Diaspora

OMAR VICTOR DIOP Liberty Extended Captions
OMAR VICTORLiberty
Diaspora DIOP Nanny and Quao 1720

Liberty
The Mutiny of Freeman Field 1945

Liberty
Queen Nanny (c. 1686 – c. 1755), a Jamaican national heroine, was a major figure of the The Freeman Field Mutiny refers to a two-day protest during the Second World War by a group
Maroon resistance in the eighteenth century. Nanny was born into the Asante people of of African-American soldiers from the 477th Bombardment Group, who attempted to access an
what is today known as Ghana, although much of what is known about her derives from oral
all-white officers’ club on the Freeman Army Airfield base, near Seymour, Indiana. On 5 and 6
history, as little textual evidence exists. It is believed that she fled the plantations with her
April 1945, to challenge de facto segregation at Freeman, the participating blacksoldiers forced
brother Quao, and together they founded the Maroon community of escaped slaves around
Diaspora
Liberty 1720 in the Blue Mountains in the town of Portland, Jamaica. This area, named Nanny Town,
was considered inaccessible by the British because of its altitude and the lack of trails leading to it. The Maroons,
a majority of whom were descendants of West Africans, led most of the slave rebellions in Jamaica, helping to
free slaves from plantations and integrating them into their community. Nanny herself is credited with organising
the release of several hundreds of slaves during a period of thirty years.

Dutty Boukman 1791
Dutty Boukman was an early pioneer of the Haitian Revolution, leading a community of
Maroons. A former slave from Jamaica and practising voodoo houngan priest, Boukman is
believed to have led – together with the priestess Cécile Fatiman – the infamous religious
ceremony at Bois Caïman of August 1791, which served as a catalyst to the slave revolt that
sparked the Haitian Revolution. He was killed a few months later, on 7 November 1791, by
French planters and colonial troops, who publicly displayed Boukman’s head in an attempt to
dispel the aura of invincibility that he had cultivated. Boukman’s rebellion is considered one of the foundations of
Haitian national identity and its stance against oppression.

The Women’s War 1929
their way into Club One, which was reserved exclusively for white officers. The mutiny resulted in the arrest of 162
black officers, three of whom were court-martialled on minor charges. It was not until 1995 that their convictions
were revoked following a pardon. This mutiny is considered one of the first demands to achieve racial integration
in the United States Armed Services, later implemented in the Executive Order 9981 issued in 1948.

Selma 1965
Between 7 and 21 March 1965, three protest marches to demand the right to vote for African-
American citizens were held along the 80-kilometre highway linking Selma to the state capital
of Montgomery in Alabama, USA. These pivotal marches represented a defining moment in the
struggle for civil rights and were instrumental in the fight for black voting rights. During the first
of these marches, on 7 March, 600 protesters demanded an end to discrimination in voter registration, many of
whom were severely attacked by law enforcement agencies, state troopers and white separatists. This event
became known as Bloody Sunday. Dr Martin Luther King participated in the subsequent marches, on 9 and 17
March. Numerous killings, abuse by the police and the Ku Klux Klan, as well as the legal battles that marked the
weeks of protests, all drew the attention of the national and international community to the issues of civil rights.
The marches led to the signing of the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

In 1929, tens of thousands of south-eastern Nigerian women rebelled against British colonial
powers in what is known as the Women’s War, or the Aba Women’s Riots. This insurgent Breakfast for The Children of The Black Panthers 1969
movement brought together more than 25,000 women in a fight against policies imposed
The Free Breakfasts for Children initiative was a revolutionary community programme started by
by British authorities: in particular, special taxes levied on female market traders, which were
implemented by male leaders (warrant chiefs) appointed by a colonial governor. The women rebelled above all the Black Panthers at their headquarters in Oakland, California. It was one of the first school food
to preserve the status they had held in their traditional societies before the arrival of the British, who felt the programmes in the country, providing free breakfasts to disadvantaged children each morning.
matriarchal system was against the moral order. The women’s activism prompted colonial authorities to drop their Based on the belief that children could not take full advantage of their education by going to
plans and to reduce the power of the warrant chiefs. Considered as the first major challenge to British authority school hungry, it reflected the Black Panthers’ key message of self-determination and illustrated
in Nigeria and West Africa during the colonial period, the Women’s War took months for the government to their belief in the importance of education. The programme was funded through donations from
suppress, and became a historic example of feminist and anti-colonial protest. within the communities being served, receiving support from local stores, churches and groceries. In its first year,
the programme became so popular that it was extended all over the United States, and by the end of 1969 the
The Railway Workers of Dakar 1938 and 1947 Black Panthers were serving full free breakfasts to 20,000 school-aged children in nineteen different cities.
Inspired in part by the ideas and actions of the Black Panthers in the 1960s, the US Department of Agriculture
In 1881, France, then a colonial power occupying most of West Africa, began a 1,289-
kilometre railway project designed to transport the resources of the region to the coast. later started their own School Breakfast Programme, which feeds nearly 13 million students daily.
The working conditions for the African railway day labourers were particularly difficult and
precarious because of the racial discrimination they suffered. The railway would eventually
become a means of resistance for the indigenous workforce, most notably through two strikes that are still
The Sonacotra Tenant Strike 1974–80
commemorated today as key moments in the history of the African trade union movement and the anti-colonial From 1974 to 1980, a prolonged strike pitted the tenants of Sonacotra, a French state-owned
activist struggle. The first strike by the Dakar-Niger railway workers, which took place in Thiés, Senegal, in 1938,
agency responsible for providing public housing to migrant workers from north and sub-Saharan
was suppressed in a violent bloodbath. On 10 October 1947, another general strike by indigenous workers
Africa, against its management, many of whom were former colonial officers. Those striking
from all over West Africa paralysed the colonial system, lasting in Senegal for an unprecedented period of five
opposed perpetual rent increases and demanded better living conditions in worker dormitories
months until 19 March 1948. The protection of workers’ rights, the standard of living, wage increases and,
most importantly, equal treatment for all were at the forefront of the workers’ demands. controlled by the Sonacotra authorities, paving the way for the first collective protest of black African immigrants
in postcolonial France. A struggle for tenants’ and workers’ rights, the Sonacotra Tenant Strike is regarded as a
pivotal moment of black solidarity in the history of collective political activism by African diasporas in Europe.
Thiaroye 1944
In 1944, the Senegalese Tirailleurs (West African soldiers who fought in the colonial infantry
in the French Army during the Second World War) were released from German prisons and The Soweto Uprising 1976
repatriated with the promise of remuneration, including pensions. These infantrymen came
A defining moment in the struggle to end apartheid, the Soweto Uprising refers to a series of
from all over French West Africa and French Equatorial Africa, which stretched from Senegal
student demonstrations in South Africa, which began on the morning of 16 June 1976 when
to the Congo. On 1 December 1944, a group of soldiers staged a military coup at the Thiaroye camp on the
outskirts of Dakar, Senegal, to protest against poor working conditions and France’s failure to compensate them
around 20,000 students from Soweto’s higher education institutions came together to protest
for their service as promised. A bloody repression was organised by the colonial authorities in response, during against the introduction of Afrikaans as the primary language of instruction. They were violently
which approximately seventy of these Second World War veterans were killed. Commonly known as the Thiaroye repressed by the police, who quickly opened fire on the students; the number of young boys
Massacre, the mutiny is seen as a crucial revolt against the colonial regime that constituted the beginnings of a and girls killed is estimated to be in the hundreds. To commemorate these events, 16 June was
nationalist movement. declared a public holiday in South Africa, known as Youth Day. Historians have argued that the Soweto Uprising,
which highlighted the role of young people in shaping the character and form of revolt, served as both an
inspiration and a template for a second wave of unrest in the 1980s, which eventually led to apartheid’s demise.
Aline Sitoe Diatta 1944
Born around 1920 in Kabrousse, southern Senegal, Aline Sitoe Diatta is celebrated as a
symbol of resistance in the farmers’ rebellion against colonial oppression. At just twenty years Trayvon Martin 2012
old, she allegedly became one of the leaders of a tax resistance movement during the Second
World War. A religious figure, she was also credited with having mystical powers because Trayvon Benjamin Martin (1995–2012) was an African-American teenager who was murdered
of her frequent visions. When a boycott started by market traders of her native region, in 2012 in Sanford, Florida. On his way to his father’s home from buying candy and a can of iced
Casamance, proved successful, the French authorities imprisoned the leadership. France had tea, 17-year-old Trayvon crossed a fenced area where there had been a series of burglaries.
Please note confiscated more than half of the agricultural crops of this region to feed the soldiers on the battlefield, and used Former neighbourhood watch champion and resident of this gated neighbourhood, George
The contextual information provided are intended as brief introductions
their peanut cultivation to supply its soap factories. This had been done at the expense of traditional food crops Zimmerman, took matters into his own hands despite orders from the police not to do so, having
to complex historical narratives, and in some cases may contain
inaccuracies or inconsistencies. such as rice. Diatta was arrested by the colonial authorities for insurrection and deported to Timbuktu, Mali, where previously contacted them by telephone on several recorded 911calls. An altercation ensued

20 JULY– 3 NOVEMBER 2018 We welcome any editorial suggestions that help fill gaps, expand our she is said to have died in jail aged twenty-four from the abuse she suffered. She is widely heralded in Senegal and the unarmed teenager was fatally shot in the chest. After his trial, Zimmerman was acquitted by an all-female
knowledge and/or correct these extended captions. as an emblematic figure of identity-based resistance.
Please note jury of six women. The killing of Trayvon Martin became a catalyst in the fight against perpetual violence and
The contextual information provided are intended as brief introductions
systematic racism towards black people and members of the African-American community, triggering international

20 JULY–
Curated3
byNOVEMBER 2018
to complex historical narratives, and in some cases may contain
activist movements, and Black Lives Matter campaigns. One of the most popular protest marches was the Million
Renée Mussai and Mark Sealy
inaccuracies or inconsistencies.
We welcome any editorial suggestions that help fill gaps, expand our Hoodie March held in March 2012 in New York, where thousands of people came together dressed in hooded
knowledge and/or correct these extended captions. jumpers similar to the one worn by the young Trayvon Martin on the day of his killing.
Autograph Rivington Place London EC2A 3BA +44 (0)20 7729 9200 www.autograph.org.uk

Diaspora Extended Captions

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city planner and military
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supported forcampaigns
women’s
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The marches led to the signing of the Voting Rights Act of 19
OlaudahOlaudah
EquianoEquiano
1745?–1797
Olaudah 1745?–1797
Equiano 1745?–1797 Original portrait
Original byportrait
Samuel
Original byJ.Samuel
portrait Miller.
by Samuel J. Miller.
J. Miller.
Olaudah Equiano,
Olaudah known
OlaudahEquiano, in his
Equiano, lifetime
known in his
known as Gustavus
inlifetime
his Vassa,
as Gustavus
lifetime was
as Gustavus a writer
Vassa, wasand
Vassa, abolitionist
a writer
was and and
a writer abolitionist
abolitionist
Henrique Dias
Henrique DiasDias
1605?–1662
Henrique 1605?–1662
1605?–1662 born in theborn
Igbo inregion
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present-day
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(although list
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listbirthplace
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Henrique Henrique
DiasHenrique
was Dias
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in Pernambuco,
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The Free Breakfasts for Children initiative wa
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of Life of Equiano
the Life Olaudah
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EquianoEquiano Vassa,
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Vassa,(1789),
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school hungry, it reflected the Black Panthers
soldiers defending
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the
against the Having
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widewide was
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of the theAct
ofSlave 1807,
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remained Netherlands
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in theinNetherlands
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in a number
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within the communities being served, receiving support from l
‘Governor‘Governor
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Original unknown
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byunknown artist.artist.
an unknown which he later
whichreceived
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he later This included
compensation.
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an
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estate in Java
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where In
the programme became so popular that it was extended all ov
and someand
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somesome
and suggest
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awardedawarded in The Order
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portrayed
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whilewhile
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at Freiburg Universityand
of Technology.
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of and and
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Black Panthers were serving full free breakfasts to 20,000 sch
courage and leadership.
courage and and
courage leadership.
leadership. Original portrait
Originalbyportrait
an unknown
Original by an
portrait artist.
byunknown
an unknown artist.artist. Inspired in part by the ideas and actions of the Black Panthers
Original portrait
Originalbyportrait
an unknown
Original by an
portrait artist.
byunknown artist.artist.
an unknown Jean-Baptiste Belley 1746?–1805
Jean-Baptiste Belley
Jean-Baptiste 1746?–1805
Belley 1746?–1805
later started their own School Breakfast Programme, which fe
Jean-Baptiste Belley, also
Jean-Baptiste
Jean-Baptiste known
Belley, asalso
also
Belley, Mars,
known was born
as Mars,
known on the
was
as Mars, born
was island of
onGoree,
on the
born island
the islandSenegal.
of Goree, Senegal.
of Goree, Senegal.
Kidnapped by Kidnapped
slave catchers
Kidnapped by slave when
catchers
by slave he was
when
catchers aged two,
he was
when he was
aged
he was two,
aged taken to
hethe
he was
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was French colony
to the
taken toFrench colony
the French colony
Dom Nicolau
DomDomNicolau
1830?–1860
1830?–1860
Nicolau 1830?–1860
Ikhlas Khan
Ikhlas Khan
unknown
Ikhlas –1656
unknown
Khan –1656
unknown –1656 of Saint Domingue,
of Saint present-day
Domingue,
of Saint Haiti. He later
present-day
Domingue, present-day purchased
Haiti.Haiti.
He later hispurchased
freedom,
purchased
He later his joined
freedom, thejoined
his freedom, armyjoined
and
the army and and
the army Dom Nicolau, Prince of Kongo, also Theperhaps
Sonacotra
the the Tenant Strike 1974–
DomDom Nicolau, Prince
Nicolau, of
Prince ofknown
Kongo, asalso
also
Kongo, Nicolau
known asI Misakimia
known Nicolau
as Nicolau Nimi,
I MisakimiawasNimi,
I Misakimiaperhapswasthe
Nimi, perhaps
was
Ikhlas Khan, formerly
Ikhlas Khan,
Ikhlas Malik Raihan
formerly
Khan, Habshi,
Malik
formerly Raihan
Malik was
Raihan an
Habshi, Abyssinian
was was
Habshi, slave in modern-day
an Abyssinian
an slaveslave
Abyssinian in modern-day
in modern-day fought alongside
fought Toussaint
alongside
fought L’Ouverture
Toussaint
alongside Toussaint in the
L’Ouverture Haitian
L’Ouverture Revolution.
in theinHaitian
the Haitian In 1793,
Revolution.
Revolution.Belley
In 1793,was
In 1793,one
Belley was was
Belley one one earliest African leader
earliest
earliest to publicly
African leader
African todenounce
leader publicly colonial
denounce
to publicly influences.
denouncecolonial Notinfluences.
an heir
influences.
colonial Notto an
theheir
Not throne,
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tothrone,
the throne,
From 1974 to 1980, a prolonged strike pitte
Ethiopia and aEthiopia
prominent
Ethiopia and and Afro-Indian
a prominent political
Afro-Indian figure in
politicalthe seventeenth
figure in the century.
seventeenth century.
a prominent Afro-Indian political figure in the seventeenth century. of three representatives
of three elected toelected
representatives
of three representativesthe elected
French Convention,
to the
toFrench
the French becoming
Convention,
Convention, the becoming
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the first
the black deputy
first black deputy Nicolau was educated
Nicolau was was
Nicolau in Lisbon
educated
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in Lisbon andand
in Lisbon joined
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and
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joined civil
the Portuguese
joined the service
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civil Luanda
civil in Luanda
service in Luanda
agency responsible for providing public hous
He became Hechief
He minister
became chiefto
became theminister
Sultanate
minister
chief to the of
theBijapur.
toSultanate ofFrom
Sultanate of 1627
Bijapur. to From
From
Bijapur. 1656, he
16271627 served
to 1656, he served
to 1656, he served to take a seat. Hetake
to take
to adelivered
seat. He an
a seat. Heimpassioned
delivered
delivered anspeech
an impassioned there
impassioned in
speech 1794,
speech when
therethere ina 1794,
in 1794, unanimous
whenwhena unanimous
a unanimous in 1850. He protested
in 1850.
in 1850. against
He protested Portuguese
He protested against commercial
Portuguese
against Portuguese and
commercialpolitical
commercial andactivity asactivity
political
and wellactivity
political asasmilitary
well as military
as well as military co
Africa, against its management, many of who
as Prime Minister,
as Prime and was
Minister,
as Prime renamed
was Ikhlas
and and
Minister, renamed
was Khan.
renamed He
Ikhlas laterKhan.
Khan.
Ikhlas moved Hetolater
He later Adoni
moved intothe
moved Adoni in thein the
to Adoni decision was taken
decision to abolish
was
decision was slavery.
takentaken
to abolish slavery.
to abolish slavery. expansionexpansion
by publishing
expansion abyletter
by publishing in a letter
publishing Portuguese
a letter in newspaper
in a Portuguese
a Portuguese in newspaper
Lisbon in 1859.
newspaper Lisbon The
in Lisbon publication
in 1859. The publication
in 1859. The publication in
opposed perpetual rent increases and dema
Kurnool district,
Kurnool where he where
district,
Kurnool governed
district, where and built aand
he governed
he governed notable
and amosque.
built built
notable mosque.
a notable mosque. Original portrait
Originalbyportrait
an unknown
Original by an
portrait artist.
byunknown artist.artist.
an unknown of the letter
of directly
the theimperilled
ofletter directly
letter his civil
imperilled
directly service career
his civil
imperilled his serviceandcareer
civil servicehe career
lost
andhisand
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he during
he his hisduring
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controlled by the Sonacotra authorities, paving the way for the
flee Angola.
fleeContemporary
Angola.
flee Angola. engravings
Contemporary
Contemporary of engravings
Nicolauofduring
engravings Nicolauhisduring
visitduring
of Nicolau tohis
Lisbon
visit in 1845
to
his visitLisbon suggest
in 1845
to Lisbon that he
suggest
in 1845 was
that
suggest then
he was
that thenthen
he was
in postcolonial France. A struggle for tenants’ and workers’ rig
Original portrait
Originalbyportrait
an unknown
Original by an
portrait artist.
byunknown artist.artist.
an unknown perhaps between
perhaps fifteen
between
perhaps andfifteen
betweentwenty years
and
fifteen and oftwenty
twenty age.
yearsyears
of age.
of age.
pivotal moment of black solidarity in the history of collective po
Albert Badin
Albert Badin
1747?–1822
Albert 1747?–1822
Badin 1747?–1822 Original engraving
Original by an
engraving
Original unknown
by an
engraving artist.
byunknown
an unknown artist.artist.
Adolf Ludvig Gustav
Adolf Ludvig
Adolf Fredrik
Gustav
Ludvig Albert Badin,
Fredrik
Gustav né
Albert
Fredrik Couchi,
Badin,
Albert néwas
Badin, néaCouchi,
Swedish
Couchi, was wasa court-servant,
Swedish secretary secretary
court-servant,
a Swedish court-servant, secretary
Juan deJuan
Pareja
de 1606?–1670
Juan Pareja 1606?–1670
de Pareja 1606?–1670 and diarist.andBorn indiarist.
StBorn
diarist.
and Croix ininStthe
Born Danish
inCroix
St West
in the
Croix theIndies,
inDanish West
Danish he wasIndies,
Indies,
West brought
he washetowas
Sweden
brought toinSweden
brought 1757 in 1757
to Sweden in 1757 The Soweto Uprising 1976
at the ageatofthe
seven,
the and
atage presented
of seven,
age and and
of seven, as apresented
presented‘gift’ to
as Louisa
a as
‘gift’ Ulrika
to toof
Louisa
a ‘gift’ Prussia,
Ulrika
Louisa ofQueen
Prussia,
Ulrika of Queen
Sweden.
of Prussia, of Sweden.
Queen of Sweden. August August
Sabac ElSabac
AugustCher El
Sabac Cher
1836?–1885
1836?–1885
El Cher 1836?–1885
Juan de Pareja,
JuanJuandethePareja,
sonPareja,
de ofthean son
enslaved
sonanofwoman
the of enslaved ofwoman
an enslavedAfrican
woman descent
of African and adescent
descent
of African whiteandSpanish
a white
and Spanish
a white Spanish A defining moment in the struggle to end apa
father, lived in father,
Antequera,
father, livedlived Spain.
in Antequera, HeSpain.
in Antequera, served as served
He
Spain. an
Heassistant
as anasto
served Spanish
assistant
an toartist
assistant SpanishDiegoartistartist
to Spanish DiegoDiego Well-educated and fluentand
Well-educated
Well-educated in Swedish,
fluentfluent
and French,
in Swedish, German
in Swedish, French, and
French, Latin,
GermanGerman Badin
and andalso
Latin, served
Badin
Latin, Badin at also
also the served
served at the
at the August SabacAugust el Cher
Sabac
August was
Sabac born
el Cher in Kurdufan,
was
el Cher bornborn
was present-day
in Kurdufan,
in Kurdufan, Sudan.
present-dayOrphaned
Sudan.
present-day after
Orphaned
Sudan. his father’s
Orphanedafterafter
his father’s
his father’s
student demonstrations in South Africa, whic
VelázquezVelázquez
in his painting
Velázquez workshop,
in hisin painting andworkshop,
later became
workshop,
his painting lateralater
and and notable
becamebecame apainter
notablein painter
his own
a notable in hisinown
painter his own royal courtroyal
as royal
the Queen’s
court as the
court asEmissary
Queen’s
the Queen’s to France
Emissary
Emissary onFrance
to several on
to France occasions.
several Heoccasions.
collected
occasions.
on several an
He collected an an
He collected death in adeath
revolt against
in
death in a an
a revolt Egyptian
against
revolt an occupation
against Egyptian
an Egyptian force
occupation and force
occupationhis mother’shis subsequent
and and
force mother’s suicide,
subsequent
his mother’s subsequent hesuicide, he he
suicide,
around 20,000 students from Soweto’s high
right. Velázquez signed
right.right.
Velázquez a contract
Velázquezsigned aofcontract
signed manumission
a contract of for Pareja for
of manumission
manumission around
Pareja 1650,
around
for Pareja making
1650,
around himmaking
1650, him him
making extensive extensive
library consisting
library
extensive of 900
consisting
library volumes,
consistingof 900 mostly
volumes,
of 900 in French,
mostly
volumes, inwhich
mostlyFrench,makes
which
in French, him
whichonemakes
makes ofhim
theone of the
him one of the was presented
was was as apresented
‘gift’ by
presented as the
a as Ottoman
‘gift’ by the
a ‘gift’ byViceroy
Ottoman
the OttomanofViceroy
Egypt to
ofPrince
ViceroyEgypt Albrecht
to Prince
of Egypt of Prussia
Albrecht
to Prince ofinPrussia
Albrecht 1843.
of Prussiain 1843.
in 1843.
against the introduction of Afrikaans as the p
a free man. Heaproduced
a free man.man.
free an
Heoil
He produced painting ofpainting
an oilan
produced Pareja while ofthey
of Pareja
oil painting were
while
Pareja travelling
they
while to
werewere
they Rome,
travelling to Rome,
travelling to Rome, first recorded book collectors
first recorded
first recorded of African
bookbook
collectors origin.
of
collectors African origin.
of African origin. Named Sabac Named el Cher
NamedSabac byelPrince
Sabac Cher Albrecht,
by
el Cher Prince meaning
Albrecht,
by Prince ‘good
meaning
Albrecht, morning’
‘good
meaning in
‘goodArabic,
morning’
morning’heArabic,
in was raised
he was
in Arabic, at was
he raised at at
raised de
repressed by the police, who quickly opened
Italy, in 1650. Itinis1650.
Italy,Italy, the earliest It known
It is the
in 1650. portrait
isearliest known
the earliest ofportrait
knowna Spanishof aman
portrait of a of
Spanish African
Spanishman mandescent.
of African descent.
of African descent. Original painting
Originalby Gustaf
painting
Original Lundberg.
by
paintingGustaf Lundberg.
by Gustaf Lundberg. the Prussianthe royal court.
Prussian
the Prussian Heroyal
royal served
court. as served
He
court. aHe
valet anda as
as
served was
valet the
andprince’s
a valet theconstant
was was
and prince’s companion,
constant
the prince’s fighting
companion,
constant companion, fighting
fighting w
and girls killed is estimated to be in the hund
in the Danish-Prussian War (1864),
in theinDanish-Prussian
the Danish-Prussian WartheWar Austro-Prussian
(1864), War (1866)
the Austro-Prussian
(1864), the Austro-PrussianWar and the(1866)
(1866)
War Franco-Prussian
and and War
the Franco-Prussian
the Franco-Prussian War War in
Original painting
Originalby Diego
painting
Original Velázquez
by
paintingDiego Velázquez
. Velázquez
by Diego . . declared a public holiday in South Africa, known as Youth Day
(1870). Sabac el Cher
(1870). Sabac
(1870). held
Sabac various
el Cher held
el Cher senior positions
various
held senior
various in thepositions
royalinservice,
positions
senior the married
theinroyal service,
royal a married
German
service, awoman
married German and
a German was
woman womanand andwas was
which
diedhighlighted inthe role of 1885.
young people in shaping the cha
Omar Ibn Saïd
Omar Ibn
Omar SaïdSaïd
1770–1864
Ibn 1770–1864
1770–1864 granted citizenship
granted in 1882.
citizenship
granted Regarded
in 1882.
citizenship in 1882.as one
Regarded of as
Regarded theone
earliest
of the
as one known
of Afro-Germans,
earliest known
the earliest he
Afro-Germans,
known Afro-Germans,inheBerlin
he in
died died1885.
Berlin
in in
Berlin in 1885.
inspiration and a template for a second wave of unrest in the 1
Don Miguel de
DonDon Castro,
Miguel de Emissary
Miguel Castro, ofEmissary
Congo
Emissary
de Castro, of Congo
of Congo Omar Ibn Omar
SaïdOmar
, nicknamed
Ibn Saï
IbndSaï Uncle
, nicknamed Moreau
d, nicknamed Uncle and
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José José (b.
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Baró
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y Baró 1836–d. was
(b. 1836–d. a Spanish
1913) apainter,
was was
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best
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in 2012 in Sanford, Florida. On his way to his
s
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servants were portrayed dressed in accordance with Portuguese fashion in three in three
fashion in three manuscripts written
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written a memoir
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and and memoir Autobiography
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of Omar Slave
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tea, 17-year-old Trayvon crossed a fenced ar
paintings made for the
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portrayed are unknown.
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Original painting attributed to Jasper Beckx or Albert Eckhout.
Please note ju
Original painting
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painting to
attributedJasper Beckx
to Jasper or Albert
Beckx Eckhout.
or Albert Eckhout. The contextual information provided previously contacted
are intended as them by telephone on s
brief introductions
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Please note jury of six women. The killing of Trayvon Martin became a cata
The contextual information provided are intended as brief introductions We welcome any editorial suggestions that help fill gaps, expand our H
systematic racism towards black people and members of the
to complex historical narratives, and in some cases may contain knowledge and/or correct these extended captions. ju
inaccuracies or inconsistencies. activist movements, and Black Lives Matter campaigns. One o
We welcome any editorial suggestions that help fill gaps, expand our Hoodie March held in March 2012 in New York, where thousa
knowledge and/or correct these extended captions. jumpers similar to the one worn by the young Trayvon Martin o