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l i t ) 14-18 September 1 9 8 1


N o t e s on A r c h a e o l o g y a n d I c o n o g r a p h y Related
to t h e E a r l y H i s t o r y o f T u r k i s h M e d i c a l Science

Dr. Emel Esin

I n s t i t u t e of Research
for Turkish Culture
Ankara - Turkey
İTÜ 1 4 - 1 8 S e p t e m b e r 1 9 8 1


N o t e s on A r c h a e o l o g y a n d I c o n o g r a p h y R e l a t e d
to t h e E a r l y H i s t o r y o f T u r k i s h M e d i c a l Science

Dr. Emel E s i n
I n s t i t u t e o f Research
for Turkish Culture
Ankara - Turkey

Synops i s

The h i s t o r i c a l s o u r c e s o n t h e e a r l y p h a s e o f T u r k i s h m e d i c a l
s c i e n c e w i t n e s s t o a s u p e r p o s i t i o n o f m a i n l y t h r e e t r a d i t i o n s . The
p r a c t i c e s o f t h e a n c i e n t S c y t h i a n s and Hsiung-nu have been r e c o r d e d
amongst t h e N o r t h e r n E u r a s i a n Turks o f t h e V l t h t o I X t h c e n t u r i e s ,
i n some c a s e s , l o n g e r . T h e s e i n c l u d e d n o t o n l y e x o r c i s m b y kams
( T u r k i s h f o r shaman), b u t a l s o p h y s i c a l a p p l i a n c e s and t h euse o f
c u r a t i v e h e r b s . H e n c e t h e T u r k i s h ,word o t a c t ( h e r b a l i s t ) , g i v e n t o
the p h y s i c i a n . T o g e t h e r w i t h t h e image o f a h e r b , t h e e p i t h e t otacı,
Dr.Emel Eein i n r u n i f o r m K ö k - T ü r k l e t t e r s , was i n c i s e d on t h e b e l t - b u c k l e o f
A k - k i i n , a T u r k i s h p h y s i c i a n o f t h e V l t h t o V l l l t h c e n t u r i e s , whose
tomb was e x c a v a t e d i n t h e A l t a y , m o u n t a i n s .

r.o: 003C2 The p r o p a g a t i o n o f B u d d h i s m , s i n c e t h e V l t h c e n t u r y , b r o u g h t a b o u t

the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f Bhaişajya, i n t o T u r k i s h c u l t u r e , u n d e r t h e
name "Otacı iliği" ( t h e k i n g o f p h y s i c i a n s ) . H i s i m a g e f i g u r e d i n
A Turkis)ı ( U y g u r ) B u d d h i s t m o n a s t e r i e s , w h e r e otacı bakşıs ( p h y s i c i a n
no: monks) h e a l e d t h e s i c k . The t e r m i g l i g y a t g u e v ( d o r m i t o r y f o r t h e
OTA a i l i n g ) shows t h e e x i s t e n c e o f h o s p i t a l s , i n m o n a s t e r i e s .
F o l l o w i n g t h e a d h e r e n c e o f t h e Hâkânid ( K a r a - h a n i d ) - T u r k s t o I s l a m ,
i n t h e X t h c e n t u r y , a p e r i o d o f t r a n s i t i o n and o f a d a p t a t i o n o f
o l d e r v a l u e s was s t a r t e d . The d o c u m e n t s a n d l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e X l t h
c e n t u r y show t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f I s l a m i c h o s p i t a l s a n d t h e e m e r g e n c e
o f t h e o t a c ı , as a member o f a p r o f f e s s i o n a l g r o u p ( i n T u r k i s h k u t u ) ,
d i s t i n c t from t h a t o f t h e e x o r c i s t .


12 soomorphic head and a pisciform body,with a serpent coiled around i t ( i l l . l / 2 ) .

Such fjjaffs wore , i n that age,badges of dignity,carried i n hand,or attached to the
The h i s t o r i c ^ , iconographie and archaeological evidence,on belt. The f i s h , o r dragon motif might hava had,in t h i s case,an emblematic
early Turkish medical science,reveal the superposition and amalgamation of three significance,as dragona were considered to hold the secrets of medical s c i e n c e . 2 3
major t r a d i t i o n s . 1 ) The i n i t i a l Turkish practises,derived from an ancient Northern Some s i l k e n bags,attached to the atacı 'a belt,contained human and animal teeth
and tree-barka,then used for medicinal purposes(söğüt kasık , i n Turkish). Othsr
Eurasian past,including i n the east,features common with China. ?)The Buddhist
metallic,mostly s i l v e r objects included b e l t plaques * with incised,or carved
medical science,with Indian connotations. 3)The influence of Islam.
ornaments,similar s i l v e r parts of horse-trappings,weapons and a o a u l d r o n ( i l l . l / 2 3 ) .
1-The existence and v i v a c i t y of an ancient Turkish s e d i c a l t r a d i t i o n has been
Had not the grave been robbed, there might have been i n i t ornaments of
indicated,in the f i e l d of philology,by R.Arat who pointed to the continual use
more value.
of the same terminology,throughout the millenary i n which our language reached
many stagey. In connection with the t i t l e of the present essay,one may c i t e the 2- The Buddhist Turkish area was situated somewhat more to the south,in
word otacı,odacı,or otcı ( h e r b a l i s t ) and i t s d e r i v a t i v e otamak (to cure ) . Central Asia.mostly i n Eastern Türkistan , i n the t e r r i t o r i e s of the Uygur
The early Turkish otacı bad apparently inherited h i s science * from the nhnmnnn Kaganates .between the V I H t h and the X? th centuries. Here the physicians were
( i n Turkish kam) of the ancient Eurasian nomadic world ,a c u l t u r a l area which * 25
i n the f i r s t 3 millenary B.C.,extended from Northern China i n the east ,to generally Buddhist monks of master rank( otacı baksıj. These applied the
the north of the Şlack—sea i n the west. The methods used by t h e Northern doctrines of Chinese and Sanaggit Buddhist t r e a t i s e s which had often bean
Eurasian nomads ^included massage ,bone-eetting,exposition to fire,branding translated also into Turkish. Like the cosmos,the microcosm of the human being
( i n Turkish töğün), application of Artemisia to wounds,perhaps even acupuncture was thought to be composed of two p r i n c i p l e s ,the warm and radiant heavenly soul
which they s i g h t have l e a r n t , i n the east,from^China. These,as well as exorcism, (yaruk-yaşuk tös) and the obscure and cold body which the soul i l l u n i n e d ( e t - ox).
attested since ancient ages i n Northern China ,had been transmitted to the Turks. The two p r i n c i p l e s , i n t h e i r turn,gave b i r t h to f i v e elements,the balance of which
Tbe banishment o f noxious demons was attempted,by Turkish kams , with exposition resulted i n health. Any undue increase of one of the elemental winds(yil)caused
to f i r g , t h e burning o f incense,circumambuiatory movements,* i n c a n t a t i o n s and unconsciousness and ailments related to that element. The unbalanced condition
music,as i n China. O c c a s i o n a l l y , i t was t r i e d t o <Jgive the p e s t i l e n t i a l demons, was revealed i n dreams. However,the p e s t i l e n t i a l demons with zoomorphic features,
through persuasion ,with^yfferings and l i b a t i o n s . In what concerns the use exorcised by the kama . had apparently not been forgotten and some sicknesses
of medicinal herbe(ot-em i ^ T u r k i s h L a Tibetan source stated that the Turks had ware attributed to t h e i r malevolent action.In the Turkish version of Suvarna-
devised t h e i r own remedies. f 9 i s r e P o r t i s confirmed by BîrÛnî who mention^ the prabhftsa afltra (lltun-yarulp) , the s i c k see i n jjisiona that they have been
Turkish theriacas and summies. The mandrake,called i n Turkish sıgun-otı torn{(Şted by the animals they had slaughtered. Buddhist Turkish l i t e r a t u r e and
art depict the demons with huaan bodies,but «n-i»»i heads. B i r t h i n the a n i m a l
(the deer's plant) ,w^s perhaps connected with the s i m i l a r legend of the ginseng
realm,or i n conditions of disease,was viewed as the r e t r i b u t i o n of s i n s i n
(panax quinquifolia) , said i n Taoist China to bestow immortality to the deer
former incarnations.§uch cases needed s p i r i t u a l , a s much as material care .
which ate i t . The fabulous dra^gn-unicorn's medicinal horn was reported to
The physician monk was thus supposed to possess supernatural powers,not unlike
the kam. The p r a c t i s e ,without renumeration,of medical science,as healer of
be found also i n Turkish lands.
the scui and body,opened to the monk the way to r i s e to buddhahood . Therefore,
The otacı was,amongst Turks, a highly respected dignitary.The Ogux c l a n
the h o e p i t a l s ( i n Turkish i g l i yatgu ev ) appear to have been i n monasteries.
prostrated themselves ,in preserve of the otacı and were ready to give up t h e i r In t h i s predominantly s p i r i t u a l context, the supreme healer I. use İlke i z odacılar
l i f e and property,at h i s order. The memory of Ata Saguna < venerable physicians l l l g i ) was said to be the h i s t o r i c a l Buddha Şİkyamuni.Vfio had furthermore bean a
i n Türkistan,is preserved i n the dictionary written by KahmSd Kâşgarî.in the physician i n seme former b i r t h s . Next to him cams the Buddha of the azure-
X I t h century(.eagun was a t i t l e ) . The tomb of a Turkish &taci of t h e ^ I t h to coloured eastern paradise .Baişajya, a l s o c a l l e d i n Turkish "King of j j h y s i c i a n s "
T H I t h centuries,whose name had been Ak-kün,was excavated i n the A l t a y mountains.The (Odacılar i l i g i ) . This Buddha had bean multiplied i n several Indian and Chines*
otacı had been buried,clad i n s i l k and fine wool,wearing golden ear-rings ,the physician bud d has and bodhisattvaa, under various names. Among bodhisgttvas, the
honorific Turkish b e l t with m e t a l l i c plaques(here s i l v e r ) ,with h i s foremost healer was Avalokiteşvara,considered patron of h o s p i t a l s . Other
weapons and three horses. The i n s c r i p t i o n "Otacı(or otçı) Ak-kün Sengün^iuşagı" physician bodhisattvaa were invoked i n a Turkish text( ot b i r d e c i bodiatv.
(This i s the b e l t of the otacı general Ak-kün) had been incised on the reverse y i k i g emletici bod i s tv.otacı i l i g i bodlstv). 3 9
of the s i l v e r b e l t buckle,which on the otverse, displayed the representation of
The worship of physician buddhas and bodhisattvaa,with a l t a r s and
an apparently emblematic h e r b ( i l l u s t r a t i o n 1/4 ).The i n s c r i p t i o n .also i n runiform
images,was thought to be . l i k e talismans, a way to promote the recovery of the
Kök-Türk l e t t e r s , a t the bottom of a s i l v e r cup,provided the further information
maladies and a defence against noxious demons. The depiction of the eastern
that the otacı had been the counsellor(ogei and sworn companion in heroic deeds
paradise , made of beryl gems,of Baişajya ,generally took place on the
of a princa(şadın erliğin eş). The tomb also y i e l d e d a horn,carved into a
eastern walls of chapels,in mandala composition. I n these,the central figure
was symmetrically surrounded by'attendants,in various s i z e s determined by
canonical hierarchy. Three of these are dated between the IXth and Xth centuries.
Two images are i n Kansu and were probably made i n the age of the Uygur kingdoms
in that a r e a ( H t h to X l t h centuries) .although s t y l i s t i c a l l y they are c l o s e r
to Chinese taste,with many small figures and a predominance of the landscape.

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s c r o l l s , h e l d by the twelve c y c l i c figure..,in correspondence with the: • 91
In a l l aişajya mandalas .narrow subsidiary panels describe,in dimminutive
been given in Turkish(KUaku,Ud,Bara,Tavigkan, L u , I l 4 a n , i c n t . K o y . B i c m . T e
s i z e , the — u remarkable phases of the biographies of physician
Tonguz.Scme i n s c r i p t i o n s are lacking,or placed elsewhere). Symsetrica 1 ly
buddhas and bodhisattvas.One Kansu work i s ^ g mural from Wan-fo-hsia,known from middle and lowest register,to the r i g h t of the central figure,behind the
Turkish inscriptions as an Uygur centre . Another Uygur i n s c r i p t i o n , i n t h i B figures of the luminaries, four more personifications of the c y c l i c anise.- - r l > * a r ,
case perhaps a s g r a f i t t o , i s seen together with s i m i l a r Chinese ones,in the as duplicates.These are Ud(Ox),Bifin(Monkey) shown aa scribe,Takigu (Fowl)
Wan-fo-haia cave-temple where the Bhaişajya mandala was situated.This Uygur playing a s t r i n g instrument and Tonguz (Boar) offering flowers And gems. Behind the
i n s c r i p t i o n has not been read,but Dr O.Sertkayâ' observed that the ductus four c y c l i c genii are demons brandishing weapons and chasing a canine.The demons
points to the Xth to X l t h centuries.Tge other Bhaişajya mandala , i n Kansu , i s a may also be a s t r a l peraonificationa,or attendants, with the rank of general (urunfcut)
painting dn silk,found i n Tun-huang* of guardian d e i t i s a , a s s i s t i n g them i n chasing p e s t i l e n t i a l s p i r i t s . Several of
The Bhaişayja mandala .which w i l l be here commented,was a mural in East the above a s t r a l peraonificationa appear alao i n the Kansu maadalaa of
Türkistan,in the purely " Uygur Buddhist compound of Bezeklik ( i n temple 8 ) . Bhaieajya,without however any zoomorphic insignia, or i n s c r i p t i o n s .
The aural,with Turkish i n s c r i p t i o n s i n cartouches,is i n authentic Uygur s t y l e ,
with boldly drawn figures i n large s i z e .painted i n translucent glazes,with the At the b a s i s of the mural,the scenes i n dinminutive size,arranged i n two
b r i l l i a n t palette of Uygur painters. The landscape i s here lacking ,as the large long and narrow panels, narrate bagicgraphic scenes,connected with the
figures f i l l the whole surface.Sadly enough,the mural,which was in B e r l i n , has physicians.The scenes are divided fay red cartouches on which were Turkish i n s c r i p ­
disappeared during World-war I I and only the descriptions and photographs of tions, unfortunately - not read. The ciamnnta here made are therefore
German archaeologists can now guide the r e s e a r c h ( i l l . 2 ) . hypothetical.The sections 1-9 of the upper panel seam related to a j t t a k a on
The central figure of tne Otacı Buddha i s „, .,as canonically determined,clid
a former b i r t h i n which the Buddha §Akyamuni was a s i c k young nan.hazed Nattakundall,
in the red monacal kalBsa ( i n Turkish karasa).with however a blue l i n i n g , i n sign
who died,because h i s avaricious father had not smmoned a physician.In section 1 of
of the azure-coloured eastern region over which he was considered to preside.
His aureole and vesica show pictograms of clouds,of flames,of the luminaries, as the upper p a n e l ( i l l . 3 ) Mattakundali i s seen incinerated,while a squatting demon
well as of the blue-green beryl gem .which according to a Turkish text,coloured with animal head,watches the scene. Between sections 1 agg 2,a c i r c u l a r vleogram
his halo(Vaituri erdini yaruklu£ odacılar i l i g i i M U l l e r , " U i g u r i c a I I " , 5 5 ) . He appears to i l l u s t r a t e the dual constitution of mankind; et-bz .the cold a a t e r i a l
body,is shown as a kneeling figure,on the dark h a l f of the c i r c l e . Yaruk-yaQik tbz,
s i t s i n the symmetrically cross-legged squatting r i t u a l posture,called i n Turkish the warm and radiant soul,located i n the b r s a t h ( t i n ) and evaporated into a f i e r y
bagtaş and holds h i s hands in the vitârkamudrâ ( The mudrfi was called tamga
wind,after death,is represented,as i n the Turkish version of SuvarnaprabhBaa—afltra.
— — 49
i n Turkish,which means s e a l ) . The Otaci's seat i s the lotus-throne(in Turkish enclosed i n a bag( here,hoisted as a funerary flag, on a pole with avian f i n i a l .
linhua-orun) ,placed over the conventional shape of the world'B central golden Since anciently i n c h i n a gjjd l a t e r amongst Turks, the soul waa thought to be
mountain^gumeru,represented as a couple of polyhedral pyramids,meeting at t h e i r transformed into a b i r d ) . In the upper section 2, Mattakundali ,reborn as a god,
points . Between the superposed pyramids ,a pair of t i g e r s are seen.The tiger, appears to h i s father,the Brahman,and converts him to Budohism.fhe
together with dragons and serpents .were amongst the heraldic insignia of the upper sections 3-8 depict Mattakundali i n the land of the gods. The conventional
Otaci.He had extracted a bone from t h ^ t n r o a t of a t i g e r .which thereafter followed "63
him and had likewise rescued a snake. In gratitude,tne dragons gave him a t r e a t i s e shape of Mount Simaru,abode of gods, i s seen on section 3, beside a paradisiac
on medical secrets.The triangular fountain,in front of the throne,evokes; the kiosk. He i s illimined by rays emitted from the Buddha and acquiring wisdom,
episode on the liquor of immortality ( i n Turkish nos tatairlag suv) .concocted transcribing manuscripts.On section 8,the scribe,now i n the monacal garbs of a
by the physician buddhas. The plant shown pbove the fountain could^be the buddha,watches two f l y i n g dark birds,perhaps the s o l a r crow,another of the
nyrobolan,which with the medicine -jar,was an attribute of Bhaijajya. physician buddhas' emblems. To end t h i s c y c l e , i n the f i r s t h a l f of section 9,
The various etterklants,framing the figure of the Otacı,may be divided in two books appear i n g l o r y i i l l . 2 ) •
categories.Those i n monacal garba are perhaps the other minor physician buddhas, From the second hal'" of section 9 , u n t i l section 15,the chapter called
emanations of Bhaişajya.Some of theee seem to be portraits,perhaps inspired from "The ancient neditation of Bhai^ajye. " (saddharaapuaJartka-sUtra , in
Turkish vap hue k i nom jepegi a t i i g eudur , or
contemporary Uygur otacı monks. A figure,wearing tiger-akin,on the upper l e f t of
Bhaieajya ,has equally a face which could represent a contemporary of the a r t i s t . Sokanpig nom upudi s»S*k b i t i g ) seems i l l u s t r a t e d ' In accordance with t h i s
The figures i n conventionally idealised features,wearing Indian princely garba
and crowns,are bodhisattvas and d e i t i e s . The monks and princely personaggji are chapter 0 '.Bhaipajya i s seen i n the second h a l f of the upper section 9(111.2),
depicted i n the hand-pose ienoting worship(iki ayaların kavşurmak). ' A a t the moment of hie birth, as he s ^ e in the r i t u a l posture c a l l e d Nagtas
(with s y m e t r i c a l l y crossed l e g s ) . In section lo.he i s paying homage to
remarkable p a r t i c u l a r i t y of t h i s mural i s the group of a s t r a l personifications,
the Buddha of h i s ago ,who shortly afterwards dies.As a a c r i f i c e to the dead
said to be the a s s i s t a n t s of Bhaişajya,in the crop of medicinal herbs. Two of
master,Bhaigajya is shown i n section I I , c u t t i n g hie nm,which i s ".owever at
these,at the middle the r i g h t of the central figure, are the sun and
once restored. In sections 13,14 ,he i s building stfipas for lb- r e l i c s of h i s
the moon,recognizable through t h e i r red and white discs . p n the roro«ite side,
teacher,or writing. Hhaissjya i s transformed,in section 15,into a "Buddha
the twelve figures wearing animal masks on t h e i r headgears are identified by the
with golden body ".
i n s c r i p t i o n s on the s c r o l l s they hold i n hand. These are the twelve a s t r a l groups
of the Sino-Turkiah calendar,designated with zoomorphic names.The names on the The lower narrov panel may be .elated to another incarnation
Bhaieajya,together with h i t brother,as Vijaiagarbha and Vimalanetra.This i e

i i

another chapter of Saddharmapundartka-sûtra, but a version figures also i n the

SuvarnaprabhAsa-sfltren " The two versions seem combined i n
the painted panel. One sees i n section 1 of the lower panel the two brothers ,
performing tho miracle of f l i g h t i n the a i r , t o persuade t h e i r parents to allow
them to j o i n the Buddha of the time.In sections 2 to 5,they have joined,together
with t h e i r parents and the palace women whom they converted,the teacher who
w i l l convey to them the wisdom of the eûtras- From section 6to 11 ,the story of
the fish-pond,in SuvarnaprabhAsa—efltra seems to be told. The f i s h , i n a
drying pond were saved .through Vimalagarbha/Bhaişajya's intervention.A king,
perhaps shown 6 as a rider,orders that water be carried i n gourds to the dry pond*
The f i s h die nevertheless,but are reborn as children of gods and descend from
Sumeru,to thank t h e i r benefactor.On section 12 of the lower panel,the Buddha
predicts to the lame physician .father of the two brothers,the future rebirths i n
apotheosis of h i s s o n s ( i l l . 2 ) .
The sections 13 to 15 of the lower panel and the l a s t aection_gf the
upper panel could represent the passage i n Saddharmapundarîka-eûtra,on the
multiple incarnations ,as teacher,of *valokiteşvara-hereas evçi(woman),
toyin (monk).sü-başı (a god with general rank)- ,111.4). The l a s t
section of the upper panel,shows a donator,whose name was read as Togril ,
paying homage to Avalokiteşvara.on lotus-throne,as i n h i s canonical depiction*
Togril'a a t t i r e i s the same as those of the legendary physicians.One might
deduce that these were represented in aspects prevalent among the Uygur •
The architectonic monuments ,shown on the upper panel,were no doubt ,inspired
from existing stûpas and kiosks. The two panels end with the repetition of the
motif of the two books '-ni the banishment of a zoomorphic pestiferous demon.
3 - The HAkAnid/Kara-hanid Turks,who i n ca 926 adhered^ljo Islam , entered the
third ph&ee of'tr.e history of Turkish medical science. The Uygur neighbours
and congeners of the HAkAnid of Kâşgar were yet^Jo remain f i v e centuries i n
the fold of older cultures .particularly Buddhism. " Amongst the HAkAnid ,the
memories of former b e l i e f s were yet vivacious,in the Xlth century."In
Kutadgu-bilig ,written by Yûsuf HAss HAcib i n Kâşgar , in H.462/lo69, some
. — •. •
i l l n e s s e s w e r e . ^ t i l l attributed to demons^called with the Buddhist terms of yek
and y i l ( w i n d ) . Although banned in Islam ,tne exorcists were yet accepted
members of HAkAnid society. The two principles ,the warm soul,now called

köfljül " (consciousness) and the cold b o d y , s t i l l naming et-öz ,as well as
the elemental constituents o ^ t h e body,were thought,as formerly,to manifest
t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s in dreams. The elements were called yet tadu (frem the
Sanscrit dhAtu). The hospices and hospitals of monasteries had been adapted,
under almost the same names^gr under appellations in the c l a s s i c a l languages
of islam,Arabic and Persian. The hospital founded by a HAkAnid lygnarch i n H.458/
lo66,provided for the care of patients,until recovery, o r death.
The Islamic influences were f e l t i n l i t e r a t u r e , i n passages inspired by
the Prophet's advices on health,3uch as the benefits of fastingiPerhaps the most
fundamental change game about through the d i s l i k e of Islam for claims to
supernatural powers- The otacı» ware no more worshipped and detached themselves
wholly from the exorcists. Their professional association)in Turkish kutu) was
d i s t i n c t from that of the exorcists .whose practises the otacı now disbelieved.


1- G.R.Rachmati(R.Arat),"Zur Heilkunde der Ulguren".Situng.d.preuBBischen Akademie
d J r f i s s ^ . P h i l - h i s t . K l . , ! , ( B e r l i n , 193o).
2- G.Clauson,An Etymological dictionary of pre-Thirteenth century Turkieh(Oxford
3- Clauson,s.v.
4- A.D.Graç.Drevnie koçevniki v zentre Azii(Moscow.198o),6.
5- A.Kollautz-P Miyakawa.Die Jou-jan der MongoleiGaagenfurt. 19761,46-8.
7- W.Eberhard,Sternkunde und Weltbild im a l t e n China.(Taipei,1976),343-44.
8- B.Cbavannes,Documenta s u r l e e Turce Occidentaux(St Petersburg,19o3),235.
9-M.Granet.Danses et legendee de l a Chine ancienne(Paris.1959).263.
10- G.R.Rachaati.Türkische Turfan Texte.VIl(Berlin.l936).me 24,lines 2-7,ms 25/8-16.
11- Clauson,s.v.
12-R.Müller,"Ein Beitrag zu a e r t z l i c h e n Graphik aus Zentralasien.Turfan".Archiv für
Geşchichte der Hedizin.XV(Leipzig.1923).note 15.
13- Z.V.Togan,"Bîrûnî's picture of the world", Memoirs of the archaeological survey
of India.LIII(1937),114.
14-Mahmûd K8şgarf .Ad-Dtvto u-lugftt it-Turk(Ankara.l941-43).a.v.
15-C.l.S.Williaaa.Encyclopaedia of Chinese symbolismtNew York,i960),17o.
16- E.Esin,A History of pre-Islamic and early Islamic Turkish culture(latanbul.l98o).
17- V.Mlnoraky.Hudûd uU C ftlam. (London.l937).loo.
18-S.P.Kiselev; Drevnyaya i a t o r i y a yujnoy Sibiri(Moscow. 1949 ) , 3o2,pl.L/2(Kur«y, 4/1).
19-E.Bsin,"Kur-kurşak".Central A s i a t i c journal.XXIV/3-4(Wiesbaden.l98o).
20- The word'sengun was read by Dr O.Sertkaya,the r e s t by E i s e l e v .
21-See note 19 supra .
22- Esin,"Kur ".op.cit. i n note 19 sup. ,164,note 51.
23-See note 51 i n f r a .
24-Rachmatl.op.cit. i n note 1 sup..137.
25-Cited i n Clauson,entry "Otacı".
26-J.Nobel.Suvarnaprabhflsottama-satra (Leiden.1958).318-2o.Similar concepts i n a
Turkish work,translate from the Tibetan* G.Kara-P.Zieme.Sin Uigurisches Totenbuch
(Wiesbaden,I979),see c i t e d Turkish wordsjin index and'lines 165-66,310-17.
27-S.Çağatay.Altun-yaruk'tan i k i carca.(Ankara,1945),19/6-2o,2o/l-3.
29- A.von Le Coq.Buddhistische Spaetantike Kittalasiens.(Graz.1974)
3<v*l.Röhrborn,"Die Alttuikieche Version des Saddharmapundarfka", Central A s i a t i c
j o u r n a l ^ , XXrv/3-4(Wiesbaden,198o),259.
31- Tekin.Maytrisiait .51/8,52/5o-54.
32-See note 29 sup.
53-S.Tezcan.Das Uigurische Insadi-şûtra (Berlin,1972),line 489.
34- Nobel.op. c i t . i n note 26, chapters 24(16^25(17).
35-M.E.Burnouf.Le Lotus de l a bonne l o i (Paris.1852).II.242-53.A.Getty.The gods of
Northern Buddhism (USA-Japan,1959).24-26.H.Kern.Saddharma-pundarlka (Oxford,1882),
4,213,271-72,4o4. P.W.K.Muller,"Uigurica ,I.II",Ergebnisse der'deutschen Turfan
Forschung.I (L«ipzig,1972),Ist p a r t , 1 9 ; l l nd part,55. The Chinese,Tibetan and
Japanese sources are given by P.Pelliot,"Le Bhaisalvaguru".Bulletin de l'Ecole
française d'Extrême-Orient.IIl/ll1903).34-5.M.A.Stein.Serindia (Oxford,1921),lo53-
66 and 14o9-lotarticle by R.Petrucci).E.T.C.Werner.A Dictionary of Chinese mythology.
(New York,196l),"Yao-shih","ïao-wang«.
36-JCern,op.cit. i n note 35 sup. ,4o4,note 2.
37- On Chinese avatars,see Werner.cited i n note 35 sup. On Maitreya,Tekin,
Maytrisimit . 5/42- •
38- E.D. Saunders.Mudrft (New York,i960),68.


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