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why 50 ohm

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The coaxial line segment shown above is ¯lled with a dielectric ², and is assumed to be driven by a potential

di®erence V between the inner and outer conductors, which induces a charge §Q on the surface of each

conductor. The charge will be distributed uniformly along the length ¢z of the coax.

a

r

∆z

Z symmetry.ZZZ

From Gauss' law

Q

° ²E ¢ dS = ½ dV ) Er = (1)

2¼²r¢z

Which gives a voltage

Z a

Q

V =¡ E ¢ d` = ln(b=a) (2)

b 2¼²¢z

Q 2¼²

C= = [F/m] (3)

V ¢z ln(b=a)

From Ampµere's law,

I

I0

H ¢ d` = I0 ) HÁ = (4)

2¼r

ZZ

1 ¹

L= B ¢ dS = ln(b=a) [H/m] (5)

I¢z 2¼

The characteristic impedance is therefore

r

L ´

Z0 = = ln(b=a) (6)

C 2¼

Power Handling Capacity:

Dielectric breakdown will occur in the region between the two conductors if the electric ¯eld exceeds a certain

critical value. The ¯eld strength is a function of the applied voltage and line geometry. Using (1) and (2)

we can express the electric ¯eld as

V

Er = (7)

r ln(b=a)

This shows that the ¯eld is largest near the center conductor, so

V

E max = (8)

a ln(b=a)

The peak power transmitted down the line is then given by

2¼ 2 2

P = V 2 =Z0 = a E max ln(b=a) (9)

´

and thus the maximum power °ow is in°uenced by the line geometry. To ¯nd the optimum conductor sizes,

we can look for the value of a which maximizes (9)

@P @ ¡ 2 ¢

/ a ln b ¡ a2 ln a = a [2 ln(b=a) ¡ 1] = 0 (10)

@a @a

This equation is satis¯ed when b=a = 1:65, which gives an optimum characteristic impedance of Z0 = 30 -

for maximum power transmission in a coaxial air-line.

Attenuation:

From the distributed circuit model for a transmission-line, we found that the attenuation constant (for

low-loss lines) is

R GZ0

®¼ + (11)

2Z 0 2

where R is the series resistance per unit length, and G is the shunt conductance per unit length. Physically,

where does this loss come from? The series resistance R comes from Ohmic losses in the metal conductors.

Using a sheet resistivity of Rs, the then total resistance per unit length is just

µ ¶

Rs 1 1

R= + (12)

2¼ b a

The shunt conductance comes from loss in the dielectric material. If the dielectric has a small conductivity

¾, then a small current can °ow radially through the material according to Jr = ¾E r. The total conduction

current through the dielectric is then

Id = 2¼r¢zJr = 2¼r¢z¾E r (13)

Using (7), the conductance G is expressed as

I 2¼¾

G= = (14)

V ¢z ln(b=a)

Substituting (12) and (14) into (11), we can ¯nd the optimum line dimensions for lowest attenuation,

@® @ (1=b ¡ 1=a)

=0 /

@a @a ln(b=a) (15)

0 = 1 + a=b ¡ ln(b=a)

This equation is satis¯ed for b=a = 3:6, which gives an optimum characteristic impedance of Z0 = 77 - for

lowest attenuation in a coaxial air-line.

The expressions for attenuation and power handling are plotted below as a function of characteristic

impedance for a coaxial air-line. An impedance of around 50 - gives the best overall performance.

2.0

1.5 Attenuation

Normalized Values

minimum at 77 Ω

1.0

Power handling

0.5 maximum at 30 Ω

0.0

10 100

Characteristic Impedance

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