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You are on page 1of 45

Q1.The graph shows how the force acting on a body changes with time.

The body has a mass of 0.25 kg and is initially at rest. What is the speed of the body after

40 s assuming no other forces are acting?

A 200 ms–1

B 400 ms–1

C 800 ms–1

D 1600 ms–1

(Total 1 mark)

Q2.An object is dropped from a cliff. How far does the object fall in the third second?

Assume that g = 10 m s–2.

A 10 m

B 20 m

C 25 m

D 45 m

(Total 1 mark)

Page 1

Q3.The velocity of a vehicle varies with time as shown by the following graph.

Which graph below represents how the resultant force F on the car varies during the

same time?

A B

C D

D

(Total 1 mark)

Page 2

Q4.A car accelerates uniformly from rest along a straight road. Which graph shows the variation

of displacement x of the car with time t?

A B C D

(Total 1 mark)

Q5.A lunar landing module is descending to the Moon’s surface at a steady velocity of 10.0 m

s–1. At a height of 120 m a small object falls from its landing gear. Assuming that the

Moon’s gravitational acceleration is 1.60 m s–2, at what speed, in m s–1 does the object

strike the Moon?

A 22.0

B 19.6

C 16.8

D 10.0

(Total 1 mark)

Q6.A student measures the acceleration due to gravity, g, using the apparatus shown in the

figure below. A plastic card of known length is released from rest at a height of 0.50m

above a light gate. A computer calculates the velocity of the card at this point, using the

time for the card to pass through the light gate.

Page 3

(a) The computer calculated a value of 3.10 m s–1 for the velocity of the card as it

travelled through the light gate. Calculate a value for the acceleration due to gravity,

g, from these data.

(2)

(b) The student doubles the mass of the card and finds a value for g that is similar to

the original value. Use the relationship between weight, mass and g to explain this

result.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

(1)

(c) State and explain one reason why the card would give more reliable results than a

table tennis ball for this experiment.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

(2)

(Total 5 marks)

Page 4

Q7. A supertanker of mass 4.0 × 108 kg, cruising at an initial speed of 4.5 m s–1, takes one

hour to come to rest.

(a) Assuming that the force slowing the tanker down is constant, calculate

(i) the deceleration of the tanker,

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

(4)

(b) Sketch, using the axes below, a distance-time graph representing the motion of the

tanker until it stops.

(2)

(c) Explain the shape of the graph you have sketched in part (b).

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

(2)

(Total 8 marks)

Page 5

Q8. The diagram below shows a spacecraft that initially moves at a constant

velocity of 890 m s–1 towards A.

To change course, a sideways force is produced by firing thrusters. This increases the

velocity towards B from 0 to 60 m s–1 in 25 s.

(a) The spacecraft has a mass of 5.5 × 104 kg. Calculate:

(i) the acceleration of the spacecraft towards B;

Acceleration ......................................................

(1)

(2)

(2)

(c) Calculate the angle between the initial and final directions of travel.

Angle ......................................................

(1)

(Total 6 marks)

Page 6

Q9. Figure 1 shows the speed-time graph for a swimmer performing one complete cycle

of the breast stroke.

Figure 1

Figure 2

acceleration ...................................

(ii) Sketch, on the axes in Figure 2, a graph to show how the acceleration of the

swimmer varies with time for the same time interval. You are not required to

make any further calculations but your graph should show relative values.

(4)

(b) Use the graph in Figure 1 to estimate the distance travelled by the swimmer in one

complete cycle of the stroke. Show your working clearly.

distance travelled .............................. m

(4)

(Total 8 marks)

Page 7

Q10.(a) A parcel of mass 15 kg drops from a delivery chute onto a conveyor belt as shown in

Figure 1.

The belt is moving at a steady speed of 1.7 m s−1.

The parcel lands on the moving belt with negligible speed and initially starts to slip. It

takes 0.82 s for the parcel to gain enough speed to stop slipping and move at the

same speed as the conveyor belt.

Figure 1

(i) Calculate the change in kinetic energy of the parcel during the first 0.82 s.

(2)

(ii) The average horizontal force acting on the parcel during the first 0.82 s is 31

N.

Calculate the horizontal distance between the parcel and the end of the

delivery chute 0.82 s after the parcel lands on the conveyor belt. Assume that

the parcel does not reach the end of the conveyor belt.

(2)

Page 8

(b) At a later stage the parcel is being raised by another conveyor belt as shown in

Figure 2.

Figure 2

This conveyor belt is angled at 18° to the horizontal and the parcel moves at a

steady speed of 1.7 m s−1 without slipping.

Calculate the rate at which work is done on the parcel.

(3)

(Total 7 marks)

Page 9

(a) The vehicle accelerates horizontally from rest to 27.8 m s–1 in a time of 4.6 s. The

mass of the vehicle is 360 kg and the rider has a mass of 82 kg.

(i) Calculate the average acceleration during the 4.6 s time interval.

Give your answer to an appropriate number of significant figures.

(2)

(ii) Calculate the average horizontal resultant force on the vehicle while it is

accelerating.

(2)

(b) State and explain how the horizontal forward force on the vehicle has to change for

constant acceleration to be maintained from 0 to 27.8 m s–1.

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

(3)

Add labelled force arrows to the diagram to show the horizontal forces acting on the

vehicle when it is moving at a constant speed.

(2)

Page 10

(d) The vehicle now accelerates to a constant speed of 55 m s–1. The useful power

output of the motors is 22 kW at this speed.

Calculate the horizontal resistive force acting on the vehicle.

(2)

(Total 11 marks)

Q12.The driver of a car sees an obstruction ahead and applies the brakes at time tb later,

bringing the car to a halt. The graph shows how the speed of the car varies with time.

The stopping distance, s, of the car which was travelling at speed v before the driver

applied the brakes, can be represented by the equation

,

where α is the magnitude of the deceleration of the car (assumed constant).

vt>b

.................................................................................................................

(2)

Page 11

(b) The table includes data on stopping distances of cars. Column C gives the total

stopping distance for a car travelling at each of the speeds shown in column A.

/sec

32 8.9 12

48 23

64 36

80 53

96 73

112 96

(2)

From the data you have calculated, plot a suitable graph to verify this equation.

(One sheet of graph paper should be provided)

(5)

(i) tb ...........................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

(4)

(Total 13 marks)

Page 12

Q13.(a) Indicate with ticks (✓) in the table below which of the quantities are vectors and which

are scalars.

vector

scalar

(2)

(b) A tennis ball is thrown vertically downwards and bounces on the ground. The ball

leaves the hand with an initial speed of 1.5 m s–1 at a height of 0.65 m above the

ground. The ball rebounds and is caught when travelling upwards with a speed of

1.0 m s–1.

Assume that air resistance is negligible.

(i) Show that the speed of the ball is about 4 m s–1 just before it strikes the

ground.

(3)

(ii) The ball is released at time t = 0. It hits the ground at time tA and is caught at

time tB. On the graph, sketch a velocity−time graph for the vertical motion of

the tennis ball from when it leaves the hand to when it returns. The initial

velocity X and final velocity Y are marked.

(3)

Page 13

(c) In a game of tennis, a ball is hit horizontally at a height of 1.2 m and travels a

horizontal distance of 5.0 m before reaching the ground. The ball is at rest when hit.

Calculate the initial horizontal velocity given to the ball when it was hit.

(3)

(Total 11 marks)

Q14. (a) A man jumps from a plane that is travelling horizontally at a speed of 70 m s–1.

If air resistance can be ignored, determine

(i) his horizontal velocity 2.0 s after jumping,

.............................................................................................................

(ii) his vertical velocity 2.0 s after jumping,

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

(iii) the magnitude and direction of his resultant velocity 2.0 s after jumping.

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

(5)

(b) After 2.0 s the man opens his parachute. Air resistance is no longer negligible.

Explain in terms of Newton’s laws of motion, why

(i) his velocity initially decreases,

.............................................................................................................

Page 14

(ii) a terminal velocity is reached.

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

(4)

(Total 9 marks)

Q15.The graph shows how the vertical speed of a parachutist changes with time during the first

20 s of his jump. To avoid air turbulence caused by the aircraft, he waits a short time after

jumping before pulling the cord to release his parachute.

(a) Regions A, B and C of the graph show the speed before the parachute has opened.

With reference to the forces acting on the parachutist, explain why the graph has

this shape in the region marked

(i) A, ...........................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

(ii) B, ...........................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

Page 15

(iii) C, ...........................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

(6)

(b) Calculate the maximum deceleration of the parachutist in the region of the graph

marked D, which shows how the speed changes just after the parachute has

opened. Show your method clearly,

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

(2)

(c) Use the graph to find the total vertical distance fallen by the parachutist in the first

10 s of the jump. Show your method clearly.

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

(4)

(d) During his descent, the parachutist drifts sideways in the wind and hits the ground

with a vertical speed of 5.0 m s–1 and a horizontal speed of 3.0 m s–1. Find

(i) the resultant speed with which he hits the ground,

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

(ii) the angle his resultant velocity makes with the vertical.

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

(2)

(Total 14 marks)

Page 16

Q16. A constant resultant horizontal force of 1.8 × 103 N acts on a car of mass 900 kg,

initially at rest on a level road.

(a) Calculate

(i) the acceleration of the car,

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

(iv) the distance travelled by the car in the first 8.0 s of its motion,

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

(v) the work done by the resultant horizontal force during the first 8.0 s.

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

(9)

(b) On the axes below sketch the graphs for speed, v, and distance travelled, s, against

time, t, for the first 8.0 s of the car’s motion.

(2)

Page 17

(c) In practice the resultant force on the car changes with time. Air resistance is one

factor that affects the resultant force acting on the vehicle.

You may be awarded marks for the quality of written communication in your answer.

(i) Suggest, with a reason, how the resultant force on the car changes as its speed

increases.

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

(ii) Explain, using Newton’s laws of motion, why the vehicle has a maximum speed.

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

(5)

(Total 16 marks)

(a) Calculate the loss in gravitational potential energy (gpe) of a diver of mass 65 kg

falling through 54 m.

(2)

(b) Calculate the vertical velocity of the diver the instant before he enters the water.

Ignore the effects of air resistance.

(2)

(c) Calculate the time taken for the diver to fall 54 m. Ignore the effects of air

resistance.

time = ................................... s

(2)

Page 18

(d) Explain, with reference to energy, why the velocity of the diver is independent of his

mass if air resistance is insignificant.

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

(3)

(Total 9 marks)

Q18. A cyclist pedals downhill on a road, as shown in the diagram below, from rest at the

top of the hill and reaches a horizontal section of the road at a speed of 16 m s–1. The total

mass of the cyclist and the cycle is 68 kg.

(a) (i) Calculate the total kinetic energy of the cyclist and the cycle on reaching the

horizontal section of the road.

answer ............................ J

(2)

(ii) The height difference between the top of the hill and the horizontal section of

road is 12 m.

Calculate the loss of gravitational potential energy of the cyclist and the cycle.

answer ........................... J

(2)

Page 19

(iii) The work done by the cyclist when pedalling downhill is 2400 J. Account for

the difference between the loss of gravitational potential energy and the gain

of kinetic energy of the cyclist and the cycle.

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................

(3)

(b) The cyclist stops pedalling on reaching the horizontal section of the road and slows

to a standstill 160 m further along this section of the road. Assume the deceleration

is uniform.

(i) Calculate the time taken by the cyclist to travel this distance.

answer................................. s

(3)

(ii) Calculate the average horizontal force on the cyclist and the cycle during this

time.

answer ........................... N

(3)

(Total 13 marks)

Q19. Galileo used an inclined plane, similar to the one shown in the figure below, to

investigate the motion of falling objects.

(a) Explain why using an inclined plane rather than free fall would produce data which

is valid when investigating the motion of a falling object.

......................................................................................................................

Page 20

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

(2)

was used to time a trolley after it was released from rest. A block was positioned to

mark the distance that the trolley had travelled after a chosen whole number of

swings.

See the figure below.

The mass of the trolley in the figure above is 0.20 kg and the slope is at an angle of

1·8º to the horizontal.

(i) Show that the component of the weight acting along the slope is about 0.06 N.

(2)

(2)

(c) In this experiment, the following data was obtained. A graph of the data is shown

below it.

Page 21

time / pendulum swings distance travelled /m

1 0.29

2 1.22

3 2.70

4 4.85

From the graph above, state what you would conclude about the motion of the

trolley? Give a reason for your answer.

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

(2)

(d) Each complete pendulum swing had a period of 1.4 s. Use the graph above to find

the speed of the trolley after it had travelled 3.0 m.

(3)

(Total 11 marks)

Page 22

Q20. In the 1969 Moon landing, the Lunar Module separated from the Command Module

above the surface of the Moon when it was travelling at a horizontal speed of 2040 m ss–1.

In order to descend to the Moon’s surface the Lunar Module needed to reduce its speed

using its rocket as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1

(a) (i) The average thrust from the rocket was 30 kN and the mass of the Lunar

Module was 15100 kg. Calculate the horizontal deceleration of the Lunar

Module.

(2)

(ii) Calculate the time for the Lunar Module to slow to the required horizontal

velocity of 150 m s–1. Assume the mass remained constant.

answer = ................................... s

(2)

(b) The rocket was then used to control the velocity of descent so that the Lunar

Module descended vertically with a constant velocity as shown in Figure 2. Due to

the use of fuel during the previous deceleration, the mass of the Lunar Module had

fallen by 53%.

Figure 2

Page 23

acceleration due to gravity near the Moon’s surface = 1.61 m s–2

(i) Draw force vectors on Figure 2 to show the forces acting on the Lunar

Module at this time. Label the vectors.

(2)

(ii) Calculate the thrust force needed to maintain a constant vertical downwards

velocity.

answer = .................................. N

(2)

(c) When the Lunar Module was 1.2 m from the lunar surface, the rocket was switched

off.

At this point the vertical velocity was 0.80 m s–1. Calculate the vertical velocity at

which the Lunar Module reached the lunar surface.

(2)

(Total 10 marks)

Q21.(a) Explain why a particle is accelerating even when it is moving with a uniform speed in

a circular path.

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

(2)

(b) Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of a proton synchrotron. This is a device for

accelerating protons to high speeds in a horizontal circular path.

Page 24

Figure 1

In the synchrotron the protons of mass 1.7 × 10–27 kg are injected at point A at a

speed of 8.0 × 106 m s–1. The diameter of the path taken by the protons is 400 m.

(i) Show on Figure 1 the direction of the force required to make a proton move in

the circular path when the proton is at the position marked P.

(1)

(ii) Calculate the force that has to be provided to produce the circular path when

the speed of a proton is 8.0 × 106 m s–1.

(2)

(iii) Sketch on Figure 2 a graph to show how this force will have to change as the

speed of the proton increases over the range shown on the x-axis. Insert an

appropriate scale on the force axis.

Figure 2

Page 25

(c) Before reaching their final energy the protons in the synchrotron in part (b) travel

around the accelerator 420 000 times in 2.0 s.

acceleration of free fall, g = 9.8 m s–2

(i) Calculate the total distance travelled by a proton in the 2.0 s time interval.

(2)

(ii) Unless a vertical force is applied the protons wold fall as they move through

the horizontal channel.

Calculate the distance a proton would fall in two seconds.

(2)

(1)

(Total 12 marks)

M1. C

[1]

M2.C

[1]

M3.C

[1]

M4.B

[1]

M5.A

[1]

Page 26

M6.(a) correct substitution in (v2 = u2 + 2as)

or correct rearrangement g = or

= 9.6 (9.61 m s–1) 2

to mass/doubling the mass doubles the weight/’masses

cancel’/the factor of two cancels (so g remains the same)

1

acceleration will be unaffected/nearly constant

air resistance affects cards less or card is more streamlined

or card does less work against air resistance

alternative timing/(velocity/speed/acceleration)

uncertain/(inaccurate /imprecise/less reliable)

indication that full width of ball may not pass through

gate/difficulty in determining ‘length’ of ball passing through

gate

2

[5]

=1.25 × 10–3 ms–2 (1)

(1)

4

correct curve (1)

hence graph has decreasing gradient (1)

2

[8]

Page 27

M8. (a) (i) 2.4 m s–2

B1

1

(ii) F = ma

C1

132 000 N (ecf from (i))

A1

2

C1

892 m s–1 (cao) (allow 890 m s–1 as final answer but

892 must be seen in working)

A1

2

or cos–1(890/892) = 3.8 (4)°

or sin–1 60/890 =3.9° (3.86)° if ecf from (b)

B1

1

[6]

answer in acceptable range (to be decided) (1)

(ii) zero at 0, 0.2 0.58, 0.8 and 1 s (approx) (1)

reasonable attempt to show relative magnitudes (1)

4

appropriate counting of squares (1)

distance per square (1)

correct answer in acceptable range (1)

4

[8]

Page 28

Exampro 3: straight-line motion – Answers (cont.)

C1

21.7 (J)

A1

2

(ii) Use of W = Fs

Allow 1 mark for use of suvat or F=ma

C1

0.70 (m)

A1

2

C1

Correct sub for h (1.7 sin 18°)

C1

77.3 (W)

OR

Use of P=Fv

Correct sub for F (mg sin 18°) or v (1.7 sin 18°)

77.3 (W)

A1

3

[7]

M11.(a) (i) ( a =(v-u) / t )

= 27.8 (−0) / 4.6 = 6.04 ✓

= 6.0 (ms−1) ✓

no need to see working for the mark

2 sig fig mark stands alone

2

(ii) ( F = ma )

= (360 + 82) × 6.0(4) ✓ (allow CE from (i))

= 2700 (N) ✓ (2670 N or 2652 N)

F = 442 × (i)

1 mark may be gained if mass of rider is ignored giving

answer 2200N from 2175N

2

Page 29

(b) (forward force would have to) increase ✓

air resistance / drag increases (with speed) ✓

driving / forward force must be greater than resistive / drag force ✓

no mark for wind resistance

(so that) resultant / net force stayed the same / otherwise the resultant / net

force would decrease ✓

4max3

(c) horizontal force arrows on both wheels towards the right starting where tyre

meets road or on the axle labelled driving force or equivalent ✓

ignore the actual lengths of any arrows

ignore any arrows simply labelled ‘friction’

a horizontal arrow to the left starting anywhere on the vehicle labelled drag /

air resistance

no mark for wind resistance, resistance or friction force

the base of an arrow is where the force is applied

2

(d) (F=P/v)

= 22 000 / 55 ✓ Condone 22 / 55 for this mark

= 400 ✓ (N)

2

[11]

M12.(a) vtb: distance moved (at speed v) before brakes are applied

[or thinking / reaction distance] (1)

2

(all values correct to 2 or 3 sig. figs ± 0.2) (1)

(ii) column D: 1.3(5) 1.72 2.02 2.39 2.73 3.08

(all values correct to 2 or 3 sig figs ± 0.1) (1)

2

axes labelled correctly (1) (column D vs column B or A)

appropriate scales (1)

Page 30

at least four points plotted correctly to 1 square (1)

acceptable straight line (1)

[note: if chosen graph gives a curve (e.g. s against v) then candidate

can only score 2nd, 3rd and 4th marks]

5

(d) (i) (intercept) tb = 0.66 s (1) (values in range 0.6 to 0.7 accepted)

(ii) gradient = (any triangle e.g. (3 - 1) / (30 - 4.5)) = 7.8 × 10-2 (s2m-1) (1)

[ other answers, if consistent with graph, acceptable]

gradient = (1 / 2a) (1)

gives a = 6.4 m s-2 (1) (values in range 6.1 to 6.7 accepted)

(allow C.E. for value of gradient)

[if column D vs column A used, gradient = 0.022

use of conversion factor gives gradient = 0.078 (s2m-1)]

= 2a for first two marks]

4

[13]

Distance and displacement correct ✓

vector ✓ ✓

scalar ✓ ✓

2

v= ✓ v = ✓

= (−)3.9 (m s−1) ✓two or more sig fig needed (− 3.87337 m s−1)

1st mark for equation rearranged to make v the subject (note

sq’ root may be implied by a later calculation) penalise the

use of g = 10 m s2 only on this question

2nd mark for substituting numbers into any valid equation

3rd mark for answer

Alt’ approach is gainKE = lossPE

missing out u gives zero marks

answer only gains one mark [Note it is possible to achieve

the correct answer by a wrong calculation]

Page 31

3

sooner ✓

(allow line to curve)

first line is straight and descends from X to v = −4 (m s−1) ✓(allow

tolerance one division)

second line has same gradient as the first, straight and descends to v =

1(m s−1) ✓(tolerance ½ division)

a steep line may join the two straight lines but its width must be less than

2 divisions

3

(c) s = ut + 1 / 2at2

working must be shown for the first mark but not the

subsequent marks

v=s/t

= 5.0 / 0.49 = 10 (m s−1) ✓ (10.2 m s−1) (allow CE from their time)

[note it is possible to achieve the correct answer by a wrong calculation]

3

[11]

(ii) v = 9.81 × 2.0 (1)

= 20 m s–1 (1) (19.6 m s–1)

Page 32

(iii) v = √(702 + 19.622) = 73 m s–1 (1)

θ = 15.6° (1) (± 0. 1°) (to horizontal) (1)

(allow C.E. for values of v from (i) and (ii))

[or use of correct scale drawing]

5

(hence) resultant force is upwards (1)

hence deceleration (Newton's second law) (1)

(ii) air resistance decreases as speed decreases (1)

weight equals air resistance (hence constant speed)

(hence) resultant force is zero (Newton's first law) (1)

max 4

QWC 2

[9]

M15.(a) (i) region A: uniform acceleration

(or (free-fall) acceleration = g (= 9.8(i) m s–2))

force acting on parachutist is entirely his weight

(or other forces are very small) (1)

acceleration is decreasing (2) (any two)

because frictional (drag) forces become significant (at higher speeds)

because resultant force on parachutist is zero (2) (any two)

weight balanced exactly by resistive force upwards

The Quality of Written Communication marks were awarded primarily for

the quality of answers to this part

(6)

(e.g. 20/1 or 40/2) = 20 m s–2 (1)

(2)

Page 33

(c) distance = area under graph (1)

suitable method used to determine area (e.g. counting squares) (1)

with a suitable scaling factor (e.g. area of each square = 5 m2) (1)

distance = 335 m (±15 m) (1)

(4)

(2)

[14]

a = 2.0 m s–2 (1)

(ii) (use of v = u + at gives) v = 2.0 × 8.0 = 16 m s–1 (1)

(allow C.E. for a from (i))

(iii) (use of p = mv gives) p = 900 × 16

= 14 × 103 kg m s–1 (or N s) (1) (14.4 × 103 kg m s–1)

(allow C.E. for v from(ii))

= 64 m (1)

(allow C.E. for a from (i))

= 1.2 × 105 J (1) (1.15 × 105 J)

(allow C.E. for s from (iv))

[or Ek = ½mv2 = ½ × 900 × 162 (1)

= 1.2 × 105 J (1)

(allow C.E. for v from (ii))]

9

(b)

air resistance increases (with speed) (1)

(ii) eventually two forces are equal (in magnitude) (1)

Page 34

resultant force is zero (1)

hence constant/terminal velocity (zero acceleration)

in accordance with Newton’s first law (1)

correct statement and application of Newton’s first

or second law (1)

max 5

QWC 2

[16]

= 65 × 9.81 × 54

= 3.44 × 104 = 3.4 × 104 (J) (34433)

max 1 if g =10 used (35100 J)

Correct answer gains both marks

2

(b)

allow 32 (32.3) for the use of 34000

allow 32.6

OR correct use of v2 = 2 g s

don’t penalise g = 10 (32.863)

2

equations, expect range 3.2 to 3.4 s.

No penalty for using g= 10 here.

ecf from 1(b) if speed used

2

no (GP)E transferred to 'heat' / 'thermal' / internal energy

OR

Must imply that all GPE is transferred to KE. E.g. accept

‘loss of GPE is gain in KE’ but not: ‘loses GPE and gains

KE’.

(therefore)

mass cancels.

Accept ‘m’s crossed out

3

[9]

Page 35

M18. (a) (i) (EK = ½ mv2 =) 0.5 × 68 × 162 (1) = 8700 or 8704(J) (1)

(ii) (ΔEP = mgΔh =) 68 × 9.8(1) × 12 (1) = 8000 or 8005 (J) (1)

gain of kinetic energy > loss of potential energy (1)

(because) cyclist does work (1)

energy is wasted (on the cyclist and cycle) due to air resistance

or friction or transferred to thermal/heat (1)

KE = GPE + W – energy ‘loss’ (1) (owtte)

energy wasted (= 8000 + 2400 - 8700) = 1700(J) (1)

7

resultant force F = ma = 68 × (–) 0.80 (1) = (–) 54 (N) (1) or 54.4

or (work done by horizontal force = loss of kinetic energy

work done = force × distance gives)

force =

ecf (a) (i) (1) = 54 (N) (1)

6

[13]

freefall is too quick (any indication of slower motion) (1)

(Galileo had) no (accurate) method to time freefall (or valid

comment regarding timing of freefall or inclined plane) (1)

correct reference to air resistance or drag (not ‘wind’) (1)

max 2

(1.962 sin 1.8 =) 0.0616 or 0.062 seen (1) (allow 0.061)

(0.0628 for use of g = 10 gets 1 mark)

2

Page 36

(ii) 0.06(16)/0.20

or use of a = F/m with a clearly identified force but not the weight

or g sinθ = g sin 1.8° (1)

0.31 (m s–2) (1) (0.308)

accept 0.3 or 0.30 correct answer only for second mark

or (a = 2s/t2)

= 2 × 0.29/1.42 (1) = 0.31 (1) or use of other values from table

2

(c) accelerating (1) (accept increasing speed, etc but not increasing

acceleration/quicker motion, etc)

greater distance for each additional swing (‘per unit time’ must be implied)

or gradient/ steepness/ slope increasing (1) (accept curves upwards)

2

tangent drawn at 3.0 m ± 0.3 on graph (1)

their time from graph × 1.4 (1)

= 1.28 to 1.44 (m s–1) (1)

or suvat used:

(t =) 4.4 to 4.5 (s) (1)

(speed =) 1.3 to 1.4 (m s–1) (1)

3

[11]

2

2

Page 37

(b) (i)

weight/mg/gravity/W and thrust/reaction/R/F/TF/engine

force/rocket force/motor force/motive force/driving force (1)

correctly labelled

+ arrows vertical

+ not more than 2 mm apart

+ roughly central

+ weight arrow originates within rectangular section and

thrust originates within rectangular section or on jet outlet (1)

2

(F = mg = 7097 × 16(1)) = 11000 (= 11426 N) (1)

2

identified (1)

= 2.1 (= 2.122 m s–1) (1)

2

[10]

or velocity is a vector

or velocity has magnitude and direction

B1

(must be clear that it is the velocity that is changing direction)

B1

allow 1 mark for ‘it would move in a straight line at constant speed if it were not

accelerating’

do not allow ‘because there is a force acting’

‘because direction is changing’

(2)

Page 38

(b) (i) arrow toward centre of circle at P

B1

(1)

(ii) F = mv / r or mrω

2 2

C1

5.4 × 10–16 N

A1

(2)

(iii) graph showing correct curvature with F plotted correctly (e.c.f. for F)

(should be between 5 × 10–14 and 6 × 10–16 N

B1

double v, quadruple F

(should be possible to do these tasks to ±½ a square)

B1

(2)

(allow e.c.f. for incorrect r from (b)(ii))

C1

A1

(2)

(ii) s = ½ gt or ut + ½at

2 2

C1

19.6m (20m)

A1

(2)

B1

(1)

[12]

Page 39

E1. This question was an easy starter that required the application of “change of

momentum = area under force/time graph”. This question discriminated well, and just over

two-thirds of the students gave the correct answer. The most popular incorrect response

was distractor D, no doubt because the students who chose it overlooked the factor of ½

when calculating a triangular area.

E6.Most candidates gained full marks in part (a). A few performed a calculation using t = s/v,

with 3.1 as the average speed. This gave a value for g twice the required size.

In part (b) correct answers should have included ‘weight is proportional to the mass and

W/m = g’, or ‘doubling the mass will double the weight and g will remain the same’ or

similar. Many said increasing m will increase W but this was not sufficient for the mark.

measure velocity in part (c). Most said that air resistance would affect the ball more.

However, very few then went on to explain that the increased air resistance would reduce

the acceleration. Many said that air resistance ‘slows down’ the ball. They may be

thinking, incorrectly, that the ball slows down as it falls, or they may be indicating that the

ball is slower than it would be if there were no air resistance. Students therefore need to

be able to describe the motion of an object in an unambiguous manner, eg ‘when an

object falls, the acceleration decreases due to air resistance’.

Few candidates were able to explain that the full diameter of the ball was unlikely to pass

through the beam. This is a difficult idea to express. Candidates should be encouraged to

include a simple sketch to help illustrate a point if they are finding it difficult to put into

words. Some said that that there is more uncertainty in the measurement of the diameter

of the ball. However, this would depend on the measurement technique, so credit could

not be given.

E7. The deceleration and distance travelled by the supertanker were calculated correctly

in part (a) by a large number of candidates. The few errors that occurred were either the

unit for deceleration or an incorrect conversion of hours to seconds.

Parts (b) and (c) caused more problems and many less able candidates were unable to

sketch a correct graph, confusing distance-time with speed-time. The explanation of the

shape of the graph generated some quite vague answers with considerable confusion

over what the gradient of the graph represented.

E8. (a) (i) This part was usually correct but the unit caused more problems than it

should have done at this level.

(ii) Few candidates had problems with this part.

(b) Most were successful in this part. Those who failed usually gave (8902 + 2.42)1/2

(c) Again the majority of the candidates did this correctly. Those who failed usually

determined the wrong angle and gave 86.1° as the final answer.

Page 40

E10.Most candidates dealt with the simple calculation in part (a)(i) but many lost a mark by

simply forgetting to square the velocity.

Part (a)(ii) gave the average horizontal force with no indication that the force, and

therefore acceleration, was constant. Therefore, candidates who used suvat equations,

apart from s = ½(u+v)t, were awarded only 1 mark. Just under 20% of candidates got the

answer using a valid method, with most opting to equate the work done to the change in

kinetic energy.

Part (b) proved to be the most challenging question in the paper with barely one-sixth of

candidates gaining any marks at all. The majority of candidates failed to see that a sin

component of either displacement or velocity was required and instead used W=F.s(cosθ)

when dealing with the angle.

E11.Students started well on the basic introductory part of this question but then increasingly

got into difficulties in the later sections. Both parts of (a) were done well by most students.

The significant figures component scored less well than in previous series. Most quoted 3

significant figures as they were probably swayed by the velocity data being given to 3

significant figures. They did not appreciate that the answer is determined by the factor

with the least number of significant figures. In the Force calculation sometimes the mass

of the rider was left out.

(b) was a good discriminator. Many students didn’t help themselves by not distinguishing

between the three forces involved, that is, the driving force, air resistance and the

resultant force. A reference to a constant resultant force was made only by the better

students. The weaker students often did not stick to the question in hand and started to

explain how terminal velocity is normally reached.

In (c) marks were relatively low. Negligibly few students put two drive forces on the

diagram, one for each wheel and very few put even one driving force. Also some of the

students who knew what forces exist did not have them being applied anywhere specific.

Arrows were just randomly placed in the air but normally pointing in the correct direction.

The final part (d) produced a very polarised response. Either the calculation was done

easily or not much of an attempt at the question was shown.

E12.Part (a) was quite straightforward and the majority of candidates gained both marks,

although some marks were withheld due to candidates referring carelessly to time rather

than distance.

The columns of data in part (b) were usually completed correctly, but some candidates

lost marks as a result of using too many or too few significant figures. Again in part (c)

many candidates scored full marks but a significant minority were unable to choose

appropriate scales for their chosen graph. Others were unable to plot a suitable graph,

mostly as a result of plotting s against v or v against s rather than s / v against v.

Most of candidates who plotted a straight line graph knew how to determine the value of

tb in part (d). Some however failed to score this mark as a result of lack of care in plotting

the graph in the previous section. In part (ii) , most candidates were able to obtain a

correct value for the gradient of their straight line graph. In addition, these candidates

were able to relate the gradient to the acceleration and obtained a correct value for the

acceleration. On the other hand, many of the weaker candidates had plotted an unsuitable

graph (e.g. s vs v) and were unable to make progress with the calculations. They were

clearly unaware of the necessity of choosing variables that would produce a straight line

graph.

Page 41

E13.The equations of motion were generally understood well by most students. Problems

started to emerge when it came to the graphical work in the question. The calculation in

part (b)(i) was performed well but some weaker students lost marks by choosing to use

the valid idea that the gain in kinetic energy is equal to the loss of potential energy but

then forgot to note that the initial kinetic energy is not equal to zero. Others lost marks

when they rounded v = 3.87 m s−1 to 3.8 m s−1.

A majority of students found sketching the graph in (b)(ii) quite difficult. Even the top grade

students were only confident about the first straight line drawn from X down to a time tA.

Further along the graph was drawn with random variations by most and the better

students were not very careful to make the second line parallel to the first.

In (c) a majority could tackle the question in full. The weaker students did not know how to

separate the vertical and horizontal components and connect them through the time of

flight. Some students who did manage the first part of the calculation did not appreciate

that the horizontal velocity was constant and took its initial value to be zero.

E14. This question also proved difficult for a number of candidates. The calculation in part

(a) was generally done well by the better candidates. Weaker candidates tended to be

confused by the idea of vector components and it was not unusual to find the inclusion of

the horizontal component of velocity in the calculation of the vertical component of

velocity.

Explaining the motion of the parachutist in part (b) was not done well. Candidates in the

main did not appreciate that there was a resultant force upwards giving a decrease in

velocity. The explanation of terminal velocity has been assessed in previous papers and

answers showed that candidates are getting more confident in their explanations. They

are, however, still inclined to give expressions such as “the force of air resistance equals

the terminal velocity” or “the acceleration due to gravity equals air resistance”.

E15.In part (a) most candidates were able to interpret the graph correctly and almost all

understood why the parachutist reached constant terminal speed in region C of the graph.

Although many also understood and stated that the acceleration in region A was constant,

few stated that this was because the drag on the parachutist was negligible or much

smaller than his weight. Answers were generally well expressed and a mark of four or five

was most common. A minority of candidates, however, was quite incapable of using

physics terms accurately and subsequently scored few marks.

Many candidates understood that the acceleration in part (b) equalled the gradient of the

line in region D of the graph and arrived at a correct answer (although the unit of

acceleration was often given as −1). Candidates who used a = (ʋ − u) / t very often chose

points off the straight section of the graph and arrived at α value for a outside the

acceptable range.

In part (c) many candidates ignored the graph and attempted to use an equation of

uniform acceleration to find the distance travelled. The majority, however, made some

attempt to relate distance to the area under the graph and most of these answers fell

within the acceptable range.

Part (d) was most often correct, although in part (ii) many candidates inverted the tan

function and found the angle to the horizontal rather than the vertical.

calculations in part (a) were quite demanding for a significant proportion of the candidates

and unit errors were quite common for all the quantities involved, including those for the

Page 42

more straightforward quantities such as acceleration and speed.

Candidates were asked to sketch two graphs in part (b). This proved to be quite a difficult

exercise with the non-linear, distance vs. time, graph being the most difficult to draw

correctly.

Part (c) produced the same problems that questions of this type have produced in

previous papers. Many candidates insisted on using Newton’s third law incorrectly and

consequently getting into real trouble. Statements such as “the air resistance is the

reaction to the driving force action” were common and were awarded zero marks.

(b) Candidates were generally very successful on these questions.

(c) Most candidates were successful. However, a few used t = s / v = 54 / 33 instead of

a kinematics equation.

(d) As with previous papers, candidates lacked the depth of knowledge necessary to

describe energy transfers. Perhaps some teachers assume candidates already

know this from GCSE. More practice on this type of question is necessary. Too few

candidates are able to make the link between potential and kinetic energy.

E18. Part (a) (i) was straightforward and was answered very well.

Again, part (a) (ii) proved to be a particularly accessible question and candidates

performed well.

In part (a) (iii), most grasped the concept that energy was wasted but less able candidates

did not realise that the cyclist did work, believing it to be a simple transfer of potential

energy to kinetic energy. Many candidates perhaps did not realise that marks could be

gained by performing the relevant calculation.

In part (b) (i), a surprising number of candidates used time = distance/speed = 160/16 =

10 s. They did not appreciate that the situation involved uniform deceleration and

therefore a kinematics equation should be used.

Part (b) (ii) was generally done well, with most calculating the acceleration and then using

F = ma. It was possible to gain full marks even with the use of an incorrect answer from

the previous question.

E19. In part (a), candidates did not have to have encountered Galileo’s method for

investigating freefall to be successful. Many showed awareness that either air resistance

would not be a significant factor or that timing would be easier due to the lesser speeds

when using an inclined plane.

Considerably less than half candidates were able to resolve to find the component of the

weight acting down the slope in part (b) (i). Some used just the mass rather than mg and

this response gained zero marks.

Part (b) (ii) was a straight forward use of a = F/m and the majority of candidates gained full

marks.

In part (c), many candidates thought the trolley was accelerating at an increasing rate

because of the upward curve. Some did not use the term ‘acceleration’ in their answer

and some thought that the rate of acceleration was decreasing because the curve was

getting straighter. The data plotted on the graph does not support the view that the

acceleration decreases. The distance between each pendulum swing increases in such a

way to support uniform acceleration.

Page 43

A very large majority of candidates did not recall that the gradient of a distance time graph

gives the speed in part (d). Most of these calculated the average speed using v = s/t with s

= 3.0 and t = 3.15 × 1.4 rather than the instantaneous speed at 3.0 m.

E20. Part (a) (i) provided a very easy two marks for most candidates. Just a few were

unsure about the meaning of ‘kN’.

Part (a) (iii) was generally done very well, with many candidates picking up full marks

even if they got the acceleration wrong in the previous question. There was a significant

number of students who believed that t = v/a = 150/1.99.

Few candidates gained two marks in part (b) (i). Force arrows should originate from the

point where the force acts. The candidate is expected to assume the centre of mass of the

LM is roughly central and within the central section of the LM. It is sensible to assume that

the thrust will originate either on the outlet or within the central section. For candidates

who chose to offset the arrows (by no more than 2 mm) it was assumed that this was to

show the examiner where the forces originated. It was sometimes not possible to

determine where the candidate’s arrows began. In this case, the candidate was not

penalised.

Quite a few candidates could not correctly label the arrows, using terms like ‘upthrust’.

Many did not label fully, eg ‘F’ where ‘thrust’ or ‘force from rocket’ would have been better.

Some added arrows for velocity and acceleration (especially ‘acceleration due to gravity’

instead of weight). Additional arrows were penalised, as some candidates seemed to

believe acceleration is a force.

In part (b) (ii), many candidates did not realise that they had to find 47% of 15100 and

almost half found 53% instead; they could only score one mark. A significant number

forgot to reduce 15100 altogether.

The majority of candidates selected v2 = u2 + 2as and correctly substituted and calculated

in part (c). A few did not realise they had to use 1.61 rather than 9.81 for the acceleration

due to gravity on the Moon. Some students were unfamiliar with problems where there is

an initial velocity and they assumed this to be zero.

E21.(a) A number of candidates referred to the fact that there was a force and therefore

acceleration but ignored the reference to uniform speed. Candidates were expected

to refer to change in direction resulting in a change in velocity, owing to its vector

nature, and to state the link between change in velocity and acceleration.

(ii) The majority of candidates did this part correctly but some used the given

diameter as the radius. Many who started with mrω2 had difficulty determining

ω.

(iii) Many candidates drew careful graphs, plotting the data from (ii) correctly and

using a scale that covered the whole range. The quadrupling of force for a

doubling of the velocity was also very clear in the best graphs. There were,

however, many candidates whose skills in graphical communication left much

to be desired. There were many instances where, for example, the value from

(ii), 5.4 × 10–16 N, was plotted on the 20 mm grid line. These candidates rarely

showed other values correctly.

(c) (i) Most candidates were able to complete this successfully but there were a

Page 44

significant number who used πr2 as the circumference.

(ii) Most appreciated the need to use s = ut + ½ at2 and the majority obtained the

correct answer. There were a significant proportion of candidates who did not

distinguish between horizontal and vertical motion and used 8 × 106 m s–1 for u.

This led to a silly answer for distance fallen in 2 s that usually passed without

comment.

(iii) Most completed this part successfully. Some candidates simply stated

‘gravitation’ instead of a value. A few gave 9.8 N as the answer.

Page 45

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