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Exampro 3: straight-line motion - Questions

Q1.The graph shows how the force acting on a body changes with time.

The body has a mass of 0.25 kg and is initially at rest. What is the speed of the body after
40 s assuming no other forces are acting?
A 200 ms–1
B 400 ms–1
C 800 ms–1
D 1600 ms–1
(Total 1 mark)

Q2.An object is dropped from a cliff. How far does the object fall in the third second?
Assume that g = 10 m s–2.

A 10 m

B 20 m

C 25 m

D 45 m

(Total 1 mark)

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Q3.The velocity of a vehicle varies with time as shown by the following graph.

Which graph below represents how the resultant force F on the car varies during the
same time?

A B

C D

D
(Total 1 mark)

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Q4.A car accelerates uniformly from rest along a straight road. Which graph shows the variation
of displacement x of the car with time t?

A B C D

(Total 1 mark)

Q5.A lunar landing module is descending to the Moon’s surface at a steady velocity of 10.0 m
s–1. At a height of 120 m a small object falls from its landing gear. Assuming that the
Moon’s gravitational acceleration is 1.60 m s–2, at what speed, in m s–1 does the object
strike the Moon?

A 22.0
B 19.6
C 16.8
D 10.0

(Total 1 mark)

Q6.A student measures the acceleration due to gravity, g, using the apparatus shown in the
figure below. A plastic card of known length is released from rest at a height of 0.50m
above a light gate. A computer calculates the velocity of the card at this point, using the
time for the card to pass through the light gate.

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(a) The computer calculated a value of 3.10 m s–1 for the velocity of the card as it
travelled through the light gate. Calculate a value for the acceleration due to gravity,
g, from these data.

answer = ...................................... m s–2


(2)

(b) The student doubles the mass of the card and finds a value for g that is similar to
the original value. Use the relationship between weight, mass and g to explain this
result.
......................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................
(1)

(c) State and explain one reason why the card would give more reliable results than a
table tennis ball for this experiment.
......................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 5 marks)

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Q7. A supertanker of mass 4.0 × 108 kg, cruising at an initial speed of 4.5 m s–1, takes one
hour to come to rest.
(a) Assuming that the force slowing the tanker down is constant, calculate
(i) the deceleration of the tanker,
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................

(ii) the distance travelled by the tanker while slowing to a stop.


.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
(4)

(b) Sketch, using the axes below, a distance-time graph representing the motion of the
tanker until it stops.

(2)

(c) Explain the shape of the graph you have sketched in part (b).
......................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

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Q8. The diagram below shows a spacecraft that initially moves at a constant
velocity of 890 m s–1 towards A.

To change course, a sideways force is produced by firing thrusters. This increases the
velocity towards B from 0 to 60 m s–1 in 25 s.
(a) The spacecraft has a mass of 5.5 × 104 kg. Calculate:
(i) the acceleration of the spacecraft towards B;

Acceleration ......................................................
(1)

(ii) the force on the spacecraft produced by the thrusters.

Force on spacecraft ......................................................


(2)

(b) Calculate the magnitude of the resultant velocity after 25 s.

Magnitude of resultant velocity ......................................................


(2)

(c) Calculate the angle between the initial and final directions of travel.

Angle ......................................................
(1)
(Total 6 marks)

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Q9. Figure 1 shows the speed-time graph for a swimmer performing one complete cycle
of the breast stroke.
Figure 1

Figure 2

(a) (i) Find the acceleration of the swimmer at time 0.65 s.


acceleration ...................................

(ii) Sketch, on the axes in Figure 2, a graph to show how the acceleration of the
swimmer varies with time for the same time interval. You are not required to
make any further calculations but your graph should show relative values.
(4)

(b) Use the graph in Figure 1 to estimate the distance travelled by the swimmer in one
complete cycle of the stroke. Show your working clearly.
distance travelled .............................. m
(4)
(Total 8 marks)

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Q10.(a) A parcel of mass 15 kg drops from a delivery chute onto a conveyor belt as shown in
Figure 1.
The belt is moving at a steady speed of 1.7 m s−1.
The parcel lands on the moving belt with negligible speed and initially starts to slip. It
takes 0.82 s for the parcel to gain enough speed to stop slipping and move at the
same speed as the conveyor belt.
Figure 1

(i) Calculate the change in kinetic energy of the parcel during the first 0.82 s.

change in kinetic energy ................................................. J


(2)

(ii) The average horizontal force acting on the parcel during the first 0.82 s is 31
N.
Calculate the horizontal distance between the parcel and the end of the
delivery chute 0.82 s after the parcel lands on the conveyor belt. Assume that
the parcel does not reach the end of the conveyor belt.

horizontal distance ................................................. m


(2)

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(b) At a later stage the parcel is being raised by another conveyor belt as shown in
Figure 2.
Figure 2

This conveyor belt is angled at 18° to the horizontal and the parcel moves at a
steady speed of 1.7 m s−1 without slipping.
Calculate the rate at which work is done on the parcel.

rate at which work is done ................................................. W


(3)
(Total 7 marks)

Q11.The diagram below shows an electric two-wheeled vehicle and driver.

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(a) The vehicle accelerates horizontally from rest to 27.8 m s–1 in a time of 4.6 s. The
mass of the vehicle is 360 kg and the rider has a mass of 82 kg.
(i) Calculate the average acceleration during the 4.6 s time interval.
Give your answer to an appropriate number of significant figures.

acceleration = ............................................ m s–2


(2)

(ii) Calculate the average horizontal resultant force on the vehicle while it is
accelerating.

resultant force = .................................................. N


(2)

(b) State and explain how the horizontal forward force on the vehicle has to change for
constant acceleration to be maintained from 0 to 27.8 m s–1.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
(3)

(c) The electric motors drive both wheels of the vehicle.


Add labelled force arrows to the diagram to show the horizontal forces acting on the
vehicle when it is moving at a constant speed.
(2)

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(d) The vehicle now accelerates to a constant speed of 55 m s–1. The useful power
output of the motors is 22 kW at this speed.
Calculate the horizontal resistive force acting on the vehicle.

horizontal resistive force = .................................................. N


(2)
(Total 11 marks)

Q12.The driver of a car sees an obstruction ahead and applies the brakes at time tb later,
bringing the car to a halt. The graph shows how the speed of the car varies with time.

The stopping distance, s, of the car which was travelling at speed v before the driver
applied the brakes, can be represented by the equation

,
where α is the magnitude of the deceleration of the car (assumed constant).

(a) State what distance is represented by each of the terms


vt>b

.................................................................................................................
(2)

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(b) The table includes data on stopping distances of cars. Column C gives the total
stopping distance for a car travelling at each of the speeds shown in column A.

column A column B column C column D

speed v/km h–1 speed v/m s–1 stopping distance s/m


/sec
32 8.9 12
48 23
64 36
80 53
96 73
112 96

(i) Complete column B,

(ii) In column D, calculate each of the corresponding values of .


(2)

(c) The equation for s can be rearranged as .


From the data you have calculated, plot a suitable graph to verify this equation.
(One sheet of graph paper should be provided)
(5)

(d) From your graph determine the value of


(i) tb ...........................................................................................................

(ii) the magnitude of the deceleration, a.


...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 13 marks)

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Q13.(a) Indicate with ticks (✓) in the table below which of the quantities are vectors and which
are scalars.

Velocity Speed Distance Displacement


vector
scalar

(2)

(b) A tennis ball is thrown vertically downwards and bounces on the ground. The ball
leaves the hand with an initial speed of 1.5 m s–1 at a height of 0.65 m above the
ground. The ball rebounds and is caught when travelling upwards with a speed of
1.0 m s–1.
Assume that air resistance is negligible.
(i) Show that the speed of the ball is about 4 m s–1 just before it strikes the
ground.
(3)

(ii) The ball is released at time t = 0. It hits the ground at time tA and is caught at
time tB. On the graph, sketch a velocity−time graph for the vertical motion of
the tennis ball from when it leaves the hand to when it returns. The initial
velocity X and final velocity Y are marked.

(3)

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(c) In a game of tennis, a ball is hit horizontally at a height of 1.2 m and travels a
horizontal distance of 5.0 m before reaching the ground. The ball is at rest when hit.
Calculate the initial horizontal velocity given to the ball when it was hit.

horizontal velocity = ............................................ m s–1


(3)
(Total 11 marks)

Q14. (a) A man jumps from a plane that is travelling horizontally at a speed of 70 m s–1.
If air resistance can be ignored, determine
(i) his horizontal velocity 2.0 s after jumping,
.............................................................................................................
(ii) his vertical velocity 2.0 s after jumping,
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................

(iii) the magnitude and direction of his resultant velocity 2.0 s after jumping.
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
(5)

(b) After 2.0 s the man opens his parachute. Air resistance is no longer negligible.
Explain in terms of Newton’s laws of motion, why
(i) his velocity initially decreases,
.............................................................................................................

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(ii) a terminal velocity is reached.
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 9 marks)

Q15.The graph shows how the vertical speed of a parachutist changes with time during the first
20 s of his jump. To avoid air turbulence caused by the aircraft, he waits a short time after
jumping before pulling the cord to release his parachute.

(a) Regions A, B and C of the graph show the speed before the parachute has opened.
With reference to the forces acting on the parachutist, explain why the graph has
this shape in the region marked
(i) A, ...........................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................

(ii) B, ...........................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................

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(iii) C, ...........................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
(6)

(b) Calculate the maximum deceleration of the parachutist in the region of the graph
marked D, which shows how the speed changes just after the parachute has
opened. Show your method clearly,
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c) Use the graph to find the total vertical distance fallen by the parachutist in the first
10 s of the jump. Show your method clearly.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
(4)

(d) During his descent, the parachutist drifts sideways in the wind and hits the ground
with a vertical speed of 5.0 m s–1 and a horizontal speed of 3.0 m s–1. Find
(i) the resultant speed with which he hits the ground,
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................

(ii) the angle his resultant velocity makes with the vertical.
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 14 marks)

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Q16. A constant resultant horizontal force of 1.8 × 103 N acts on a car of mass 900 kg,
initially at rest on a level road.
(a) Calculate
(i) the acceleration of the car,
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................

(ii) the speed of the car after 8.0 s,


.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................

(iii) the momentum of the car after 8.0 s,


.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................

(iv) the distance travelled by the car in the first 8.0 s of its motion,
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................

(v) the work done by the resultant horizontal force during the first 8.0 s.
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
(9)

(b) On the axes below sketch the graphs for speed, v, and distance travelled, s, against
time, t, for the first 8.0 s of the car’s motion.

(2)

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(c) In practice the resultant force on the car changes with time. Air resistance is one
factor that affects the resultant force acting on the vehicle.
You may be awarded marks for the quality of written communication in your answer.
(i) Suggest, with a reason, how the resultant force on the car changes as its speed
increases.
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................

(ii) Explain, using Newton’s laws of motion, why the vehicle has a maximum speed.
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
(5)
(Total 16 marks)

Q17.The world record for a high dive into deep water is 54 m.


(a) Calculate the loss in gravitational potential energy (gpe) of a diver of mass 65 kg
falling through 54 m.

loss in gpe = ................................... J


(2)
(b) Calculate the vertical velocity of the diver the instant before he enters the water.
Ignore the effects of air resistance.

velocity = ............................ ms–1


(2)
(c) Calculate the time taken for the diver to fall 54 m. Ignore the effects of air
resistance.

time = ................................... s
(2)

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(d) Explain, with reference to energy, why the velocity of the diver is independent of his
mass if air resistance is insignificant.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 9 marks)

Q18. A cyclist pedals downhill on a road, as shown in the diagram below, from rest at the
top of the hill and reaches a horizontal section of the road at a speed of 16 m s–1. The total
mass of the cyclist and the cycle is 68 kg.

(a) (i) Calculate the total kinetic energy of the cyclist and the cycle on reaching the
horizontal section of the road.

answer ............................ J
(2)

(ii) The height difference between the top of the hill and the horizontal section of
road is 12 m.
Calculate the loss of gravitational potential energy of the cyclist and the cycle.

answer ........................... J
(2)

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(iii) The work done by the cyclist when pedalling downhill is 2400 J. Account for
the difference between the loss of gravitational potential energy and the gain
of kinetic energy of the cyclist and the cycle.
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
(3)

(b) The cyclist stops pedalling on reaching the horizontal section of the road and slows
to a standstill 160 m further along this section of the road. Assume the deceleration
is uniform.
(i) Calculate the time taken by the cyclist to travel this distance.

answer................................. s
(3)

(ii) Calculate the average horizontal force on the cyclist and the cycle during this
time.

answer ........................... N
(3)
(Total 13 marks)

Q19. Galileo used an inclined plane, similar to the one shown in the figure below, to
investigate the motion of falling objects.
(a) Explain why using an inclined plane rather than free fall would produce data which
is valid when investigating the motion of a falling object.
......................................................................................................................

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......................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) In a demonstration of Galileo’s investigation, the number of swings of a pendulum


was used to time a trolley after it was released from rest. A block was positioned to
mark the distance that the trolley had travelled after a chosen whole number of
swings.
See the figure below.

The mass of the trolley in the figure above is 0.20 kg and the slope is at an angle of
1·8º to the horizontal.
(i) Show that the component of the weight acting along the slope is about 0.06 N.

(2)

(ii) Calculate the initial acceleration down the slope.

answer = ............................. m s–2


(2)

(c) In this experiment, the following data was obtained. A graph of the data is shown
below it.

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time / pendulum swings distance travelled /m
1 0.29
2 1.22
3 2.70
4 4.85

From the graph above, state what you would conclude about the motion of the
trolley? Give a reason for your answer.
......................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................
(2)
(d) Each complete pendulum swing had a period of 1.4 s. Use the graph above to find
the speed of the trolley after it had travelled 3.0 m.

answer = ............................. m s–1


(3)
(Total 11 marks)

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Q20. In the 1969 Moon landing, the Lunar Module separated from the Command Module
above the surface of the Moon when it was travelling at a horizontal speed of 2040 m ss–1.
In order to descend to the Moon’s surface the Lunar Module needed to reduce its speed
using its rocket as shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1

(a) (i) The average thrust from the rocket was 30 kN and the mass of the Lunar
Module was 15100 kg. Calculate the horizontal deceleration of the Lunar
Module.

answer = ............................. m s–2


(2)

(ii) Calculate the time for the Lunar Module to slow to the required horizontal
velocity of 150 m s–1. Assume the mass remained constant.

answer = ................................... s
(2)

(b) The rocket was then used to control the velocity of descent so that the Lunar
Module descended vertically with a constant velocity as shown in Figure 2. Due to
the use of fuel during the previous deceleration, the mass of the Lunar Module had
fallen by 53%.
Figure 2

Page 23
acceleration due to gravity near the Moon’s surface = 1.61 m s–2
(i) Draw force vectors on Figure 2 to show the forces acting on the Lunar
Module at this time. Label the vectors.
(2)

(ii) Calculate the thrust force needed to maintain a constant vertical downwards
velocity.

answer = .................................. N
(2)

(c) When the Lunar Module was 1.2 m from the lunar surface, the rocket was switched
off.
At this point the vertical velocity was 0.80 m s–1. Calculate the vertical velocity at
which the Lunar Module reached the lunar surface.

answer = ............................. m s–1


(2)
(Total 10 marks)

Q21.(a) Explain why a particle is accelerating even when it is moving with a uniform speed in
a circular path.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of a proton synchrotron. This is a device for
accelerating protons to high speeds in a horizontal circular path.

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Figure 1
In the synchrotron the protons of mass 1.7 × 10–27 kg are injected at point A at a
speed of 8.0 × 106 m s–1. The diameter of the path taken by the protons is 400 m.
(i) Show on Figure 1 the direction of the force required to make a proton move in
the circular path when the proton is at the position marked P.
(1)

(ii) Calculate the force that has to be provided to produce the circular path when
the speed of a proton is 8.0 × 106 m s–1.
(2)

(iii) Sketch on Figure 2 a graph to show how this force will have to change as the
speed of the proton increases over the range shown on the x-axis. Insert an
appropriate scale on the force axis.

Figure 2

Page 25
(c) Before reaching their final energy the protons in the synchrotron in part (b) travel
around the accelerator 420 000 times in 2.0 s.
acceleration of free fall, g = 9.8 m s–2
(i) Calculate the total distance travelled by a proton in the 2.0 s time interval.
(2)

(ii) Unless a vertical force is applied the protons wold fall as they move through
the horizontal channel.
Calculate the distance a proton would fall in two seconds.
(2)

(iii) Determine the force necessary to prevent the vertical movement.


(1)
(Total 12 marks)

Exampro 3: straight-line motion – Answers

M1. C
[1]
M2.C
[1]
M3.C
[1]
M4.B
[1]
M5.A
[1]

Page 26
M6.(a) correct substitution in (v2 = u2 + 2as)

or correct rearrangement g = or
= 9.6 (9.61 m s–1) 2

(b) g = W/m or W = mg (= ma) and weight is proportional


to mass/doubling the mass doubles the weight/’masses
cancel’/the factor of two cancels (so g remains the same)
1

(c) ball’s acceleration will decrease/be less than card’s or card’s


acceleration will be unaffected/nearly constant
air resistance affects cards less or card is more streamlined
or card does less work against air resistance
alternative timing/(velocity/speed/acceleration)
uncertain/(inaccurate /imprecise/less reliable)
indication that full width of ball may not pass through
gate/difficulty in determining ‘length’ of ball passing through
gate
2
[5]

M7. (a) (i) (use of gives) (1)


=1.25 × 10–3 ms–2 (1)

(ii) (use of v2 = u2 +2as gives) 0=4.52 – 2 × 1.25 ×10–3 × s (1)

(1)
4

(b) increasing curve (1)


correct curve (1)

(c) gradient (slope) of graph represents speed (1)


hence graph has decreasing gradient (1)
2
[8]

Page 27
M8. (a) (i) 2.4 m s–2
B1
1

(ii) F = ma
C1
132 000 N (ecf from (i))
A1
2

(b) final speed = (8902 + 602)1/2


C1
892 m s–1 (cao) (allow 890 m s–1 as final answer but
892 must be seen in working)
A1
2

(c) tan–1 60/890 or sin–1 60/892 = 3.9° (3.86)°


or cos–1(890/892) = 3.8 (4)°
or sin–1 60/890 =3.9° (3.86)° if ecf from (b)
B1
1
[6]

M9. (a) (i) use of appropriate data from graph (1)


answer in acceptable range (to be decided) (1)
(ii) zero at 0, 0.2 0.58, 0.8 and 1 s (approx) (1)
reasonable attempt to show relative magnitudes (1)
4

(b) appreciation of area under the graph (1)


appropriate counting of squares (1)
distance per square (1)
correct answer in acceptable range (1)
4
[8]

Page 28
Exampro 3: straight-line motion – Answers (cont.)

M10.(a) (i) Use of K E=


C1
21.7 (J)
A1
2

(ii) Use of W = Fs
Allow 1 mark for use of suvat or F=ma
C1
0.70 (m)
A1
2

(b) Use of ΔEp= mgΔh


C1
Correct sub for h (1.7 sin 18°)
C1
77.3 (W)
OR
Use of P=Fv
Correct sub for F (mg sin 18°) or v (1.7 sin 18°)
77.3 (W)
A1
3
[7]
M11.(a) (i) ( a =(v-u) / t )
= 27.8 (−0) / 4.6 = 6.04 ✓
= 6.0 (ms−1) ✓
no need to see working for the mark
2 sig fig mark stands alone
2

(ii) ( F = ma )
= (360 + 82) × 6.0(4) ✓ (allow CE from (i))
= 2700 (N) ✓ (2670 N or 2652 N)
F = 442 × (i)
1 mark may be gained if mass of rider is ignored giving
answer 2200N from 2175N
2

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(b) (forward force would have to) increase ✓
air resistance / drag increases (with speed) ✓
driving / forward force must be greater than resistive / drag force ✓
no mark for wind resistance
(so that) resultant / net force stayed the same / otherwise the resultant / net
force would decrease ✓
4max3

(c) horizontal force arrows on both wheels towards the right starting where tyre
meets road or on the axle labelled driving force or equivalent ✓
ignore the actual lengths of any arrows
ignore any arrows simply labelled ‘friction’
a horizontal arrow to the left starting anywhere on the vehicle labelled drag /
air resistance
no mark for wind resistance, resistance or friction force
the base of an arrow is where the force is applied
2

(d) (F=P/v)
= 22 000 / 55 ✓ Condone 22 / 55 for this mark
= 400 ✓ (N)
2
[11]

M12.(a) vtb: distance moved (at speed v) before brakes are applied
[or thinking / reaction distance] (1)

: distance moved while braking [ or after applying brakes] (1)


2

(b) (i) column B: (8.9) 13.3(5) 17.8 22.2(5) 26.7 31.1(5)


(all values correct to 2 or 3 sig. figs ± 0.2) (1)
(ii) column D: 1.3(5) 1.72 2.02 2.39 2.73 3.08
(all values correct to 2 or 3 sig figs ± 0.1) (1)
2

(c) graph of against v [or v against ] (1)


axes labelled correctly (1) (column D vs column B or A)
appropriate scales (1)

Page 30
at least four points plotted correctly to 1 square (1)
acceptable straight line (1)
[note: if chosen graph gives a curve (e.g. s against v) then candidate
can only score 2nd, 3rd and 4th marks]
5

(d) (i) (intercept) tb = 0.66 s (1) (values in range 0.6 to 0.7 accepted)
(ii) gradient = (any triangle e.g. (3 - 1) / (30 - 4.5)) = 7.8 × 10-2 (s2m-1) (1)
[ other answers, if consistent with graph, acceptable]
gradient = (1 / 2a) (1)
gives a = 6.4 m s-2 (1) (values in range 6.1 to 6.7 accepted)
(allow C.E. for value of gradient)
[if column D vs column A used, gradient = 0.022
use of conversion factor gives gradient = 0.078 (s2m-1)]

[if graph of v against , gradient = 12.8 m s-2


= 2a for first two marks]
4
[13]

M13.(a) Velocity and speed correct ✓


Distance and displacement correct ✓

velocity speed distance displacement


vector ✓ ✓
scalar ✓ ✓
2

(b) (i) v2 = u2 + 2as

v= ✓ v = ✓
= (−)3.9 (m s−1) ✓two or more sig fig needed (− 3.87337 m s−1)
1st mark for equation rearranged to make v the subject (note
sq’ root may be implied by a later calculation) penalise the
use of g = 10 m s2 only on this question
2nd mark for substituting numbers into any valid equation
3rd mark for answer
Alt’ approach is gainKE = lossPE
missing out u gives zero marks
answer only gains one mark [Note it is possible to achieve
the correct answer by a wrong calculation]

Page 31
3

(ii) velocity / ms−1

first line descends from X to the dotted line at tA or up to one division


sooner ✓
(allow line to curve)
first line is straight and descends from X to v = −4 (m s−1) ✓(allow
tolerance one division)
second line has same gradient as the first, straight and descends to v =
1(m s−1) ✓(tolerance ½ division)
a steep line may join the two straight lines but its width must be less than
2 divisions
3

(c) s = ut + 1 / 2at2

t= OR correct substitution seen into either equation t = ✓

= 0.49 (s) ✓ (0.4946 s)


working must be shown for the first mark but not the
subsequent marks
v=s/t
= 5.0 / 0.49 = 10 (m s−1) ✓ (10.2 m s−1) (allow CE from their time)
[note it is possible to achieve the correct answer by a wrong calculation]
3
[11]

M14. (a) (i) 70 m s–1 (1)


(ii) v = 9.81 × 2.0 (1)
= 20 m s–1 (1) (19.6 m s–1)

Page 32
(iii) v = √(702 + 19.622) = 73 m s–1 (1)

direction: tan θ = = 0.28


θ = 15.6° (1) (± 0. 1°) (to horizontal) (1)
(allow C.E. for values of v from (i) and (ii))
[or use of correct scale drawing]
5

(b) (i) air resistance is greater than weight (1)


(hence) resultant force is upwards (1)
hence deceleration (Newton's second law) (1)
(ii) air resistance decreases as speed decreases (1)
weight equals air resistance (hence constant speed)
(hence) resultant force is zero (Newton's first law) (1)
max 4
QWC 2
[9]
M15.(a) (i) region A: uniform acceleration
(or (free-fall) acceleration = g (= 9.8(i) m s–2))
force acting on parachutist is entirely his weight
(or other forces are very small) (1)

(ii) region B: speed is still increasing


acceleration is decreasing (2) (any two)
because frictional (drag) forces become significant (at higher speeds)

(iii) region C: uniform speed (50 m s–1)


because resultant force on parachutist is zero (2) (any two)
weight balanced exactly by resistive force upwards
The Quality of Written Communication marks were awarded primarily for
the quality of answers to this part
(6)

(b) deceleration is gradient of the graph (at t = 13s) (1)


(e.g. 20/1 or 40/2) = 20 m s–2 (1)
(2)

Page 33
(c) distance = area under graph (1)
suitable method used to determine area (e.g. counting squares) (1)
with a suitable scaling factor (e.g. area of each square = 5 m2) (1)
distance = 335 m (±15 m) (1)
(4)

(d) (i) speed = √(5.02 + 3.02) = 5.8 m s–1 (1)

(ii) tan θ = gives θ = 31° (1)


(2)
[14]

M16. (a) (i) (use of F = ma gives) 1.8 × 103 = 900 a (1)


a = 2.0 m s–2 (1)
(ii) (use of v = u + at gives) v = 2.0 × 8.0 = 16 m s–1 (1)
(allow C.E. for a from (i))
(iii) (use of p = mv gives) p = 900 × 16
= 14 × 103 kg m s–1 (or N s) (1) (14.4 × 103 kg m s–1)
(allow C.E. for v from(ii))

(iv) (use of s = ut + ½at2 gives) s= (1)


= 64 m (1)
(allow C.E. for a from (i))

(v) use of W = Fs gives) W = 1.8 × 103 × 64 (1)


= 1.2 × 105 J (1) (1.15 × 105 J)
(allow C.E. for s from (iv))
[or Ek = ½mv2 = ½ × 900 × 162 (1)
= 1.2 × 105 J (1)
(allow C.E. for v from (ii))]
9

(b)

(c) (i) decreases (1)


air resistance increases (with speed) (1)
(ii) eventually two forces are equal (in magnitude) (1)

Page 34
resultant force is zero (1)
hence constant/terminal velocity (zero acceleration)
in accordance with Newton’s first law (1)
correct statement and application of Newton’s first
or second law (1)
max 5
QWC 2
[16]

M17.(a) (Ep = mgΔh)


= 65 × 9.81 × 54
= 3.44 × 104 = 3.4 × 104 (J) (34433)
max 1 if g =10 used (35100 J)
Correct answer gains both marks
2

(b)
allow 32 (32.3) for the use of 34000
allow 32.6
OR correct use of v2 = 2 g s
don’t penalise g = 10 (32.863)
2

(c) (s =1 / 2 gt 2 or other kinematics equation)

With use of g= 9.8 or 9.81 or 10 and / or various suvat


equations, expect range 3.2 to 3.4 s.
No penalty for using g= 10 here.
ecf from 1(b) if speed used
2

(d) (all G)PE (lost) is transferred to KE


no (GP)E transferred to 'heat' / 'thermal' / internal energy
OR
Must imply that all GPE is transferred to KE. E.g. accept
‘loss of GPE is gain in KE’ but not: ‘loses GPE and gains
KE’.

(therefore)
mass cancels.
Accept ‘m’s crossed out
3
[9]

Page 35
M18. (a) (i) (EK = ½ mv2 =) 0.5 × 68 × 162 (1) = 8700 or 8704(J) (1)
(ii) (ΔEP = mgΔh =) 68 × 9.8(1) × 12 (1) = 8000 or 8005 (J) (1)

(iii) any three from


gain of kinetic energy > loss of potential energy (1)
(because) cyclist does work (1)
energy is wasted (on the cyclist and cycle) due to air resistance
or friction or transferred to thermal/heat (1)
KE = GPE + W – energy ‘loss’ (1) (owtte)
energy wasted (= 8000 + 2400 - 8700) = 1700(J) (1)
7

(b) (i) (u = 16 m s–1, s = 160 m, v = 0, rearranging s = ½ (u + v) t gives)

160 = ½ × 16 × t or t = or correct alternative

(gets 2 marks) (1) = 20s (1)

(ii) acceleration a = ecf (b) (i) (1) = (–) 0.80 (m s–2)


resultant force F = ma = 68 × (–) 0.80 (1) = (–) 54 (N) (1) or 54.4
or (work done by horizontal force = loss of kinetic energy
work done = force × distance gives)

force =
ecf (a) (i) (1) = 54 (N) (1)
6
[13]

M19. (a) any two from


freefall is too quick (any indication of slower motion) (1)
(Galileo had) no (accurate) method to time freefall (or valid
comment regarding timing of freefall or inclined plane) (1)
correct reference to air resistance or drag (not ‘wind’) (1)
max 2

(b) (i) 0.20 × 9.81 = 1.962 (N) (1)


(1.962 sin 1.8 =) 0.0616 or 0.062 seen (1) (allow 0.061)
(0.0628 for use of g = 10 gets 1 mark)
2

Page 36
(ii) 0.06(16)/0.20
or use of a = F/m with a clearly identified force but not the weight
or g sinθ = g sin 1.8° (1)
0.31 (m s–2) (1) (0.308)
accept 0.3 or 0.30 correct answer only for second mark
or (a = 2s/t2)
= 2 × 0.29/1.42 (1) = 0.31 (1) or use of other values from table
2

(c) accelerating (1) (accept increasing speed, etc but not increasing
acceleration/quicker motion, etc)
greater distance for each additional swing (‘per unit time’ must be implied)
or gradient/ steepness/ slope increasing (1) (accept curves upwards)
2

(d) tangent used:


tangent drawn at 3.0 m ± 0.3 on graph (1)
their time from graph × 1.4 (1)
= 1.28 to 1.44 (m s–1) (1)
or suvat used:

use of v = or v = (u) + at with a from (b) (ii) (1)


(t =) 4.4 to 4.5 (s) (1)
(speed =) 1.3 to 1.4 (m s–1) (1)
3
[11]

M20. (a) (i) (1) = (–)2.0 (= 1.99 m s–2) (1)


2

(ii) (v = u + at) or substitution (1)

= = 950 (s) (1) ecf from (i)


2

Page 37
(b) (i)

opposing vertical arrows of roughly equal length or labelled


weight/mg/gravity/W and thrust/reaction/R/F/TF/engine
force/rocket force/motor force/motive force/driving force (1)
correctly labelled
+ arrows vertical
+ not more than 2 mm apart
+ roughly central
+ weight arrow originates within rectangular section and
thrust originates within rectangular section or on jet outlet (1)
2

(ii) new mass = 15100 × 0.47 = 7097 (kg) (1)


(F = mg = 7097 × 16(1)) = 11000 (= 11426 N) (1)
2

(c) (v2 = u2 + 2as v = correct u, a and s clearly


identified (1)
= 2.1 (= 2.122 m s–1) (1)
2
[10]

M21.(a) acceleration is (rate of) change of velocity


or velocity is a vector
or velocity has magnitude and direction
B1

velocity is changing since direction is changing


(must be clear that it is the velocity that is changing direction)
B1

allow 1 mark for ‘it would move in a straight line at constant speed if it were not
accelerating’
do not allow ‘because there is a force acting’
‘because direction is changing’
(2)

Page 38
(b) (i) arrow toward centre of circle at P
B1
(1)

(ii) F = mv / r or mrω
2 2

or numerical equivalent (r must be 200 m)


C1

5.4 × 10–16 N
A1
(2)

(iii) graph showing correct curvature with F plotted correctly (e.c.f. for F)
(should be between 5 × 10–14 and 6 × 10–16 N
B1

double v, quadruple F
(should be possible to do these tasks to ±½ a square)
B1
(2)

(c) (i) circumference = 1256 m or 2πr × 420 000


(allow e.c.f. for incorrect r from (b)(ii))
C1

distance travelled = 5.3 × 108 m


A1
(2)

(ii) s = ½ gt or ut + ½at
2 2

C1

19.6m (20m)
A1
(2)

(iii) mg = 1.7 (1.67) × 10 N –26

B1
(1)
[12]

Page 39
E1. This question was an easy starter that required the application of “change of
momentum = area under force/time graph”. This question discriminated well, and just over
two-thirds of the students gave the correct answer. The most popular incorrect response
was distractor D, no doubt because the students who chose it overlooked the factor of ½
when calculating a triangular area.

E6.Most candidates gained full marks in part (a). A few performed a calculation using t = s/v,
with 3.1 as the average speed. This gave a value for g twice the required size.
In part (b) correct answers should have included ‘weight is proportional to the mass and
W/m = g’, or ‘doubling the mass will double the weight and g will remain the same’ or
similar. Many said increasing m will increase W but this was not sufficient for the mark.

A large majority of candidates seemed to be familiar with the use of a light-gate to


measure velocity in part (c). Most said that air resistance would affect the ball more.
However, very few then went on to explain that the increased air resistance would reduce
the acceleration. Many said that air resistance ‘slows down’ the ball. They may be
thinking, incorrectly, that the ball slows down as it falls, or they may be indicating that the
ball is slower than it would be if there were no air resistance. Students therefore need to
be able to describe the motion of an object in an unambiguous manner, eg ‘when an
object falls, the acceleration decreases due to air resistance’.

Few candidates were able to explain that the full diameter of the ball was unlikely to pass
through the beam. This is a difficult idea to express. Candidates should be encouraged to
include a simple sketch to help illustrate a point if they are finding it difficult to put into
words. Some said that that there is more uncertainty in the measurement of the diameter
of the ball. However, this would depend on the measurement technique, so credit could
not be given.

E7. The deceleration and distance travelled by the supertanker were calculated correctly
in part (a) by a large number of candidates. The few errors that occurred were either the
unit for deceleration or an incorrect conversion of hours to seconds.
Parts (b) and (c) caused more problems and many less able candidates were unable to
sketch a correct graph, confusing distance-time with speed-time. The explanation of the
shape of the graph generated some quite vague answers with considerable confusion
over what the gradient of the graph represented.

E8. (a) (i) This part was usually correct but the unit caused more problems than it
should have done at this level.
(ii) Few candidates had problems with this part.
(b) Most were successful in this part. Those who failed usually gave (8902 + 2.42)1/2
(c) Again the majority of the candidates did this correctly. Those who failed usually
determined the wrong angle and gave 86.1° as the final answer.

Page 40
E10.Most candidates dealt with the simple calculation in part (a)(i) but many lost a mark by
simply forgetting to square the velocity.
Part (a)(ii) gave the average horizontal force with no indication that the force, and
therefore acceleration, was constant. Therefore, candidates who used suvat equations,
apart from s = ½(u+v)t, were awarded only 1 mark. Just under 20% of candidates got the
answer using a valid method, with most opting to equate the work done to the change in
kinetic energy.
Part (b) proved to be the most challenging question in the paper with barely one-sixth of
candidates gaining any marks at all. The majority of candidates failed to see that a sin
component of either displacement or velocity was required and instead used W=F.s(cosθ)
when dealing with the angle.

E11.Students started well on the basic introductory part of this question but then increasingly
got into difficulties in the later sections. Both parts of (a) were done well by most students.
The significant figures component scored less well than in previous series. Most quoted 3
significant figures as they were probably swayed by the velocity data being given to 3
significant figures. They did not appreciate that the answer is determined by the factor
with the least number of significant figures. In the Force calculation sometimes the mass
of the rider was left out.
(b) was a good discriminator. Many students didn’t help themselves by not distinguishing
between the three forces involved, that is, the driving force, air resistance and the
resultant force. A reference to a constant resultant force was made only by the better
students. The weaker students often did not stick to the question in hand and started to
explain how terminal velocity is normally reached.
In (c) marks were relatively low. Negligibly few students put two drive forces on the
diagram, one for each wheel and very few put even one driving force. Also some of the
students who knew what forces exist did not have them being applied anywhere specific.
Arrows were just randomly placed in the air but normally pointing in the correct direction.
The final part (d) produced a very polarised response. Either the calculation was done
easily or not much of an attempt at the question was shown.

E12.Part (a) was quite straightforward and the majority of candidates gained both marks,
although some marks were withheld due to candidates referring carelessly to time rather
than distance.
The columns of data in part (b) were usually completed correctly, but some candidates
lost marks as a result of using too many or too few significant figures. Again in part (c)
many candidates scored full marks but a significant minority were unable to choose
appropriate scales for their chosen graph. Others were unable to plot a suitable graph,
mostly as a result of plotting s against v or v against s rather than s / v against v.
Most of candidates who plotted a straight line graph knew how to determine the value of
tb in part (d). Some however failed to score this mark as a result of lack of care in plotting
the graph in the previous section. In part (ii) , most candidates were able to obtain a
correct value for the gradient of their straight line graph. In addition, these candidates
were able to relate the gradient to the acceleration and obtained a correct value for the
acceleration. On the other hand, many of the weaker candidates had plotted an unsuitable
graph (e.g. s vs v) and were unable to make progress with the calculations. They were
clearly unaware of the necessity of choosing variables that would produce a straight line
graph.

Page 41
E13.The equations of motion were generally understood well by most students. Problems
started to emerge when it came to the graphical work in the question. The calculation in
part (b)(i) was performed well but some weaker students lost marks by choosing to use
the valid idea that the gain in kinetic energy is equal to the loss of potential energy but
then forgot to note that the initial kinetic energy is not equal to zero. Others lost marks
when they rounded v = 3.87 m s−1 to 3.8 m s−1.
A majority of students found sketching the graph in (b)(ii) quite difficult. Even the top grade
students were only confident about the first straight line drawn from X down to a time tA.
Further along the graph was drawn with random variations by most and the better
students were not very careful to make the second line parallel to the first.
In (c) a majority could tackle the question in full. The weaker students did not know how to
separate the vertical and horizontal components and connect them through the time of
flight. Some students who did manage the first part of the calculation did not appreciate
that the horizontal velocity was constant and took its initial value to be zero.

E14. This question also proved difficult for a number of candidates. The calculation in part
(a) was generally done well by the better candidates. Weaker candidates tended to be
confused by the idea of vector components and it was not unusual to find the inclusion of
the horizontal component of velocity in the calculation of the vertical component of
velocity.
Explaining the motion of the parachutist in part (b) was not done well. Candidates in the
main did not appreciate that there was a resultant force upwards giving a decrease in
velocity. The explanation of terminal velocity has been assessed in previous papers and
answers showed that candidates are getting more confident in their explanations. They
are, however, still inclined to give expressions such as “the force of air resistance equals
the terminal velocity” or “the acceleration due to gravity equals air resistance”.

E15.In part (a) most candidates were able to interpret the graph correctly and almost all
understood why the parachutist reached constant terminal speed in region C of the graph.
Although many also understood and stated that the acceleration in region A was constant,
few stated that this was because the drag on the parachutist was negligible or much
smaller than his weight. Answers were generally well expressed and a mark of four or five
was most common. A minority of candidates, however, was quite incapable of using
physics terms accurately and subsequently scored few marks.
Many candidates understood that the acceleration in part (b) equalled the gradient of the
line in region D of the graph and arrived at a correct answer (although the unit of
acceleration was often given as −1). Candidates who used a = (ʋ − u) / t very often chose
points off the straight section of the graph and arrived at α value for a outside the
acceptable range.
In part (c) many candidates ignored the graph and attempted to use an equation of
uniform acceleration to find the distance travelled. The majority, however, made some
attempt to relate distance to the area under the graph and most of these answers fell
within the acceptable range.
Part (d) was most often correct, although in part (ii) many candidates inverted the tan
function and found the angle to the horizontal rather than the vertical.

E16. The question, as a whole, proved to be a good discriminator. The various


calculations in part (a) were quite demanding for a significant proportion of the candidates
and unit errors were quite common for all the quantities involved, including those for the

Page 42
more straightforward quantities such as acceleration and speed.
Candidates were asked to sketch two graphs in part (b). This proved to be quite a difficult
exercise with the non-linear, distance vs. time, graph being the most difficult to draw
correctly.
Part (c) produced the same problems that questions of this type have produced in
previous papers. Many candidates insisted on using Newton’s third law incorrectly and
consequently getting into real trouble. Statements such as “the air resistance is the
reaction to the driving force action” were common and were awarded zero marks.

E17.(a) Candidates were generally very successful on these questions.


(b) Candidates were generally very successful on these questions.
(c) Most candidates were successful. However, a few used t = s / v = 54 / 33 instead of
a kinematics equation.
(d) As with previous papers, candidates lacked the depth of knowledge necessary to
describe energy transfers. Perhaps some teachers assume candidates already
know this from GCSE. More practice on this type of question is necessary. Too few
candidates are able to make the link between potential and kinetic energy.

E18. Part (a) (i) was straightforward and was answered very well.
Again, part (a) (ii) proved to be a particularly accessible question and candidates
performed well.
In part (a) (iii), most grasped the concept that energy was wasted but less able candidates
did not realise that the cyclist did work, believing it to be a simple transfer of potential
energy to kinetic energy. Many candidates perhaps did not realise that marks could be
gained by performing the relevant calculation.
In part (b) (i), a surprising number of candidates used time = distance/speed = 160/16 =
10 s. They did not appreciate that the situation involved uniform deceleration and
therefore a kinematics equation should be used.
Part (b) (ii) was generally done well, with most calculating the acceleration and then using
F = ma. It was possible to gain full marks even with the use of an incorrect answer from
the previous question.

E19. In part (a), candidates did not have to have encountered Galileo’s method for
investigating freefall to be successful. Many showed awareness that either air resistance
would not be a significant factor or that timing would be easier due to the lesser speeds
when using an inclined plane.
Considerably less than half candidates were able to resolve to find the component of the
weight acting down the slope in part (b) (i). Some used just the mass rather than mg and
this response gained zero marks.
Part (b) (ii) was a straight forward use of a = F/m and the majority of candidates gained full
marks.
In part (c), many candidates thought the trolley was accelerating at an increasing rate
because of the upward curve. Some did not use the term ‘acceleration’ in their answer
and some thought that the rate of acceleration was decreasing because the curve was
getting straighter. The data plotted on the graph does not support the view that the
acceleration decreases. The distance between each pendulum swing increases in such a
way to support uniform acceleration.

Page 43
A very large majority of candidates did not recall that the gradient of a distance time graph
gives the speed in part (d). Most of these calculated the average speed using v = s/t with s
= 3.0 and t = 3.15 × 1.4 rather than the instantaneous speed at 3.0 m.

E20. Part (a) (i) provided a very easy two marks for most candidates. Just a few were
unsure about the meaning of ‘kN’.
Part (a) (iii) was generally done very well, with many candidates picking up full marks
even if they got the acceleration wrong in the previous question. There was a significant
number of students who believed that t = v/a = 150/1.99.
Few candidates gained two marks in part (b) (i). Force arrows should originate from the
point where the force acts. The candidate is expected to assume the centre of mass of the
LM is roughly central and within the central section of the LM. It is sensible to assume that
the thrust will originate either on the outlet or within the central section. For candidates
who chose to offset the arrows (by no more than 2 mm) it was assumed that this was to
show the examiner where the forces originated. It was sometimes not possible to
determine where the candidate’s arrows began. In this case, the candidate was not
penalised.

Quite a few candidates could not correctly label the arrows, using terms like ‘upthrust’.
Many did not label fully, eg ‘F’ where ‘thrust’ or ‘force from rocket’ would have been better.
Some added arrows for velocity and acceleration (especially ‘acceleration due to gravity’
instead of weight). Additional arrows were penalised, as some candidates seemed to
believe acceleration is a force.
In part (b) (ii), many candidates did not realise that they had to find 47% of 15100 and
almost half found 53% instead; they could only score one mark. A significant number
forgot to reduce 15100 altogether.
The majority of candidates selected v2 = u2 + 2as and correctly substituted and calculated
in part (c). A few did not realise they had to use 1.61 rather than 9.81 for the acceleration
due to gravity on the Moon. Some students were unfamiliar with problems where there is
an initial velocity and they assumed this to be zero.

E21.(a) A number of candidates referred to the fact that there was a force and therefore
acceleration but ignored the reference to uniform speed. Candidates were expected
to refer to change in direction resulting in a change in velocity, owing to its vector
nature, and to state the link between change in velocity and acceleration.

(b) (i) Most candidates completed this successfully.


(ii) The majority of candidates did this part correctly but some used the given
diameter as the radius. Many who started with mrω2 had difficulty determining
ω.

(iii) Many candidates drew careful graphs, plotting the data from (ii) correctly and
using a scale that covered the whole range. The quadrupling of force for a
doubling of the velocity was also very clear in the best graphs. There were,
however, many candidates whose skills in graphical communication left much
to be desired. There were many instances where, for example, the value from
(ii), 5.4 × 10–16 N, was plotted on the 20 mm grid line. These candidates rarely
showed other values correctly.

(c) (i) Most candidates were able to complete this successfully but there were a

Page 44
significant number who used πr2 as the circumference.

(ii) Most appreciated the need to use s = ut + ½ at2 and the majority obtained the
correct answer. There were a significant proportion of candidates who did not
distinguish between horizontal and vertical motion and used 8 × 106 m s–1 for u.
This led to a silly answer for distance fallen in 2 s that usually passed without
comment.

(iii) Most completed this part successfully. Some candidates simply stated
‘gravitation’ instead of a value. A few gave 9.8 N as the answer.

Page 45