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CAUSES OF STUDENT could lead to boredom, loss of

ABSENTEEISM IN SCHOOL confidence. Also, prolonged
II. INTRODUCTION absence can have deleterious
Absenteeism, according to our effects for the child in later life.
interview. In the context of the Students who are absent from
school it is the habitual or intentional school are at the greatest risk of
failure from going to school. It dropping out of school early.
cannot be denied that every now and Absenteeism also affects the
then, students may miss some teacher’s ability present class work
school activities and lessons. But it in a sequential and organized way.
becomes a problem if the student This can have an effect on the
will be away from school for many progress of all the students
days. attending the class.
Going to school regularly is crucially The families of habitual absentees
important for a student’s education can also suffer. For a poverty-
and social skills. Chronic absentee stricken family, it may mean a
students are placed at a continuation of the poverty and
disadvantage both socially and unemployment cycle that may run in
academically. They miss out on the family. This also contributes to
critical stages of social interaction family conflicts.
and development with their peers The society also suffers as the
and at the same time impacts children of school age hang around
negatively on their academic in the streets. They can be found just
progress. This can result to low self- gallivanting around. Since they have
esteem, social isolation and nothing to do, they resort to petty
dissatisfaction that could well have crimes like stealing other people’s
precipitated non-attendance in the belongings and properties. Others
first place. may resort to drug addiction and
School absenteeism is an alarming other behavior that is detrimental to
problem for administrators, society. Thus, if the student keeps on
teachers, parents and the society in being away from school for too long,
general, as well as for the pupils in he may grow up to be a liability of his
particular. Unaccepted absence has community and of his country as a
a negative effect on peer whole.
relationship which could cause It is the aim of every school to
absence. According to Malcolm, lessen, if not eradicate absenteeism
Wilson, Davidson and Kirk (2003) among its students. One way of
teachers identified effects of addressing this problem is to identify
absenteeism on children as: the causes why students become
academic under- achievement, truant from school. Once they are
difficulty in making friends which singled out, understood and
analyzed, specific actions and the educational expenses, teachers’
measures can be undertaken. This sympathetic attitude are factors
will eventually redound to the better which can motivate and attract
students towards schools.
performance of the students,
teachers and the school in general.
It is in this context that this action
research was undertaken, that is, to Student Absenteeism – What’s
identify the causes why the Grade VI the Problem – and the Answer?
students in this school absent
themselves from their classes. Student absenteeism is a serious
issue in public education. Concerted
I. REVIEW OF LITERATURE efforts have been expended aimed at
engaging students and promoting
Causes of Absenteeism from the active learning, but schools are still
Schools at Secondary Level full of “clock-watchers” Many high
All secondary level students’ of schoolers regularly skip classes and,
district Bannu constituted population according to some inside reports,
of the study.100 students who “the hallways are virtually empty
frequently remained absent from the some Friday afternoons.”
schools were conveniently selected
A recent report, commissioned by
as a sample of the study.
the Nova Scotia Education
Percentages have been used as
statistical technique to analyze the Department, bravely tackles the
data. Results of the study showed chronic issue. The advisory
that most frequent causes of the committee, chaired by Howard
absence of the students from the Windsor, Halifax’s former “one-man
schools were their families’ school board,” recommends
participation in social activities, extending compulsory school
students help their parents in their attendance to age 18/Grade 12 and a
work, too much home work and too series of “staged interventions” for
many tests and examinations. chronic “skippers” and truants.
Along with those measures, the
It was recommended that by the
committee proposes a range of
care and concentration of parents,
children can be encouraged to go to inducements to keep students in
school. Availability of the school school. In extending schooling to 18,
building, furniture, adequate Nova Scotia would be following the
libraries and clean and healthy lead of Ontario, New Brunswick, and
environment, Nunavut.
introducing modern methods and
What’s my initial response? When
techniques, keeping in view the
confronted with a growing problem
interests and needs of the children,
providing financial aid to the of absenteeism, Nova Scotia
students who are unable to afford Education seems to be considering
“compulsory engagement” until age
18. With 7.4% of students missing FACTORS CAUSING STUDENT
20% or more of classes and 45% ABSENTEEISM ACCORDING TO
absent for 10% of their classes, it’s a PEERS
deeply entrenched problem. First There are many factors involved in
came the carrot ( the elementary motivating students to attend school.
level behaviour modification (PEBS)
Students who are not motivated,
program and high school exam
exemptions), now we seem to be
resorting to the stick ( compulsory will usually decide not to be present
schooling to 18). in school. Based on several
What does the education research researches conducted, the rate of
say? Student engagement is clearly absenteeism
more important than attending and
simply occupying classroom seats. among students increases annually.
Canada’s largest national school As a result, this problem will more or
survey, Tell Them from Me, provided less adversely affect the school’s
a clearer sense of the problem and
identified the factors contributing to reputation. Thus, this study is
“a sense of belonging at school.” conducted to identify factors that
“Improving school and classroom cause students to play truant. A set
climate” are key to “increasing of
engagement,” says CRISP Director
Douglas Willms (MASS Journal,Fall questionnaire was used to collect
2008). Leading American expert, the information needed. The
Deborah Meier (2002), sees school quantitative data was analyzed using
size as a critical factor — the smaller Statistics
the school, the more likely students
are to feel a sense of attachment; Package for the Social Sciences
the larger the school, the greater the (SPSS) to obtain descriptive
potential for standardization, statistics indices. The research
alienation and absenteeism. findings were duly
A few critical questions need to be discussed.
asked: Why are so many kids tuning
out, skipping or dropping out in Nova
Scotia and elsewhere? In legislating
compulsory high school attendance,
will we be giving up on making
school more engaging for kids? And
more importantly, will everyone be
If there are stakeholders who could
Possible Causes of Absenteeism
offer scholarship grants to poor but
1. Self-supporting pupils deserving pupils there could be no
2. Lack of Financial Support self-supporting pupils. If the parents
3. Taking Care of Younger Siblings could give support to the needs of
and do home chores the pupils, they would not be absent
4. Lack of Parental Support from
5. Sickness, health condition and school. If the parents will not request
dental problems their children to do home chores and
6. Lack of teacher monitoring and take care of younger siblings, they
supervision could not
7. Influence of environmental factors miss their classes. If only the parents
could encourage and follow up their
children to go to school, then they
would be
motivated to study. If the pupils have
a regular dental and health check-
ups they could not miss their classes
when not 1 | P a g e
feeling well. If the adviser had set
rules and initiates closer monitoring
and supervision with them, absences
might be
avoided. When the pupils are guided
by their parents, they could be
spared from computer games, vices
and influence
of their peers.
IV. REFERENCES Lurenmurcia,
January 8, 2015.
GulapShahzada, SafdarRehman
Ghazi, Habib Nawaz, AbdUllah Khan,
January 25, 2015.
aul W. Bennett, January 30, 2010.

AsmawatiSuhid, Ph.D. 1, Abdul

Rahman Md. Aroff, Ph.D. 2, Norliana
International Journal of Arts and
Commerce Vol. 1 No. 4 September