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Accepted Manuscript

Regular paper

A Compact Dual Band-Notched UWB Circular Monopole Antenna with Para-


sitic Resonators

Dinesh Yadav, Mahesh P. Abegaonkar, Shiban K. Koul, Vivekanand Tiwari,


Deepak Bhatnagar

PII: S1434-8411(17)32170-2
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeue.2017.12.020
Reference: AEUE 52170

To appear in: International Journal of Electronics and Communi-


cations

Received Date: 8 September 2017


Accepted Date: 17 December 2017

Please cite this article as: D. Yadav, M.P. Abegaonkar, S.K. Koul, V. Tiwari, D. Bhatnagar, A Compact Dual Band-
Notched UWB Circular Monopole Antenna with Parasitic Resonators, International Journal of Electronics and
Communications (2017), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeue.2017.12.020

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A Compact Dual Band-Notched UWB Circular Monopole Antenna with Parasitic Resonators

Dinesh Yadav1, Mahesh P. Abegaonkar2, Shiban K. Koul2, Vivekanand Tiwari1, Deepak

Bhatnagar3

1
Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Manipal University Jaipur, Rajasthan,

India;

2
Centre for Applied Research in Electronics (CARE), Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD)

Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016, India;

3
Microwave Lab, Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, India;

Corresponding author: dineshyadav_1984@yahoo.co.in

ABSTRACT: A compact dual band-notched Ultra-wideband (UWB) circular monopole antenna that

has two parasitic resonators in the ground plane is presented in this paper. The Inverted–U and Iron

shaped parasitic resonators are located on the back side of the radiating patch to achieve the band

rejection characteristics from 5 to 5.4 GHz for WLAN and 7.8 to 8.4 GHz for ITU band respectively.

By cutting a rectangular slot on the ground plane, additional resonance is excited at the higher

frequency band, and hence much wider impedance bandwidth can be attained. Applications of the

proposed dual band-notched ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna structure with 5.2 GHz and 8.2 GHz

center frequencies are demonstrated experimentally. Measured and simulated results of the

magnitude of S11, radiation patterns and realized gains show good agreement.
Keywords: Defective ground surface, dual band-notched, monopole, parasitic resonator, ultra-

wideband (UWB).

1. INTRODUCTION

The monopole ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna attracts the attention of researchers among the

various antenna configurations because it can be easily matched over the entire UWB bandwidth

starting from 3.1 to 10.6 GHz [1]. These antennas are proficient in utilizing entire UWB spectrum,

when no interfering signal appears in close vicinity. Moreover, the wide frequency range of UWB

system may affect the existing narrowband systems, such as Wi-MAX (3.3–3.6 GHz band), WLAN

(5.15–5.35 GHz and 5.725–5.825 GHz bands), HIPERLAN (5.45–5.725 GHz band) and ITU (8.02–

8.4 GHz band). Therefore, to reduce the signal interference of a UWB system with narrowband

systems and vice-versa, UWB antennas with band-notched characteristics are required. To attain a

dual band notched UWB antenna, single/dual parasitic resonators or slots on radiating patch/ground

plane are investigated [2–5]. In [4], dual band-notched UWB antenna at 3.9 and 5.5 GHz is

achieved using a single parasitic resonator and a circular slot on the radiating patch.

Different antenna structures have been reported with dual interference suppression functionality.

Some studies also highlight the dual band rejection techniques using: parasitic slits [6], a pair of C-

shaped stubs in the back surface [7], symmetric two pairs for filtering single band along the feed line

[8], folded stepped impedance resonator (FSIR) besides the feed line [9], complimentary split ring

resonator (CSRR) inserted in feed line [10], a pair of U-shaped stubs besides the feed with inverted

T-shaped in radiating patch [11], a quasi U-shape patch inserted four stubs and the ground plane with

a stepped slot [12]. Two band notches are created at 3.5 GHz and 5.5 GHz using independently

controlled bent resonators is obtained in [13]. Another method to achieve dual notch by printing two
Open Loop Resonators (OLRs) on the front side of the substrate close to the microstrip feed-line is

discussed in [14].

In this paper, a compact dual band-notched UWB circular monopole antenna is presented. It

consists of inverted-U and iron shaped parasitic resonators in the ground plane side (backside) of the

substrate to achieve band-notched characteristics at 5.2 and 8.2 GHz center frequency bands. The

method of designing of the two parasitic resonators indicates that these can be added individually on

the backside of the base structure, without affecting UWB behavior. The proposed antenna is

proficient to attain the low volume of 583.68 mm3 and high gain at three operating bands between

3.1 to 10.6 GHz in comparison with reported dual band-notched UWB antennas.

(a) (b) (c)

Fig. 1. UWB monopole antenna structure (a) front view (b) back view (c) parasitic resonators:

Inverted-U (upper) and Iron shaped (lower) at 5.2 and 8.2 GHz respectively.

2. ANTENNA DESIGN AND ANALYSIS


2.1 Basic UWB Antenna Design

The front and back view of the proposed dual band-notched UWB circular monopole antenna

having the overall size of 32 × 24 mm2 are shown in Fig. 1(a)–(b). Fig. 1(c) depicts two parasitic

resonators: Inverted-U (upper) and Iron shaped (lower), which are designed for 5.2 and 8.2 GHz

respectively. The final design of the antenna was optimized with consideration of several aspects

such as ultra-wide bandwidth, the center frequency of band rejection and the bandwidth of the

notched band. It is located on the x–y plane and its normal direction is parallel to the z-axis. The

antenna is printed on Rogers RO3003 substrate of thickness of h = 0.76 mm, dielectric constant ϵr =

3 and loss tangent tan δ = 0.0013. The gap between the lower ground plane and the upper circular

patch is 0.5 mm. Optimized length of the 50-Ω microstrip feed line is fixed at Lf = 12 mm and its

width Wf = 1.92 mm is calculated using following expression [15].

(1)

Where ‘h’ is Substrate thickness, ‘Wf’ is Feed line width, ‘Z0’ is characteristics impedance of the fed

line that is 50 Ω and ‘ɛr’ is the dielectric constant of the substrate.

The lower cutoff frequency of the antenna, corresponding to reflection coefficient < –10 dB is

calculated using equation (3), where ‘l’ (in cm) and ‘r’ (in cm) are representing the length of the

equivalent cylindrical monopole (which is equal to ‘2a’) and the effective radius of an equivalent

cylindrical monopole antenna (which is equal to ‘a/4’) respectively [16]. For the radius of the

radiating circular patch a = 0.95 cm and ground–patch gap g = 0.05 cm, the calculated value of

lower cutoff frequency is 3.1 GHz.


(3)

The optimum value of the ground length is Lg = 11.5 mm and width of the ground plane is same

as the width of the substrate. After simulating antenna configuration for the maximum impedance

bandwidth using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio simulator [17], it was

observed that the impedance bandwidth (reflection coefficient < –10 dB) is 6.1 GHz (3.1 to 9.2

GHz), as shown in Fig. 2.

-10
Magnitude of S11 (dB)

-20

-30

-40
Without slot on ground
With slot on ground

-50
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Frequency (GHz)

Fig. 2. Simulated magnitude of S11 (dB) plot with and without DGS as a function of frequency.

Next, improvement of the impedance bandwidth and maximizing higher cutoff frequency by

introducing defective ground surface (DGS) technique is attempted. In [18], steps are introduced in

the half circular patch geometry to achieve the required impedance bandwidth. In the proposed

structure, the upper edge of the ground plane is shaped using rectangular slot of size 3.5 × 2 mm 2. In

Fig. 1(b), the vertical and horizontal dimensions of the rectangular slot are represented by ‘Ls’ and

‘Ws’ respectively. The surface current path for the upper edge of the ground plane without DSG is W
= 24 mm, whereas with DGS it is W + (2 × Ls) = 31 mm. It can be seen that the surface current path

for the upper edge of the ground plane is increased by (2 × Ls) =7 mm with DGS [19]. Thus, the

increased length by inserting slotted ground meets λ10.6GHz/4 constraint in comparison to the antenna

structure with the rectangular ground plane.

(4)

As a result, the impedance bandwidth has been improved and the higher cut off frequency is

shifted to 13 GHz. Simulated results indicate a wide –10 dB reflection coefficient impedance

bandwidth from 3.1 GHz to > 11 GHz, as depicted in Fig. 2.

2.2 Design of Parasitic Resonators

The wide frequency range of UWB system will cause signal interference in the existing licensed

narrowband systems; thus the UWB antenna with band-notched characteristics is required. At the

desired notched frequency the length of the parasitic resonator is determined using following

expressions:

(5)

(6)

Here λ0 = c/fnotch is the free space wavelength, ‘c’ is speed of light, ‘f'notch’ is center frequency of the

notched band, ‘ϵreff’ is the effective permittivity, ‘ϵr’ is dielectric constant of the substrate, ‘h’ is the

height of the substrate and w is the width of the feed line.

Two parasitic resonators (Inverted-U and Iron shaped) were designed in the ground plane,

symmetric with the feed line to obtain good band-notched characteristics, as shown in Fig. 1(b). The

inverted-U shaped resonator has two symmetric vertical stubs of length ‘v’ and one horizontal stub
of the length ‘u’. The length of the inverted-U resonator is u+(2×v)-(2×t1) = 39 mm, which is placed

symmetrically opposite to the radiating circular patch, so that the vertical stubs of the inverted-U

resonator became tangential to the radius of circular patch. The length of the horizontal arm of the

inverted-U is equal to twice the radius of the radiating circular patch (u = 2×a). The half length of

the inverted-U shaped parasitic resonator is u/2+v-t1 = 19.5 mm, which is about a half of the guided

wavelength calculated at the center frequency 5.2 GHz of the WLAN band. The length of the iron

shaped resonator is f+2×b+2×c+d+e-2×t2 = 29 mm. It is placed between the inverted-U shaped

resonator and the ground plane and is symmetrical about the circular patch. The total width of the

iron shaped resonator is equal to twice the radius of the circular patch. The length of the symmetric

half section iron shaped resonator is around 14.5 mm, which is about a half of the guided wavelength

calculated at the center frequency 8.2 GHz of the ITU band. The symmetric half length of the

parasitic resonators at center notched frequencies are given in following equations.

(7)

(8)

It is clear from Fig. 3 that the simulated operating bands of the antenna with inverted-U shaped

resonator only are 3.1 to 5 GHz and 5.4 to 10.8 GHz with notched frequency band from 5 to 5.4

GHz. On the other hand, the operating bands for the iron shaped resonator loaded antenna are 3.1 to

7.8 GHz and 8.4 to 13 GHz with notch frequency band from 7.8 to 8.4 GHz. The dimensions of the

proposed antenna after optimization are depicted in Table 1. The prototype of the proposed antenna

was fabricated on Rogers RO3003 substrate, which is connected to a 50-Ω SMA connector for signal

transmission.
Table 1 Optimized parameters for proposed dual band-notched antenna.

Parameter Size (mm) Parameter Size (mm) Parameter Size (mm)


L 32 Ws 2 t1 1
W 24 Wp 11 t2 0.5
a 9.5 g1 0.5 f 12
Lf 12 g2 4 b 3
Wf 1.92 s 2 c 4
Lg 11.5 v 10.5 d 1.5
Ls 3.5 u 20 e 2.5

-5
Magnitude of S11 (dB)

-10

-15

-20

-25
5.2 GHz bandnotch UWB
8.2 GHz bandnotch UWB
-30
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Frequency (GHz)

Fig. 3. Simulated magnitude of S11 (dB) plot as a function of frequency with 5.2 GHz and 8.2 GHz

parasitic patches in the ground plane.

3. SIMULATION AND MEASUREMENT RESULTS

The full wave simulation of the proposed antenna is carried out using computer simulation

technology (CST)-microwave studio software. Measurements are carried out using Anritsu

MS2028C vector network analyzer. The magnitude of S11 (dB) characteristics with variation in
different ground plane parameters is exhibited in Fig. 4. It is observed that by varying ground plane

parameters: the width of the parasitic resonators (t1 and t2), the spacing between the two resonators

(g1) and spacing between ground-resonator (g2), the width and the center of the notched band can be

controlled. Fig. 5 depicts the comparison between measured and simulated data of magnitude of S11

(dB) for the entire UWB band. It can be seen that the simulated operating bands of the antenna are

3.1 to 4.9 GHz, 5.3 to 7.8 GHz and 8.4 to 12 GHz with band-notched frequency bands from 4.9 to

5.3 GHz and 7.8 to 8.4 GHz. The measured operating bands of the proposed antenna are 3 to 5 GHz,

5.35 to 7.85 GHz and 8.4 to 11.5 GHz with band-notched frequency bands from 5 to 5.35 GHz and

7.85 to 8.4 GHz. Close agreement has been achieved between measured and simulated results. The

difference can probably be attributed to imperfections of feed wires, over-etching, fabrication errors

tolerances in the dielectric constant of the substrate, non-consideration of SMA connector during

simulation, soldering effect.

To observe the influence of the parasitic inverted–U and iron shaped resonators in getting the

notched bands, the surface current distributions at notched frequencies of 5.2 GHz and 8.2 GHz,

with and without parasitic resonators are illustrated in Fig. 6. It is observed that at both notched

frequencies, the distribution of the surface current on radiating circular patch is uniform, without

having parasitic resonators in the ground plane. With parasitic elements in the ground plane, the

surface currents are concentrated strongly around the resonators and are opposite in direction to the

surface current on the circular patch at notched frequencies. Therefore, at the notch frequencies, the

effect of the radiation is very weak, resulting in dual notched bands at around 5.2 GHz and 8.2 GHz.
0

-10
Magnitude of S11(dB)

-20

-30
t2 = 0.5 mm, g1 = 0.5 mm
and g2 = 4 mm
-40 t1 = 0.5 mm
t1 = 1 mm
t1 = 1.5 mm
-50
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Frequency (GHz)

(a)

-10
Magnitude of S11(dB)

-20

-30 t1 = 1 mm, g1 = 0.5 mm


and g2 = 4 mm

-40 t2 = 0.25 mm
t2 = 0.5 mm
t2 = 0.75 mm
-50
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Frequency (GHz)

(b)
0

Magnitude of S11(dB) -10

-20

-30
t1 = 1 mm, t2 = 0.5 mm
and g2 = 4 mm
-40 g1 = 0.5 mm
g1 = 1 mm
g1 = 1.5 mm
-50
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Frequency (GHz)

(c)

-10
Magnitude of S11(dB)

-20

-30

t1 = 1mm, t2 = 0.5mm
-40 g1 = 0.5 mm, g2 = 4 mm
g1 = 1 mm, g2 = 3.5 mm
g1 = 1.5 mm, g2 = 3 mm
-50
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Frequency (GHz)

(d)
Fig. 4. Simulated magnitude of S11 (dB) plots with variation in ground structure parameters (a) width

t1 (b) width t2 (c) spacing between resonators g1 (d) spacing between ground and resonators g1 and g2.

0
Measured
-5 Simulated

-10
Return Loss S11(dB)

-15

-20

-25

-30

-35

-40

-45

-50
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Frequency (GHz)

Fig. 5. Measured and simulated Magnitude of S11 (dB) plot of proposed antenna. Inset is the

photograph of the fabricated antenna with front and back view.

(a) (b) (c) (d)


Fig. 6. Surface current distribution on the patch and the ground plane at 5.2 GHz (a) with parasitic

resonators and (b) without parasitic resonators; and at 8.2 GHz (c) with parasitic resonators and (d)

without parasitic resonators.

The radiation characteristics such as: E-plane, H-plane pattern and the peak gain of the antenna

were measured in an anechoic chamber. The comparisons between the simulated (co-pol) and

measured (co-pol and x-pol) normalized radiation patterns for the proposed antenna resonant

frequencies: 3.6, 5.7, and 8.4 GHz are plotted in Fig. 7(a)–(c), respectively. Close agreement

between simulated and measured patterns is observed from these figures. It is seen that the E-plane

(yz-plane) patterns have a dipole-shape radiation pattern, whereas, the H-plane (xz-plane) patterns of

the antenna are almost omnidirectional. The measured maximum cross polarization (x-pol) levels of

E- plane is less than –30 dB and H-plane is less than -20 dB. The cross-polarized component value in

YZ-plane is comparatively better than XZ-plane due to increasing horizontal components on the

monopole.

Fig. 8 shows the measured peak gain of the proposed antenna with and without the resonators. It is

observed that the antenna exhibits reasonably good gain (variation is between 1.79 to 4.47 dB) over

the entire operating band except remarkable gain decreases at the center of the notched frequencies

at 5.2 and 8.2 GHz. The observed radiation gain of the antenna at lower and middle operating bands

is almost constant. Further, the antenna using multifunctional arrays that can simultaneously exhibit

the functionalities of a reflectarray and a transmitarray can enhance the gain, minimize the cross

polarization level [20] and improve alternating projection of radiating beam [21]. The computed total

efficiency is also plotted in Fig. 8. It is found that at the center notched frequencies (5.2 and 8.2

GHz), the total efficiency is around 35%, which indicates a drastic decrement in gain around (–2 dB

and –3dB, respectively) is mainly attributed to the effect of dual band-notched structure.

yz-plane xz-plane
Sim. co-pol Sim. co-pol
90 90
Sim. X-pol Sim. X-pol
120 60 Mes. co-pol 120 60
0 0 Mes. co-pol
Mes. X-pol Mes. X-pol
-10 -10
-20 150 30 -20 150 30

-30 -30

H-Field (dB)
E-Field (dB)

-40 -40
-50 180 0 -50 180 0
-40 -40
-30 -30
-20 210 330 -20 210 330
-10 -10
0 0
240 300 240 300
270 270

(a)

Sim. co-pol
90 Sim. co-pol 90
Sim. X-pol
Sim X-pol 120 60
120 60 0 Mes. co-pol
0 Mes. co-pol
Mes. X-pol
Mes. X-pol -10
-10
-20 150 30 -20 150 30

-30 -30
H-Field (dB)
E-Field (dB)

-40 -40

-50 180 0 -50 180 0

-40 -40

-30 -30

-20 210 330 -20 210 330


-10 -10

0 0
240 300 240 300
270 270

(b)

90 Sim. co-pol Sim. co-pol


Sim. X-pol 90
120 60 Sim. X-pol
0 Mes. co-pol 120 60 Mes. co-pol
0
Mes. X-pol Mes. X-pol
-10
-10
-20 150 30
-20 150 30
-30
E-Field (dB)

-30
H-Field (dB)

-40 -40
-50 180 0 -50 180 0
-40 -40
-30 -30
-20 210 330 -20 210 330
-10 -10
0 0
240 300 240 300
270 270

(c)

Fig. 7. Simulated and measured E-field (yz-plane) and H-field (xz-plane) radiation pattern at resonant
frequencies (a) 3.6 GHz (b) 5.7 GHz and (c) 8.4 GHz.
8 100
7
90
6
5 80
4 70

Total efficiency %
3
60
2
Gain (dB)

1 50
0
40
-1
-2 30
-3 20
-4 Measured gain without resonators
Measured gain with resonators 10
-5 Total efficiency
-6 0
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Frequency (GHz)

Fig. 8. Measured peak gain and computed efficiency of the proposed antenna.

4. TIME DOMAIN ANALYSIS

Further, to analyze the time domain performance of the proposed antenna, the phase response,

magnitude of S21 (transfer function) and group delay response are essential parameters, which is

discussed in this section. The measurement of the time domain parameters has been done using

Anritsu MS2028C vector network analyzer in the free space environment. The simulated and

measured phase variation of the input impedance of the proposed dual band-notched UWB antenna

is illustrated in Fig. 9. It can be observed that the phase variation in the operating band is linear apart

from the center frequencies of the notched band at around 5.2 and 8.4 GHz. This variation in phase

against frequency in notched band approves that the frequency components of the signal have the

delay at notched frequencies. To understand this time domain behavior of the signal at notched

frequencies, two identical antennas are placed face to face and side by side configurations with a
distance of 100 mm. For both configurations, the simulated and measured group delay and

magnitude of S21 (transfer function) are shown in Fig. 10 and Fig. 11, respectively.

The group delay (τg) is calculated by given equation

(9)

where ‘ϕ’ is the phase and ‘f’ is frequency.

200 Simulated Measured

150

100
Phase (degree)

50

-50

-100

-150

-200

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Frequency (GHz)

Fig. 9. Simulated and measured phase variation of the input impedance of proposed dual band-

notched UWB antenna.

It can be seen from Fig. 10 (a) and (b) that the high delay is observed at both notched frequencies

(5.2 and 8.2 GHz), whereas apart from these frequencies the simulated and measured group delay for

the face to face and side to side configurations are less than 1 ns. It is also shown in Fig. 11(a) and

(b) that the magnitude of S21 (transfer function) is less than 40 dB at notched frequencies for both

configurations. The distortion and fluctuation in measured results in few frequency bands may be

attributed by considering open space environment and impedance mismatch as comparing simulated
results. The time domain analysis of antenna parameters proves that the proposed antenna is a good

candidate for dual band-notched UWB applications. Comparison of antenna volume and gain at

three operating bands of the proposed antenna with reported dual band-notched UWB antennas is

shown in Table 2. The proposed antenna is capable of achieving the low volume of 583.68 mm3 and

high gain at first, second and third operating bands between 3.1 to 10.6 GHz.

15
15

10
10
Group Delay (ns)

Group Delay (ns)


5
5

0 0

-5 -5

-10 Simulated -10


Measured Simulated
Measured
-15 -15
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Frequency (GHz) Frequency (GHz)

(a) (b)
Fig.10. Simulated and measured group delay of proposed dual band-notched UWB antenna (a) face

to face and (b) side by side configuration.

0 0

-10 -10
Magnitude of S21 (dB)
Magnitude of S21 (dB)

-20 -20

-30 -30

-40 -40

-50 -50
Simulated Simulated
Measured Measured
-60 -60
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Frequency (GHz) Frequency (GHz)

(a) (b)
Fig. 11. The simulated and measured magnitude of S21 (transfer function) of proposed dual band-

notched UWB antenna (a) face to face and (b) side by side configuration.

TABLE 2 Comparison with reported dual-band notched UWB antennas

Measured antenna gain


Antenna volume Relative variation in UWB radiating
L×W×h = V (mm3) permittivity bands (dB)
λ0 (wavelength at lower cut-off of substrate 1st 2nd 3rd
frequency) (ϵr) radiating radiating radiating
band band band
This work 0.330λ0×0.248λ0×0.007λ0 = 583.68 3 2.5–2.86 3.8–4.47 1.79–4.5

[2] 0.212λ0×0.299λ0×0.016λ0 = 951.2 4.6 1–1.5 1.5–3 3.5–4.9

[3] 0.282λ0×0.268λ0×0.011λ0 = 709.8 4.4 2.3–2.4 1.2–3.2 3.4–4.4

[4] 0.310λ0×0.310λ0×0.016λ0 = 1440 4.4 0.8–3.8 0.2–1.7 1.2–3

[5] 0.351λ0×0.279λ0×0.008λ0 = 722.46 2.2 2–2.8 2–4 4–5

[6] 0.248λ0×0.227λ0×0.016λ0 = 844.8 4.6 1–1.8 1.5–1.8 1.8–4.2

[7] 0.301λ0×0.268λ0×0.016λ0 = 1248 4.4 1–1.8 1–1.6 1–4.6

[8] 0.301λ0×0.268λ0×0.016λ0 = 1248 4.4 0.2–0.8 0.7–1.8 1.9–4.3

[9] 0.341λ0×0.258λ0×0.012λ0 = 940.5 2.2 0.5–1.6 3.4–3.6 2.8–4.6

[10] 0.398λ0×0.479λ0×0.011λ0 = 1786.4 2.65 2.5–3 3.5–4 3–4.5

[11] 0.330λ0×0.268λ0×0.008λ0 = 665.6 3.38 0.9–1 1–1.6 2–3.9

[22] 0.372λ0×0.392λ0×0.016λ0 = 2188.8 4.4 1.5–3.5 2.5–3 2–2.5

5. CONCLUSION

A dual band-notched UWB circular monopole antenna has been demonstrated experimentally. A

wide impedance bandwidth is achieved by defective ground surface (DGS). By placing inverted-U
and iron shaped parasitic resonators on the backside of the substrate, UWB antenna with dual band

rejection characteristics is obtained at 5.2 and 8.2 GHz center frequency bands. The surface current

distribution at the notched frequencies with and without resonators are also computed and

investigated. The simulated and measured results of the magnitude of S11, E-plane, H-plane pattern,

gain, total efficiency, phase variation of input impedance, group delay and transfer function are

compared, and a good agreement between simulation and measurement is observed.

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