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International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 7 (2014) 51–67

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International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijdrr

Review Article

A critical review of retrofitting methods for unreinforced


masonry structures
Subhamoy Bhattacharya a,n, Sanket Nayak 1,b, Sekhar Chandra Dutta 2,b
a
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford,
Surrey GU27XH, United Kingdom
b
School of Infrastructure, Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Bhubaneswar 751013, Odisha, India

a r t i c l e i n f o abstract

Article history: Unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings are common throughout Latin America, the
Received 26 March 2013 Himalayan region, Eastern Europe, Indian subcontinent and other parts of Asia. It has
Received in revised form been observed that these buildings cannot withstand the lateral loads imposed by an
6 December 2013
earthquake and often fails, in a brittle manner. Methods for retrofitting URM buildings to
Accepted 9 December 2013
increase the time required for collapse and also to improve the overall strength widely
Available online 19 December 2013
vary. This review has collated information on various types of retrofitting methods either
Keywords: under research or early implementation. Furthermore, these methods are categorized and
Unreinforced masonry critically analyzed to help further understand which methods are most suitable for future
Earthquake
research or application in developing countries. The comparison of the different methods
Lateral loads
is based on economy, sustainability and buildability and provides a useful insight. The
Brittle
Retrofit study may provide useful guidance to policy makers, planners, designers, architects and
engineers in choosing a suitable retrofitting methodology.
Crown Copyright & 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents

1. Background to the problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52


1.1. Importance of studying unreinforced masonry (URM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
2. Types of URM buildings vulnerable to collapse during earthquakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
2.1. Adobe buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
2.2. Brick masonry buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
2.3. Stone masonry buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
3. Common failure mechanisms of URM buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
3.1. Adobe buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
3.2. Brick masonry buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
3.3. Stone masonry buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
4. Existing URM retrofitting technologies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
4.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
4.2. Surface treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

n
Corresponding author. Tel./fax: þ44 1483689534.
E-mail addresses: s.bhattacharya@surrey.ac.uk, subhamoy.bhattacharya@gmail.com (S. Bhattacharya), sanketiitbbsr@gmail.com,
sn12@iitbbs.ac.in (S. Nayak), scdind2000@gmail.com, scdutta@iitbbs.ac.in (S.C. Dutta).
1
Mobile: þ91 94373 10275; fax: þ 91 674 2306203.
2
Mobile: þ91 78944 07830; fax: þ91 674 2306203.

2212-4209/$ - see front matter Crown Copyright & 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2013.12.004
52 S. Bhattacharya et al. / International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 7 (2014) 51–67

4.2.1. General surface treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58


4.2.2. Application of shotcrete. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
4.3. Stitching and grout/epoxy injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
4.4. Re-pointing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
4.5. External reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
4.5.1. Bamboo reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
4.5.2. Seismic wallpaper or glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) reinforcement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
4.6. Strengthening of junction of URM walls by using L-shaped reinforcement and poly-propylene (PP) band . . . . . . . . . . . 59
4.7. Post-tensioning using rubber tyres. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
4.8. Confinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
4.9. Mesh reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
4.9.1. Polymer mesh reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
4.9.2. PP packaging strip mesh reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
4.9.3. Steel reinforcement in Peru. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
4.9.4. Comparing various methods of mesh reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
5. Summary and conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Acknowledgments: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

1. Background to the problem developing countries, there exists a vicious cycle whereby
they do not possess the wealth to develop their infra-
Earthquakes are results of the deformations of tectonic structure sufficiently to withstand the damages caused by
plates on two sides of a fault resulting from the tendency earthquakes and conversely, earthquake damage affects
of relative displacement between the two tectonic plates. them from developing their economy.
These deformations take place over the years, strain
energy keeps on accumulating in the tectonic plates.
1.1. Importance of studying unreinforced masonry (URM)
Finally, a slip occurs at the fault when the plates slips
back to their original undeformed shape suddenly releas- Earthquakes are one of the most deadly forms of
ing a tremendous amount of energy. The above pro- natural disaster, yet human fatality does not occur directly
cess generates earthquakes as per the classical elastic because of ground motions; people die as a result of falling
rebound theory. Such earthquakes are called inter-plate
structure. A vast amount of research has been carried out
earthquakes. However, if there is a weak zone in the plate over the last few decades to prevent the collapse of tall
itself then during the process of accumulation of deforma-
buildings, resulting in new building codes and guidelines
tion, a crack may suddenly occur resulting in instanta- being written. Such structures are found in wealthy
neous energy release. This also causes earthquake known
countries and are now reasonably designed for seismic
as intra-plate earthquake. Further, volcanic eruption and loading that they do not cause many casualties. However,
removal of mineral ores without adequate protective
in rural areas of developing countries where people are
measures may also be the reasons for generation of generally poor and equipped with little knowledge of
earthquake. However, irrespective of the cause of the
engineering or construction, very little work has been
earthquake, the consequences can be devastating to done to help protect housing against the dangers of
human lives, see for example Table 1, which lists the
earthquakes. In these areas masonry becomes the major
casualties from a few past major earthquakes. For some form of habitat. These remote areas are difficult to reach
for the emergency services meaning that most of the
Table 1 fatalities will occur at the time of the earthquake as rescue
Earthquakes causing the greatest number of casualties in the last
is very unlikely. However, the sustainability of masonry
100 years.
structures has been questioned during past earthquakes.
Year Location Casualties These structures perform well under gravity loading due to
satisfactory compression carrying capacity of masonry.
1908 Messina (Italy) 70,000 to 100,000 However, it is a challenging task for the engineering
1920 Gansu (China) 200,000
community to improve the shear and tension carrying
1923 Kanto (Japan) 143,000
1927 Qinghai (China) 200,000 capacity of masonry structures for achieving better sus-
1932 Gansu (China) 70,000 tainability of such structures during earthquakes. It is
1948 Ashgabat (Turkmenistan) 110,000 therefore vitally important that the engineering commu-
1970 Peru 66,000
nity is made aware of this problem, because solving it will
1976 Tangshan (China) 255,000
2001 Gujarat (India) 20,000
save hundreds of thousands of lives.
2003 Bam (Iran) 30,000 A history of exposure to the effects of serious earth-
2004 Sumatra (Indonesia) 220,000 quakes has allowed the engineering community to pro-
2005 Kashmir (Pakistan) 73,000 gressively increase its knowledge of how buildings
2008 Sichuan (China) 69,197
respond to seismic activity. Fig. 1 shows how the world
2010 Haiti 230,000
2011 Sikkim (India–Nepal border) 150 has been subjected to large number of earthquakes whose
epicenters are distributed all over the world. Table 2 shows
S. Bhattacharya et al. / International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 7 (2014) 51–67 53

Fig. 1. Earthquake epicenters in world from 1963 to 1998 [1].

Table 2
Historic development of earthquake engineering practice [2].

Earthquake Remarks Engineering developments

Messina (Italy), 1908 Following 100,000 fatalities, committee of engineers Base shear equation evolved (i.e. lateral force
and professors appointed by Italian government to exerted on structure is typically 5–15% of
study failures and set design guidelines building0 s dead weight)
Kanto (Japan), 1923 Bridges and buildings destroyed. Foundations settled, Seismic coefficient method was incorporated in
tilted and moved design of Japanese highway bridges
Long Beach (USA), 1933 Destruction of building, particularly schools First earthquake for which acceleration records
were obtained from recently developed
accelerograph
Niigata (Japan), 1964 Soil can also be major contributor to earthquake Soil liquefaction studies started
damage
San Fernando (USA), 1971 Failure of bridges and dams and soil effects observed Liquefaction studies intensified and bridge retrofit
studies started
Mexico City (Mexico), 1985 Amplification of ground motion Translated in code of practice
Northridge (USA), 1994 Failure of steel connections in bridges Importance of ductility in construction realized
Kobe (Japan), 1995 Massive foundation failure (soil effects) Lateral spreading is thought to be one of the main
causes. JRA (1996) code modified for design of
bridges
Chi-Chi (Taiwan), 1999 Many bridges collapsed, which were located close to Importance of proximity to plate boundaries and
faults plates realized
Koceli (Turkey), 1999 Damage to Bolu tunnel due to fault movement. Building conforming to design codes performed
Damage to buildings and bridges well
Bhuj (India), 2001 Large scale destruction National Program for Earthquake Engineering
Education (NPEEE) formed and Earthquake
Geotechnical Engineering studies started in India
Sumatra, 2004 Destruction to built environment caused by New research started on tsunami warning systems
earthquake and giant tsunami waves

how past earthquakes are constantly teaching engineers 2. Types of URM buildings vulnerable to collapse during
about new aspects of earthquake engineering and leading earthquakes
to developments within this field. This critical review is a
continuation of the international, award-winning Mondia- URM buildings can broadly be arranged into three
lago project, ‘Improving the Structural Strength under common categories: adobe, brick and stone masonry. Each
Seismic Loading of Non-Engineered Buildings in the Hima- of these has features and construction methods that are
layan Region’ and will build upon and extend the work dependent on its geographic location and level of local
carried out to date. It is in this way that this review aims to expertise. Although cheap and easy to build, all URM
contribute towards the ongoing development of engineers buildings have been observed to be susceptible to earth-
within the field of earthquake engineering. quakes, as will be explained in this review.
54 S. Bhattacharya et al. / International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 7 (2014) 51–67

2.1. Adobe buildings in adobe dwellings, which accounts for 20% of the world0 s
urban/suburban population [4].
Adobe structures, which consist of sun-dried blocks A typical adobe house, shown in Fig. 4, is a single storey
with mud mortar, have been popular throughout the construction with foundations that consist of medium to
world for thousands of years. This is because of the low- large graded rocks with mud mortar in between. The roof
cost and availability of construction materials, which can is usually composed of timber joists, or even bamboo,
be soil sourced from nearby fields and the ease of overlaid by corrugated metal sheets, clay tiles or thatch,
construction with no sophisticated equipment or expertise depending on the economy of the region. Adobe structures
required. A newly-constructed adobe house can cost as are highly prone to collapse during earthquakes causing
little as $10/m² in India. This popularity is illustrated by the considerable damage and loss of lives, as shown in Table 3.
high proportion of adobe housing present in different Furthermore, it is estimated that over 75% of earthquake
developing countries of Latin America, Africa, Asia, the fatalities over the last century were a result of buildings
Middle East and Southern Europe. However, most of these collapse [6].
developing countries are being visited by numerous earth-
quakes frequently, as may be well understood from the 2.2. Brick masonry buildings
pictorial representation of the seismically active areas all
over the world shown in Fig. 2. Further, the strong Bricks are extremely common in house construction
presence of such constructions all over the globe may be and have been used in this way since as early as 3500 BC.
seen in Fig. 3. Indeed, 30% of the world0 s population lives Brick masonry buildings consist of fired brick units bonded

Fig. 2. Distribution of seismically active regions across the globe, extracted from De Sensi [3].

Fig. 3. Earth construction distribution across the globe, extracted from De Sensi [3].
S. Bhattacharya et al. / International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 7 (2014) 51–67 55

Fig. 4. Typical adobe structures in Argentina and India, respectively, extracted from Blondet and Garcia [5].

Table 3
Effects of earthquakes on adobe buildings [5].

Earthquake Fatalities Adobe buildings damaged or collapsed People affected

El Salvador, 2001 1100 150,000 1.6 million


Southern Peru, 2001 81 25,000 –
Iran, 2003 26,000 85% of infrastructure destroyed 100,000 left homeless

to one another with mortar. The strength of the brick  Urban housing – Houses in urban communities are
depends on the purity of clay used and the temperature at often used for varying purposes with commercially
which it is fired. Mortar strength depends on the quality of functioning ground-floors underneath domestic hous-
the bonding agent used as well as the sand to bonding ing floors. These buildings frequently share common
agent ratio. The ability of the mortar to adhere to bricks is walls.
tremendously important for the wall0 s ability to resist in-
plane shear cracking during an earthquake, a failure mode These buildings tend to perform poorly in earthquakes
which will be discussed in Section 3 of this review. Brick as shown in Table 4 owing to the low strength of the stone
masonry housing is also vulnerable to collapse under and mortar used and the lack of adequate wall connec-
seismic loading; one of the worst death tolls inflicted from tions. The quality of local construction is often very low
an earthquake in China, 1976 caused the loss of approxi- due to the lack of skilled engineers involved. For example,
mately 240,000 lives, mainly owing to the collapse of brick in Nepal over 98% of buildings are constructed by the
masonry structures. Fig. 5 shows the severe damage of owners following the advice of local craftsmen [9].
URM building during Jabalpur earthquake, 1997.
3. Common failure mechanisms of URM buildings

2.3. Stone masonry buildings Construction methods and technologies are dependent
on local conditions and level of engineering expertise as
Stone masonry buildings can be found in Mediterra- well as demographic factors. For example, URM structures
nean Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, India, Nepal are common in North America but there are building codes
and other parts of Asia. They are a common type of in place to regulate construction and determine how well
construction in developing regions since they provide protected structures are from seismic loading. In contrast,
low-cost housing due to the local availability of the the rapid urbanization of countries such as Nepal has
materials constituting stone masonry buildings; a new resulted in a huge rise in demand for quick and cheap
house in India costs, on average, between $50–$90/m² housing without regulation or controls in place to ensure
[8]. Stone constructions can be separated into 2 different they are built to survive earthquakes. From past earth-
groups: quakes, these types of buildings have been observed to
demonstrate common failure mechanisms, which will be
 Rural housing – These are typically small dwellings that explained in this section. However, junction failure pre-
are 1 storey tall and contain small openings for win- ceded by out-of-plane collapse is the prime type of failure
dows and doors. The buildings are usually built as in all the 3 mentioned categories of URM buildings.
isolated buildings, not sharing any common walls with
other houses, and are used by a single family. The ‘khan’ 3.1. Adobe buildings
house is a common rural dwelling and consists of a
single-storey stone masonry outer frame surrounding a The reason adobe housing is so vulnerable to collapse
timber inner frame overlaid by thick flat roofs provid- during earthquakes is due to its heavy walls, which cause
ing good thermal insulation spread throughout rural a greater resultant force on the building caused from
India and in Nepal also. the lateral movement of the ground. In addition, adobe
56 S. Bhattacharya et al. / International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 7 (2014) 51–67

Fig. 5. Unreinforced brick masonry before and after 1997 Jabalpur earthquake, extracted from Sinha and Brzev [7].

Table 4
Percentage of masonry buildings that have collapsed in recent earth-
quakes [8].

Earthquake Location % of masonry Year


(magnitude) buildings that
collapsed

Athens earthquake, Greece (M5.9) 8 1999


Bovec earthquake, Slovenia (M5.6) 2 1998
Maharastra earthquake, India (M6.5) 5 1993

(iii)

Fig. 7. Shear cracks in unreinforced brick masonry building from the


1993 Killari earthquake, extracted from D’Ayala [11].
(i) (iv)

(v)
(ii)
and roofing can be due to local stress concentration due to
many other reasons. It is true if such buildings are
subjected to wave loading or tsunami loading then water
may cause substantial decrease in strength of adobe
blocks. So, the initiation of the failure under such type of
loading may be initiated by failure of such blocks.
Fig. 6. Common failure mechanisms for adobe structures including:
(i) separation of walls at corners; (ii) diagonal cracking in walls;
(iii) separation of roofing from walls; (iv) vertical cracking in walls;
(v) out-of-plane wall failure, extracted from CENAPRED [10]. 3.2. Brick masonry buildings

Some of the common modes of failure for brick


structures lacks in ductility and are consequently very masonry buildings are
brittle resulting in sudden catastrophic failures under
seismic loading. Failure of adobe structures is caused by  Failure of corner junction leading to out-of-plane col-
either the separation of walls at the corners or separation lapse is the prime type of failure.
of roofing from walls or more commonly cracking and  Shear cracks in walls, which tend to be initiated at the
subsequent failure of walls. These modes of failure are corners of openings in wall as can be seen in Fig. 7 after
demonstrated in Fig. 6. Though, the disintegration of floors the 1993 Killari earthquake.
S. Bhattacharya et al. / International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 7 (2014) 51–67 57

 Out-of-plane failure in long spans where the wall Uttarkashi (1991), Killari (1993), Northridge (1994), Kobe
topples as a result of poor connections between walls (1995), Jabalpur (1997), Chi Chi (1999), Chamoli (1999),
and at roof-wall interfaces. Bhuj (2001), Andaman (2002), Sumatra (2004), Kashmir
 After walls have collapsed, this can lead to the disin- (2005), Pakistan (2005), Sikkim (2006), Sumatra (2007),
tegration of floors and roofing and in severe cases, total Durgapur (2008), Haiti (2010), Chile (2010), Sikkim (2011),
collapse of the building occurs. Christchurch (2011) and Tohoku (2011) are a few to name
in this context. Further, details in this regard are available
These failures illustrate the importance of the following in the well accepted literature [12–30].
features of brick masonry buildings:

 Bond between mortar and bricks – this is the main


characteristic that will resist in-plane shear failures. 3.3. Stone masonry buildings
 Connection between wythes of brick walls – this can
prevent out-of-plane toppling. During seismic activity, common failure modes that
 Connection between walls at corners/junctions – this occur in stone masonry are
will prevent disintegration of the masonry at corners
and junctions, which is a common failure mechanism  De-lamination: It is typical for a stone masonry house
for brick buildings as shown in Fig. 8. to have two external walls with loose rubble infill
 Connections between walls and floors/roofing – this can between for increased thermal performance but when
have a significant effect on the safety of the building these walls are insufficiently attached to one another
during seismic activity as the collapse of the roofing and through the use of ‘through’ stones, they disintegrate
floors accounts for a high amount of the resulting and crack during the lateral motion induced by an
fatalities. earthquake.
 In long-span walls, overturning can occur in out-of-plane.
The above types of failure are also identified during  When connections between adjacent walls are of
many historical earthquakes in Indian sub-continent and adequate strength, the in-plane shear resistance of
outside India. Kern County (1952), Imperial Valley (1979), the wall is mobilized after which shear cracks develop.
South Italy (1980), Bihar (1988), Loma Prieta (1989), The various mechanisms for in-plane failure are shown
in Fig. 9.
 Junction failure leading to out-of-plane collapse is also
observed in many past earthquakes.

4. Existing URM retrofitting technologies

4.1. Introduction

For the reasons discussed previously, an increasing


amount of research has been carried out investigating
the retrofitting of existing URM buildings in order to
increase their collapse time under seismic loading and
thereby reduce the loss of lives resulting from sudden,
catastrophic building collapses. This section will collate
these methods and explore current research into their
Fig. 8. Failure of Junction of two orthogonal walls in URM building
during 2011 Sikkim earthquake. performance.

Fig. 9. In-plane failure mechanisms of URM walls: (a) shear failure; (b) sliding failure; (c) rocking failure; (d) toe crushing, extracted from Macabuag [31].
58 S. Bhattacharya et al. / International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 7 (2014) 51–67

4.2. Surface treatment reinforcement arrangement was varied; in the first test,
reinforcement and shotcrete were applied to one side of
4.2.1. General surface treatment the wall and in the second, the same amount of reinforcing
The surface treatment process involves constructing a steel mesh was distributed evenly on both sides of the panel.
or polymer mesh around the building exterior, which is then The tests were prepared in the following way:
coated with a layer of high-strength mortar. Alternatively,
shotcrete can be applied to the wall surface. The steel  4 mm diameter shear dowels were fixed into pre-
reinforcement can have a reinforcement ratio between 3 drilled holes in the wall at approximately 250 mm
and 8% (which means the ratio of the weight of steel centers.
reinforcement used to that of masonry may vary in a range  The reinforcement mesh was fixed into place in 2
of 3–8%) depending on the loading resistance required. different configurations.
This method is beneficial for use in developing areas as  After wetting the surface of the wall panel, shotcrete
it is possible to use fly-ash or rice-husk ash to replace up to was applied as illustrated in Fig. 10.
20% of the mortar, thereby reducing costs. It can also be
performed with unskilled workers. The system helps to
confine the masonry after cracking has occurred and it has During testing, lateral loading was applied in increasing
been shown to moderately increase the structure0 s ulti- increments up to failure of the wall. The results are summar-
mate lateral load resistance. Surface treatment also ized in Table 5. In both of the retrofit tests, the ultimate lateral
improves the out-of-plane resistance of masonry buildings load resistance of the walls was increased by a factor of
as it increases the height-to-thickness ratio of the walls approximately 3.6, and though the initial stiffness was unaf-
and thereby reducing any ‘arching action’. The disadvan- fected by the surface treatment, the stiffness at peak loading
tages of surface treatment are that the lack of ‘breathing’ of was increased by a factor of 3. Further, it can be concluded
the existing wall can lead to its deterioration and the that the use of shotcrete significantly increases the ultimate
architectural effects are significant. load carrying capacity of the retrofitted models. However, the
limitations regarding the use lie with the facts that, use of
shotcrete is time consuming, reduces available spaces, creates
4.2.2. Application of shotcrete disturbance in occupancy and affects the esthetics.
ElGawady et al. [32] carried out tests upon URM walls
and the retrofitted walls. In case of retrofitted walls, the

4.3. Stitching and grout/epoxy injection

This method involves injecting grout or epoxy into the


walls in order to fill any voids or cracks that have formed
due to the deterioration of the building. In addition,
existing cracks can be ‘stitched’ together using steel ties
and mortar. These techniques can restore the initial stiff-
ness of the wall. When using epoxy injection, the stiffness
increase has been shown to be less dramatic than the
increase in strength [33]. Further, the popularity of the use
of this technique is because of minimal cost, availability of
material and ease of implementation without requiring
much technical rigor. The most important aspect of its vast
use lies with the fact that it is sustainable. In addition to
initial stiffness, this method is also able to restore the
initial strength of masonry. However, the technique will be
successful only if the mechanical property of the mix and
Fig. 10. Application of shotcrete to URM wall, extracted from ElGawady its physical chemical compatibility with the masonry to be
et al. [32]. retrofitted is achieved.

Table 5
Shotcrete testing results [32].

Reference specimen Single-side reinforcement Double-side reinforcement

Initially, flexural cracks formed, progressively At 75% of ultimate load, first cracks occurred Hair cracks formed at load of 53.8 kN
worsening until rocking started (at 0.7% drift)
Sliding occurred followed by cracking in wall toes Small flexural cracks formed Visible cracking occurred at 82.9 kN
horizontally in shotcrete and propagated
Average lateral strength of 35.5 kN Separation of shotcrete layer from foundations Flexural cracking followed by rocking
behavior until failure at 126 kN
Toe and heal heavily damaged
S. Bhattacharya et al. / International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 7 (2014) 51–67 59

4.4. Re-pointing could be used with vertical reinforcement being externally


fixed post-construction (Fig. 11). By installing vertical
In cases where bricks are of good quality but the mortar reinforcement after wall construction, complications such
is poor, the mortar can be replaced to some extent with a as alignment of the reinforcement and trimming of the
higher strength bonding material. However, Tetley and bricks are avoided. Horizontal chicken wire mesh was used
Madabhushi [34] found that the addition of 2% Ordinary in one of the models alongside the bamboo and ring beam.
Portland Cement to the mortar made little or no difference During testing, all reinforced structures survived up to a
to the ultimate acceleration resistance. The advantages in 100% increase in displacement intensity. Better reinforced
the use of this technique may be enlisted as minimal cost models survived up to a 125% increase and one heavily
and convenience of implementation. On the other hand, reinforced model was even up to 400%.
this method is not sustainable and the success of this
technique lies with the compatibility of the new mortar
4.5.2. Seismic wallpaper or glass fibre-reinforced polymer
with that of existing bricks.
(GFRP) reinforcement
Testing of this technique was carried out on several
4.5. External reinforcement
models of URM walls with solid clay bricks and low
strength mortar [36]. All specimens were retrofitted with
Various external reinforcements which may be used for
vertical composite strips which were bonded on both faces
improving the strength are discussed briefly under the
of the wall using epoxy resin. Each wall was then subjected
following subsections.
to out-of-plane loading and displacement via an airbag
loading system. It was found that the ultimate flexural
4.5.1. Bamboo reinforcement
strength of all retrofitted specimens was increased.
The current method of reinforcement using bamboo is
Further, research by Man [37] has shown that GFRPs are
to use it as part of a system involving buttresses, ring
most effective when arranged at 451 to horizontal, as
beam, internal vertical reinforcement and horizontal inter-
demonstrated in Fig. 12. Diagonal shear compression tests
nal reinforcement. It has been shown that this system
and out-of-plane bending tests showed that this retrofit
increases the collapse time of adobe structure but has little
doubled the tensile strength of the wall at yield and
capacity to prevent cracking at low intensity ground
increases its ductility up to 7.5 times its original value.
motions. It was proposed by Dowling et al. [35] that the
Many researchers have carried out experiments to
same partnership of ring beam and bamboo reinforcement
investigate the efficiency of different types of FRP rehabi-
litation techniques for enhancement of the seismic resis-
tance of the masonry walls. Some of the major
contributions in this regard are available in [38–51]. These
studies revealed that there could be significant increase in
ultimate load carrying capacity, energy absorption and
ductility in case of retrofitted walls as compared with
un-retrofitted URM walls. The catastrophic failure pattern
in URM walls could be improved by a gradual failure
pattern by retrofitting the URM walls with FRP composite
material.

4.6. Strengthening of junction of URM walls by using


L-shaped reinforcement and poly-propylene (PP) band

Fig. 11. Bamboo reinforced wall with ring beam, extracted from Dowling A recent study (Fig. 13) has been carried out by Dutta
et al. [35]. et al. [52] to investigate the performance improvement

Fig. 12. Retrofitting of adobe wall using GFRPs, extracted from Man [37].
60 S. Bhattacharya et al. / International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 7 (2014) 51–67

Fig. 13. Strengthening of junction using L-shaped steel bars and PP band, extracted from Dutta et al. [52]. (a) Junction reinforced with L-shaped steel bars
and (b) Encasing junction by PP band.

Fig. 14. Constructing the post-tensioning strap, extracted from Turer et al. [53].

shaking. For similar wall models tested in shaking table,


Table 6
Performance of retrofitted specimens compared to unreinforced wall it was observed that the URM wall failed at an acceleration
[53]. of 0.25g, whereas, the failure of the walls strengthened
using L-shaped reinforcement and PP bands was at 0.60g
Horizontal Vertical Horizontal and vertical
and 0.80g, respectively. These experiments have clearly
reinforcement reinforcement reinforcement
shown about 3 fold increases in strength due to the
70% increase in 40% increase in More than 10% increase retrofitting options adopted.
failure failure acceleration in failure acceleration
acceleration 4.7. Post-tensioning using rubber tyres

Post-tensioning of URM walls using scrap rubber tyres,


in URM by strengthening the junction, the most vulnerable which have an embedded steel mesh, has been proposed
part of a masonry wall, using L-shaped reinforcement and as a potential retrofitting solution. The tyres are assembled
PP band. For L-shaped reinforcement, steel bars of dia- as shown in Fig. 14. To alleviate stress concentrations at
meter 8 mm was used in alternate layers to strengthen the wall corners, half cylindrical wooden logs are placed for
junction. For the method of strengthening using PP band, the rubber to mold around. After installation, the rubber
walls were encased with horizontal and vertical PP bands stretches and looses its post-tensioning effect, and so
at regular interval depending on the size of the wall. Both the bolts are tightened after 3 days to ensure enough
the cases were subjected to unidirectional sinusoidal compressive force is applied.
S. Bhattacharya et al. / International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 7 (2014) 51–67 61

Testing was carried out by Turer et al. [53] on a 1:10 smaller elements improves the in-plane deformability and
scale model using a simple shake table. Testing was carried energy dissipation of the walls. Actually, the masonry
out using the models that were unreinforced, horizontally being confined by reinforced concrete frame may behave
reinforced, vertically reinforced and reinforced in both effectively as a diagonal compressive strut under lateral
directions, respectively. The results are shown in Table 6. loading and may improve the behavior considerably as
The addition of post-tensioning improves the failure compared to what is observed in case of a bare frame
mechanisms of the models; cracks were less pronounced (frame containing concrete columns and beams only).
and better spread and the brittle failure usually associated
with these buildings changed into a more ductile response
4.9. Mesh reinforcement
so that the roof did not collapse. The combined horizontal
and vertical reinforcement resulted in a foundation failure
4.9.1. Polymer mesh reinforcement
rather than in shear.
Two types of polymer mesh that have been used to
retrofit URM structures are an industrial geo-grid and a
4.8. Confinement
weaker mesh that is usually used as a ‘soft’ fence on
construction sites as shown in Fig. 16. In a study carried
This building method as shown in Fig. 15, involves
out by Blondet et al. [55] the mesh was wrapped around
introducing reinforced tie columns that confine the build-
the wall and then coated with a mud plaster finish. Three
ing walls at all corners and intersections [33]. Europe
variations of the geo-grid (100%, 75% and 50% area cover-
recommends its use in EC8 and in China; it is used in
age) and one soft mesh system (80% area coverage) were
new construction as well as retrofitting existing buildings.
tested. Each specimen was dynamically tested using a uni-
Research carried out by Paikara and Rai [54] has investi-
directional shake table. Table 7 summarizes the results.
gated the performance of half-scale masonry walls (con-
In fact, while going through Table 7, it may be easy to
fined using reinforced concrete ties) under cyclic loading.
understand the relative performance of soft mesh and
The tests demonstrated that confining wall sections into
different types of geo-grid.

4.9.2. PP packaging strip mesh reinforcement


This method of reinforcement uses PP packaging strips
that can be found with many packaged items. The strips
are intertwined to produce a mesh that is then attached to
the wall by drilling through it and using ties. Testing under
static loading had been carried out by Macabuag [31], in
which two scaled wall sections were constructed (with
one retrofitted) and tested in a diagonal compression
machine (Fig. 17). It was found that the horizontal strips
prevent separation of bricks on the same row. Vertical
bands increase the frictional resistance between rows and
consequently prevent sliding. In conclusion, this method
effectively improves the shear resistance of test specimens
under static loading but there was a recurring problem of
the mesh snapping at points of stress concentration such
as the wall corners. A similar test was carried out at Tokyo
Fig. 15. Reinforced tie columns containing masonry wall panels, University by Meguro et al. [9] under dynamic loading
extracted from ElGawady et al. [33]. conditions. The testing showed how the retrofit improved

Fig. 16. Geo-grid and soft fence mesh, respectively, extracted from Blondet et al. [55].
62 S. Bhattacharya et al. / International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 7 (2014) 51–67

Table 7
Performance summary of polymer mesh reinforcement [55].

Mesh Area covering Results


type (%)

Geo-grid 100 Behaved as a rigid body with only small cracks developing beyond deflections of 80 mm
One wall slides from its foundation during deflections of 100 mm without any significant damage
Beyond deflections of 120 mm walls showed signs of torsional response, sliding at the base and additional cracking
Geo-grid 75 Vertical cracks at the corners and diagonal cracks on the longitudinal walls developed beyond deflections of 80 mm
Cracking continued beyond deflections of 130 mm
The wall was able to keep its integrity as the mesh provided displacement control and a means of distributing stresses
Geo-grid  50 (critical) Cracks initiated at deflections of 80 mm yet were much larger
During shaking at 130 mm deflection, severe structural damage was sustained
Though collapse was averted it was clear that insufficient reinforcement was provided
Soft mesh 80 Small cracking initiated at deflections of 80 mm
Major cracks were observed at deflections of 130 mm
Beyond deflections of 130 mm the wall had broken into several large pieces and was only held together by the mesh
In places the mesh had deformed or snapped indicating that the amount provided was barely adequate

Fig. 17. Non-retrofitted and retrofitted wall panel, extracted from Macabuag [31].

the specimen seismic performance significantly, displaying Furthermore, in 2001, an earthquake occurred (Mw¼8.4)
increased load resistance and ductility before failure. in South Peru with similar results, shown in Fig. 18.
Macabuag et al. [56] studied the effect of retrofitting of An experimental study using steel strips has been
URM buildings in Nepal using PP meshing, being subjected carried out by Taghdi et al. [59] to retrofit low-rise
to artificially generated strong shocks. The study con- masonry walls. It has been reported from the study that
cluded that, use of PP mesh prevents spoiling out the steel strips are effective in increasing the in-plane
masonry blocks and thus enables the system to accom- strength, ductility and energy dissipation capacity. It has
modate more deformation without collapse. also been observed that the anchor bolts along the vertical
steel strips help to eliminate the premature buckling of
4.9.3. Steel reinforcement in Peru masonry walls.
After extensive testing at the laboratories of the Ponti-
fical Catholic University of Peru (PUCP), it was decided by 4.9.4. Comparing various methods of mesh reinforcement
the Regional Seismological Center for South America Experiments were carried out by Tetley and Madab-
(CERESIS) to reinforce some adobe buildings with steel hushi [34] to compare various retrofitting methods includ-
wire mesh, between 1994 and 1999 [57]. This steel mesh ing introducing steel reinforcing bars, a steel mesh cage
was applied externally at critical locations of adobe walls around the wall and a similar mesh formed from plastic
such as at corners and free ends. This was then covered carrier-bags (Fig. 19). All tests were made with 1:5 scale
with a layer of mortar. A large earthquake (Mw ¼8.0) adobe walls consisting of gravel, simulating adobe blocks
occurred in Pisco, Peru on August 15, 2007 resulting in and mortar made from kaolin clay and sand. The control
519 deaths, the collapse of over 70,000 houses and the wall failed at an acceleration of 0.32g. The steel caging
serious damage of more than 33,000 houses. However, 5 method was tested by constructing a 13 mm  13 mm net
houses in Ica that had been reinforced in 1998 survived the mesh and then constructing the wall within it. Mortar was
earthquake without suffering any damage. Major cracking then plastered over the steel mesh. The results showed
or complete collapse occurred in adjacent buildings but that there was significant increase in ductility demon-
even the partially reinforced buildings performed better strated by large deformations before failure occurred and
than the unreinforced brick and adobe buildings of Peru. an increase of acceleration resistance by a factor of 3.
S. Bhattacharya et al. / International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 7 (2014) 51–67 63

Fig. 18. Reinforced and unreinforced neighboring houses after 2001 earthquake, extracted from Bartolomé et al. [58].

Fig. 19. (a), (c) and (e) shows various retrofitting methods carried out and (b), (d) and (f) show their effect on test walls, respectively, extracted from Tetley
and Madabhushi [34]. (a) Unreinforced control wall, (b) Failure of adobe wall around reinforced corner section, (c) Steel mesh cage, (d) More contained
failure of mesh-reinforced wall, (e) Plastic carrier-bag net and (f) Increased wall ductility using plastic bag mesh.

The final failure, at an acceleration of 1.02g, was due to a is then discussed to show that such buildings form a large
separation of the mesh from the base. part of the habitat of the ordinary people. Thus, failure of
A similar mesh was installed but using plastic carrier- such building may have great impact on human civiliza-
bags instead of steel. The bags were cut into 20 mm strips, tion (as may be well understood from Tables 3 and 4).
braided together and then used to form a 50 mm  50 mm So, need of improving performance of such buildings
square mesh, which was fixed to the wall using simple becomes an issue of great importance to civil and struc-
tacks. Three courses of masonry were then built on top of tural engineers involved in infrastructure building for
the mesh to fix it properly, after which plaster using ordinary people. With this background discussion, various
mortar was applied. Testing showed increased ductility ways of improving the performance of masonry building
and tensile strength of the wall. The transverse wall failed have been evaluated, summarizing their features in
at 0.64g and then total in-plane failure occurred at 1.02g Tables 5–11. Such studies highlighting overall structural
(double the control wall resistance). performance, economic aspects and also the aspect of
sustainability and ease of construction may lead to follow-
5. Summary and conclusions ing broad conclusive understanding about state-of-the-art
regarding seismic performance of masonry building.
The study begins with broad idea about the casualties
due to past earthquakes in about last 100 years discussed (A) From these assessments it can be concluded that the
through presentation of Table 1. Following such discus- mesh retrofitting techniques and the softer methods
sions, historic evolution of various earthquake resisting as listed here are the most feasible for application in
practices have discussed and presented in Table 2. developing countries. They are namely, re-pointing,
The importance of failure of adobe and masonry buildings stitching and grout/epoxy injection, polymer mesh
64 S. Bhattacharya et al. / International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 7 (2014) 51–67

Table 8
Summary of previous research into URM retrofitting techniques.

Technology Conclusions

Surface treatment using Shotcrete Increased lateral load resistance by factor of 3.6 under static loading as well as ductility of wall
Stitching and grout/epoxy Grout or epoxy injected into walls to fill voids or cracks. Also, existing cracks can be ‘stitched’ together using steel
injection ties and mortar. Can restore the initial stiffness of the wall
Re-pointing with 2% ordinary No noticeable improvement in performance under dynamic loading
Portland cement
Bamboo Uncertainty about performance of vertical internal reinforcement at low earthquake intensity
Seismic wallpaper Shown to be effective at increasing wall resistance to lateral acceleration. Optimum arrangement of GFRPs was at
451 to horizontal, which doubled tensile strength at yield
Post-tensioning using rubber tyres Combining horizontal and vertical reinforcements improved the lateral acceleration resistance of the masonry
models by 100% and increased their ductility
Confinement Confinement improves in-plane deformability and energy dissipation of the walls
Center core Placing a grouted core in the center of walls can double ultimate lateral load resistance. Creates zones of varying
stiffness/strength
Polymer mesh Can prevent partial or total collapse of brick-masonry building during earthquake. Placing mesh at critical wall
locations may improve efficiency of method
Polypropylene packaging strips Demonstrated improved shear resistance of brick walls under static loading and significant increase in
performance under dynamic loading
Steel mesh cage Improved lateral acceleration resistance and increased ductility of adobe wall under testing. Proven to be highly
effective in adobe houses, surviving two major earthquakes in Peru with little or no damage
Plastic carrier bag mesh Similar performance to steel mesh cage
L-Shaped reinforcement Increases the resistance by preventing junction failure

Table 9
Discussion of retrofitting technologies according to economic criteria.

Retrofit method Economic features

Surface treatment (shotcrete) Requires purchase of shot-creting system including pressurized hoses and pump, although initial installation
costs could be offest by retrofitting many houses. Also requires manufacturing of concrete and use of steel
reinforcement mesh and the inclusion of at least one experienced worker, making it too expensive for
application in poor communities
Stitching and grout/epoxy injection Minimal costs as such products are readily available and can be easily applied
Re-pointing Minimal costs as only required the manufacturing of a stronger mortar
Bamboo reinforcement For 1000 sq. ft house, cost of reinforcing is $225, in comparison to $400 when using steel reinforcement
Seismic wallpaper ‘E’-glass costs $2–$4 per kg. Field experiments have shown that retrofitting with a composite material is cost-
effective [60]
Post-tensioning (rubber tyres) Combined cost of scrap tyres and connectors is  $0.6/m². This can be further reduced by mass production of
connectors
Confinement Cost-effective for application in new building, costing little in comparison to the overall construction costs. As a
retrofit, requires demolition and reconstruction of wall sections making it uneconomical for this purpose
Polymer mesh reinforcement Industrial geogrid Mesh cost: $2/m² Application cost: $19/m²
Soft polymer mesh Mesh cost: $0.5/m² Application cost: $4/m²
PP strip reinforcement Demo by Tokyo University and JICA (Japanese International Cooperation Agency) in Kashmir following the
major 2005 earthquake, performed a retrofit at an estimated 5% total cost of house. Actual cost, when
implemented by rural masons is expected to be much lower [31]
Steel mesh cage For 1000 sq. ft house, costs $400 when using steel reinforcement
Plastic carrier bag mesh This retrofitting technique would cost very little due to the availability of plastic carrier-bags and the cheap cost
of mortar to apply to the wall surface
L-Shaped reinforcement Adds only 5–10% to the total cost

reinforcement, polypropylene packaging strap reinfor- construct it is a barrier for the application of this
cement, steel mesh cage, and L-shaped reinforcement. technique.
(B) There are some methods in practice or under research  Post-tensioning using rubber tyres – The poor
that are also suitable for implementation in develop- esthetic appearance is the main disadvantage for
ing communities but with some disadvantages. These this method.
methods include the following: (C) The least suitable retrofitting methods researched are
 Bamboo reinforcement – There may be difficulties  Surface treatment using shotcrete – Difficulties
in sustainably sourcing good quality bamboo. There were experienced during application in the labora-
lies a need for a good understanding of the meth- tories that are likely to translate to real world
odology of bamboo processing. In fact, passing on situations.
such skills to local workers could be difficult.  Seismic wallpaper – Although they significantly
 Plastic carrier bag net – Unless the manufacture of improve structural performance, the need for qual-
the mesh is industrialized, the time taken to ity control in manufacture and application means
S. Bhattacharya et al. / International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 7 (2014) 51–67 65

Table 10
Discussion of retrofitting technologies according to sustainability criteria.

Retrofit method Sustainability features

Surface treatment (shotcrete) Use of concrete in small quantities (i.e. not taking advantage of thermal mass), is unsustainable
Stitching and grout/epoxy Minimal amount of material required and very ‘light’ application make these methods sustainable
injection (re-pointing)
Bamboo reinforcement Provided bamboo is responsibly sourced, this method is sustainable. Requires very little processing and can be
easily disposed of at the end of its design life
Seismic wallpaper GFRPs contain a large amount of embodied energy. Also, there is a danger of harmful fumes being released if the
materials were burned in a fire. However, GFRPs are non corrosive and extremely durable and so have a long
design life
Post-tensioning (rubber tyres) Considered a sustainable solution as it involves re-using a resource otherwise wasted; 190 million tyres a year
are sent to landfill in the U.S.A. This would reduce the need for large tire fires that pollute the environment [61]
Confinement This is a relatively ‘heavy’ engineering solution and therefore requires materials and methods that are
intrinsically unsustainable
Polymer mesh reinforcement Polymer mesh requires use and processing of petrochemicals, which is not sustainable unless sourced from
recycled or re-used units
PP strip reinforcement There is plenty of scope for re-use or recycling due to the massive volume of consumer goods that are protected
by these packaging strips
Steel mesh cage The manufacture of steel is unsustainable and disposal at the end of the design life will be difficult in a
developing community
Plastic carrier bag net Approximately 17.5 billion plastic carrier bags are thrown away in Britain every year. Re-using these bags is
therefore considered a sustainable solution [62]
L-Shaped reinforcement Use of reinforcement will not have any adverse effect from the view point of sustainability

Table 11
Discussion of retrofitting technologies according to buildability criteria.

Retrofit method Buildability features

Surface treatment (shotcrete) Application requires trained specialists. Even when applied by experienced workers, there have been difficulties
noted in the application process such as excessive dust and noise, which would make it very disruptive for
occupants
Stitching and grout/epoxy injection Little technical knowledge required and materials can be easily transported, applied and removed
Re-pointing Little technical knowledge required. However, some sort of temporary works may be needed to support the
structure
Bamboo reinforcement If fixed to wall exterior, method is easily buildable. If horizontal reinforcement is tied on the exterior of the wall,
it will overlap openings causing practical and esthetic problems. Mud bricks surrounding the bamboo will not
provide adequate protection against water intrusion and also makes maintenance/inspection of bamboo
difficult. Installation is quick to learn for local builders but they need to understand the key earthquake
engineering concepts involved
Seismic wallpaper Manufacture of glass reinforced fibers must be under strictly controlled conditions. Retrofit is easy to apply and
inspect/maintain but removal is extremely difficult
Post-tensioning (rubber tyres) Retrofit is reasonably simple but as straps protrude away from walls, they are difficult to mask with plaster
resulting in significant architectural impact
Confinement Application is very intrusive requiring demolition of wall sections. Also, requires the use of tie-beams to be
effective
Polymer mesh reinforcement Industrial Tough nature of material and lack of flexibility makes application
geo-grid and removal of this method difficult
Soft polymer mesh Mesh can be easily deformed so transportation, application and removal are easy
PP strip reinforcement Retrofit is simple enough for application by local craftsmen and homeowners without any prior knowledge/
expertise on earthquake engineering [9]
Steel mesh cage Steel cage can be attached to a building if specific instructions are given, but this is not ideal and if problems
arise, technical knowledge is required to solve them. Demolition of the steel mesh presents difficulties
Plastic carrier bag net The materials used are light and flexible. However, it takes a very long time to construct the mesh, which is a
barrier for this method unless the mesh manufacture can be industrialized/streamlined in some way
L-shaped reinforcement No special expertise is required for using this

that widespread retrofitting in poor communities separation as well as providing better integrity to the
will be difficult. walls, would be the suitable one. One such combination
 Confinement – It is more suited to new construc- could be the use of PP band and horizontal L-shaped
tion as opposed to retrofitting where demolition reinforcing bars while the other might be with combina-
and rebuilding are required. tions of horizontal L-shaped reinforcing bars and wire
(D) Corner/junction failure leading to out-of-plane collapse in mesh. L-shaped horizontal reinforcing bars will be
brick masonry buildings is the most common type of effective in arresting corner/junction failure. However,
failure. Intuitively it could be suggested that simultaneous PP band and wire mesh will be beneficial in improving
application of strengthening mechanisms arresting joint the overall integrity providing some strength against
66 S. Bhattacharya et al. / International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 7 (2014) 51–67

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