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ABE 414 – REFRIGERATION ENGINEERING

Laboratory Exercise No. 1

REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
I. INTRODUCTION

Refrigeration is the process of removing heat from an enclosed space or from a substance for the
purpose of lowering the temperature. The work of heat transfer is by mechanical means The
process of keeping an item below room temperature by storing the item in a system or substance
designed to cool or freeze. The most common form of refrigeration is provided by systems
refrigerators that use a refrigerant chemical to remove heat from items stored inside the system.

II. FIGURE/ILLUSTRATION

EVAPORATOR
COMPRESSOR

CONDENSER

CAPILLARY TUBE
COMPRESSOR

- it compresses the refrigerant. The compressor receives


low pressure gas from the evaporator and converts it to
high pressure gas.

CONDENSER

- is a heat exchanger that uses a colder fluid, typically


ambient air, to cool the refrigerant. As refrigerant flows
through this heat exchanger, it condenses to a hot liquid.
Liquid refrigerant exits the condenser and flows to the
system's metering device.

EVAPORATOR
-is another heat exchanger that allows heat to move
between the medium we wish to keep cool, called the
heat source, and the refrigerant. In a chiller, the heat
source is the cooling fluid, which flows into your
equipment. The refrigerant enters the evaporator as a
low temperature gas-liquid mixture. By design, the
temperature of the heat source is always higher than the
refrigerant's boiling point. In the evaporator, the
refrigerant vaporizes as it absorbs heat from the heat
source.
III. WORKING PRINCIPLE

Generator – creates ammonia gas

* Separator – separates the ammonia gas from water

* Condenser – where hot ammonia gas is cooled and condensed to create liquid ammonia

* Evaporator – where liquid ammonia converts to a gas to create cold temperatures inside
the refrigerator

* Absorber – absorbs the ammonia gas in water

Heat is applied to the ammonia and water solution in the generator. (The heat comes from
burning gas, propane or kerosene.) As the mixture reaches the boiling point of ammonia, it
flows into the separator Ammonia gas flows upward into the condenser, dissipates heat and
converts back to a liquid. The liquid ammonia makes its way to the evaporator where it mixes
with hydrogen gas and evaporates, producing cold temperatures inside the refrigerator’s cold
box. The ammonia and hydrogen gases flow to the absorber where the water collected in the
separator in step No. 2 mixes with the ammonia and hydrogen gases. The ammonia forms a
solution with the water and releases the hydrogen gas, which flows back to the evaporator. The
ammonia-and-water solution flows toward the generator to repeat the cycle

IMPORTANCE OF REFRIGERATION IN AGRICULURAL ENGINEERING


Agricultural producers use a variety of refrigeration systems to extend the shelf life of perishable
materials. Cooling not only reduces the potential for spoiling due to bacterial growth but also
reduces humidity levels for some products. Refrigeration may also be used during sorting,
processing, packaging, and storage.

Innovative systems and equipment can help agricultural producers increase energy efficiency and reduce
energy costs. Energy-efficient refrigeration equipment and technologies can lower energy expenses and
improve productivity. Maximum profitability from refrigerated agricultural products is only possible if
the equipment is reliable and operating efficiently.

FOOD PROCESSING

Refrigeration technologies are vital to enable the consumption of healthy and safe food, particularly in
terms of nutritional, organoleptic and microbial quality. For chilled foods, quality and safety are reliant on
the food being maintained at a sufficiently low temperature throughout its life to prevent growth of
bacterial pathogens and to minimise growth of spoilage microbes. Chilling also has beneficial effects on
quality, minimising moisture transport and maintaining flavour, colour and texture.

IV. CONCLUSION

The working principe of refrigeration cycle is a continuous process. Refrigerant


moves from the compressor to the condenser, through a metering device, to an
evaporator, and then the cycle repeats Refrigeration system play important role in
agricultural engineering. It helps agriculture to increase efficiency and reduces cost.
It extends the life of perishable materials

V. REFERENCES

http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/refrigeration.html
http://www.lytron.com/Tools-and-Technical-Reference/Application-Notes/Basics-of-
Compressor-Based-Refrigeration
https://ghanshyamd.wordpress.com/2011/09/20/refrigeration-cycle-for-refrigerator/