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VHFNHF radar

Part 2: Operational aspects


appIications
by Heiner Kuschel
Low-frequency radars have the potential t o counter stealth efforts and detect low-
flying targets beyond the horizon. Part 2 of this paper discusses approaches t o target
classification and the problems of vulnerability t o jamming and operation in a densely
populated frequency band. The anti-jamming capabilities of VHF radars are analysed
based on measurements conducted with the FHR experimental radar LARISSA and it is
demonstrated that electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) with other users of the band
can be achieved using a spectral signal-shaping technique. The paper i s completed by
an overview of possible and existing VHF/UHF radar applications.

1 Introduction small Doppler shifts that occur at low frequencies,


sufficient Doppler resolution for ISAR imaging would
Part 1 of this 2-part paper1 discussed the attractive require long integration times, during which target flight
properties of the low-frequency (VHF/UHF) range for stability is questionable. Hence, other ways have to be
radar applications. Against these beneficial properties are sought to discriminate one class or type of target from
set a number of problems, mainly related to or caused by another. The exploitation of characteristic target features
operational limits on the antenna size and the such as cross-dimension ratios, polarisation properties or
electromagnetically dense environment. Part 2 of this modulation of the radar signal by rotating parts is the
paper considers measures to achieve electromagnetic most appropriate approach to radar target analysis in the
compatibility with other users of the band, anti-jamming low-frequency bands.
procedures, and approaches to classification (which differ
from those used at microwave frequencies) based on Helicopter rotor modulation
experience with the FGAN-FHR (the German Research The modulation process of a helicopter rotor on a radar
Institute for High-Frequency Physics and Radar signal was described in Part 1of this paper in connection
Techniques) experimental radar LARISSA ( U r g e with analysing the ability of VHF/UHF radars to detect
wavelength Radar with Interference dependent Spectral hovering rotary-wing aircraft’. The product of the number
Signal Adaptation). Signal processing schemes for future of blades and the rotation frequency (Nffi) can be
system concepts are proposed for various applications of considered as typifymg a specific type of helicopter and
low-frequency radars. thus it can be used as a criterion for discriminating
between different helicopter types. Since the number of
2 Approaches to classification for VHFlUHF radars spectral lines, which are spaced equidistantly within the
rotor spectrum, is comparatively small at V/UHF
Many of the approaches used to classify targets or types frequencies, a FIR (finite impulse response) filter can be
of targets in the classical radar bands are based on built that models the rotor process with its spectral lines
imaging techniques, and either use high-range-resolution at distances that correspond to the Nfx product. The
(HRR) techniques to provide a onedimensional image of transfer function of such a filter is shown in Fig. 1 as a
the scattering centres of a target or exploit target function of spectral samples or filter taps. As well as
manoeuvres to generate an inverse synthetic aperture providing FIT (fast Fourier transform) processing for a
radar (ISAR) image showing the two-dimensional ‘quick look’, the signal processing of the LARISSA system
distribution of scattering centres on a target. At low radar allows the received radar pulses to be integrated with
frequencies, however, neither is the required bandwidth specially designed filters, each of which has a transfer
of several hundred megahertz available, nor can the function matched to the spectrum of a given type of
necessary angular resolution to ensure that only one helicopter. Simulations with generic helicopters,
target is within the cell be achieved without intolerably characterised by their rotor modulation, yield fairly good
large antennas. In addition, in view of the comparatively results, provided a sufficient time on target (TOT > 1

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING JOURNAL JUNE 2002 101


response to another type by a factor of 10. Additional
short-time spectral analysis must be applied if even- and
odd-bladed rotor configurations with similar spectral line
spacings have to he discriminated. The fact that the blade
*O r flashes of even-bladed rotors have both positive and
negative Doppler contributions whereas those of odd-
bladed rotors have either positive or negative Doppler
shifts can be exploited.
In a first approach, using FGAN-FHR's experimental
VHF-radar LARISSA, a helicopter and a ked-wing aircraft
were measured. An FFT analysis of both targets is
given in Fig. 3, which shows the Doppler/range plane.
Fig. 3a shows the helicopter echo returns with their
characteristic line spectrum spreading from a maximum
forward rotor-tip speed to a maximum reverse rotor-tip
speed with a fuselage Doppler offset due to the
Fig. 1 Transfer function of helicopter classification filter radial velocity of the approaching target. Fig. 3b is the
Dopplerhange plot for a ked-wing propeller aircraft. The
blade flash interval) is available'. One type of helicopter aircraft echo shows the modulation due to the propellers
can be discriminated from another type simply by and the negative Doppler velocity of the fuselage as lines
thresholding the output of simultaneously fed filters in the spectrum. For both-the helicopter and the
matched to different types of helicopters. Fig. 2 shows the aircraft-correlation filters are formed from a replica of
output signal of a filter designed to match spectrally the the respective target echoes from a selected range cell.
rotor process of a specific helicopter with a 4-blade rotor, Discrimination is tried by comparing the responses of the
when loaded with simulated helicopter echo data plus filters to target echoes from different time (range)
noise. Fig. 2a gives the filter output for the matched rotor samples. An example of the normalised responses of the
signal, while Fig. 26 shows the filter's output in response helicopter and the aircraft correlation filters to the
to a 2-blade rotor having different characteristics. As can helicopter echo is given in Fig. 4. Here, the aircraft
be seen by comparing the outputs of the filters, the correlation filter serves just as an example, being valid for
response of the filter to the 'right' helicopter exceeds its one aircraft aspect angle only.

Fig. 2 Output of a
4-blade helicopter filter
on (a) matched and
I +blade lotortnoise
(b) unmatched echo
signals

samplesl0.33 ms

2-blade rotor+noise

0 200 400 600 800 1000


samplesi0.33 ms

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Fig. 3 RangeDoppler
display of (a) helicopter

I 9F.C ~
amplitude
and ( b ) fixed-wing
aircraft targets

Doppler. Hz

amplitude
2%

Doppler, Hr

Polarimetric approach to classtjication pairs. The Poincare sphere (Fig. 5) is an appropriate tool
The polarimetric scattering properties of radar targets for illustrating the polarisation properties of a target.
are described by the scattering matrix S. For two Every target aspect and frequency increment can be
orthogonal linear polarisations-horizontal (H) and represented by a set of polarisations, resulting in the
vertical oi)-the scattering parameters are SHHand Sw maximum copolar return, the maximum crosspolar
for the copolar components, and SW and S, for the return and the co- and crosspolar saddle points. From
crosspolar components. The crosspolar components polarimetric measurements with linear polarisations, the
describe the case when the receiver polarisation is optimum polarisation can be calculated for any aspect/
orthogonal to the transmitter polarisation; for monostatic frequency increment. If the optimisation criterion is the
radar scenarios, they are equal. If the scattering matrix S maximum radar cross-section (RCS), the optimum
is measured for one set of orthogonal polarisations, the polarisation can be either copolar or crosspolar.
scattering parameters can be calculated for arbitrary sets Calculations have been made using the results of
of polarisations, e.g. left and right circular, or elliptical monostatic polarimetric RCS measurements, made at

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING JOURNAL JUNE 2002 103


Fig. 4 Measured
output of (a) aircraft
and (b) helicopter
classification filter in
response to helicopter
echo
'-O r

0 200 400 600 800 1000


time samples, 11330 ps

''O r

0 200 400 600 800 1000


lime samples, V330 ps

DASA (GE) at frequencies below 2 GHz, on scaled


models of an F117-like target and a B2 type of

The angular and spectral distribution


of the optimum polarisation angle for
linear polarisations and the optimum
polarisation angle together with
the optimum ellipticity angle for
elliptic polarisations may be
haracteristic of specific
targets or types of target.
Fig. 6 shows the polaris-
ation angle distributions for
models of F117 and B2 type
aircraft, these being stealth
aircraft that apply different
shaping schemes to reduce
their RCSs. The figure
illustrates how the polar-
isation properties of targets
are influenced by their
shape. The frequency range
displayed extends from
450MHz (on the inner circle) to
800MHz (on the outer circle).
Provided that aircraft can be ob-
served over a range of aspect angles
RHC @.=-E')
during their flight, the different target-
specific variations of the optimum
polarisation with aspect angle can be exploited
to discriminate between different classes of
Fig. 5 Poincare sphere targets.

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Fig. 6 Distribution of the optimum polarisation angle for models of two different types of stealth aircraft (Courtesy of
EADS, Bremen)

3 Electromagnetic compatibility
( E M 0 in a dense environment

The principal EMC constraint on


V/UHF radars is that their
emissions should not interfere with
other radio services. Since, on one
hand, the available bandwidth is
limited and, on the other hand, the
pulse duration cannot be arbitrarily
long due to dead zone restrictions,
a compromise has to be found in
order to adapt the radar signal to 1, MHz
the actual local interference
situation. Fig. 7 shows the
spectrum occupancy for a typical Fig. 7 Typical interference spectrum
scenario in which there are 5
interfering signals within the
2MHz bandwidth of the radar
signal. A threshold is used to
determine which of the interfering
signals should be taken into
account when shaping the radar
signal: spectral notches are placed
in those regions of the radar signal
where an interfering signal exceeds
the threshold. The correspondingly
shaped pulse spectrum is shown in
Fig. 8.
In the LARISSA system, the basic
2MHz chirp pulse is amplitude I
modulated in order to achieve Fig. 8 Shaped spectrum of signal
f . MHr

spectral notches where other users


operate their narrow-band systems. A further amplitude approach”, is used to compensate for unwanted signal
modulation, derived from a genetic optimisation properties, such as high sidelobes in the ambiguity

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING JOURNAL JUNE 2002 105


rather good agreement.
Measurements made on a
modulated radar pulse having a
centre frequency of 226.5 MHz and
two notches-at 225.95 and
22645MHz-showed that an
amplitude suppression of the radar
signal inside the notches of about
15dB had been achieved. Inter-
ference from narrow-band ser-
vices within the notches was
rejected by a similar amount when
received with an FIR filter matched
I I I I I I I to the spectrally shaped pulse.
-50
20 40 60 80 100 120

time samples. ti250 ns


Hardware-in-the-loop
electromagnetic compatibility test
(EMC test)
In order to assess the co-location
Fig. 9 Autocorrelationfunction of shaped signal with (solid line) and without constraints of VHF/UHF radio
(dashed line) optimisation communication links-represented
bv air-air. air-mound-air and
I

function. Fig. 9 displays the results of an optimisation;the ground-ground services-and ground-based VHF/UHF
dashed line represents the autocorrelation function radars, hardwarein-the-loop tests were performed
before and the solid line after optimisation. Measure- in a German-French collaboration between FGAN
ments with a spectrally shaped pulse of 2 MHz bandwidth (ForschungsgesellschaftfiirAngewandte Wissenschaften)
and two notches each of 50kHz have been made with and CELAR (Centre d'Electronique de I'hmement) at the
L4RISSA to verify the electromagnetic compatibility French test site. The communicationchannel between the
properties of a spectrally shaped chirp pulse in the hardware front-ends of a transmitter (TX) and a receiver
presence of an interfering signal. The simulated (RX) for a specific communication system was polluted
autocorrelation function of the transmitted signal (Fig. 9) with a low-frequency radar signal similar to that of
and of a measured one, as displayed in Fig. 10, show LARISSA, and in the case of a digital communication
system the bit error rate
(BER) was chosen as the
criterion of whether the
link was disturbed by the
radar signal or not.
Fig. 11 shows the meas-
urement arrangement.
Using the attenuators,
A, to simulate the trans-
mission and interference
distances, the required
cohabitation distance for
the radar system and the
communication link was
determined for a given
frequency offset. The
results obtained provide
information about the
static one-to-one com-
patibility of specific pairs
of low-frequency radar
and low-frequency com-
time samples, 11330 ns
munication service as a
function of spatial and
spectral offset. As an
example, typical graphs
depicting such a co-
Fig. 10 Measured autocorrelation function of spectrally shaped signal location function for

106 ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING JOURNAL JUNE 2002


main-lobe/main-lobe, sidelobe/
sidelobe and main-lobe/ sidelobe
configurations are given in
Fig. 12 for fictitious radar and radio relay
communication systems without receiver
EMC measures. Typical values
of required range offsets in a digital
main-lobe/side-lobe situation, receiver
when using EMC-optimised
spectrum
short-range radar signals, are in digital
lammer(s)
transminer’
the order of a few kilometres,
when operating at the same
centre frequency. In the case
of a fully operational system,
I I . I /

however, the EMC analysis


would need to take into consid-
eration a dynamic electromag-
netic environment with multiple
agile communication links and
radar emitters.

4 Anti-jamming capabilities
in VHFlUHF radar

mental radar LARISSA have


been conducted to determine its
capabilities.
Anti-jamming procedures like 6 -- &--
P
-. -1.
;
+ msin labelmain-lobe
=--
adaptive nulling in general
require the use of a fully
-
4 -
~

,I+ ,,
jP ,I
main-labelsidelobe
t sidelobelsidelobe

-
adaptive phased-array antenna. -
-
Due to restrictions in the 2-
-
operationally feasible size of an N -
1 -
antenna working at VHF/UHF 5 0 -
frequencies, the number of % I
-
elements that can be realised in -2 -
-
the antenna aperture is limited. --
In the case of an antenna having 4-
- I

II elements within its aperture, -


-
A d i
the number ofjammers that can 4 I I I I I / , / / I I I I I , , , , I , I l l , ,

01 1 10 100
be cancelled by adaptive nulling distance, km
is limited in theory to n-1.
Fig. 13 shows a photo of the
LARISSA antenna array, which

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING JOURNAL JUNE 2002 ,107


be detectable, i.e. well beyound the detection range but
within the instrumented range. They are optimised
adaptively to minimise the noise residue at the processor
output. This results in the antenna diagram minima pointing
in the direction of the jamming sources. Thus, azimuth
directions that previously were blind due to jamming signals
received through the sidelobes are now free of
dist~rbance~~~.
The anti-jamming procedure is even effective to some
extent in the main lobe. Jammer cancellation in the main
lobe, however, can result in deformation of the main lobe,
which may lead to slightly erroneous target directions.
Fig. 15 shows an example of the performance of the
Gram-Schmidt sidelobe canceller when confronted by two
jamming signals illuminating the antenna at aspect angles
of 28" and 48" and having a broad-baud noise signal. The
mauve curve showing the relative residual jammer power
Fig. 13 The LARISSA antenna when Gram-Schmidt processing is not applied
demonstrates the vulnerability to jamming. With the two
jamming signals, a broad azimuth range between 15" and
60" is blinded. When a GSP is applied, as shown by the
orange curve, the jammer's efficiency is restricted to
I I I narrow azimuth ranges inside the main lobe of 22" to 30"
and 45" to 5 3 O , respectively. At azimuth angles between the
two jammers, target detection is again possible.
Hence, if sufficient anti-jamming processing is applied,
then even at low frequencies in the VHF/UHF range
electronic counter measures (ECM) can be countered.
However the number of jamming signals that can be
cancelled is limited by the number of antenna elements

+ -LJ and receiver channels.


In some applications, however, the jamming signal and
the target signals are separated by their elevation angles, as
in the case when ballistic missiles at comparatively steep
dive angles are to be detected and distant stand-off
jammers are expected to be seen at low elevation angles. In
Fig. 14 Gram-Schmidt processor for adaptive null steering this case. even a limited caoabilitv to shaoe the beam in
elevation can provide good jammer suppression.
In general, the possibility of self
jamming one's own services as well
with anti-jamming Without anti-jamming as jamming hostile low-frequency
radars must not be neglected.
0

5 Applications of VHFlUHF
-5 radars and future system
m
D
--
a)
concepts
1
a
-10
The significant advantages of the
F -15 VHF/UHF frequency range for
.-
-m radar applications are:
D
Y) -20
m reduced effectiveness of stealth

,
-25 measures, such as shaping and
use of radar absorbing material
-30 (RAM)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 beyond-the-horizon detection
capability
zimuth angle, deg
a comparatively large unam-
biguous range for Doppler
Fig. 15 Anti-jamming performance of a GSP measurements

108 ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING JOURNAL JUNE 2002


.... . .
- .
:

negligible atmospheric attenuation and weather clutter Fig. 16 Metre-wave


and demonstator (Courtesy of SEL
Verteidigungssysteme GmbH)
an almost non-existent anti-radiation-missile (ARM)
threat.

The most serious disadvantage of this frequency band


arises from the need to restrict the antenna size in an
operational military system that must maintain'some
degree of mobility This results in limited angular-
reduction and jammer-
es. Additionally, the
VHF/UHF band, which is used by a
number of military and civilian
communication services, is densely
crowded and this calls for sophis-
ticated frequency management to
provide electromagnetic compatibility.
There are a number of functions
that VHF/UHF radars can perform and metre-wave
that cannot be achieved by higher frequency demonstrator is shown
radars. The most promising of these are: in Fig. 16. It is hoped to
achieve a sector search of
cueing and alerting microwave radars to detect high- 90" azimuth by 60" (15"-75") elevation
velocity targets using 16 fixed beams plus 6 adaptive auxiliary beams for
detecting stealth targets anti-jamming. Since the targets are expected to be at
detecting helicopters and other low-flying targets elevations different from those of potential jamming
beyond the horizon sources, spatial adaptive jammer cancellation can be
ARM early warning and performed in the elevation plane.
detecting targets under the cover of foliage.
Detection ofhelicopters and low-flying targets
Cueing and alerting The detection of helicopters and other low-flying
High-velocity ballistic missile targets display a rather targets requires in general a fully hemispherical
low RCS-in the order of 0.1 to 0.01m2-when viewed surveillance. It can be achieved with a rotating antenna
under nose-on aspect at microwave frequencies. A or with a modern phased-array based on a circular
microwave radar would have to spend a long time on- geometry, which avoids any rotating parts and allows
target to integrate enough echo signal energy to detect a
low RCS missile target. If a narrow antenna beam is used
to achieve sufficient angular resolution, such integration
times cannot be achieved with acceptable update rates for
the whole search volume. Hence the radar detection
range would be drastically reduced.
For a VHF/UHF radar, on the contrary, the same target
would show an RCS in the order of 0.5 to 5m2. For a
constant antenna aperture the antenna gain is propor-
tional to l/P and the integration time is proportional to
A2.Hence, taking into account the transmit and receive
antenna gains, the integration gain due to a larger
beamwidth and the increased RCS, the VHF/UHF radar
could detect a target at the desired range, trading angular
resolution (narrow beam) for a high update rate.
Handing over target-sector information to a microwave
radar so that it can search a smaller volume for a longer
time would enable the required target resolution and
position accuracy to be achieved. The advantages
expected from fusing a microwave and aVHF/UHFradar
have been described by Farinab. A demonstrator for a
ballistic missile defence cueing radar is being built by
Thales(SEL), who are using a multibeam antennaconcept
and applying ECCM (electronic counter-countermea-
sures) techniques in the UHF band'. An artist's view of Fig. 17 MELISSA antenna

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING JOURNAL JUNE 2002 109


so-called cardioid characteristic, providing a wide field of
view with low back-lobes. Beam forming on transmit is
performed at baseband by complex weighting of the
element signals; for reception the element signals are
stored after digital down-conversion for off-line evaluation
and the application of soper-resolution techniques as well
as anti-jamming techniques, such as the above-mentioned
Gram-Schmidt algorithm. A block diagram of the
principal components of the experimental system is
shown in Fig. 18.Abeam-forming unit, Doppler processor
and display provide additional quick-look processing for a
main-look direction, following the transmitted beam.
Another example of a ground-based low-frequency
radar dedicated to detecting low-flying targets such as
helicopters is the French radar system SACHEM. It has a
truck-mounted planar phased-array antenna providing
u u u capabilities for anti-jamming and monopulse processing.
Fig. 19 shows the SACHEM radar during trials in
PA=powet amplifier LNA= low-noise ampliiier Wachtberg, Germany; at the right of the picture inside the
radom is FGAN-FHRs L/Ku-band track and imaging
radar TIRA.
Fig. 18 MELISSA block diagram
ARM early warning andfoliage penetration
agile scan strategies as well as track-while-scan pro- All of the above-mentioned radar systems are also
cessing and jammer suppression. FGAN-FHRs mobile inherently capable of detecting ARM targets since their
experimental radar concept MELISSA (Mobile Experi- RCS is generally larger at low frequencies than at
mental Low-frequency radar with Interference-dependent microwave frequencies when observed under noseon
Spectral Signal Adaptation) is an example of a possible aspect. They can thus be used for early warning against
mobile dual-frequency VHF/UHF shor t-to-medium-range such missiles.
radar for the detection of low-flying targets and The ability to penetrate foliage in order to detect targets
helicopters beyond the line of sight. Such a radar could be that are concealed beneath the canopy of a forest is mainly
used either to cue a weapon system radar or to operate required for airborne radar systems such as the Swedish
autonomously with active guided intercept weapons. CAFABAS (Coherent All RAdio BAnd Sensing) VHF
Fig. 17 shows the MELISSA antenna, which is able to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system8. CARABAS 11 is
operate at two frequencies and two polarisations and an upgraded version of the CARABAS I with a towed, air-
provides the option of using the two elevation planes for stabilised dipole antenna.
limited elevation beam forming to reduce multipath or to The CARAL3AS S4R operates in a frequency band about
apply monopulse techniques. 360" search and track can ten times lower than other known S A R sensors. It has
be performed simultaneously with this type of antenna. In been tested imaging many different natural environ-
the MELISSA experimental radar provision is being made ments. Detailed data analysis has been carried out to
for up to 128 element channels when all possible determine its potential for foliage penetration. Man-made
polarisation, frequency and beam-forming agilities are to objects are detected from the presence of resonant
be exploited simultaneously. Each element comprises reflectors rather than by detecting shapes as in higher
crossed thick dipoles in front of a reflector plate and has a frequency SAR systems. A photograph of CARABAS I is
shown in Fig. 20.

6 Conclusions and future


perspectives

It has been demonstrated in various


studies at FGAN-FHR using the
experimental radar systems LARA
(LArge wavelength RAdar) and
LARlSSA that VHF/UHF radar
frequencies offer a range of
advantages, among which are the
detection of low RCS (stealth)
targets and the detection of targets at
low altitudes beyond the horizon.
Fig. 19 SACHEM radar during trials in Germany Active VHF/UHF radars can play an

110 ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING JOURNAL JUNE 2002


" .I
..., .. . . .. . , . ,.,

important role in early


warning, cueing and
foliage penetration but
suffer from an increased
vulnerability to jamming
and a crowded frequency
band, which causes
problems of electromag-
netic compatibility.
Although adequate
measures to deal with
these problems have
Fig. 20 VHFlUHF SAR CARABAS I (Courtesy of FOA)
been proposed, one way
of avoiding them would be to operate the radar in a passive experimental radar LARISSA'. Proc. Int. Radar '94 Cod., Paris,
mode, exploiting signals in the low-frequency range France, 3rd-6th May 1994, pp.100-104 (Soc. Electr. &
emitted by other systems. Military operational require Elec@On.)
however, demand that if donor signals are no 4 WORMS, J. G.: 'Acomparison ofmethodsforadaptivejammer
longer sufficient or available, an active fall.back option suppression'. F~Af+FHPTechnicalReport No. 9-85Aug. 1985
(in German)
with LPI (low probability of intercept) properties must be 5 WORMS, J. G., and KRUCKER, K.: 'On an improved gradient
available. technique for adap(ivearray processing'. IEEE 1985Int. Radar
At FGW-FHR a semi-active radar system concept is Conf.,hlington, VA, USA, 6(h-9th M~~ 1985, pp.3+44
being developed, based on the mobile experimental low- 6 FARINA,A, and GWZINI, M,:G R fusion~ to ~detect
~ ~
frequency radar MELISSA, which is designed to operate dim targets', Szgnd Process., September 2000, 80, (9).
in a passive as well as in an active mode. The MELISSA pp.1833-1847
experimental system will in future b e used to obtain proof 7 'Germany considers cueing radar for Patriots',Jane's Defence
of principle for a passive radar system that is able to Upgrade Vol. 10/1999,5.1999
exploit the emissions from different kinds of transmitters, 8 HELLSTEN, H., UIA'DER, L. M. H., GUSTAVSSON,A.3 and
ranging kOmother low.frequency radars Over and LARSSON, B.: 'Development of VHF CARABAS I1 SAR'.Proc.
FM-radio to digital broadcast emissions etc. SPIE, 1996,2747, pp.48-60
OIEE: 2002
References First received 8th August and in final form 22nd December 2001
1 KUSCHEL, H.: WF/UHF radar. Part 1: Characteristics', y
& "
& b ~ " *
Electron. Commun. Eng. I., April 2002, 14, (21, pp.61-72
2 KUSCHEL, H.: Target classification and EM compatibility in o m
. .
VHF/UHF radars'. 1997 IEE Int. Radar Cod., Edinburgh,
14tIi-161h October 1997, IEE Con/ Publ. No. 449,pp.624428 ,
~. .,
~.E.. ";
*', I'.:'>,$q;$
' ..t
L, L
I

3 KUSCHEL, H.: 'Radar signal optimisation for the VHF- Mm


X powerful book.
It addresser many different a s p e a
of radar. and it seems as complete as
Heiner Kuschel received' a a book can be an airborne radar
DiplIng degree in Electrical
Engineering from the technical
university 'RWTH Aachen in
1980. In January 19R1 he joined
the Research Institute far H$h
Frequency Physics (FHP, now
FHR) of FGAN in Werthhoven.
since when he has worked in
several fields of radar'rrsearch.
Since 1985 his work has
concentrated on VHF/UHF
radar. He has led several
I by George Stimron

research projects a i d studies with the experimental radar


systems W a n d LARlSSAand iscurrently leadinga projedon
low-frequency passive radar with the experimental system
MELISSA. He has been the German representative in several
NATO-RTO (DRG) studies and is currently chairing lh6NATO-
KTO-SET task moup TGZl OF 'The impact of emerging
technologies on air defence radar': ,
_ , '.

Addms: Reseakh Institute for High Frequency Physics dnd


Fadar Techniques (FHR) of FGAN; .Neuenahref S y 3 e 20,
D-53343Wachtberg, Germany. I

E-moil: kuscheiOfgan.de " _ i


, .
I ,

ELECTRONICS& COMMUNICATIONENGINEERINGJOURNAL JUNE 2002 111