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and they are not as easy to get moving. but not as many as conductors. Free electrons are electrons that are not being held in atoms. If it weren't for semi-conductors. most electronic doodads couldn't be made. is that water normally contains dissolved ions. silver (Ag). think about solutions and molten conductors.    So what happens if you have separated charges and you connect them with conducting material? Providing a path for charges to move. A   such as saltwater has a lot of free ions floating around. (2) There are some conductors that are not metals. and gold (Au). You see them around the house all of the time. Semiconductors have free electrons. it might conduct electricity long distances and electrocute you. and making that . One of the reasons you need to get out of the water if there is lightning around. Some of the best metallic conductors are copper (Cu). and if lightning hits the liquid (solution). There are a lot of free electrons in metallic conductors. and so. Semiconductors have low conductivities. Examples are elements like silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge). Carbon is the best example. and ionic solutions are very good conductors. When you think about       . Those ions (charged atoms) can flow easily. (3) You've probably seen ionic conductors in a lab or in an experiment.     (1)  are traditional conducting materials. (4)      are the conductors that make your computer possible. It's a metal wire or one of the metal prongs in an electric plug. can move easily.

so this is called AC. it is called DC. or alternating current. ).   . This can happen quickly and then stop. the same charges move back and forth. If the current goes in one direction all the time. or direct current. it continues to happen until the battery runs out of energy. results in a flow of charge (electrons) called a . In your home. in the case of a battery connected to a conducting loop (called a circuit.path out of materials that allow easy movement. as with a spark. Or. The electrons will flow from a location that is negative to one that is positive. however.

the greater the electric force will be. Physicists use the term    to describe these attractions and repulsions. the greater the charges. and like charges repel. The further apart two charges are.  Scientists discovered that opposite charges attract. . So positive-positive and negative- negative would repel. the weaker the electric force. while positive- negative would attract. The electric forces are much stronger when negative charges are closer to positive charges. Also.

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