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Pipeline Operations and Integrity

Module 4
Inspection Methods

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Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Maintenance
Where are we? Pipeline Integrity management

Inspection and Assessment Methods

Pipeline repairs
Emergency Response Planning.

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Module Outline
• In this Module we will look at Right of way
Inspection, the use of ILI tools, hydrotesting
and direct assessment methods to determine
the condition of the pipe and its

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Pipeline Integrity Management
Assessment, Prevention, and Mitigation Measures
External Direct Cathodic
ILI Pressure Pipe Coating CIS Anodes &
Corrosion Assessment Protection
Test Ground Beds

Direct Gas Internal Corrosion Site Operational Coupon


ILI Pressure Specific Plans Pigging Monitoring
Corrosion Assessment Quality

Stress Cathodic Discharge Field Inspections
Pressure Direct
Corrosion ILI Protection Temperature
Test Assessment
Long Seam Defects Pipe Inspection during
Manufacturing Pipe Defects
Pressure Test
Specification Manufacturing
Girth Weld
Construction/ Coupled/Pressure Welds Construction
ILI Pressure Test Patrolling

Fabrication Wrinkle Bends Practices

Branch Connections
Gaskets Preventive
Relief Maintenance

Third Party One Call System Damage Prevention & Patrolling Marking and Excavation

Damage Ticket Management Public Awareness Locating Monitoring


Incorrect Operating Audits


Operations Procedures

Continuing Emergency
Weather and Patrolling
Surveillance Preparedness
Outside Forces

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PIPELINE PROTECTION: External Interference

• Pipeline protection starts with a good design and construction.

• External damage – we can protect our lines from third parties by:
• Thicker pipe wall, or deeper cover (but beware of overburden),
• Locating in remote regions,
• Regular patrols or surveys of the line, and clear markings, and good
communications with third parties including general public,
• Protective measures such as concrete casings,
• Damage detection equipment.

Images © Penspen Group


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PIPELINE PROTECTION: External Interference
• We can reduce the number of times our pipeline is
damaged by external interference by liaising with our
landowners, and excavators, and making them aware of
the location of the pipelines and their dangers.
• We have other methods of preventing or detecting
damage/defects in pipelines; for example, a ‘one call’

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• We have various methods of preventing or detecting
damage/defects in pipelines, for example, leak
detection, walking the line looking for damage/leaks,
and surveillance by aircraft:

Images from, Columbia Gas, USA and Transco, UK

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Right of Way Patrol
• It is important to mark and then patrol your
Right of Way to prevent encroachment

Patrol Frequency depends on the Risk posed by the Pipeline

Usually every two weeks in open country ,once per week in
populated areas.
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TNPI Pipeline RoW in Montreal...


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Note warning signs above
Centre line of Pipe

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Basics of ILI Tool Design

ID/OD Magnets & Main Magnets &

Odometer Sensors Sensors Bristles
Wheels Bristles

Data Data
Storage Processing

Tow Body – may have

Body + Coupling
Support Electronics electronics but could be
Wheels or hollow for gas bypass
Support Electrical Support/ Drive Cup
Cups harnessing Drive Cup

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ILI Standards
STANDARD (reafirm 2012)
– System qualifications
– Umbrella standard requires the following two
– Requires operators to share dig info with service provider
• NACE SP0102 - In-Line Inspection of Pipelines
– Operations safety and worker qualifications
• ASNDT - ILI PQ - Personal Qualification for In-Line Inspection
– Qualification of those that interpret and provide results

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Types of Smart Pigs
• Geometry
– Instrumented pig that maps the inside surface of the pipe to
identify ovalities, deformations, and restrictions along the
• Electromagnetic - Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL), Eddy
currents, etc.
– Intelligent pig that characterizes metal loss along the pipeline
• Transverse Magnetic Flux Leakage (TFI)
– Intelligent pig that characterizes metal loss and crack-like
features along the pipeline
• Ultrasonic (UT)
– Intelligent pig that characterizes remaining wall thickness and
crack-like features

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Bend Locator Pigs record the severity of bends

and the position along the pipeline.

It is important to know the minimum bend radius

that the Bend Locator pig can negotiate as well
as the minimum local bore restriction capability.

Photo courtesy of TD Williamson

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Caliper & Geopig

• 3D to 1.5 D bend radius
• 10% minimum bore restriction

Photos courtesy of BJ Inspection Services

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Range of tool types & uses
Classification Surface Corrosion Internal & Material Anomalies plus Features Pipe Deformation

Surface Breaking Dents, Wrinkles,

General External Axial External Internal Mfg Related Surface Breaking Third Party
Specific Threat SCC Hard Spots Circumferential Pipe Long Seam Pipe Girth Weld Wrinkle Bends Buckels, & Scratch/ Gouges Earth Movement
Corrosion Corrosion Corrosion Defects Axial Cracking Damage
Cracking Ripples

High Resolution
Axial MFL

Transverse MFL


Geometry Tool -
Disks to +/- > 1% d/D

Deformation Tool -
to +/- 0.5% d/D
High Resolution

Direct Assessment

Pressure Test

Spike Hydrostatic Test

Inertial Navigation

Direct Examination
(includes NDE for threat)

Red Not appropriate or never used

Yellow Has applicability, provides an ancillary benefit or specific restrictions need to be considered
Green Is appropriate

Notes This matrix is to help those less familiar with the range of integrity assessment technologies, ILI tools, and their capabilities.
Technology improvements may allow color changes in the future.
Direct Assessment requires following all the NACE Standard requirements of EC, IC, or SCC.

Axial & Circumferential Cracking represents surface breaking and partially open cracks unlike tight fatigue.

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What does a pigging survey provide

• Pipeline design information

– Welds, wall thickness changes,
– Openings at branch connections,
– Fittings and valves,
• Micro scan – defect sizes by tool type
– Cumulative damage assessment
• Macro scan – pipe changes,
– Record validations, (MAOP verification?)

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Launch & Receive

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Types of Smart Pigs
• Geometry - Caliper, Deformation, Gauge
– Detecting changes in ovality (dents, deformations)
• Inertial Navigation (Mapping)
– 3D mapping, route surveying, bend and strain
• Metal Loss (MFL & UT) UT = EMAT
– Detection and sizing of metal loss corrosion, pits, etc.)
• Crack Detection (UT & MFL)
– Detection and sizing of cracks and crack-like defects

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Geometry Tools
• Pipe sizing and deformation
• Detects girth welds, wall thickness
changes and installations (e.g.
valves, tees, etc.)
– Acceptance of new pipelines
– Mechanical and 3rd party
– Passage of other ILI tools

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Inertial Guidance Tools
• Inertial navigation - gyroscopes and
– Measures angular and velocity
changes in X, Y and Z coordinates
– Determine 3-D position of the
• Verifying and creating pipe books•
– Determining pipeline movement
– Measuring bends
• Overlaid on geographical maps provide
exact “as is” view of pipeline

Neb Uzelac and Baker Huges

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Metal Loss Tools - MFL
• Field lines increase due to
reduced cross sectional

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• Axial Direction
Magnetize in the axial direction

• Girth or Hoop Direction

Referred to as Transverse or Circumferential

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Metal Loss - UT
• Normal Beam

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UT Tools
• Direct measurement & Wide range of detectable features
• Internal / external + mid-wall defect discrimination
• Reliable sizing
• Supports advanced MAOP assessment
• No upper wall thickness limitation
• Straight forward data analysis
• Operates only in liquids (liquid slug in a gas pipeline)
• EMATs are contactless UT technology in gas
• Angle Beam (Shear Wave) for cracks, SCC, seam, girth weld

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Pipeline Operator’s Forum
• Ranges

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Inspection Objectives
• Macro View in valve section (NEW)
– Records comprehensive, complete, & validated
• Micro View of Pipeline Surface
– Detection of Defects
• Type - POD
• Geometries – Volumetric, Planar
– Sizing of defects
• Depth width & Length = 3 Cylindrical Profile
• Accuracy of POI

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Detection Details - 1
• Pigs can generally find what you expect
– Need to use the right tools for the defect
– Depends on the defect size (smaller = harder)
– Depends on tool performance (API 1163)
– Depends on pipe condition
• Debris & deposits
• Material variations
• Proximity to features such as “T”s & valves

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Unity Plot indicates Performance

Statistics help

Feedback to ILI
Vendor Critical

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Detection Details - 2
• Will pigs Detect as false calls?
• Sometimes indicates defects where there are none
• Will the pig detect defects it was not
designed to find?
– Probability of detection maybe low
– Use as maintenance information
– Do not use to project safety & reliability

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Consider High Accuracy when
• Off shore or when excavation $$$$
• Reliability high – not looped
• Environmentally sensitive - penalties high
• Safety in High Population Densities
• Expect many small defects and only a few
need repair

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Consider Low Accuracy when
• Long pipe runs in remote areas
• Small number of defects expected
• No previous ILI inspections
• Leak & accident free operating history
• Old line / expertise right sized
• Cathodic Protection Performance unreliable
• Plan to dig all the indications

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GIS Automated Integrity Sheet

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GIS Automated Integrity Sheet – Close-up

Church Complex


Ball Field

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Aerial of Anomaly Location

Church Complex

Ball Field

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Anomaly Investigation Result

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Two opinions always better than one
• Ask

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Integrity Management

INGAA 2011 survey; 146,000 miles

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• Can’t use normal free swimming tools
• Can’t easily get into and out of the pipeline
– Too congested, unsafe access points,
• Pig will get stuck at internal constrictions
• Can’t reduce flow or take line out of service
• Reverse flow needed to drive pig in & back
• Too long can’t inspect all

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Definitions of
Simple: unable to be pigged.
Better: pipelines with inherent design or current operational
parameters preventing existing ILI technologies from accessing,
navigating, or inspecting the pipe segment.
Realistic: not pigged because of objections: priority, budgetary,
preferences and/or limited understanding.

Clarion Workshop – “unpiggable” as a concept has value

PRCI - there is no such thing as “unpiggable” it just takes ingenuity &


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Preplanning is Key
• Thomas Beuker Rosen pointed the way

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Think ‘Off the Shelf’ Components

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NYSEARCH & VGC inspection services
Small Insertion Size

Getting big things in

through small spaces

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Explorer II RFEC 6”/8” 2 miles

Explorer II MFL 10”/14” 2 miles

Explorer II MFL 30”/36” 2 miles

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Self Powered ILI
• 16” robotic launch

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Might you consider these for access?

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Wall Loss in Perspective
– Wall &
– Cracks

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Putting it together to plan work
• ILI firms provide
software to help
integrate inspections
• Use API 1163 &
contract to have
them precondition
data to yours

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Why Hydrotest?
• To demonstrate leak tightness.
• To “prove” strength or soundness (integrity).
• To remove detrimental anomalies.
• To mitigate some types of anomalies.
• To meet codes and regulations.

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Potential Hydrotest Problems
• Difficult to find leaks.
– Various tracer elements that can be detected above
ground can be used
– Their effectiveness drops as burial depth increases
• Numerous leaks/ruptures
– Difficult to find leaks nearby earlier test leaks
– Running out of tracer elements
• Ballooning pipe
– Relatively new problem
– Considered most probably when there are limited
numbers of under strong pipe joints

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Pressure Test Basics - 1
• Test Pressure
– Determined based on the desired results of the test.
– Can range from below SMYS to above SMYS.
– Higher test pressures needed for strength testing.
– Lower test pressures are more appropriate for leak testing.

• Test Pressure Hold Time

– Can range from very short (e.g., 5 seconds), to moderate (e.g.,
30 minutes), to long (e.g., 8 hours).
– Short times are more appropriate for strength testing.
– Long times sometimes needed for leak testing.

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Pressure Test Basics - 2
• Test Medium
– Typically water, product (liquid), gas, or air are used as the test medium.
– The amount of “stored energy” can be large regardless of test medium.
– This is true even when short segments are being tested.
– Gas or air tests have a much higher “stored energy” when
used as the test medium
• Detection Methods
– Leaks –
– Inability to hold pressure, pressure drop,
– walking the line, trace element (sniffers), and
– dyes.
– Ruptures –
– Immediate pressure loss.

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Pressure Test Basics

• Test Pressure
– Determined based on the desired results of the test.
– Can range from below SMYS to above SMYS.
– Higher test pressures needed for strength testing.
– Lower test pressures are more appropriate for leak testing.

• Test Pressure Hold Time

– Can range from very short (e.g., 5 seconds), to moderate
(e.g., 30 minutes), to long (e.g., 8 hours).
– Short times are more appropriate for strength testing.
– Long times sometimes needed for leak testing.

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Pipe Mill Tests
• Used to “proof test” newly manufactured line pipe.
– Quick test that minimize the time for ductile crack growth

• Included in API pipe specifications since 1928:

– Early tests called for minimum pressures of 40-50% SMYS.
– By 1970, requirements had increased to 60-75% SMYS.
– Later practices and requirements from 85-100% SMYS.

• Short hold times (typically 5 to 10 seconds).

– Pipe mill tests demonstrate strength, not necessarily leak

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Hydrostatic Testing Equipment
a) Test Heads and Caps

b)Deadweight Testers
(Accuracy & Calibration)
a) Pressure and Temperature

Pen Recorder
Ground Surface

a) Fill (Centrifugal)Test
Squeeze (Reciprocating) Pump
Planning and Conducting Pressure
• Minimum pressure test requirements are given in the regulations,
as well as in industry standards and recommended practices.
– International Standard
– API 1110 “Pressure Testing of Liquid Petroleum
– United States
– ASME B31.4 Section 437 “Testing” (liquid)
– 49 CFR 195 Subpart E (liquid)
– ASME B31.8 Section 841.31 “Testing after
Construction” (gas)
– 49 CFR 192 Subpart J (gas)
– Canada
– CSA Z662-07 Section 8

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Test Procedures - Pressure-Volume
• Above the maximum operating pressure and approaching the
target pressure
– Slow and controlled pressurization (e.g., ~10 psi / minute)
• Nonlinearities indicate possible yielding of some pipe joints due
– Thinner wall 70,000 Target

– Lower yield 60,000

Pressure 1,200

Hoop Stress, psi 1,000

50,000 Nominal
Operating Yield 800



10,000 200

66 0 0
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0.000 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.010
Strain (in./in.)
Test Procedures - Acceptance
• Leak tightness
– 49 CFR 195.300 requires a four hour hold
– No unaccounted for pressure drop
– Pressure variations due temperature can cause small increases
and decreases in pressure
• Double stroke rule
– The pressure test should be stopped when it take twice the number of
strokes of the pump to attain the same pressure increase

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Pressure v Volume Plot


P vs. V


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Plotting the Test


Strength Test

Leak Test

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Disposal of Test Medium .

Dewater site during discharge

Energy diffuser during discharge

Two cell dewater site post discharge

Two cell dewater 70

site during discharge
Hydrotest Planning - Test Pressure

• Test pressures are defined by the minimum pressure needed.

• The minimum pressures occur at the highest points. Below that point, the
pipe will see a higher pressure:
– For fresh water, a 100-foot change in elevation corresponds to a 43.3 psi
pressure difference.
– For salt water, a 100-foot change corresponds to a 44.5 psi difference.
• Testing in segments allows you to manage the difference between the
minimum pressure in the line (the highest spot) and the aximum pressure
in the line (the lowest spot).

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Hydro-Test Ruptures

Defects that
Remain in Pipe

125 % MOP
Defects removed

100 % MOP

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2: Hydrotest Planning - Test

Note: Hydrotests do not expose short and deep defects.

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PIPELINE PROTECTION: Above Ground Inspections

• Close Interval Potential Survey

• This survey measures the pipe to soil potentials
along the pipeline, to check the CP system
• ‘CIPS’ will detect high or low potentials that may
indicate problems such as interference from other
structures, coating damage, etc..
• Direct Current Voltage Gradient
• ‘DCVG’ detects coating defects in buried pipelines.
• It examines the voltage gradients in the soil from the
CP system, and can locate and estimate a relative
size of the coating defect.
• We check for external corrosion using various ‘above
ground survey’ methods:
• Electromagnetic Methods
• Pearson, ACVG, Pipeline Current Mapping 74 (PCM) can
locate coating defects.

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ACVG Technique

• AC current on pipe and ground probes in contact with soil above

the line, and off the line away from the electromagnetic field.

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ACVG Technique

• When a coating fault is present, the AC

current will follow the path of least
resistance between the two ground probes
rather than the higher resistance soil.

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ACVG Technique
• Higher frequency AC current will travel
through higher resistance soil than DC
current = more sensitive than DCVG.
• Cannot determine corrosion potential, or
current direction - stray current going on the
pipe can be misinterpreted as current off the

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Electromagnetic Survey Theory

• induction of an
alternating current
onto the pipeline,
which produces a
Electric Current flowing in a
electromagnetic conductor creates a magnetic field
that radiates out from the center
field around the of the conductor in concentric

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Attenuation on Good Coating

• The attenuation of the resulting electromagnetic field

along the length of a pipeline is consistent on pipelines
with continuous homogenous coating

AC Current

Electromagnetic Field

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Electromagnetic Survey Theory

• Create, Control, Detect and Record the electromagnetic

field from above ground.


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Attenuation on Good Coating

• The rate of decline (Attenuation) in the field will be primarily dependent

on the electrical resistivity of the coating and the area of pipe per unit
length in contact with the soil.

Perfect Coating

6 90
Attenuation (mB/m)

RMS Current (mA)

4 60
2 30
0 0










Attenuation (mB/m) Distance (m)
Current (mA)

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Electromagnetic Survey

• Lengths of the pipeline with coating faults will allow
larger amounts of the electromagnetic field to return
to ground, causing increased attenuations in the field
Current Current


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Sample System



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• Pipeline protection starts with a good design and
• INTERNAL CORROSION – We can include a ‘corrosion
allowance’ (increase thickness of line pipe) to accommodate
in-service, predictable, corrosion.
• But we prefer to prevent internal corrosion by:
Internal corrosion
occurring in water
• Treating the product prior to entry into the line, phase
and checking quality;
• Cleaning the line;
• Mixing chemicals to inhibit any corrosion;
• Lining with a corrosion resistance alloy.


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Explorer II

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