
E-learning 0.697*** 0.00
*** indicated that correlation coefficient is significant at the (0.01) level

The result in the above table, showed that the value of correlation coefficient
between the dependent variable (students’ attitudes towards E-learning) and the

42
independent variable students perceived of the advantages of E-learning is equal to
(0.697) which is statistically significant at the (0.01)level. This result indicated that
there is a significant association between students’ attitudes towards E-learning,
and the perceived to the advantages of E-learning. So this mean that as the students
feel and perceived the advantages of E-learning, this will encourage them to join
E-learning class.

4.4.2 RESULTS OF TESTING HYPOTHESIS TWO


Hypothesis two of this research stated that: “There is a significant association
between the student age, and their attitudes towards E-learning. “

Table 4.10, showed the correlation relationship between students attitudes towards E-learning
and the students age.
Variables Students age
Spearman’ correlation P-value
Students attitudes towards E-learning
0.220** 0.045
** indicated that correlation coefficient is significant at the (0.05) level

The result in the above table, showed that, the value of correlation coefficient
between the dependent variable (students’ attitudes towards E-learning) and the
independent variable students age is equal to (0.220) which is statistically
significant at the (0.05)level. This result indicated that there is a significant
association between students’ attitudes towards E-learning and the students age.
This means that students age has a significant effect on their attitudes towards
study through E-learning program.

43
4.4.3 RESULTS OF TESTING HYPOTHESIS THREE
Hypothesis three of this research stated that: “There is a significant association
between the student level, and their attitudes towards E-learning”.

Table 4.11, showed the correlation relationship between students attitudes towards E-learning
and the students level.
Variables Students level
Spearman’ correlation P-value
Students attitudes towards E-learning
0.169* 0.13
* indicated that correlation coefficient is significant at the (0.10) level

The result in table4.11, showed that the value of correlation coefficient between
the dependent variable (students’ attitudes towards E-learning) and the students
level is equal to (0.169) which is statistically insignificant as the p-value is greater
than (0.05)level. This result indicated that there is no significant association
between students’ attitudes towards E-learning and the students level. So students
level has no effect on the students attitudes towards study through E-learning
program.

4.4.4 RESULTS OF TESTING HYPOTHESIS FOUR


Hypothesis four of this research stated that: “There is a significant association
between having a personal computer, and the students attitudes towards E-
learning”.

Table 4.12, showed the correlation relationship between students attitudes towards E-learning
and having a personal computer

44
Variables Having a personal computer
Spearman’ correlation P-value
Students attitudes towards E-learning
-0.347*** 0.001
*** indicated that correlation coefficient is significant at the (0.01) level

The result in table4.12, showed that, the value of correlation coefficient between
the dependent variable (students’ attitudes towards E-learning) and having a
personal computer is equal to (-0.347) which is statistically significant at the
(0.01)level. This result indicated that there is significant but negative association
between students’ attitudes towards E-learning and having a personal computer.
This indicated that, if the students has no personal computer this will affect
negatively on his attitudes to join e-learning .

4.4.5 RESULTS OF TESTING HYPOTHESIS FIVE


Hypothesis five of this research stated that: “There is a significant association
between having an internet access at home , and the students attitudes towards E-
learning”.

Table 4.13, showed the correlation relationship between students attitudes towards E-learning
and having an internet access at home
Variables Having an internet access at home
Spearman’ correlation P-value
Students attitudes towards E-learning
-0.127* 0.25
* indicated that correlation coefficient is significant at the (0.10) level

The result in table 4.13, showed that the value of correlation coefficient between
the dependent variable (students’ attitudes towards E-learning) and having an

45
internet access at home, is equal to (-0.127) which is statistically insignificant as
the p-value is greater than (0.05)level. This result indicated that there is no
significant association between students’ attitudes towards E-learning and having
an internet access at home . So students having access to internet at home has no
effect on the students attitudes towards study through E-learning program.

4.4.6 RESULTS OF TESTING HYPOTHESIS SIX


Hypothesis six of this research stated that: “There is a significant association
between previous experience in computer, and the students attitudes towards E-
learning”.

Table 4.14, showed the correlation relationship between students attitudes towards E-learning
and previous experience in using computer
Variables Previous experience in using computer
Spearman’ correlation P-value
Students attitudes towards E-learning
0.254** 0.02
*** indicated that correlation coefficient is significant at the (0.01) level

The result in table 4.4, showed that, the value of correlation coefficient between
the dependent variable (students’ attitudes towards E-learning) and the student
previous experience in using computer is equal to (0.254) which is statistically
significant at the (0.05)level. This result proved that having previous experience in
using computer has a positive effect on the students’ attitudes towards E-learning.

46
CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION

5.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter summarizes the study and then provides findings towards E-learning,
recommendations and suggestions for further research relating to the use of E-
learning in Saudi universities.

5.2 MAIN FINDINGS


Based on data analysis, in the previous chapter, and answering research questions,
and testing research hypotheses, the study concluded by the following findings:
1. The study found that, the that the majority of the students with 73.8% have a
personal computer, which means that they are ready to join the program of
E-learning in the university. Whereas the results found that the majority of
the students by 96.8% confirmed that they have access to internet at home,
and the majority of them (63.1) have an experience in using computer for
more than 5 years.

2. The study revealed that, the students have positive attitudes towards e-
learning program in King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah, and the most
important things that support the students positive perceptions towards e-
learning is that the majority of them confirmed that Using e-learning can
enable the students to accomplish tasks more quickly, and most students
prefer combination of online learning and face-to-face learning, in addition
to that the majority believed that studying through e-learning can increase

47
the students learning effectively, and finally the use of the E-learning will
facilitate the students study.

3. With regard to the students perspectives of the advantages, of e-learning the


study concluded that there are various advantages of e-learning, among the
most important ones is that: E-learning provides the students with easy
access to the learning materials. (e.g. recorded videos, reading documents …
etc.), E-learning can help student to ask questions and get immediate
feedback, the use of the E-learning will improve communication with the
teachers, in addition to that the use of the E-learning will improve the
pedagogic value of the courses.

4. The study showed that, one of most disadvantages facing students to use E-
learning is the technical problems during the use of web platform which is
considered as one of the disadvantages of using e-learning.

5. The study proved that, there is a significant association between students’


attitudes towards E-learning, and their perceived to the advantages of E-
learning. So this mean that as the students perceived the advantages of E-
learning in a better way, this will encourage them to join E-learning class.

6. The study found that, that there is a significant association between students’
attitudes towards E-learning and the students age. This means that students
age has a significant effect on their attitudes towards study through E-
learning program.

48
7. The study found that, there is no significant association between students’
attitudes towards E-learning and the students level, and having internet
access at home. So students level and having access to internet at home have
no effect on the students attitudes towards study through E-learning
program.

8. The study showed that, that there is significant but negative association
between students’ attitudes towards E-learning and having a personal
computer. This indicated that, if the students has no personal computer this
will affect negatively on his attitudes to join e-learning .

9. The study concluded that, having previous experience in using computer has a
positive effect on the students’ attitudes towards E-learning.

5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

The recommendations of the current study will be categorized then generalized as a


message to the desired people, organizations and authorities.
Curriculum design makers, the current study proved a very high positive attitude
from the students to use e-learning in studying English. The researcher seeks the
curriculum designers to make the content of e-courses more attractive and
motivating.

Authorities and decision makers, the study suggests to afford universities with
capabilities that help university professors to create an efficient e-learning
atmosphere to ease their task. The current study recommends to provide computers,

49
internet connections, and other equipment that facilitates the use of e-learning.

Teachers and instructors are recommended to activate their e-learning interaction


with their students with good choice of practices that cover the four skills speaking,
listening, reading and writing.

Students, are encouraged to use the e-learning facilities offered by KAU. There is a
big deposit of learning materials and activities that engage them in learning English
whenever they want, wherever they are.

5.4 Suggestions for Further Research


Based on the review of the literature of e-learning, there is a high demand for
further research. For example, further research investigating the perceptions of
lecturers holding various degrees, experience, and specialties towards e-learning is
recommended. Furthermore, exploring the perceptions of educationalists in Saudi
Arabia towards the impact of e-learning pedagogy on traditional teaching strategies
would enrich the debate about e- learning in Saudi Higher Education.

Moreover, exploring the perceptions of e- learning in graduate studies is highly


recommended. It is necessary to investigate whether e-learning can provide a better
quality of learning experience for graduate students than undergraduate students.

Finally, there is very little literature on the use of Web 2.0, including mobiles and
social networking in e-learning. It is highly recommended that researchers investigate
the impact of utilizing these tools in e-courses on student engagement.

50
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54
Appendices
Appendix A

University Students’ Perception of E-Learning Survey

Dear Student,

This questionnaire is a part of a study for a Master’s Degree. It aims to identify


Students’ Attitudes towards E-Learning in English Classroom. You are kindly
requested to answer the different questions by ticking the right answer. Your
answers will be used for research interest and will not be published anywhere. I do
appreciate your cooperation.

Part one: General information


Age: 15-20 20 - 25 Other Level: 101 102 103 104

Do you have a personal computer: Yes No


Do you have access to internet at home: Yes No

How long have you been using your computer?


Less than 1 year 1-5 years Above 5 years Never used the computer before

Part Two: Attitudes towards e-learning

Keys: 5 (Strongly Agree) 4 (Agree) 3 (Neutral) 2 (Disagree) 1 (Strongly Disagree)

5 4 3 2 1
Statements
1 Studying through e-learning can increase my learning effectively.
2 The E-learning platforms is easy to understand and use.
3 The use of the E-learning will facilitate my study.
4 The use of the E-learning will improve communication with the teachers.
5 The use of the E-learning will improve the pedagogic value of the courses.
6 The use of the E-learning will improve communication with the colleagues.
7 The use of the web platform has been disrupted by technical problems
8 E-learning can help me ask questions and get immediate feedback.
9 I don’t see any usefulness of e-learning
10 Using e-learning can enable me to accomplish tasks more quickly.

55
‫‪11‬‬ ‫‪I’m afraid employers may not prefer to hire e-learning graduates‬‬
‫‪12‬‬ ‫‪I prefer combination of online learning and face-to-face learning.‬‬
‫‪13‬‬ ‫‪E-learning costs more than classroom learning.‬‬
‫‪14‬‬ ‫‪E-learning provides me with easy access to the learning materials. (e.g. recorded‬‬
‫)‪videos, reading documents … etc.‬‬

‫‪Appendix B‬‬

‫اﺳﺗﺑﯾﺎن ﻋن اﺗﺟﺎھﺎت اﻟطﻼب ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣرﺣﻠﺔ اﻟﺟﺎﻣﻌﯾﺔ ﻧﺣو اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾم اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﻲ‬

‫ﻋزﯾزي اﻟطﺎﻟب‪:‬‬

‫ھذا اﻻﺳﺗﺑﯾﺎن ﺟزء ﻣن دراﺳﺔ ﻟﻠﺣﺻول ﻋﻠﻰ درﺟﺔ اﻟﻣﺎﺟﺳﺗﯾر‪ .‬وﯾﮭدف إﻟﻰ ﺗﺣدﯾد ﻣﯾول واﺗﺟﺎھﺎت اﻟطﻼب‬
‫ﻧﺣو اﻟﺗﻌﻠم اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﻲ ﻓﻲ دراﺳﺔ اﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻹﻧﺟﻠﯾزﯾﺔ‪ .‬ﯾرﺟﻰ ﻣﻧك اﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋن اﻷﺳﺋﻠﺔ ﻋن طرﯾق ﺗﺣدﯾد درﺟﺔ‬
‫ﻣواﻓﻘﺗك ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛل ﻧﻘطﺔ‪ .‬ﺳﯾﺗم اﺳﺗﺧدام إﺟﺎﺑﺎﺗك ﻟﻐرض اﻟﺑﺣث ﻓﻘط ‪ ٫‬وﻟن ﯾﺗم ﻧﺷرھﺎ ﻓﻲ أي ﻣﻛﺎن ‪.‬‬

‫اﻟﺟزء اﻷول‪ :‬ﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬

‫أﻛﺛر ﻣن ‪٢٥‬‬ ‫‪٢٥-٢٠‬‬ ‫‪٢٥-١٥‬‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻣر‪:‬‬


‫‪١٠٤‬‬ ‫‪١٠٣‬‬ ‫‪١٠٢‬‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺳﺗوى ‪١٠١ :‬‬

‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻧﻌم‬ ‫ھل ﻟدﯾك ﺟﮭﺎز ﻛﻣﺑﯾوﺗر ﺷﺧﺻﻲ ‪:‬‬


‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻧﻌم‬ ‫ھل ﻟدﯾك إﻣﻛﺎﻧﯾﺔ اﻟوﺻول إﻟﻰ اﻹﻧﺗرﻧت ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﻧزل‪:‬‬

‫ﻣﻧذ ﻣﺗﻰ واﻧت ﺗﺳﺗﺧدم ﺟﮭﺎز اﻟﻛﻣﺑﯾوﺗر اﻟﺧﺎص ﺑك؟‬


‫ﻟم اﺳﺗﺧدم اﻟﻛﻣﺑﯾوﺗر ﻣن ﻗﺑل‬ ‫ﻓوق ‪ 5‬ﺳﻧوات‬ ‫‪ 1-5‬ﺳﻧوات‬ ‫أﻗل ﻣن ﺳﻧﺔ واﺣدة‬

‫اﻟﺟزء اﻟﺛﺎﻧﻲ‪ :‬اﻟﻣواﻗف ﺗﺟﺎه اﻟﺗﻌﻠم اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﻲ‬

‫‪) 1‬ﻻ أواﻓق ﺑﺷدة(‬ ‫‪) 2‬ﻏﯾر ﻣواﻓق(‬ ‫‪) 3‬ﻣﺣﺎﯾد(‬ ‫‪) 4‬أواﻓق(‬ ‫اﻻﺟﺎﺑﺎت‪) 5 :‬أواﻓق ﺑﺷدة(‬

‫‪١‬‬ ‫‪٢‬‬ ‫‪٣‬‬ ‫‪٤‬‬ ‫‪٥‬‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺎط اﻟﺑﺣث‬ ‫م‬


‫ﯾﻣﻛن ﻟﻠدراﺳﺔ ﻣن ﺧﻼل اﻟﺗﻌﻠم اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﻲ زﯾﺎدة ﺗﻌﻠﯾﻣﻲ ﺑﺷﻛل ﻓﻌﺎل‪.‬‬ ‫‪١‬‬
‫إن ﻣﻧﺻﺎت اﻟﺗﻌﻠم اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﻲ ﺳﮭﻠﺔ اﻟﻔﮭم واﻻﺳﺗﺧدام‪.‬‬ ‫‪٢‬‬
‫ﺳوف ﯾﺳﮭل اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﺗﻌﻠم اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﻲ دراﺳﺗﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫‪٣‬‬
‫ﺳﯾﺣﺳن اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﺗﻌﻠم اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﻲ اﻟﺗواﺻل ﻣﻊ اﻟﻣﻌﻠﻣﯾن‪.‬‬ ‫‪٤‬‬
‫ﺳﯾﺣﺳن اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﺗﻌﻠم اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﻲ اﻟﻘﯾﻣﺔ اﻟﺗرﺑوﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﻣواد اﻟدراﺳﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ادرﺳﮭﺎ‬ ‫‪٥‬‬
‫ﺳﯾﺣﺳن اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﺗﻌﻠم اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﻲ اﻟﺗواﺻل ﻣﻊ زﻣﻼﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟدراﺳﺔ‬ ‫‪٦‬‬
‫اﺳﺗﺧدام ﻣﻧﺻﺔ اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾم اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﻲ ﺗﺗﻌطل ﺑﺳﺑب ﻣﺷﺎﻛل ﺗﻘﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫‪٧‬‬
‫ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﯾﺳﺎﻋدﻧﻲ اﻟﺗﻌﻠم اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﻲ ﻓﻲ طرح اﻷﺳﺋﻠﺔ واﻟﺣﺻول ﻋﻠﻰ اﺟﺎﺑﺎت ﻓورﯾﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪٨‬‬

‫‪56‬‬
‫ﻻ أرى أي ﻓﺎﺋدة ﻟﻠﺗﻌﻠم اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﻲ‬ ‫‪٩‬‬
‫ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﯾﺳﺎﻋدﻧﻲ اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾم اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﻲ ﻓﻲ إﻧﺟﺎز اﻟﻣﮭﺎم ﺑﺳرﻋﺔ أﻛﺑر‪.‬‬ ‫‪١٠‬‬
‫أﺧﺷﻰ أن أﺻﺣﺎب اﻟﻌﻣل ﻗد ﻻ ﯾﻔﺿﻠون ﺗوظﯾف ﺧرﯾﺟﻲ اﻟﺗﻌﻠم اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﻲ‬ ‫‪١١‬‬
‫أﻧﺎ أﻓﺿل اﻟﺟﻣﻊ ﺑﯾن اﻟﺗﻌﻠم ﻋﺑر اﻹﻧﺗرﻧت واﻟﺗﻌﻠم وﺟﮭﺎ ً ﻟوﺟﮫ‪.‬‬ ‫‪١٢‬‬
‫ﺗﻛﺎﻟﯾف اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾم اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﻲ أﻛﺛر ﻣن اﻟﺗﻌﻠم ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔﺻول اﻟدراﺳﯾﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪١٣‬‬
‫ﯾوﻓر ﻟﻲ اﻟﺗﻌﻠم اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﻲ ﺳﮭوﻟﺔ اﻟوﺻول إﻟﻰ اﻟﻣواد اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾﻣﯾﺔ‪) .‬ﻣﺛل ﻣﻘﺎطﻊ اﻟﻔﯾدﯾو اﻟﻣﺳﺟﻠﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫‪١٤‬‬
‫ووﺛﺎﺋق اﻟﻘراءة ‪ ...‬إﻟﺦ(‬

‫‪57‬‬