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Original Title: Study of the Effect of Crack Location in Bi-Material Plates

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Study of the Effect of Crack Location in Bi-Material Plates

The Bi-Material structures are characterized by the fact that they possess a specific behavior. This feature
often requires complex formulations to achieve realistic mechanical behavior. In addition, if there is a crack
in the interface and if it reaches a critical condition, the crack may extend along the interface, provided
that the interface is sufficiently weak compared to one or the other material. The mechanical modeling of
interfacial cracks is carried out by the extended finite element method (X-FEM).
The objective of this paper is to study the location of crack in bi-material plates. We took several locations
of cracks. The results obtained are satisfactory

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Peer Reviewed Journal

Research Article

Bi-Material Plates

Nehar Kheira Camellia

University of Djelfa, PB 3117, Djelfa, Algeria.

Abstract

The Bi-Material structures are characterized by the fact that they possess a specific behavior. This feature

often requires complex formulations to achieve realistic mechanical behavior. In addition, if there is a crack

in the interface and if it reaches a critical condition, the crack may extend along the interface, provided

that the interface is sufficiently weak compared to one or the other material. The mechanical modeling of

interfacial cracks is carried out by the extended finite element method (X-FEM).

The objective of this paper is to study the location of crack in bi-material plates. We took several locations

of cracks. The results obtained are satisfactory.

structures containing interfaces cracks and see their effect

The fracture mechanics of interface cracks in multi-material for different emplacement in the structure. The obtained

systems has received considerable attention. The mixed results will be evaluated using two approaches; the first

mode nature of the stress and displacement field at the is global, based on the J integral and the other is local,

crack tip, the oscillatory nature of the singularity, and the based on the displacement jump at the crack edges near

inseparability of strain energy release rate modes has the crack tip.

been well documented in Hutchinson and Suo (1992) [1]

and Rice (1988) [2]. Hutchinson and Suo[1] also discuss a Modeling of interface crack

methodology for characterizing the fracture toughness of

an interface in plane, bi-material problems. The singular near-tip field for the interface crack (Figure

1) is given by[1, 7] as:

A number of methods have been advanced for the numerical K

determination of interface stress intensity factors in plane

∞

σ 22 ∞

+ τ12 = r iε (1)

2π r

bi-material problems such as finite element method (FEM)

where K =K1 +iK2 is the complex interface stress intensity

and boundary element method (BEM). Matos et al.[3] used

factor, r is the distance from the crack tip, and:

the virtual crack extension method in conjunction with

and FEM to solve bi-material fracture problem. Miyazaki ε=

1 1− β

log (2)

et al.[4] applied the virtual crack extension method with 2π 1+ β

BEM. Lee and Choi [5] used the FEM to solve the problems which is a function of the second Dundurs parameter β [8]:

of bi-materials cracks under different loading conditions.

EFGM and XFEM have been used for the analysis of interface µ1 ( k2 − 1) − µ2 ( k1 − 1)

β= (3)

cracks between two different materials.[6] µ1 ( k2 + 1) + µ2 ( k1 + 1)

How to cite this article: Nehar KC. Study of the Effect of Crack Location in Bi-Material Plates. J Adv Res Civil Envi Engr 2018; 5(1&2):

6-9.

Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Advanced Research in Civil and Environmental Engineering

(E ISSN: 2393-8307 I P ISSN: 2394-7020)

Nehar KC

7 J. Adv. Res. Civil Envi. Engr. 2018; 5(1&2)

And the first the second Dundurs parameter α [8] is given techniques are used in this work; the J integral method

by: and the displacement jump method[10, 11].

µ1 ( k2 + 1) − µ2 ( k1 + 1) For the first method, we use the interaction integral defined

α= (4)

µ1 ( k2 + 1) + µ2 ( k1 + 1) as [6]:

The phase angle is a measure of the relative proportion = I ∫ σ ik(1)ε ik(2)δ xj − σ ij(1)ui(2) (2) (1)

(

, x − σ ij ui , x n j⋅d Γ , k=x or y (8) )

of shear to normal tractions ahead of the crack tip. It is Γ

(1) (2) (1) (2)

deﬁned through the relation [9]: 2 K K +K K

I= * 1 1 2 2 2 (9)

E cosh (πε )

−1

K

ω = tan 2 (5) where:

K1

The phase angle is an important parameter in the charact-

(10)

erization of interfacial fracture toughness. In reporting the

phase angle for a given loading conﬁguration.

In order to model the presence of the discontinuity, the Then the stress intensity factor for interfaces cracks

finite element approximation is enriched in X-FEM by three becomes [6]:

additional terms [6]: * cosh 2 (πε ) 2

E * cosh (πε ) I (11)

K1 = E I1 , K 2 = 2

2 2

12

=h

u (x) ∑ N I (x) uI + 1 (x)443

H442 β

a I + ∑ Φα (x)bI (6) where: ImodeI: is the interaction integral of mode I.

I ∈N I ∈N Γ

α =1 42 444443

14444

I ∈N Λ The second method is based on the displacement jump

where uI are the finite element conventional nodal between the two crack sides by employing the displacement

displacement degrees of freedom/unknowns, aI, the field near the crack tip. The mixed SIF is deduced by Nehar

additional degrees of freedom to model the discontinuity et al. [12] as:

associated to the crack, and bI, the additional degrees of K1 2ε cos(ε ln(r )) − sin(ε ln(r )) − cos(ε ln(r )) − 2ε sin(ε ln(r )) ∆u x

= D ∆u

freedom to model the singularity of interface crack tip. N K2 − cos(ε ln(r )) − 2ε sin(ε ln(r )) −2ε cos(ε ln(r )) + sin(ε ln(r ))

y

is the set of mesh nodes, NΓ is the set of nodes contained −2 µ 1µ 2 cosh(πε ) 2π (13)

in elements crossed by the crack; NΛ is the set of nodes With: D=

µ 2(1 + k 1) + µ 1e −2επ (e 4επ + k 2) r

associated to elements containing the interface crack tip.

where: Δux, Δuy are the displacement jump.

The Heaviside enrichment function H is a discontinuous

function which value is +1 on one side of the crack and (14)

-1 on the other.

−εθ θ −εθ θ

r cos(ε log r )e sin , r cos(ε log r )e cos ,

2 2 Numerical example

r cos(ε log r )e εθ sin θ , r cos(ε log r )e εθ cos θ ,

2 2

Consider an infinite bi-material plate between two rigid

r cos(ε log r )e εθ sin θ sin θ , r cos(ε log r )e εθ cos θ sin θ ,

[Φα (x), α =−

1 12] =

2 2 (7) grips (H= 4m) with an edge crack of a length of 2 m. In the

θ θ

r sin(ε log r )e −εθ sin , r sin(ε log r )e −εθ cos , first case we take the crack driven by the relative translation

2 2

θ θ of the two grips and in the second case we take a sub-

r sin(ε log r )eεθ sin , r sin(ε log r )eεθ cos ,

2 2 interface crack, h=1 m (Fig 1.a et b). The grips are assumed

θ θ

r sin(ε log r )eεθ sin sin θ , r sin(ε log r )eεθ cos sin θ

2 2

to be perfectly rigid so that no separation no sliding takes

place between the bi-material plate and the grips.

where (r, Ɵ) are the coordinates in the local coordinate The material properties are given by:

system related to the front of the crack.

• Modulus of elasticity: E1= 22 E2

Numerical calculation of the SIF • Poisson’s ratio: ν1 = 0.26, and ν2 =0.30

To calculate the stress intensity factor numerically, two

ISSN: 2393-8307

Nehar KC

J. Adv. Res. Civil Envi. Engr. 2018; 5(1&2) 8

Figure 1.An infinite bi-material plate: (a) A bi-material interface crack between rigid

grips, (b) A sub interface crack

A parametric study of the crack emplacement in the plate A sub interface crack

is conducted. A calculation of the phase angle of the bi-

material plate is performed. And for the second case of crack emplacement (sub-

interface crack), the obtained results of phase angle

Results and discussions calculated using the J integral, the displacement jump

methods and the reference results of Hutchinson [1]

A bi-material interface crack between rigid grips are regrouped in the table 2. In this case the Dunturs

parameters β is taken also α/4.

In Table 1, the results of the phase angle are listed. They are

computed using the J integral and the displacement jump Table 2.Phase angle results ω by varying the Dunturs

methods then they are compared to reference solution of parameter α for a sub-interface crack

Hutchinson et al. [1]. The Dunturs parameter β=α/4. Hutchinson X-FEM (J XFEM (Disp.

Table 1. Phase angle results ω by varying the and Suo [1] Integral) Jump)

Dunturs parameter α for a bi-material interface α ω (°) ω (°) ω (°)

crack between rigid grips

0.2 1.3902 1.46 1.39

Hutchinson X-FEM (J XFEM (Disp.

0.4 3.1829 2.79 2.64

and Suo [1] Integral) Jump)

0.6 4.8902 4.06 3.83

α ω (°) ω (°) ω (°)

0.8 5.8293 5.31 5

0.2 -3.26 -3.33 -3.38

0.4 -6.42 -6.46 -6.51 We have presented also the results of the table 2 in the

Figure 3.

0.6 -10.20 -9.66 -9.59

0.8 -13.6 -12.96 -12.5 7

6

We have presented the results of the table 1 in the Figure 2.

5

-2

Phase angle ω(°)

-4

3

-6 2

X-FEM (J Integral)

-8

1 X-FEM (Disp. Jump)

ω(°)

0

-10 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Dunturs parameters α

-12

X-FEM (J Integral) Figure 3.Phase angle ω for a sub-interface interface

X-FEM (Disp. Jump)

Hutchinson and Suo. (1992) crack between rigid grips

-14

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 From the figures we note that our results obtained using

α the J integral and the displacement jump methods are very

Figure 2.Phase angle ω for a bi-material interface close to the solutions of Hutchinson et al.[1].

crack between rigid grips

ISSN: 2393-8307

Nehar KC

9 J. Adv. Res. Civil Envi. Engr. 2018; 5(1&2)

In addition, the location of the crack influences on the • The existence of a crack in the interface is more

results of the phase angle which is very clear in the figures dangerous

3 and 3 such that for a crack in the interface the results of

the phase angle decrease linearly with the increase of the References

Dunturs parameter α while for a crack is under the interface

the phase angle in this case increases which means that 1. Hutchinson J.W., Suo Z., Mixed mode cracking in layered

the existence of a crack in the interface is more dangerous materials. In: Hutchinson JW, Wu TY (eds) Advances in

than the second case. applied mechanics 1992, p-63–191.

2. Rice J.R., Elastic fracture mechanics concepts for

Conclusion interfacial cracks. J Appl Mech 1988, Vol. 55, p-98–103.

3. Matos, P.P.L., McMeeking, R.M., Charalambides,

In this paper, we have proposed the study of bi-material P.G. and Drory, M.D.. A method for calculating stress

interface cracks with the X-FEM method by applying two intensities in bimaterial fracture. International Journal

variants of approach: The J integral and the displacement of Fracture 1989, Vol. 40, 235–254.

jump. This work has oriented to the analysis of cracks 4. Miyakazi, N., Ikeda, T., Soda T., Munakata, T., Stress

emplacement in the plate that lie at or displaced of intensity factor analysis of interface crack using

the interface of two elastically homogeneous isotropic boundary element method (application of contour

materials. integral method), Engineering Fracture Mechanics

1993, Vol. 45, pp. 599-610.

The correlation of the obtained results with the literature 5. Lee, K.Y., Choi, H.J., Boundary element analysis of

for several treated configurations demonstrates the stress intensity factors for bi-material interface cracks.

effectiveness of this procedure. Engineering Fracture Mechanics 1988, Vol. 29 (4),

p- 461-472.

We can obtain these conclusions: 6. Sukumar N., Möes N., Moran B., Belytschko T. Partition

• The location of the crack influences on the results of of unity enrichment for bimaterial interface cracks. Int

the phase angle J Numer Meth Eng 2004, Vol. 59, p-1075–1102.

• The results of the phase angle for crack in the interface 7. Williams L., The stress around a fault or crack in

decreases linearly with the increase of the Dunturs dissimilar media. Bullet Seismol Soc Am 1959, Vol.

parameter α 49, p-199-204.

• The results of the phase angle for sub-interface crack

Date of Submission: 2018-07-09

increase

Date of Acceptance: 2018-07-13

ISSN: 2393-8307

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