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# Journal of Advanced Research in Civil and Environmental Engineering

## Volume 5, Issue 1&2 - 2018, Pg. No. 6-9

Peer Reviewed Journal
Research Article

## Study of the Effect of Crack Location in

Bi-Material Plates
Nehar Kheira Camellia
University of Djelfa, PB 3117, Djelfa, Algeria.

Abstract
The Bi-Material structures are characterized by the fact that they possess a specific behavior. This feature
often requires complex formulations to achieve realistic mechanical behavior. In addition, if there is a crack
in the interface and if it reaches a critical condition, the crack may extend along the interface, provided
that the interface is sufficiently weak compared to one or the other material. The mechanical modeling of
interfacial cracks is carried out by the extended finite element method (X-FEM).

The objective of this paper is to study the location of crack in bi-material plates. We took several locations
of cracks. The results obtained are satisfactory.

## Introduction In this context, this work aims to model the behavior of

structures containing interfaces cracks and see their effect
The fracture mechanics of interface cracks in multi-material for different emplacement in the structure. The obtained
systems has received considerable attention. The mixed results will be evaluated using two approaches; the first
mode nature of the stress and displacement field at the is global, based on the J integral and the other is local,
crack tip, the oscillatory nature of the singularity, and the based on the displacement jump at the crack edges near
inseparability of strain energy release rate modes has the crack tip.
been well documented in Hutchinson and Suo (1992) [1]
and Rice (1988) [2]. Hutchinson and Suo[1] also discuss a Modeling of interface crack
methodology for characterizing the fracture toughness of
an interface in plane, bi-material problems. The singular near-tip field for the interface crack (Figure
1) is given by[1, 7] as:
A number of methods have been advanced for the numerical K
determination of interface stress intensity factors in plane

σ 22 ∞
+ τ12 = r iε (1)
2π r
bi-material problems such as finite element method (FEM)
where K =K1 +iK2 is the complex interface stress intensity
and boundary element method (BEM). Matos et al.[3] used
factor, r is the distance from the crack tip, and:
the virtual crack extension method in conjunction with
and FEM to solve bi-material fracture problem. Miyazaki ε=
1  1− β 
log  (2)

et al.[4] applied the virtual crack extension method with 2π  1+ β 
BEM. Lee and Choi [5] used the FEM to solve the problems which is a function of the second Dundurs parameter β [8]:
EFGM and XFEM have been used for the analysis of interface µ1 ( k2 − 1) − µ2 ( k1 − 1)
β= (3)
cracks between two different materials.[6] µ1 ( k2 + 1) + µ2 ( k1 + 1)

## E-mail Id: camellia90@hotmail.fr

How to cite this article: Nehar KC. Study of the Effect of Crack Location in Bi-Material Plates. J Adv Res Civil Envi Engr 2018; 5(1&2):
6-9.

Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Advanced Research in Civil and Environmental Engineering
(E ISSN: 2393-8307 I P ISSN: 2394-7020)
Nehar KC
7 J. Adv. Res. Civil Envi. Engr. 2018; 5(1&2)

And the first the second Dundurs parameter α [8] is given techniques are used in this work; the J integral method
by: and the displacement jump method[10, 11].
µ1 ( k2 + 1) − µ2 ( k1 + 1) For the first method, we use the interaction integral defined
α= (4)
µ1 ( k2 + 1) + µ2 ( k1 + 1) as [6]:

The phase angle is a measure of the relative proportion = I ∫ σ ik(1)ε ik(2)δ xj − σ ij(1)ui(2) (2) (1)
(
, x − σ ij ui , x n j⋅d Γ , k=x or y (8) )
of shear to normal tractions ahead of the crack tip. It is Γ
(1) (2) (1) (2)
deﬁned through the relation [9]: 2 K K +K K
I= * 1 1 2 2 2 (9)
E cosh (πε )
−1 
K 
ω = tan  2  (5) where:
 K1 
The phase angle is an important parameter in the charact-
(10)
erization of interfacial fracture toughness. In reporting the

In order to model the presence of the discontinuity, the Then the stress intensity factor for interfaces cracks
finite element approximation is enriched in X-FEM by three becomes [6]:
additional terms [6]: * cosh 2 (πε ) 2
E * cosh (πε ) I (11)
K1 = E I1 , K 2 = 2
  2 2
 12 
=h
u (x) ∑ N I (x)  uI + 1 (x)443
H442 β
a I + ∑ Φα (x)bI  (6) where: ImodeI: is the interaction integral of mode I.
I ∈N  I ∈N Γ
α =1 42 444443
14444
 I ∈N Λ  The second method is based on the displacement jump
where uI are the finite element conventional nodal between the two crack sides by employing the displacement
displacement degrees of freedom/unknowns, aI, the field near the crack tip. The mixed SIF is deduced by Nehar
additional degrees of freedom to model the discontinuity et al. [12] as:
associated to the crack, and bI, the additional degrees of  K1   2ε cos(ε ln(r )) − sin(ε ln(r )) − cos(ε ln(r )) − 2ε sin(ε ln(r ))   ∆u x 

 = D  ∆u 
freedom to model the singularity of interface crack tip. N K2   − cos(ε ln(r )) − 2ε sin(ε ln(r )) −2ε cos(ε ln(r )) + sin(ε ln(r ))  
 y 

is the set of mesh nodes, NΓ is the set of nodes contained −2 µ 1µ 2 cosh(πε ) 2π (13)
in elements crossed by the crack; NΛ is the set of nodes With: D=
µ 2(1 + k 1) + µ 1e −2επ (e 4επ + k 2) r
associated to elements containing the interface crack tip.
where: Δux, Δuy are the displacement jump.
The Heaviside enrichment function H is a discontinuous
function which value is +1 on one side of the crack and (14)
-1 on the other.

## The crack tip enrichment functions Φα are defined as[6]: (15)

 −εθ θ −εθ θ
 r cos(ε log r )e sin , r cos(ε log r )e cos ,
 2 2 Numerical example
r cos(ε log r )e εθ sin θ , r cos(ε log r )e εθ cos θ ,
2 2
Consider an infinite bi-material plate between two rigid
r cos(ε log r )e εθ sin θ sin θ , r cos(ε log r )e εθ cos θ sin θ ,
[Φα (x), α =−
1 12] =
2 2 (7) grips (H= 4m) with an edge crack of a length of 2 m. In the
θ θ
r sin(ε log r )e −εθ sin , r sin(ε log r )e −εθ cos , first case we take the crack driven by the relative translation
2 2
θ θ of the two grips and in the second case we take a sub-
r sin(ε log r )eεθ sin , r sin(ε log r )eεθ cos ,
2 2 interface crack, h=1 m (Fig 1.a et b). The grips are assumed
θ θ 
r sin(ε log r )eεθ sin sin θ , r sin(ε log r )eεθ cos sin θ 
2 2 
to be perfectly rigid so that no separation no sliding takes
place between the bi-material plate and the grips.
where (r, Ɵ) are the coordinates in the local coordinate The material properties are given by:
system related to the front of the crack.
• Modulus of elasticity: E1= 22 E2
Numerical calculation of the SIF • Poisson’s ratio: ν1 = 0.26, and ν2 =0.30
To calculate the stress intensity factor numerically, two

ISSN: 2393-8307
Nehar KC
J. Adv. Res. Civil Envi. Engr. 2018; 5(1&2) 8

Figure 1.An infinite bi-material plate: (a) A bi-material interface crack between rigid
grips, (b) A sub interface crack
A parametric study of the crack emplacement in the plate A sub interface crack
is conducted. A calculation of the phase angle of the bi-
material plate is performed. And for the second case of crack emplacement (sub-
interface crack), the obtained results of phase angle
Results and discussions calculated using the J integral, the displacement jump
methods and the reference results of Hutchinson [1]
A bi-material interface crack between rigid grips are regrouped in the table 2. In this case the Dunturs
parameters β is taken also α/4.
In Table 1, the results of the phase angle are listed. They are
computed using the J integral and the displacement jump Table 2.Phase angle results ω by varying the Dunturs
methods then they are compared to reference solution of parameter α for a sub-interface crack
Hutchinson et al. [1]. The Dunturs parameter β=α/4. Hutchinson X-FEM (J XFEM (Disp.
Table 1. Phase angle results ω by varying the and Suo [1] Integral) Jump)
Dunturs parameter α for a bi-material interface α ω (°) ω (°) ω (°)
crack between rigid grips
0.2 1.3902 1.46 1.39
Hutchinson X-FEM (J XFEM (Disp.
0.4 3.1829 2.79 2.64
and Suo [1] Integral) Jump)
0.6 4.8902 4.06 3.83
α ω (°) ω (°) ω (°)
0.8 5.8293 5.31 5
0.2 -3.26 -3.33 -3.38
0.4 -6.42 -6.46 -6.51 We have presented also the results of the table 2 in the
Figure 3.
0.6 -10.20 -9.66 -9.59
0.8 -13.6 -12.96 -12.5 7

6
We have presented the results of the table 1 in the Figure 2.
5
-2
Phase angle ω(°)

-4
3

-6 2

X-FEM (J Integral)
-8
1 X-FEM (Disp. Jump)
ω(°)

## Hutchinson and Suo (1992)

0
-10 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
Dunturs parameters α

-12
X-FEM (J Integral) Figure 3.Phase angle ω for a sub-interface interface
X-FEM (Disp. Jump)
Hutchinson and Suo. (1992) crack between rigid grips
-14
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 From the figures we note that our results obtained using
α the J integral and the displacement jump methods are very
Figure 2.Phase angle ω for a bi-material interface close to the solutions of Hutchinson et al.[1].
crack between rigid grips

ISSN: 2393-8307
Nehar KC
9 J. Adv. Res. Civil Envi. Engr. 2018; 5(1&2)

In addition, the location of the crack influences on the • The existence of a crack in the interface is more
results of the phase angle which is very clear in the figures dangerous
3 and 3 such that for a crack in the interface the results of
the phase angle decrease linearly with the increase of the References
Dunturs parameter α while for a crack is under the interface
the phase angle in this case increases which means that 1. Hutchinson J.W., Suo Z., Mixed mode cracking in layered
the existence of a crack in the interface is more dangerous materials. In: Hutchinson JW, Wu TY (eds) Advances in
than the second case. applied mechanics 1992, p-63–191.
2. Rice J.R., Elastic fracture mechanics concepts for
Conclusion interfacial cracks. J Appl Mech 1988, Vol. 55, p-98–103.
3. Matos, P.P.L., McMeeking, R.M., Charalambides,
In this paper, we have proposed the study of bi-material P.G. and Drory, M.D.. A method for calculating stress
interface cracks with the X-FEM method by applying two intensities in bimaterial fracture. International Journal
variants of approach: The J integral and the displacement of Fracture 1989, Vol. 40, 235–254.
jump. This work has oriented to the analysis of cracks 4. Miyakazi, N., Ikeda, T., Soda T., Munakata, T., Stress
emplacement in the plate that lie at or displaced of intensity factor analysis of interface crack using
the interface of two elastically homogeneous isotropic boundary element method (application of contour
materials. integral method), Engineering Fracture Mechanics
1993, Vol. 45, pp. 599-610.
The correlation of the obtained results with the literature 5. Lee, K.Y., Choi, H.J., Boundary element analysis of
for several treated configurations demonstrates the stress intensity factors for bi-material interface cracks.
effectiveness of this procedure. Engineering Fracture Mechanics 1988, Vol. 29 (4),
p- 461-472.
We can obtain these conclusions: 6. Sukumar N., Möes N., Moran B., Belytschko T. Partition
• The location of the crack influences on the results of of unity enrichment for bimaterial interface cracks. Int
the phase angle J Numer Meth Eng 2004, Vol. 59, p-1075–1102.
• The results of the phase angle for crack in the interface 7. Williams L., The stress around a fault or crack in
decreases linearly with the increase of the Dunturs dissimilar media. Bullet Seismol Soc Am 1959, Vol.
parameter α 49, p-199-204.
• The results of the phase angle for sub-interface crack
Date of Submission: 2018-07-09
increase
Date of Acceptance: 2018-07-13

ISSN: 2393-8307