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g y khw;wq;fSf;F kj;jpapYk; ,uz;liu tUl
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; s; kPzL; k; eilg;ngw;w ghuhSkd;wj;
Njh;jypd; gpd;dh; Vw;gl;l murpay; Fog;g epiyapYk;
njd; MrpahtpNyNa jhf;fj;ij cz;L gz;Zk;
tifapy; Vw;gl;Ls;s Xh; murpay; khw;wj;jpd; NghNj
‘xg;\d;]’; ntspaplg;gl;Ls;sJ. kj mbg;gilapyhd
‘xg;\d;]; ’ ntspaplg;glJ. mt; tpjypo; jj;Jt thjk; kw;Wk; fl;Lg;ghlw;w jpwe;j re;ijg;
ntspaplg;gl;l ,t; murpay; epiy njhlHghd nghUshjhuKk; nfhz;l murpaypwF ; Nk khj ,e;jpag;
fUj;Jiuapd; nkhopngaHg;ig ,q;F jUfpd;Nwhk;. ghuhSkd;wj; Njh;jy; gyj;j jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jpAs;sJ.
,yq;if Rje;jpuf; fl;rp kw;Wk; If;fpa Njrpaf; Njrpa kl; l j; j pYk; cyfyhtpa hP j papYk;
fl;rpfspd; rf;jp kpf;f murpay; gpbf;F rthyhf jw;nghOJ Vw;gl;Ls;s nghUshjhu epyikia
,k;Kiwj; Njh;jy; ghuhSkd;wj;jpw;Fs; Gjpa kw;Wk; vjph;f;fTk; rthy;fis re;jpf;fTk;> njd;dhrpahtpy;
NtWg;gl;l gpujpepjpj;Jtq;fis Eioj;Js;sJ. tUkhd rkkpd;ikapd; fhuzj;jpdhy; cUthfpAs;s
kf;fs; tpLjiy Kd;;dzpahdJ Rje;jpuf; fl;rpAld; r%f ,af;fq;fisf; fhzyhk;.
,ize;J If;fpa kf;fs; Rje;jpuf; $l;likg;ghf
39 Mrdq;fis ntd;nwLj;Js;sik Fwpgg; plj;jf;fJ. ,e;jpahtpy; r%f ,af;fq;fSld; Nrh;eJ ; ,lJ
,yq;ifapy; Kjd; Kiwahf ngsj;j gpf;Fkhh;fis rhhp kw;Wk; r%f [dehaf rf;jpfs; Ml;rpapy; ,Uf;Fk;
khj;jpuk; cs;slf;fpa Njrpa n`y cWikaf; fl;rp ghujPa [dj;jh fl;rpapid (gh.[.f) Njhw;fbj;J
9 ngsj;j kjf; FUkhh;fis ghuhSkd;wj;jpw;f;F Nrhdpah fhe;jp jiyikj; jhq;Fk; fhq;fpu]; fl;rpAld;
mDg;gpaJ. mj;Jld; jkpo; Njrpaf; $l;likg;G ,ize;j $l;likg;ghdJ Ml;rpg; gPlk; VwpaJ.
tlfpof;fpy; ,yq;if jkpouRf; fl;rpnad jkpoPo ,q;NfAk; $l fhq;fpu]; fl;rp rfy mjpfhuq;fisAk;
tpLjiyg; Gypfspd; MjuTld; Nghl;bapl;L 21 nfhz;by;yhj fhuzj;jpdhy; gy;NtWg;gl;l murpay;
Mrdq;fis ntd;nwLj;jJ. FOf;fSld; ,ize;J [hf;fpuijahf MSk;
epyikf; fhzg; g Lfpd; w J. gh.[.ftpd; FWfpa
,t; turpay; fyitahdJ Gjpa gd;ik kakhd vz;zq;fSf;Fk; fUj;Jf;fSf;Fk; kw;Wk; gpw
murpay;> ,d kw;Wk; kj FOf;fSld; Xh; njhq;F ehl; l th; f is cs; s lf; f hj Njrpa thjj; j pw; F
ghuhSkd;wj;ijAk; rpWghd;ik If;fpa kf;fs; Rje;jpuf; kj;jpapYk; gpw ehl;L ngz;kzp jiyikj; jhq;Fk;
$l;likg;G murhq;fj;ijAk; cUthf;fpaJ. $l; l ikg; i g Njh; e ; n jLj; j ik [dehafj; j pd;
rfy mjpfhuq;fisAk; nfhz;l [dhjpgjpapd; ntw; w pf; F k; gd; i k murpay; Kiwapd; rfy
MjuT ,Ue;jg; NghjpYk; murhSk; mjpfhuk; jdpNa jj; J tq; f spd; tphpthf; f j; j pw; F k; Xh; ey; y
Xh; fl;rpaplk; jw;nghOJ ,y;iy. Mdhy; mjpfhuq;fs; vLj;Jf;fhl;lhfTs;sJ.
murhSk; $l;likg;gpw;Fk; vjph; fl;rpf;FkpilNa fhq;fpu]; ntw;wp Kd; $l;bNa vjphg; ; ghh;ff
; g;glh-
gfphe; j; spff
; g;gLk;. ehl;il MStjw;F vjph; fl;rpAld; ikf;fhd fhuzk;> Nrhdpah fhe;jp jiyikj;Jtj;jpwF ;
murhq;fk; Xh; Kiwahd mjpfhug; ghpkhwy; Vw;ghl;il vjpuhf Vw;gl;l Njrpa thjk;> ghy; uPjpapyhd gpioahd
nra;jy; mtrpak;. ,Nj Nghy; vjph; fl;rpAk; ,g; Gjpa mgpg;gpuhaq;fSNk MFk;. gy;NtWg;gl;l murpay;
khw;wj;ij Vw;W mjw;Nfw;g nghWg;Gzh;r;rpAld; kw;Wk; r%fg;gpd;dzpfspy; ,Ue;J mjpfsT ngz;
elg; g J Kf; f pak; . rkhjhd Ngr; R thh; j ; i j Ntl;ghsh;fs; Ml;rpg;gPlk; Vwpaik fLikahd Njrpa
eltbf;ifia kPs Muk;gpjJ ; rfyJk; cs;slq;fpa thjj;jpw;f;F vjpuhd Xh; gyj;j mb vdf; $wyhk;.
Xh; KOikahd eltbf;ifahf Kd;ndLj;J nry;y mikr; R fspy; ngz; f is jP h ; k hdk; vLf; F k;
,J kpfTk; mtrpak;. ];jhdq;fspy; epakpg;gJ Nrhdpah fhe;jpapd; iffspy;
fle;j fhy rkhjhd eltbf;ifapd; ghlq;fSk; cs;sJ. ,J nghWj;jpUe;J ghh;f;f Ntz;ba Xh;
2004y; Vg;uy; khj Njh;jypy; thf;fhsh;fspd; jPh;g;Gk; tplak;.
,ij njspthf czh;j;jpAs;sJ.
1 4002 • L;zhyhf ;khl;zu, • ;yhrn
mikr;ruitapy; ngz;fSf;F jPhk ; hdk; vLf;Fk; ,yq;if jkpouR fl;rp Kd; itj;j %d;W ngz;fSs;
];jhdq;fs; vt;thW gfph;jspf;fg;gl Nghfpd;wd ,UtUk; mth; f s; Nghl; b apl; l Mrdj; j py;
vd;gij mtjhdpjj; y; mtrpak;. njd;dhrpag; gpujkh;fs; ntw;wpg;ngw;Ws;sdh;. ,J ngz;fs; Ntl;ghsh;fshf
,t;thwhd eltbf;ifapy; gpd; jq;fp fhzg;gl;l njhpT nra;ag;gl;lhy; ntw;wpailthh;fs; vd;gij
NghjpYk;> ,j;jhypiag; gpwg;gplkhff; nfhz;l Nrhdpah cWjpg;gLj;Jtjd; %yk; ngz;fs; ntw;wp ngWk;
fhe;jp ,t; tplaq;fspy; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijf; fhzghh; Ntl;ghsh;fs; my;yh; vd;W Mzhjpf;fk;
vd ek;gpfi ; fj; njhptpff
; g; gLfpdw; J. ];ghdpa gpujkh; cUthf;fpAs;s ngha;ahd khiaia mopf;fpd;wJ.
jd;Dila mikr;ruitapy; Mz;fspd; epakd ,jw;F vjph;khwhf If;fpa kf;fs; Rje;jpuf;
vz;zpf;ifapw;F rhprkkhf ngz;fis epakpj;jJ $l;likg;gpdhy; Njrpag; gl;baypy; ,lk; ngw;w xNu
Nghy Nrhdpah fhe; j pAk; nraw; g Lthh; vd ngz;kzp jd;Dila cWg;Ghpikia Njh;jypy;
vjph;g;ghh;f;fg;gLfpd;wJ. Njhy;tpiaj; jOtpa mtuJ fztUf;F jhdk;
,e; j pahtpy; murpay; fl; r pfs; 2>132 Mz; nra;Js;shh;.
Ntl;ghsh;fSld; 149 ngz;fisNa Kd; itj;J ,e;j eltbf;if Njrpag; gl;baiy Nfyp nra;Ak;
Nghy; ,yq;ifapYk; Ntl;G kD nry;Yg;gbahd 5310 tplakhfTs;sJ. mj;Jld; ngz;fSf;F
Mz;;fSf;Fld; 375 ngz;fspd; ngah;fNs fl;rpg; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLf;fg;gLfpdw; J vd;Wk;> mth;fsJ
gl;baypy; cs;slf;fg;gl;lJ. cs;@uhl;rp> gpuhe;jpa> gq;fspg;G mq;fPfhpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ vd;w murpaw;
Njrpa kw;Wk; ghuhSkd;w kl;lj;jpy; murpaypy; fl;rpfspd; $w;W Nghypahdit vd;gJ ,t;thwhd
Nghl;bapLk; Mz;fspd; vz;zpf;iff;F rhprkkhf eltbf; i fapd; %yk; epahakhf; f g; g Lfpd; w J.
ngz;fSk; Nghl;bapLk; chpikAk; tha;g;Gk; ,t; jw;nghOJs;s gpujhd jkpo; $l;likg;G my;yJ
tbg;gilapNyNa epuhfhpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. murpaw; fl;rpahdJ ngz;fis ghuhSkd;wj; Njh;jypy;
murpay; rYiffis Mz;fs; tpl;Lf; nfhLf;f Kd; itj;jik ,JNt Kjw; jlit vd;gJ
jaf;fk; fhl;LtjdhYk;> ngz;fis jho;ej ; th;fshff; Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.
fUJk; Mzhjpf;fj;Jld; ,ize;j mjpfhuj;- ,g; Nghl;bapy; ngz;fspd; gpujpepjpj;Jtj;ij
jpdhYk;> nghJ mjpfhu tuk;ghdJ Mz;fSf;nfd murpaw; rigfspYk; njhFjpfspYk; cWjpg;gLj;Jk;
xJf;fg;gl;ljhf ek;gg;gLtjhYk; mj;Jld; r%f eltbf; i ffisf; NfhUk; ,yq; i f ngz; f s;
cld;gbf;ifahdJ nghJ kf;fSf;Fk; murhq;fj;- ,af;fj;jpd; Nfhl;ghLfs; Kd;itf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
jpw;Fkpilapyhd xd;wy;y. Mdhy; Mz;fSf;Fk; [dthp 2004y; ,ilf; f hy mwpf; i fapy; ,f;
murhq; f j; j pw; F kpilapyhd xd; ; W vd; g jdhYk; Nfhhpf;ifia cs;slf;fj;Njh;jy; kWrPwikg;gpw;fhd
ngz;;fs; epuhfhpf;fg; gLfpd;wdh;. ghuhSkd;wj; njhpTf; FO Njitahd rpghhpRfis
vdpDk; Vg;uy; 2004y; ,yq;ifg; ghuhSkd;wj; Nkw;nfhs;shik ftiyf;Fhpa tplakhFk;.
Njh;jypy; ,uz;L tplaq;fs; njspthd Xh; cz;ikia rh;tNjr kdpj chpikfs; rl;lj;jpy;
ntspg; g Lj; j pd. mjhtJ ngz; f s; ,k; K iwf; mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl;l> jw;fhypf tpN\l gbKiwfisf;
$bastpy; thf;fspj;jik kl;Lky;yhky; toikahd nfhz;l ,f; Nfhhpfi ; ffs; vjphf
; hyj;jpy; eil ngWk;
KiwapYk; ghh;f;f tpj;jpahrkhd Xh; khw;wj;ij murpayikg;gpd; kWrPuikg;G eltbf;ifapd; NghJ
Vw; g Lj; J k; ek; g pf; i fapy; thf; f spj; j ikahFk; . Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gLk; vd ek;gpf;if
cjhuzkhf> FLk;gq;fs; tof;fkhf Mjhpj;J tUk; njhptpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.
fl;rpf;F thf;fspf;fhkYk;> fzth;fs; thf;fspf;Fk;
fl;rpf;F thf;fspf;fhkYk; khw;wj;ijNa Nehf;fp ngz;fs; ,af;fq;fs; xd;Wlndhd;W ,ize;J
thf;fspj;jikahFk;. elhj;Jk; gpurhuq;fs; rf;jpkpf;f [dehaf rigfis
cUthf; f Tk; > rfyJk; mlq; f pa murpaiy
,k; khw;wj;ij cWjpg;gLj;j Kbahtpl;lhYk; cs;slf;fTk;> mj;Jld; murpaypy; ngz;fspd;
kf;fs; Njrpa Kd;ddp> kw;Wk; Njrpa n`y cWka gpujpepjpj;Jtj;ij mjpfhpf;fTk; ngz;fSf;Fk;
Nghd;w fl;rpfspd; Njh;jy; $l;lq;fSf;F mjpfstpyhd ghuhSkd;w cWg;gpdh;fSf;fpilNaAk; If;fpag;ghL
ngz;fs; fye;J nfhz;lik> ,f; fl;rpfSf;F kw;Wk; nghJ ,iritf; fl;bnaOg;Gjy; mtrpak;.
$bastpyhd thf;Ffs; ngz;fNs mspj;Js;sdh;
vd;gij cWjpg;gLj;Jk;. ,j; Njh;jy; 11 ngz;fis KO ,yq; i ff; F Nk nghJ ,iritf;
ghuhSkd;wj;jpw;F mDg;gpAs;s NghjpYk; fl;bnaOg;g mtrpakhd gue;j murpay; Njitfis
ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; ngz;fspd; gpujpepjpj;Jtk; Ie;J tpsq; f pf; nfhs; s ,J Xh; top fhl; b ahf
rjtP j j; j pw; f ; F k; FiwthfNt cs; s J. kf; f s; mikAk;. •
tpLjiy Kd;ddp Kd;itj;j ,uz;L ngz;fSk;

;yhrn • L;zhyhf ;khl;zu, • 4002 2


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fhyfl;lj;jpy; ,dq;fSf;fpilapyhd ,Ug;igj; jhufke;jpukhff;
nfhz; l xU jpiug; g lk; njhluhf 18 thuq; f shfj;
jpiuaplg;gl;Ls;sJ. mj;jpiug;glj;jpd; ngah; “rNuh[h”. rh;tNjr
mstpyhd xU rpdpkh tpohtpy; tpUJntd;w “rNuh[h” vkJ
ehl;Lj; jpiuauq;Ffspy; ngUk; gugug;Gld; jpiuaplg;gl;lJ.
xU Filapd; fPo; mutizg;gpd; ,Wf;fj;jpy; rpiwg;gl;l
,U rpWkpfspd; cUtk; mj;jpiug;glj;jpd; gpd;dNu vkJ
Njrj;jpd; czh;tiyfis cRg;gptpl;lnjd;why; kpifapy;iy.
Nrhkuj; d jprhehaf; f htpd; fUg; n ghUs; > gpujpahf; f k; >
newpaho;if Mfpatw;wpy; cUthd “rNuh[h” cz;ikapNyNa
mofpa> mw;Gjkhd xU jpiug;glkhFk;. rpq;fsj; jpiuAyfpy;
nghJthf mtjhdpf;ff;$ba jpl;gEl;gkw;w fhl;rpfisAk;;>
Nfhkhspj;jdkhd> eaehfhpfkw;w tof;FfisAk;
GwnkhJf;fptpl;L> kpfTk; kdq;ftUkhd fijahf;fj;ij
cUthf;Ftjpy; Nrhkuj;d jprhehaf;fh vDk; gilg;ghsp
ntw;wpfz;Ls;shh;. fkuh kw;Wk; xsp ,af;fj;jpYk;> ,irf;
ifahsypYk;> jpiuf;fhl;rpfis xd;WNfhh;g;gjpYk; ,jkhd>
,yhtfkhd xU ghzpiaf; ifahz; L s; s Nrhkuj; d
jprhehaf;fh> ,d;iwa ,yq;ifah; r%fj;ijNa
thl;btijf;fpdw; nfhba ,dg; Nghuhl;lj;jpd; khdpl Jauj;ij
rhjhuz rpq;fs jpiu ,urpfh;fSf;F Kd;itg;gjw;fhfj;
Njh;e;njLj;j rpdpkhg;ghzp mUikahdJ. mt;thNw> gpugy
ebfh; ebifahpdJk;> Foe;ij el;rj;jpuq;fspd; ghj;jpuNkw;W
ebf;Fk; ,U rpWkpfspdJk; ,jq;fye;j> czh;rr; pkpff ; ebg;ig
mth; jpwikahff; ifahz;Ls;s tpjk; myhjpahdJ. ePl;lh
ngh;zhe;J Nghd;w gpugy fiyQh;fspd; Kd;dpiyapy; $l>
tUzp> rNuh[pdp Mfpa ,U ghj;jpuq;fSf;Fk; cap&l;ba
mr; rpd;dQ;rpW ebifahpd; ,ay;ghd> czh;r;rp jJk;Gk;
ebg;Gj;jpwk; gw;wpa ghuhl;Ljy;fis ,e;jj; jpiug;glk; gw;wp
vOjg;gLk; ve;jnthU Vl;bYk; cl;gLj;JtJ jtph;f;f
KbahjjhFk;.
3 4002 • L;zhyhf ;khl;zu, • ;yhrn
Aj;jg; gpuNjrq;fspy; thOk; fpuhkj;jth;fs; gw;wpAk;> jaq; f p Kd; N dwpaNghJk; > je; i japd; cw; r hf
mth;fspd; ehshe;j tho;tpd; Jd;gJauq;fs; gw;wpAk;> thh;j;ijfshy; ce;jg;gl;l mts; Mw;wq;fiuaUNf
,ilf; f pil muq; N fWk; ,uj; j ntwpgpbj; j tpisahb kfpOk; rpq; f s rpWkpfs; rpyiur;
gLnfhiy Kaw;rpfspd; NghJ khj;jpuk; Clfq;fs; re;jpf;fpd;whs;. mth;fSs; xU rpWkpNa tUzp.
%yk; vkJ ftdk; <h;;f;fg;gLk;. mJ jtpu> ,e;j fpuhkj;Jg; ghlrhiy cghj;jpahahpd; kfNs tUzp.
kf;fs; ehshe;j tho;it vt;thW flj;Jfpd;wdh; jkpo;r; rpWkpapd; grpf;fisia ed;Fzh;e;Jnfhz;l
vd;gJ vkf;F xU nghUl;ly;y. tUzp mtSf; F czt+l; b
“rNuh[h” jpiug;glj;jpd; fijg;Gyk; xU Filapd; fPo; ,d;GWfpwhs;. fhl;bDs;
tws; tyaj;jpd; Aj;jg; gpuNjrj;ij mutizg;gpd; Nghf; f plkw; W g; gJq; fpapUf;Fk;
mz;ba xU fpuhkpar; #oyhFk;. jkpo;g; Nghuhsp gw;wpAk; mts;
,Wf;fj;jpy;
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cOfpd;wdh;. cghj;jpahah; rpi wg;g l;l
nra;jpj;jhs; gbf;fpd;whh;. rpwhh;fs; ,U rpWkpfspd; jkpo; kf; f isf; nfhd; W
Ftp g;gjw;Fr; rhh;ghf gfpuq;fkhf
ghlrhiy nry;fpd;wdh;. cUtk;
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mj;jpiug;glj;jpd; kj;jpapy; thOk; tUzp> mtsJ
tpisahb kfpof ; pdw; dh;. tho;fi
; fr;
gpd;dNu vkJ ,ufrpaj; i jg; ghJfhg; g jw; F
rf;fuk; ,t;tpjkhf “xUthW”
cUz;NlhLfpd;wJ. ,jdpilNa Njrj; jpd ; nghpJk; Kaw;rpfF ; k; tpjKk;> <w;wpy;
jkpo; jP t puthjf; FO jkJ czh;tiyfis jhahhpd; er;rhpg;GfisAk;
nghUl;gLj;jhky; mtSk;>
fpuhkj; i j mz; b a fhl; L g; cRg;gptpl;lnjd;why;
gpuNjrj;jpy; CLUtp tplyhk; vd;w je;ijAk; mj; jkpor; ; rpWkpiaAk;>
kpifapy;iy. mtsJ je; i jiaAk; jkJ
mr;rTzh;Tk; mth;fisf; fpyp
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jP t puthj vjph; g ; G –jkpoh; tpjKk; cs;sj;ijj;njhl;L
vjph;g;G Mfpatw;wpdpilNa nef;FUf itf;Fk;
fpuhkj;jth;fs; NtWghl;il neUlyhd fhl; rpfshFk;.
mtjhdpf;ftpy;iy. Muk;gj;jpy; ,e;jf;
ifq;fhpaj;Jf;F vjph;g;Gj;
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fhuzkhf jdJ jhiaAk;> gbg;gbahf rNuh[htpd; ghy;
tPl;ilAk; gwpnfhLj;Jg; <h; f ; f g; g Lfpwhh; . #oTs; s
gupjtpf; F k; rpd; d Q; r pW r%fj;jpdhYk;;> rl;lj;jp-
jkpo; r ; rpWkpnahUj; j p> dhYk;; jkf;F mOj;jq;fs;
#l;Lf; fhaq;fSf;F ,yf;fhd jdJ je;ijAld; Njhd;Wk;NghJ> mtw;Wf;F <LnfhLf;f Kbahky;
rpq;fsf; fpuhknkhd;iw mz;ba xU fhl;Lg; rQ; r yg; g Lgth; > Kjypy; ,e; j r; nraiyr;
gpuNjrj;jpy; eph;f;fjpahfp tpLfpd;whs;. nra;tjwpahj nra;AksTf;Fj Jzpe;jth;> tUzpapd; je;ijNa.
je;ijNah mtis rpqf ; sf; fpuhkj;ij Nehf;fp mDg;gp mjhtJ> cghj;jpahah;. mth; rQ;ryg;gLk; Ntisapy>;
itf;fpd;whd;. jPtputhjpahd mtd; MAje;jhq;fp tUzpapd; jhahh; mjhtJ> mtuJ kidtp mtuJ
epw;fpd;whd;. jdJ fpuhkj;Jf;Fk;> FLk;gj;Jf;Fk; khdpl Neaj;Jf;Fr; rthyhf> fh;zf^ukhf FWf;Nf
Nehpl;l ,luhh;e;j fijiag; gw;wp kfis mZfp epw;ghh;. <w;wpy; jkJ ifq;fhpaq;fshy; fpuhkj;jtupd;
tprhhpjj; wpfpwhd;. MAje;jhq;fpa FOnthd;wpdhy; jkJ Gwf;fzpgG; f; cs;shfp me;jf; fpuhkj;ijNa tpll ; fd;W
kidtp kPJ Ntl;Lf;fs; jPh;f;fg;gl;L> jdJ tPLk; kd; d hh; gpuNjrj; j pYs; s ghlrhiynahd; W f; F
jPf;fpiuahf;fg;gl;lij mwpfpwhd;. ,e;jr; nra;jp ,lkhw;wyhfpr; nry;fpwhh; cghj;jpahah;. rNuh[htpd;
Nfl;lJk;> tw;GWj;jypd; Nghpy; jPtputhjf; FOtpy; je;ijAk;> mtuJ rfhf;fshNyNa kpfTk; nfh^ukhd
, i z j ; J f ; n f h s ; s g ; g l ; l m t d ; > m e ; j Kiwapy; nfhiy nra;ag;gLfpwhh;.
tho;tpypUe;J kPz;LtpLtnjdj; jd; kdj;jstpy;
cWjp g+Zfpd;whd;. “rNuh[h” jpiug; g lj; j pd; %yk; kpfTk;
czh;r;rpkpf;f gy khdpl cwTfs; vkJ kdf;fz;
rpd;dQ;rpW jkpo;r; rpWkpNah me;jr; rpq;fsf; Kd; mfy tphptijf; fhz;fpNwhk;. mtw;Ws;
fpuhkj;ij Nehf;fp efh;fpd;whs;. mr;rj;Jld; jaq;fpj; Kjd; i kahdJ> rNuh[h–tUzp vDk; ,U
;yhrn • L;zhyhf ;khl;zu, • 4002 4
Foe;ijfspilNa epytpa ,Wf;fkhd cwthFk;. je;ijah;-ngz; kf;fspilNa epyTk; cwT
vj;Jiz mr;rk; #oe;jNghJk; mth;fs; ,UtUk; rpj; j hpj; J f; f hl; l g; g Lk; tpjk; ,j; j piug; g lj; j py;
xUtiunahUth; Muj; jOtpf; n fhs; t ijg; mtjhdpf;ff;$ba kw;WnkhU rpwg;gk;rkhFk;. xU
ghh;f;Fk;nghOJ> cz;ikapy; jkf;fpilNa ,d- kfSf; F k; > je; i jf; F kpilapyhd ,Wf; f khd
kj-nkhop hPjpahd vy;iyfisf; fle;j epiyapy;> Nerg;gpizg;ig mw;Gjkhfr; rpj;jhpf;Fk; fhl;rpj;
gu];guk; md;Gk; rNfhjuj;JtKk; NknyOk; tpjk; njhlnuhd; w pd; %yNk “rNuh[h” jpiug; g lk;
ekJ kdq;fis cWj;Jfpd;wJ vdpDk;> tUzp- Muk;gpff ; pdw; J. mLj;jjhf> ,uz;lhtjhfj; Njhd;Wk;
rNuh[h Mfpa ,U Foe;ijfspilNa epytpa Nerg; xU kfSk; > je; i jAk; jkJ neUf; f j; i j
gpizg; g pd; fhuzkhf> MokhfTk; > GJg; G J ntspf;fhl;LtjD}lhf> Kjypy; $wpa kfSf;Fk;
mh;j;jq;fisj; Njhw;Wtpj;jthWk; vkJs;sj;jpy; je; i jf; F k; Nerf; f uk; eP l ; l tpiofpd; w dh; .
cjpf;Fk; kw;WkpU tifahd cwTfisAk; ,e;jj; xUtUlndhUth; fuLKulhd tpjj;jpy; ele;Jnfh-
jpiug;glj;jpD}Nl ehk; Kf;fpakhf mtjhdpf;f s;sf;$ba xU epiyikia vjph;nfhz;l je;ijah;
KbfpwJ. vdpDk; > ,JfhWk; ,t; t plaj; j py; ,UthpilNa xw; W ikia Vw; g Lj; j p> kd
tpkh;rfh;fspd; ghh;it <h;f;fg;gltpy;iy vd;Nw khw; w nkhd; i w cUthf; f pa ngUik ,U
$wNtz;Lk;. kfs;khiuAk; rhUk;. xUtUf;nfhUth; jkJ
,d; D apiuAk; Jr; r nkdkjpj; J mh; g ; g zpf; f j;
mtw;Ws; xd;W jhd;> tUzpapd; jha;-je;ij Jzpej ; > grpfn ; fhLik> kio> ,d td;Kiw Nghd;w
MfpNahhpilNaahd cwT. mth;fs; gpur;rpidfisAk;> jlq;fy;fisAk; nghUl;gLj;jhj>
,UtUf;fpilapYk; ePL epiyj;jpUg;gjw;Fhpa gu];gu je; i jaUf; F k; jk; kf; f Sf; F k; ,ilapyhd
Ghpe; J zh; T k; > nfsutKk; epytpanjd; g J Nerg;gpizg;igAk;> jha;khUf;Fk;> jk;
nts;spilkiy. mJ xUNghJk; fz;%bj;jdkhd- gpsi; sfSf;Fkpilapyhd Nerg; gpizg;igAk; gw;wpa>
FUl;L gf;jpahfNth> rpWgpsi ; sj;jdkhd md;ghfNth vkJ jpiuAyfpy; mbf;fb myrg;gLfpd;wNghJk;
,Uf;ftpy;iy. xUtUf;nfhUth; Kuz;ghlhd ,t;tpjkhf kpfTk; czh;r;rpg+h;tkhf je;ijah;-
fUj; J f; f isf; nfhz; b Ue; j NghJk; > me; j f; kfs;khhpilNa epyTk; Nerg;gpizg;igj; jj;&gkhfg;
fUj; J f; f isr; Rje; j pukhfTk; > NeubahfTk; glk;gpbj;Jf;fhl;ba xU re;jh;gg; j;ij ,jw;F Kd;dh;
njhpag;gLj;jp> Kuz;gl;L> vdpDk; md;nghOf tho;ej; ek;khy; mtjhdpf;f Kbatpy;iy.
me;j cghj;jpahaUk;> mtuJ kidtpAk; ghpg+uz
kdpjh;fshfNt vkJ kdq;fspy; Mog; gjpfpd;wdh;. ,tw; W f; f g; g hy; > rNuh[h jpiug; g lj; j py;
,zf;fg;ghl;bd; kjpg;G gw;wpa xU Ghpe;Jzh;it mtjhdpf;ff;$ba Kf;fpa gpur;rpidfs; gw;wpAk;
vkJ kf;fSf;F mwpKfg;gLj;j gfPujg;gpuaj;jdk; ftdk; nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. mjhtJ> Rkhh; ,U
Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;LtUk; xU fhyfl;lj;jpy>; Kuz;gl;l jrhg;j fhykhf ,yq;ifia thl;b tijf;Fk; ,d
fUj;Jf;fisj; jhq;fpapUg;gJ vg;NghJk; Nkhjy; Nkhjy;> rpq;fs-jkpo; Njrpathjk;> ,dthjk; vd;gd
epiyf;Fj; J}z;Ljyspff ; hJ vd;gij ,t;tpjkhfr; ,j;jpiug;glj;jpd; %yk; rpjj ; hpjJ
; f;fhl;lg;gLk; tpjk;
Rl; b f; f hl; L tjd; %yk; > tho; t paypYk; > kdpj kPJ ftdk; nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. kdpj cwTfis
cwTfspYk; fhzf;fpilf;Fk; Mokhd> rpff ; y;tha;ej; cUtq;fspy; rpiwg;gLj;Jk;NghJ jprhehaf;fh vd;w
czh;tiyfis ,j;jpiug;glj;jpd; %yk; kpfTk; kdpjhplkpUe;J ntspg;gLk; $Uzh;Tk;> rpf;fyhd
Jy;ypakhfr; rpj;jhpj;Jf; fhl;Lfpwhh; ,af;Feh; jd; i kAk; ,q; F kiwe; J s; s d. nrhy; y stpy;
jprhehaf;fh. jkpoh;fSf;Fk; jPtputhjpfSf;FkpilNa NtWghL
epyTtjhf cghj;jpahah; Fwpg;gpLfpd;w NghjpYk;>
fpuhkj; j thpilNa mt; t hwhd xU ghugl; r k;
epyttpy;iy. ngUk;ghyhd rpq;fs kf;fs;> jkpoh;fs;
midtiuAk; “Gypfs;” vd; fUJfpd;wduh vd;gJ
tpthjj;Jf;Fhpa nghUshf mike;j NghjpYk;> ,e;jj;
jpiug;glj;i
; jg; nghWj;jstpy; rpqf ; sth;fs; tplaj;jpy;
mj;jifanjhU fUj;JUNt gpujpgypff ; pdw; J. jkpo;
kf; f s; xUtiunahUth; kha; j ; J f; n fhs; S k;
fy;neQ;rk; gilj;jth;fs; vd;w fUj;ijAk; ,e;jj;
jpiug;glk; epiyepWj;Jfpd;wJ. rNuh[htpd; jha;-
je;ij Mfpa ,UthpdJk; caph;fisAk; jkpo;j;

5 4002 • L;zhyhf ;khl;zu, • ;yhrn


jPtputhjNk fhT nfhs;fpd;wJ. cz;ikapy; ,e;ehl;by;
“G y p f S f ; F ” t i y t p h p j ; J GiuNahbg;NghAs;s jPtputhj;ij
,uj;jntwpAld; rpq;fsf; ntWj;njhJf;fj;Jzpe;j jkpop-
fpuhkj;jth;fs; fhLfisr; ry;yil dj;jtpd; xl;Lnkhj;jkhd
NghLtJk;> jkpo;j; jPtputhjpfs; milahskhfNt “rNuh[h” vDk;
“JNuhfpfs;” vd epidf;Fk; jkpo; Foe; i j el; r j; j puj; i j ek; k hy;
kf;fisf; nfhd;nwhopg;gJk; ve;j fUjKbAk;. jd;dhy; Ghpe;Jnfhs;s
murpay; epahak; fhuzkhf Kbahj xU nkhopiag; NgRNthh;
,lk;ngWfpd;wJ vd;gJ vkf;Fg; kj;jpapNyNa mts; tho NehpLfpdw; J.
Ghpatpy;iy. mt;thNw> mts; cLj; J fpd; w tpjj; i jg;
rpq; f stuhapDk; > jkpouhapDk; > nghWj; j stpy; > jdJ kj/,d
,yq;ifauhfpa ekJ fle;jfhy hPjpahd milahsj;ij ntspgg; Lj;-
mDgtq; f spd; ajhh; j ; j q; f isf; Jtijf; iftpLfpd;whs;. new;wpapy;
nfhr;irg;gLj;JtJld;> khdplNe- nghl;L itg;gijAk;> fhy;fspy;
ak; g+z;l xOf;frPykpff ; ,uhZt nfhYR mzptijAk; mtsJ
kw;Wk; nghyp]; tPuh;fs; “rNuh[h”tpy; fzprkhdstpy; “ghJfhg;Gf; fUjpNa” mts; jtphj; J ; f; nfhs;fpdw; hs;.
gtdp tUfpd;wdh;. ve;jnthU r%f mikg;igAk; <w;wpy>; mts; mehjuthd epiyf;Fj; js;sg;gLfpdw; hs;.
,t; t hW kl; l fukhdjhfr; rpj; j hpg; g J> xU rpqf
; sf; FLk;gj;ijAk;> rpqf
; s r%fj;ijAk; gpdg; w;wpr;
fiyQDf; F g; nghUe; j hJ vd; g Nj vdJ nry;tijj; jtph;j;J> mtSf;F khw;WtopnaJTk;
vz;zkhFk;. ,Uf;ftpy;iy. “rNuh[pdP ” vd;w ngahpy; xU
gFjpiar; RUf; f p “rNuh[h” vdj; jd; i d
jkpo; kf;fis tof;fk;Nghy FWfpa milahsg;gLj;jpaJ Nghd;Nw> mts; jdJ jkpo;
fz; N zhl; l j; J lDk; > ,dthjg; Nghf; F lDk; milahsj;jpd; xU gFjpiaf; FWf;fp “rpq;fs”
Nehf; F k; rpq; f s ghh; i tahsh; f Sf; f hfNt ,J jd;ikiaj; jOtpf; nfhs;fpd;whs;.
gilf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ vd;gNj ,d;iwa murpay;
khjphpapd; kPjike;J> jkpo;g; ngz;nzhUj;jpapd; jw; f hy ,yq; i fr; r%fj; j pd; jdpg; g l; l
kuzj;jpy; njhlq;fp> jkpo; MnzhUtdpd; kuzj;jpy; tho;Tf;Fk;> nghJ tho;Tf;Fk; ,ilapy; epyTk;
KbtilAk; “rNuh[h”it Nehf;Fk;NghJ vkf;Fg; ntw;wplkhdJ gythWk; FWfp tUfpd;wJ. jkJ
Gyg;gLtjhFk;. jPtputhjj;ijg; Gwf;fzpg;gjw;F r%f> nghUshjhu> fyhrhu tho;tpd; kPJ jkJ
vj;jdpf;Fk; jkpo; Mz;kfd; nfhy;yg;gLtJld;> jdpgg; l;l milahskhdJ NeubahfNt nry;thf;ifg;
,dthjj;ijg; Gwf;fzpg;gjw;F vj;jdpf;Fk; rpq;fs gpuNahfpff; pdw; J. ,e;jr; #oiktpy>; jdpgg; l;l kw;Wk;
Mz; k fd; fpuhkj; i jtpl; N l ntspNawNtz; b murpay; jd;ikf;fpilNa ghuJ}ukhd
NehpLfpd;wJ. epyTfpd;w Nghf;Ff;F khw;wkhd xU ntw;wplnkhd;iwg; NgZtjw;F ,e;jj; jpiug;glk;
fUj;Jf;Fr; rhh;ghdjhfj; Njhd;Wk;> fLikahd nghpJk; vj;jdpf;fpd;wJ. ,d hPjpahd “NtWghL”
jz;lidfis tpjpfF ; k; xU r%fj;jpd; kj;jpapNyNa gw;wp epyTk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;l fUJNfhs;fis
ehk; tho;fpNwhk; vd;gij ,e;jj; jpiug;glk; vkf;Fg; “rNuh[h” cWjpg;gLj;Jfpd;wJ. NkYk;> “rpq;fs”
nghpJk; typAWj; J fpd; w J. jdpg; g l; l /FLk; g jd;ikAld; ,zq;fpr;nry;tJ jtpu jkpoh;fSf;F
kl;lj;jpd; ,zf;fg;ghl;Lf;F kjpgg; spjJ
; s;s ,af;Feh;> khw;WtopnaJTk; fpilahJ vd;w cz;ikiaAk;
nghJ/murpay; kl; l j; j pd; Kf; f pa Nghf; F f; F “rNuh[h” vLj;jpak;Gfpd;wJ. ,j;jpiug;glj;jpd;
Kuzhdjhf mikAk; fUj;Jf;fisf; jhufke; j pukhf mikAk; rpy fl; l q; f isAk; >
nfhz;bUg;gjw;Fhpa tha;g;Gf;fhd tiuaWf;fg;gl;l fhl;rpfisAk; kpfTk; jpwikahff; ifahz;Ls;s
jd;ikia vkf;Fr; Rl;bf;fhl;LtJld;> me;j Nrhkuj;d jprhehaf;fh vDk; ,af;Feh;> jpiug;glj;jpd;
tiuaWf;fg;gl;l jd;ikia XusTf;F Vw;Wf;nfh- epiwtpy; “jkpoj; ; jd;ik”apd; Kd;dpiyapy; mtw;iw
s; t J NghyTk; > mq; f P f hukspg; g J NghyTk; ; ,dq;fhz Kbahj epiyia Vw;gLj;Jk; ghuJ}ukhd
Rl;bf;fhl;Lfpd;whh;. nkhj;jj;jpy;> ,j;jpiug;glj;ijf; jtiw ,ioj;JtpLfpwhh;. mjd; %yk;> KO
$h;e;J Nehf;fpd;> rpq;fs-jkpo; Kuz;ghLfs; gw;wpa jpiug;glj;Jf;Fk; CW tpisfpd;wJ vd;gJ vdJ
vspa> nts;is-fWg;G milahsq;fisf; ifahz;L> vz;zkhFk;. •
rpq;fsth;fspd; kdpjj; jd;ikiaAk;> jkpoh;fspd;
jPtputhj czh;itAk; cyfpw;F vLj;Jiuf;Fk;
xU jpiug;glk; vd;gij mtjhdpf;f KbfpwJ. tp\;t gphpah
;yhrn • L;zhyhf ;khl;zu, • 4002 6
r
x¸oD
khjhd eltbf;iffs; gw;wpa cq;fSila fUj;Jf;fisAk;>
cq;fSila fl;rpapd; gq;fspg;igg; gw;wpAk; $WtPh;fsh?
rkhjhd eltbf;ifahdJ rpy fhykhf ePbj;J tUfpd;wJ.

ÿ√ıð
ıðVÔ
vdpDk; ehk; ,jDs; cs;slf;fg;gltpy;iy vd;gJ ftiyf;Fhpa
tplak;. ehq;fs; ,e; eltbf;ifapypUe;J js;spitf;fg;gl;Ls;Nshk;.
fpof;if gpujpepjpj;Jtg;gLj;Jk; %d;W ,dq;fSNk ,jpy;
cs;slf;fg;glhJ xJf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. mjpYk; K];ypk;

∂´EBo
EBo_... kf;fs; mjpfkhfNt epuhfhpf;fg;gl;Ls;sdh;. ,g;gbahd
Ngr;Rthh;j;ijfs; gw;wpf; Nfs;tpg;gLfpd;Nwhk;> Mdhy; ,r;
rkhjhd rkurg; Ngr;Rthh;j;ij %yk; vij milag;
NghfpNwhk; ? > vd; d elf; f g; Nghfpd; w J?> my; y J
,g;Ngr;Rthh;ji; j vj;jpiria Nehf;fpr; nry;fpdw; J?. ,jd;
fpof;F khfhzj;jpd; jw;Nghija epiy vd;d? vd;gJ xUtUk; mwpahj Nfs;tpf;Fhpa
tPlikg;G> eph;khdk;> tplakhfTs;sJ. ,ijg; gw;wp njhpeJ ; f;nfhs;s ehk; tpUk;GfpdN; whk;.
fy;tp kw;Wk; ePh;g;ghrd vt;thW ,g;gpur;rid jPh;j;Jitf;fg;glg; Nghfpd;wJ vd;gij
mwpa MtyhfTs;Nshk;. cjhuzkhf 2000Mk; Mz;L ,th;fs;
mikr;rUk;> Njrpa
vd;d nra;ag;Nghfpd;whh;fs; vd;w Xh; rpW jhprdkhtJ fpilj;jJ.
If;fpa Kd;dzpapd; Mdhy; ,d;W vd;d elf;fpd;wJ vd;gij vk;khy; Ghpe;J nfhs;s
jiytpAk;> Kbahky; cs;sJ. ,J Xh; ftiyf;Fhpa tplakhFk;. rfy
fhyQ;nrd;w fl;rpfSk; ,g;Ngr;R thh;j;ijapy; cs;slf;fg;gl;L mth;fspd;
Kd;dhs; fg;gw;Jiw fUj;Jf;fis ntspapl re;jh;gg; k; nfhLf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. Kf;fpakhf
K];ypk; kf;fspd; ghJfhg;G mth;fSila gpuNjrq;fspy; my;yJ
eph;thf mikr;rh; mth;fs; jha; ehlhf fUJk; gpuNjrj;jpy; cWjpgLj;jg;g; l Ntz;Lk;.
vk;.vr;.vk; m\;ug;gpd;
kidtpAkhd rfyijAk; cs;slf;fpa ,e; eltbf;ifia Kd;ndLj;J nry;y
ePq;fs; vd;d Kd; nkhopfpwPh;fs;? Kiwahd mbg;gilapyhd
nghpay; m\;ug;> gpujpepjpj; J tj; i jah my; y J ,izahd eltbf; i fapy;
FKjpdp rh%NtYld; mNyhrfuhfth ,Uf;f tpUk;GfpwPhfs;?
murpay; gw;wpa jdJ
,J cj;jpNahfg;G+h;t kl;lj;jpy; ,Uj;jy; mtrpak;. murhq;fk;
fUj;Jfis gy;NtWg;gl;l FOf;fSld; ,izahf Ngr;Rthh;j;ij elj;jp Xh;
njhptpj;jhh;. GhpeJ
; zh;Tf;F tUtJ mtrpak;. murhq;fj;jpy; Xh; mq;fj;jtuhf
,Ug;gjdhy; kl;Lk; kf;fspd; fUj;Jf;fisNah ajhh;jj ; g;G+h;tkhd
epiyikiaNah mwpe;Jf; nfhs;sg; Nghtjpy;iy. mj;Jld; nghpa
fl;rpfSld; xNu khjphpahd Ngr;Rthh;ji ; jia elhj;Jjy; mtrpak;.
,ijNa ehk; vjph;ghh;f;fpNwhk;. K];ypk; gpujpepj;Jtk; mth;fs;
rk;ge;jg;gl;l tplaq;fs; Ngrg;gLk; nghOJ khj;jpuNk cs;slf;fg;gLk;
vd;w fUj;Jf;fs; vOe;Js;sd. Mdhy; K];ypk; kf;fspd; gpur;rid
jdpg;gl;ljy;y. mJ rfy tplaq;fspYk; rk;ge;jg;gl;Ls;sJ.
epyk; rk;ge;jkhd Ngr;Rthh;ji
; japy>; murhq;fj;jpd; fPOk; tpLjiyg;
Gypfspd; fPOk; cs;s epyj;ijg; gw;wp NgRNthk;. ,jpy; K];ypk;
kf;fSk; rk;ge;jg;gl;Ls;sdh;. Mifahy; mth;fSk; cs;slf;fg;gly;
mtrpak;.
ngz;fs; vt;thwhd tplaq;fis Kd;itf;f Ntz;Lk;?
ngz;fNs vjpYk; Jd;GWj;jYf;F cs;shfpd;wdh;. Vndd;why;>
nghpay; m\;ug;
ehk; ngz;fSld; NgRk; nghOJ jhd; mth;fs; thOk; gpuNjrk;
gw;wpAk; mq;F ele;jit gw;wpAk; Kw;whf NtWgl;l Xh; epyikia

7 4002 • L;zhyhf ;khl;zu, • ;yhrn


mtjhdpff ; f;$bajhf cs;sJ. ehk; mf;fiu fhl;Lk; kf; f s; tpLjiy Kd; d dp njhpT nra; j ,U ngz;
kw;WNkhh; tplak; ahnjdpy;> ,g;Ngr;R thh;j;ijapy; Ntl;ghsh;fSk; ,yq;if jkpouRf; fl;rp Kd;itj;j
fle;j fhyj;jpy; ele;jitfs; cs;slf;fg;gltpyi ; y. %d;W ngz; Ntl;ghsh;fspy; ,UtUk; ntw;wp ngw;w
,tw;wpw;f;F jPh;Tk; fhzg;gltpy;iy. mNj Nghy fhuzj;jpdhy; murpaypy; ngz;fspd; gpujpepjpj;-
ele;jtw;Wf;fhd fhuzKk; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gltpyi ; y. Jtj;ij mjpfhpf;f vt;tpjkhd nray;Kiwiaf;
,t;tifahd rkurg;Ngr;R fle;jfhy fhaq;fspw;F ifahStPh;fs;?
Xh; rhjhuzf; fl;ilg; NghLtJ Nghy; cs;sJ.
,J rhkhjhdj;ij Vw;gLj;Jk; topay;y. ehk; Vd; ,J ngz;fNs jPh;khdpf;f Ntz;ba tplak;.
,k; khjphpahd gpur; r idfSf; F Kfq; n fhLf; f ngz;fs; Kd;NdWtjw;F mth;fNs tpNtfkhfTk;
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gpur;ridahfTs;sJ vd ehd; ek;Gfpd;Nwd;. fztNuh my;yJ FLk;gNkh ,tw;iw jhq;fpf;

;yhrn • L;zhyhf ;khl;zu, • 4002 8