You are on page 1of 120

GEOMETRIC DESIGN

General guide lines


HIGHWAY CLASSIFICATION

1.National Highways
Main highways running through the length and breadth of country,
connecting ports, Foreign highways, capitals of states, including roads of
strategic importance.
All NHs are the responsibility of Central Govt. (NH act 1956)
2. State Highways
Main trunk roads of State, connecting up National Head quarters, important
cities in the State.
3. District Roads
Traverse each district, serving the areas of Production and
markets, and connecting with each other, or with NH or SH or
Railways or important navigational routes.
4. Village Roads
Roads connecting villages, or groups of Villages, with each other, and to
nearest DR, NH or SH or Railway or navigational routes. They are in
essence to mandis, or to main Routes.
CLASSIFICATION OF HIGHWAYS

Freeways
Expressways
Major Arterials
Collector Streets
Local Roads
FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION

Freeways

Expressways
Mobility

Major arterials

Collector streets

Local streets

Access
FREEWAYS

Freeway is a divided highway facility having two or more


lanes in each direction for the exclusive use of traffic,
with full control of access and egress
In the highway hierarchy, freeway is the only facility
that provides complete uninterrupted flow.
A freeway is composed of three subcomponents:
Basic freeway segment
Weaving areas
Ramp junctions
EXPRESSWAYS

Expressways are divided highways for motorized traffic


with full or partial control of access
Their main function is to provide fro movement of heavy
volumes of motorized traffic at high speeds.
They are provided generally with grade separation at
intersection.
Parking, loading and unloading of goods, and
pedestrian traffic are not permitted on these facilities.
EXPRESSWAY

Ramp

Grade Separation
Deceleration Lane

Acceleration Lane

Ramp
MAJOR ARTERIALS
Major arterials is a general term denoting a street
primarily meant for through traffic usually on continuous
route.
Continuity is the prime essential factor to ensure efficient
movement of through traffic
They are usually divided highways with partial access
control
Parking, loading and unloading activities are usually
restricted and regulated.
Pedestrians are allowed to cross only at intersections /
designated locations
Service Road Service Road

ARTERIAL
Median Gap

COLLECTOR STREET
LOCAL STREETS
Arterial

EXPRESSWAY
Collector
streets

Local
Streets
HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN ELEMENTS

• ROAD WAY COMPONENTS


• HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT
• VERTICAL ALIGNMENT
• SIGHT DISTANCES
• INTERSECTION ELEMENTS
ROAD WAY COMPONENTS

Right of way
Building control lines
Control lines
Carriage way, Lanes
Medians, foot paths, shoulders, verges
Road side amenities
Plantation
Right of way development
Overall width between Control Lines

Overall width between Building Lines


Set Set
Back
Road land width Back
Road way

Carriageway
Roadway
components
DESIGN SPEEDS KMPH
IRC 73

Plains Rolling Mountainous Steep


(0-10% (10-25%) (25-60%) (>60%)
NH &SH 100-80 80-65 50-40 40-30

MDR 80-65 65-50 40-30 30-20

ODR 65-50 50-40 30-25 25-20

VR 50-40 40-35 25-20 25-20


URBAN ROADS DESIGN SPEEDS
IRC 86

Expressways = 120 kmph


Urban express ways = 80 kmph
Arterial = 80 kmph
Sub arterial = 60 kmph
Collector = 50 kmph
Local = 30 kmph
PMGSY SPECIFICATIONS (village roads)

DESIGN SPEED

Design Speed, Kmph


Terrain
Ruling Minimum
Plain 50 40

Rolling 40 35

Mountainous 25 20

Steep 25 20
RIGHT OF WAY, meters ( RURAL)
IRC 73

Plain &Rolling Mountain & Steep


Rural Urban Rural Urban

NH & SH 30-60 30-60 24 20

MDR 25-30 15-25 18 15

ODR 15-25 12-20 15 12

VR 12-18 10-15 9 9
RIGHT OF WAY, meters ( URBAN)
IRC 86

Expressways = 60m
Arterials 4 Lane Divided = 50-60m
Sub arterials 4 Lane Divided = 30-40m
Collector 4 Lane = 20-30m
Local Street = 10-20m
PMGSY RECOMMENDED ROAD LAND
WIDTH, m village roads
Terrain Road land width, m
Plain and Rolling
Normal 15
Open Areas
Range 15 - 25
Normal 15
Built-up Areas
Range 15 - 20
Mountainous and Steep
Normal 15
Open Areas
Exceptional 12
Normal 12
Built-up Areas
Exceptional 9
PMGSY RECOMMENDED STANDARDS FOR BUILDING
AND CONTROL LINES- village areas

Terrain Distance, m
Plain and Rolling
Open Areas
Width between Building lines 25 / 30*
Width between Control lines 35
Built-up Areas
Distance between Building line and 3–5
Road Boundary ( setback )
Mountainous and Steep
Distance between Building line and 3-5
Road Boundary ( setback )
ROADWAY COMPONENTS

Lanes: The carriageway intended for one line of


traffic movement is called a lane
IRC recommends the following carriageway widths,
plus median width

Class of road Width in meters


Single lane 3.75
2 lanes, without raised kerbs 7.0
2 lanes, with raised kerbs 7.5
4- Lane 14.0
Multi lane pavements 3.5 per lane
LANE CAPACITY

Capacity is the maximum flow that can be accommodated in a


highway facility.

But the maximum flow occurs when the speed falls down to
nearly half of the free flow speed.

Hence it is not desirable to design the highway facility for


maximum capacity conditions but for a flow much below
capacity.
LEVEL OF SERVICE (LOS) CONCEPT

A
B
C
D
Speed

V/C Ratio
LEVEL OF SERVICE CONCEPT (LOS)

Volume capacity ratio (V/C) is defined as the ratio between


the design service volume and the capacity and has values
between 0 and 1
The Level Of Service denotes the level of facility one can
derive from a road under different operating characteristics
and traffic volumes.
FACTORS DETERMINING LOS

Speed and travel time


Traffic interruptions or restrictions
Freedom to maneuver
Driving comfort and convenience
Economy, operating cost of vehicle
SIX LEVELS OF SERVICE

LOS A: Free flow, low volumes, and high speeds


LOS B: Zone of stable flow, speeds begin to be restricted, drivers have
reasonable freedom to select their speed and lane of operation.
LOS C: Still in zone of stable flow, but speeds and maneuverability are
controlled by higher volumes. Freedom to select their own speed, or
lane change, or overtaking is restricted
LOS D: Approaches unstable flow, tolerable operating speed, but
affected by changes in operating conditions. Little freedom to maneuver.
Can be tolerated for short period
LOS E: Cannot be described by speed alone, with volumes near
capacity. Flow is unstable, and there may be stoppages of momentary
duration
LOS F: Forced flow at low speeds, volumes below capacity. Queues
form backing up from restriction in down stream. The section may
become storage area during short periods or all of peak hour.
Level of Service
Mid blocks Intersections
V/C LOS Avg, delay LOS
sec/pcu
<0.5 A <10 A
0.5-0.6 B 10-20 B
0.6-0.7 C 20-35 C
0.7-0.9 D 35-55 D
0.9-1.0 E 55-80 E
>1.0 F >80 F
DESIGN SERVICE VOLUME

The HCM terms the traffic volumes that can be served at


each level of service as ‘Service Volume’
After having selected a particular LOS for design
purposes, the corresponding service volume then
logically becomes the ‘Design Service Volume’
The HCM does not propose any LOS for DSV but leaves
to designer
Generally
LOS B for Rural Highways and
LOS C for Urban Streets are adopted.
CAPACITY OF RURAL ROADS
IRC 64
BT Roads with good hard shoulders
Design Service Volume in PCU /day
Reduce for WBM 20 -30%,
Reduce for Bad shoulders 50%
Increase for surfaces shoulders 15%
Terrain
Curvature, 3.5 m 5.5 m 7m
Degrees /km

Plain Low 0-50 2000 6000 15000


High >50 1900 5800 12500
Rolling Lpw 0-100 1800 5700 11000
High >100 1700 5600 10000
Hilly Low 0-200 1600 5200 7000
High >200 1400 4500 5000
RECOMMENDED DESIGN SERVICE VOLUME,
PCU /DAY

Road Width Plain Rolling Hilly

4D+ES 35000 30000 25000

4D+PS 40000 35000 30000

2+ES 15000 11000 7000

2+PS 17250 12500 8000

Intermediate 6000 6000 5000

Single ES 1000 900 800


PS 2000 1800 1600
URBAN HIGHWAY CAPACITY (PCU / HOUR )

Lane Traffic flow No frontage, Frontage, No Free


width (m) no access, parked frontage,
no cross vehicles, Parked
traffic High cap vehicles,
intersection Heavy cross
traffic
7-7.5 One way 2400 1500 1200
Two way 1800 1200 750
10.5 One way 3600 2500 2000

14.0 One way 4800 3000 2400


Two way 4000 2500 2000

21.0 One way 3600 2500 2200


Two way 6000 4200 3600
CARRIAGE WAY WIDTH FOR village roads

Plain and Rolling Terrain 7.5 meters


Mountainous and Steep 6.0 meters

Note:
1. Above widths are exclusive of parapets and side drains.
2. In hilly and mountainous terrains, lay byes of 3.75 m wide and
20 m long should be provided at least at the rate of two per km.
These should be judiciously located considering the visibility
aspect.
ROADWAY WIDTH AT CROSS DRAINAGE STRUCTURES
village roads

Culvert upto 6 m span Bridge ( > 6 m span )


Desirable 7.5 m
7.5 m If not possible 5.75 m
Exceptional 4.25 m
MEDIANS

To separate opposing streams of traffic

To minimise head light glare

To provide shelter for turning vehicles

For shelter for pedestrians while crossing in urban areas


Widths of medians

Urban areas: Desirable 7.3 m


Lower 5m
Restricted areas 1.2m
but no openings provided

Bridges : 1.5 m
Rural areas : Desirable 18.3 m
Lower 5m
SHOULDERS
Shoulder is the portion of the roadway
contiguous with the traveled way
Is intended for accommodation of stopped
vehicles & emergency use
Lateral support of the base and pavement layers
It can be used for laying service ducts
Paved shoulders increase capacity of lanes
It can be 1.2 m to 2.5 and up to 3.65 m
FOOT PATHS

Recommended foot path widths UK


practice
Urban expressways: No foot paths, but
verge of at least 0.9 m
Other arterials: 2.7m
Residential areas: 2.4m – 1.8m
Shopping frontages: 3.7 – 4.5 m
Principal business areas: 2.7m
FOOT PATH CAPACITIES

Capacities as per IRC


Width of foot path, Capacity in persons per hour
m
All in one In both
direction directions
1.5 1200 800
2.0 2400 1600
2.5 3600 2400
3.0 4800 3200
4.0 6000 4000
CROSS FALLS

They should be sloped in a range of 1 in 40 to 1 in 30 for


drainage purposes

Ramps to be provided at access gates, or doorways ( at


least 1 in 7)
KERBS

A vertical or sloping member along edge of a


pavement or shoulder
Forms a part of gutter, facilitates drainage
Strengthens and protects the edge of pavement
Clearly delineates the edge to vehicle operators
Presents finished appearance
Helps in orderly development of road side
IRC RECOMMENDED KERBS
IRC Standard Kerbs

115 50

75 75
0
R2

75
50 200
200

0
R2
0
R2
325

75

75
R20
275

GL GL

25
GL

200

20
R
125

125

100
165 150 250

Mountable Type
Barrier Type Semi-Barrier Type
CONCRETE CENTRAL DIVIDER FOR CONCRETE CENTRAL DIVIDER FOR CONCRETE CENTRAL DEVIDER FOR
FOUR LANE ROADS
SIX LANES AND ABOVE 6 OR LESS LANE ROADS WITH SPECIAL PERMISSION

Note: All dimensions are in 'mm'


THE KERB SHOULD BE PAINTED WHITE
CRASH BARRIERS

Crash barriers prevent vehicles falling


down flyovers, bridges, high embankments
Types
Concrete barriers
W beam barriers
Wire rope barriers
170

75

75mm throughout
hole
200
420

joint 20mm thick


75
in c.c 1:2:4 after
200
fixing at site.
115
160
200
810
25mm dowell bar
170 @ 225mm c/c
150

10mm @
80 225mm c/c
25.4

225 305 305

170

245

Parabolic divider (Isometric view)


2“

7“ 19 “

840

10 “
550

3“

New Jersy F - Type


DELINEATORS
Radius in Spacing on
meters curves in
Light reflecting devices mounted by the meters
side of the roadway to indicate the
30 6
roadway alignment especially for night
driving. 50 8
100 12
200 20
300 25
Roadway indicators 400 30
Hazard markers 500 35
600 38
Object markers
700 42
800 45
900 48
1000 50
RAIN WATER

NEED FOR CAMBER


CAMBER

Surface Camber % Slope

High BT/CC 1.7 - 2.0 1:60 to 1:50

Thin BT 2.0 – 2.5 1:50 to 1:40

WBM, Gravel 2.5 – 3.0 1:40 to 1:33

Earth 3.0 – 4.0 1:33 to 1:25

Shoulder Pavement camber

Super elevated portion Pavement Cross fall


HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT

• RADIUS OF CIRCULAR CURVE


•EXTRA WIDENING
•SUPER ELEVATION
• TRANSITION CURVES
RECOMMENDED MINIMUM RADII
OF HORIZONTAL CURVES, meters

Type Plains Rolling Mountainous

Ruling Minimum Ruling Minimum Ruling Minimum

NH&SH 360 230 230 155 80 50

MDR 230 155 105 90 50 30

ODR 155 90 98 60 30 20

VR 90 60 60 45 20 14
EXTRA WIDENING ON CURVES

OFF TRACKING PROCESS

Mechanical Widening = nl2/ 2 R

Psychological Widening = V /9.5 √R


EXTRA WIDENING

W= n l2 / 2R + V / 9.5 √R

Radius of Extra width, m


curve, m 1-lane 2- lane
< 20 0.9 1.5

21-40 0.6 1.5

41-60 0.6 1.2

61-100 - 0.9

101-300 - 0.6

> 300 - -
CENTRIFUGAL FORCE ACTING AT A CURVE

W v2 W V2
P= =
gR 127 R

Centre of Curve
ROLE OF FRICTION IN RESISTING SKID

CENTRIFUGAL
FORCE, P

Friction Friction

Weight, W

LIMITING CONDITION, IMPACT FACTOR P/W = 0.15


OVERTURNING OR TOPPLING

h
CENTRIFUGAL
FORCE, P
b

POINT ABOUT WHICH


OVERTURNING
OCCURS Weight, W

LIMITING CONDITION, IMPACT FACTOR P/W = b/2h


PROVISION OF SUPER ELEVATION

Road Edge Road Edge

NORMAL ROAD SECTION ON A


STRAIGHT ROAD

Outer Edge Inner Edge

SUPERELEVATED SECTION ON A
HORIZONTAL CURVE

Actual super elevation, E = e B

Limiting Condition, P/W =v2/(g R) = e + f


Super elevation e= v2 / 225 R

Maximum value= 0.07

Minimum radius of curve R = V2 / 127 (e + f )


V = Speed kmph
e = Super elevation m/m
R = Radius of curve m
f = 0.15

R=0.0357 V2

Achieving super elevation, transition curves


Example

Speed V = 100 kmph


Radius = 400 m
E = (0.75V)2 / 127 R = V2 / 225 R
e = 100 * 100 / (225 * 400) = 1/9 = 0.11
Max allowable e = 0.07
Hence balance is to be taken care by f
e + f = V2/127R=f= 0.13 < permissible 0.15
METHODS OF ATTAINING SUPERELEVETION

1. Rotating the pavement with respect to inner


edge

If the rate of introduction of super elevation is 1 in N ,


required length = N.E
METHODS OF ATTAINING SUPERELEVETION

2. Rotating the pavement with respect to centre


line

E/2

E/2

If the rate of introduction of super elevation is 1 in N ,


required length = N.E / 2
NEED FOR A TRANSITION CURVE

Extra Widening

Normal section
B B

Section with
Super elevation
Extra Widening
A Transition curve

Circular Curve

B B
Normal section

Transition Curve

Section with
Super elevation
Straight Portion
Transition Curves

1.Based on change of centrifugal acceleration

L = 0.0215 V 3 / C R

L = Length of transition curve meters


V = Speed in km ph
R = Radius in meters

C = 80 / ( 75 + V )
subject to a max of 0.8, min 0f 0.5

2.Rate of change of Super elevation

L = 2.7 V2 / R (SE Not greater 7 % )

3.Longitudinal Gradient No greater than 1: 150


RADII BEYOND WHICH SUPERELEVATION IS NOT REQUIRED

Design Radius,m
speed, 4% 3% 2.5 % 2%
kmph Camber Camber Camber Camber
20 50 60 70 90

25 70 90 110 140

30 100 130 160 200

35 140 180 220 270

40 180 240 280 350

50 280 370 450 550


GRADIENTS

• RULING GRADIENT
• LIMITING GRADIENT
• EXCEPTIONAL GRADIENT
• MINIMUM GRADIENT
RECOMMENDED GRADIENTS FOR DIFFERENT
CONDITIONS

Ruling Limiting Exceptional


Terrain
Gradient Gradient Gradient

3.3 percent 5 percent 6.7percent


Plain and Rolling
( 1 in 30 ) ( 1 in 20 ) ( 1 in 15 )

Minimum gradient
Lined= 0.5%
Unlined= 1.0%
TYPES OF VERTICAL CURVES

SUMMITCURVE OR CREST CURVE

N = ANGLE OF DEVIATION

VALLEY CURVE OR SAG CURVE


N
DESIGN FACTORS IN SUMMIT CURVES

• SIGHT DISTANCES
• ANGLE OF DEVIATION
• SPEED
LENGTH OF SUMMIT CURVE

Length of Summit Curve,m


Case
For Stopping Sight For Overtaking Sight
Distance Distance

When Length of Curve > NS2 / 4.4 NS2 / 9.6


S

When Length of Curve < 2 S – 4.4 / N 2 S – 9.6 / N


S
DESIGN FACTORS IN VALLEY CURVES

• CENTRIFUGAL ACCELERATION
• HEADLIGHT SIGHT DISTANCE
• ANGLE OF DEVIATION
• SPEED
LENGTH OF VALLEY CURVE

Case Length of Valley Curve,m

NS2 / ( 1.5 + 0.035 S )


When Length of Curve > S

2 S – ( 1.5 + 0.035 S ) / N
When Length of Curve < S
Design Maximum Gradient Minimum Length of Vertical
speed, Change ( percent ) not Curve,m
kmph requiring Vertical Curve
Upto 35 1.5 15

40 1.2 20
50 1.0 30
COMBINATION OF HORIZONTAL AND
VERTICAL ALIGNMENT

Judicious selection and combination of both elements


can give safe and aesthetically beautiful alignment

The alignment should fit into and landscape


GUIDE LINES

Provide smooth and gradual changes. Numerous


brakes and short lengths of grades to be avoided

Roller coaster or hidden type of profile to be avoided

Broken back grade line to be avoided

Intersections on grades to be avoided.


SIGHT DISTANCES
SIGHT DISTANCE ELEMENTS

• STOPPING SIGHT DISTANCE


• OVERTAKING SIGHT DISTANCE
• INTERMEDIATE SIGHT DISTANCE
STOPPING SIGHT DISTANCE
100
90
SPEED, KMPH

80
70
60
50 Lag Distance
40
30
Braking Distance
20

0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 120.00 140.00 160.00 180.00 200.00

DISTANCE, M
STOPPING SIGHT DISTANCE

Design speed, Safe Stopping


kmph Sight Distance, m
20 20
25 25
30 30
40 45
50 60
60 80
65 90
80 120
100 180
OVERTAKING SIGHT DISTANCE

d1 d2 d3 d4
OVERTAKING SIGHT DISTANCE

OSD = d1 + d2 + d3 + d4
d1 = distance traveled by overtaking vehicle during
perception reaction time
d2 = distance traveled during overtaking maneuver
by overtaking vehicle
d3 = distance between overtaking vehicle and
opposing vehicle at the end of overtaking
d4 = distance travelled by opposing vehicle at
design speed while overtaking is taking place
OVERTAKING SIGHT DISTANCE

Speed kmph Safe OSD, m

40 165

50 235

60 300

65 340

80 470

100 640
LOCATIONS WHERE SIGHT
DISTANCES PLAY MAJOR ROLE

INTERSECTIONS
HORIZONTAL CURVES
VERTICAL CURVES
SIGNS AND SIGNAL LOCATIONS
CONFLICT POINT

INADEQUATE VISIBILITY - BAD INTERSECTION DESIGN


FLARING IMPROVES VISIBILITY
VEGETATION BLOCKING THE SIGHT ON A HORIZONTAL
CURVE
SIGHT DISTANCES AT VERTICAL CURVES ARE
AFFECTED BY GRADIENT. FLATTER SLOPES
PROVIDE HIGHER VISIBILITY
SPEED BREAKER AHEAD SIGN - LOCATION
CAPACITY OF UNDERPASSES, OVER BRIDGES

The capability is 50 persons per minute per meter on


level or up to 1 in 20 ramp

30 persons per minute per meter on steps or ramps


steeper than 1 in 20

The gradients should not be steeper than 1 in 10

Minimum height 2.3 m – 2.6m


IRC CODES

IRC: 73-1980 Geometric standards for Rural Highways

IRC: 86 -1983 Geometric Design of Urban Roads

IRC: 64-1990 Guide Lines on capacity of Roads in Rural areas

SP 20:2002 Rural Roads Manual


Road way

Shoulder

Carriage way
Hill

Side Drain Valley

Road way
Shoulder

Carriage way

Side Drain

HILL ROAD ELEMENTS


Overall width between control lines

Overall width between building lines

Setback
Road Land width

Road land Boundary


Roadway (Formation width)
Building Line
Control Line

Carriage way

Road land Boundary

Building Line
Control Line
HILL ROAD ELEMENTS
Desirable Road Land widths in meters

Sl No. Road Open areas Built up areas


Class
Normal Excepti Normal Excepti
onal onal

1 NH 24 18 20 18
&SH

2 MDR 18 15 15 12

3 ODR 15 12 12 9
Widths of Carriage way, Shoulder and Roadway

Highway Carriage Shoulder Roadway


classification way width width (m) width (m)
(m)

NH & SH
Single lane 3.75 2 x 1.25 6.25
Double lane 7.00 2 x 0.9 8.8
MDR & ODR 3.75 2 x 0.5 4.75
VR 3.00 2 x o.5 4.00

The Road way widths are exclusive of parapets (0.6 m) and


side drains ( 0.6 m0
Camber Cross fall

Earth Road 3 to 4 % ( 1 in 33 to 1 in 25)


Gravel WBM 2.5 to 3 % ( 1 in 40 to 1 in 33)
Thin Bitumen 2.0 to 2.5 % ( 1 in 50 to 1 in 40)
High type Bit. 1.7 yo 2.0 % ( 1 in 60 to 1 in 50)
Design speed (km/h)
Sl.No. Road Mountainous Steep Terrain
Class Terrain
Ruling Min Ruling Min

1 NH & 50 40 40 30
SH
2 MDR 40 30 30 20

3 ODR 30 25 25 20

4 VR 25 20 25 20
Sight Distances
Speed km ph Design values in meters
Stopping Sight Intermediate Sight
Distance Distance
20 20 40
25 25 50
30 30 60
35 40 80
40 45 90
50 60 120
Minimum Radii of Horizontal curves for various
classes of hill Roads
Road Mountainous terrain Steep Terrain
Class
Areas Not Snow bound Areas Not Snow bound
affected by snow areas affected by snow areas
Ruling Min Ruling Min Ruling Min Ruling Min

NH & 80 50 90 60 50 30 60 33
SH
MDR 50 30 60 33 30 14 33 15

ODR 30 20 33 23 20 14 23 15

VR 20 14 23 15 20 14 23 15
Minimum Transition length for Different Speeds and Curve radii
Curve Design speed in km ph
Radius m 50 40 30 25 20
15 NA 30
20 35 20
25 NA 25 20
30 30 25 15
40 NA 25 20 15
50 40 20 15 15
55 40 20 15 15
70 NA 30 15 15 15
80 55 25 15 15 NR
90 45 25 15 15
100 45 20 15 15
125 35 15 15 NR
150 30 15 15
170 25 15 NR
200 20 15
300 15 NR
400 15
500 NR
Extra Widening of Pavement at Curves
(m)

Radius Up to 21 to 41 to 61 to 101 tp Above


of 20 40 60 100 300 300
Curve
(m)
Two 1.5 1.5 1.2 0.9 0.6 Nil
lane

Single 0.9 0.6 0.6 Nil Nil Nil


Lane
HAIR PIN BENDS DESIGN

• Minimum Design Speed 20 kmph


• Minimum Roadway Width at Apex 7.5 m
• Minimum Radius for Inner Curve 14.0 m
• Minimum Length of Transition Curve 15.0 m
• Gradient Maximum 1 in 40 ( 2.5 percent )
Minimum 1 in 200 ( 0.5 percent )
• Super elevation 1 in 10 ( 10 percent )
Hair Pin Bends
Minimum Design speed 20 kmph
Width at Apex
NH & SH 11.5 for 2 lane
9.0 for single lane
MGR & ODR 7.5 m
VR 6.5 m

Circular

Min Inner curve Radius 14 m


Min Length of Transition curve 15 ,
Gradient Max 1 in 40 / 2.5%
Minimum 1 in 200/ (o.5%)

Super elevation 1 in 20 (10%)


Passing Places

20 m

3.75 m
7.5 m 9.7 m 3.75m

30 m
Vision Berms

Hill side
1.2 m Road way
Drain
Vertical Alignment
Classification of Mountainous terrain Steep errain up to
Gradient and steep terrain more 3000m height above
than 3000 m above MSL
MSL
Ruling Gradient 5 % ( 1 in 20 ) 6 % ( 1 in 16.7)

Limiting Gradient 6 % ( 1 in 16.7) 7 % ( 1 in 14.3 )

Exceptional 7 % ( 1 in 14.3 ) 8 % ( 1 in 12.5 )


Minimum Length of Vertical Curves
Design Speed Maximum Grade Minimum Length of
(kmph) Change percent not vertical curve (m)
requiring a vertical
curve
Up to 35 1.5 15

40 1.2 20

50 1.0 30
S.No. Description Design Standard

1 Right of way (ROW), width m 80

2 Design Speed kmph 120

3 Maximum superelevation (%) -Desirabl 5


- --absolute maximum 7
4 Radius of Horizontal curve , m -Desirable minimum 4000
-minimum 750
- Desirable 10 000
5 Maximum length of tangent section, km 10

6 Super elevation transition 1:250 (min)

7 Gradient % -desirable maximum 2.0


- absolute maximum 2.5
8 Minimum vertical clearances (m) –over top of rail 6.5
-over top of raod 5.5
-pedestrian underpass/cart track 4.5
- over expressway
5.5
S.No Design element Unit Design standard for plain
terrain and lane
configuration
1 No of carriage ways no 2

2 No of lanes no 2

3 Carriage way width m 7.5

4 Width of edge strip Median side m 0.7


Outer side m 0.5
5 Paved shoulder –Median side m Nil
_Outer side m 2.5

6 Verge Fill section outer side m 1.5


Cut section m 2.0
7 Median width m 4.5
S.No Design element Unit Design standard for plain
terrain and lane configuration
8 Traveled way( Carriageway, m 11.2
edge strip, ,paved shoulder
9 Roadway (Formation)- Fill m 30.9
-Cut m 31.4
10 Berm width, minimum m 10

11 Minimum width between


building lines- Open both sides m 120
-Built up both sides m 92
- Open one side, built up
another side m 106
12 Minimum width between control m 200
lines
13 Cross fall – carriage way % 2.5
- paved shoulder 3.0
-verge 4.0
-depressed medain 10.0
-embankment side slope varies