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Pipeline Operations and Integrity

Management
Module 5 Pipeline Repairs

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Outline

Pipeline Operations
Pipeline Maintenance
Where are we? Pipeline Integrity management
Inspection and Assessment Methods

Pipeline repairs

Emergency Response Planning.

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Pipeline repair topics
• Safety considerations
• Types of defects to repair
• Pipeline repair methods
• Regulatory and code requirements

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REPAIR: Rule 1… Safety First!
• Safety is always our first consideration.
– Pressure reductions, excavation safety,
trench safety, welding safety, pipe
movement safety, fire prevention,
emergency procedures, etc., are our
primary concerns.
– Pressure reductions alone may not be
sufficient to demonstrate safety prior to
working on a pipeline.
• Some pipelines may have ‘locked-in’
stresses; for example, from ground
movement (onshore) or a buckle Use recognised, proven
(offshore).
procedures, and qualified
• These locked-in stresses need to personnel, and make use of
considered prior to work on the line. relevant standards e.g. API RP
2200.

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REPAIR: Rule 2… Caution


• Some wise words on repair*:
– ‘Do no harm!’
• A bad repair can make matters worse.
• Repairs need careful engineering, at least as much as a new
construction.
• Do not act in haste.
– A repair is often not a good time to try something new.
• There is less experience with a new procedure, compared to
tried and tested designs. Surprises may occur with uncertainty
and incompletely planned engineering.

*A C Palmer, R King, ‘Subsea Pipeline Engineering’, Penwell. 2004.


REPAIR: Rule 3… For life!

❖ Remember*… a good repair approach/philosophy is:


❖ Replace ‘like-for-like’.
❖ Apply a ‘temporary’ repair, until replacement can be carried out.
❖ Apply a ‘permanent’ repair, only where replacement is not practical.

Repair

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*UK’s HSE Safety Alert on ‘Leak Sealing Repair Clamps’. 28 February, 2007
Pipeline Repairs
• The concept of repairing a pipe presumes that an
injurious defect is present.
• The purpose of a repair is to restore the full
serviceability of the pipe permanently, although
temporary repairs may sometimes be necessary.
• Safety before, during, and after the repair operation
is the first priority.

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How Repair Situations Arise

▪ A leak is discovered
▪ Excavator reports or is observed
hitting the pipe
▪ An anomaly identified by in-line
inspection is confirmed in the field
▪ Excavation for another purpose reveals
a repairable condition

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Terminology
▪ Anomaly – A condition or possible imperfection
that appears to be different from normal pipe
▪ Flaw – A confirmed imperfection that is not
injurious to the pipe
▪ Defect – A confirmed imperfection that is
injurious to the pipe
▪ Discovery – Occurs when enough is known to
determine that an anomaly or condition
presents a threat to the pipe integrity

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Terminology

• Leak – A defect that permits the pipe


contents to escape but that does not
render the pipe inoperable
• Rupture – A sudden, unstable, and
rapid propagation of a crack or opening
emanating from a defect

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Terminology
▪ Maximum Operating Pressure, MOP – The
maximum level of steady-state pressure
permitted by the pipeline-design criteria, the
federal regulations, or the company’s
operating procedure, whichever is less.
▪ Discovery Pressure – the pressure level
existing at the location of the anomaly at the
time it is discovered or reported.

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Terminology
• Historical Pressure – A pressure level that is known to have
existed at the location of the anomaly after the anomaly was
present in its current state.
•For a gas pipeline, no pressure level may be considered a
historical level if it occurred more than 1 year (365 days)
prior to the discovery of the anomaly.
•For a liquid pipeline, no pressure level may be considered a
historical level if it occurred more than 60 days prior to the
discovery of the anomaly.
•A previous hydrostatic test pressure can be used as a
historical pressure level if it meets the time requirements.

• Repair Pressure – The pressure level at the location of the


anomaly to be repaired at the time the repair is carried out.

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SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS

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Safety Issues
• Pressure reduction
• Excavation safety
• Trench safety
• Welding on a live pipeline

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Safety is the first
consideration
▪ A defect could be on the verge of failure
▪ Lowering the pressure may be necessary
▪ Prevent excavation damage to the pipe
▪ Observe trench safety requirements
▪ Observe fire-prevention standards
▪ Use qualified maintenance personnel
▪ Use qualified repair procedures
▪ Observe live-line welding requirements
▪ Inspect the repair during and after installation

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Factors to Consider
▪ Pipe Material: Diameter, thickness, grade, seam
type, chemistry, toughness
▪ Operating Characteristics: Maximum operating
pressure, type of product, flow rate
▪ Location: Terrain, accessibility, proximity to
population
▪ Special Circumstances: Leaking or not, brittle pipe,
high built-in stress, couplings or acetylene welds
▪ Nature and extent of the anomaly

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• A Pressure Reduction
pressure reduction is considered
appropriate where uncertainty exists
that an anomaly is safe at the operating
pressure. This is particularly true at the
time of excavation, as a matter of
worker safety.

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PRESSURE REDUCTIONS: Why reduce
pressure?

• We need to reduce pressure to a


safe level before repair, due to:
– LEAKING PRODUCT. If pipe is
ruptured or the defect is
leaking, we need to make
the pipe and surrounding
safe.
– REPAIR: We may need to Images from Clock Spring Literature
www.clocksprong.com
plan future pressure
reductions depending on
type of repair/rehabilitation.
• Some composite repairs
require pressure
reductions of 50%.
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PRESSURE REDUCTIONS: Why reduce
pressure?
• We need to reduce
pressure to a safe level
before repair, due to:
– LEAKING PRODUCT.
– REPAIR.
– RECOATING:
Recoating may
require removal of
pipe from trench, and
pressure may be
required to be In situ coating completed
reduced to zero.
REGULATIONS: Some regulations require pressure
reductions is a pipeline is to be moved; e.g. regulations in USA
require pressure to be reduced to 50% of the MOP in a liquid
pipeline, if it is to be moved.
PRESSURE REDUCTIONS:
Operational Experience
Minor releases are sometimes recorded during excavation (e.g. during
grit blasting the pipeline), but casualties are very rare.
However, there are recorded failures of pipelines during
excavation of known defects, and these failures have resulted in
fatalities*.
Because of this risk, companies do reduce pressure.

Image courtesy of Marianella Ojeda, Promigas, Colombia

©
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*R Coote, J Kyle Keith, ‘Pressure Reductions and Pipeline Excavation’, International Pipeline Conference, Calgary, Canada, 2004. IPC04-0395
PRESSURE REDUCTIONS: Why reduce
pressure for non-leaking defects?

Pressure reduction is needed in a


damaged pipe because:
Pipeline damage can fail when held
at constant pressure (‘time
dependent effects’)*.
Pipeline pressure is never constant,
and can increase above the MOP, e.g.
due to overpressures (‘operational
effects’).

Load Load Load Load

Failures after 24 hours at constant pressure are unlikely See B Leis, A Cosham, ‘The assessment 21
of time-delayed failure
under constant pressure’, 17th EPRG/PRCI Joint Technical Meeting, Milan 2009.
PRESSURE REDUCTIONS: Examples of Pressure
Reductions
We have two types of guidance for pressure reductions that relate
to the ‘severity’ of damage:

ALL DAMAGE SEVERE DAMAGE


If the defect is very severe (e.g. very long
(with a risk of rupture), or very deep
(>80%wt), or a crack)
’80%’* - For pipe wall defects, ’30% SMYS’ - The pipeline
lower operating pressure to 80% of pressure should be reduced to
that at which defect was the lower of 80% of the
discovered/inflicted, until defect haspressure at which the defect
been assessed. For structural
defects (e.g. buckling) structural was inflicted/discovered, or a
assessments will be needed. hoop stress level of 30%
SMYS
Pressure should be controlled. Overpressures not allowed.
These stress levels can be waived if a risk analysis shows it to be
safe to do so
Note: Reduction to 75% may be required for high toughness materials. 22
See B Leis, A Cosham, ‘The assessment of time-delayed failure under constant pressure’, 17th EPRG/PRCI Joint Technical Meeting, Milan 2009
Pressure Reduction Policy
Reduce pressure when:
▪ A defect is discovered unexpectedly, unless
it is obviously a superficial flaw
▪ An ILI anomaly is categorized as
“Immediate Repair Condition”
▪ When excavating other ILI anomaly
categories and uncertainty exists as to its
nature or severity
▪ In the event of known or suspected
mechanical damage
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Pressure Reduction Policy

Reduce pressure level to:


▪ The calculated safe operating
pressure for the anomaly, or
▪ 80% of recent maximum pressure
level

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API RP 2200
▪ Personnel
▪ Qualified oversight (supervisor, team leader)
▪ Repair personnel should not only be trained but briefed
about issues specific to a particular repair
▪ Careful planning is essential
▪ Training and equipment
▪ Lockout/tagout procedures
▪ Confined space
▪ Worker’s right-to-know
▪ Personal protective equipment
▪ Fire prevention and protection
▪ Emergency response training
▪ Atmospheric testing devices

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API RP 2200
Job Planning details • Shut-down procedures
• Applicable laws and regulations • Leak/rupture spill/flammability
• Permits hazard
• Adjacent utilities • Combustible gas indicator
• One-Call • Toxicity testing
• Traffic control • Check confined space (trench) for
oxygen
• Limit public access • Safe trenching practices
• Shut-down procedures • Support and secure pipe
• Safety-related condition • Confirm wall thickness with UT
• Drain-down/purging • Turn off, lock, tag rectifiers
• Tools and equipment • Electrically bond separation points
• Brief personnel • Cold cut unless area made safe
• Material safety data sheet • Monitor atmosphere
• Maintain communication regarding • Use vapor seals and plugs
pressure and flow

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Pop Quiz
True or false?
• An anomaly is injurious to the pipe______
• A flaw in the pipe requires a repair______
• A pressure reduction during the repair
process is recommended______
• A pressure reduction of 10% may be
appropriate______

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REPAIRABLE PIPELINE DEFECTS

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Types of defects
• Corrosion (internal, external)
• Stress-corrosion cracking
• Long seam defects
• Girth weld defects
• Dents and mechanical damage
• Metallurgical features
• Construction damage
• Damage from natural events
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External corrosion

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Internal corrosion

Microbe-induced
corrosion

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Selective corrosion on
girth welds

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Stress-corrosion
cracking (SCC)

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Lamination affected by
hydrogen blister and
cracking

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ERW Pipe Defects

Cold Bond
(LF only)

Hook Cracks (LF


or HF ERW)

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DSAW Pipe Defects

Hot Cracks

Offset
Beads

Shipment
Fatigue
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Typical
mechanical
damage
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Typical mechanical damage
Note creases in pipe wall (left);
cracking, and crushed
microstructure (below).

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NDE of mechanical damage
Probably a waste of time on gouges in as-found
condition. No gouges should be left in pipe operating at
high stress levels in untreated condition. Grind damage
out first, then do NDE.

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Typical damage from
poor padding during
construction

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Puncture caused by sharp
SCC in rock dent
rock under pipe

Pressure-cycle induced
Coating disbondment and fatigue in rerounded dent
corrosion in rock dent (following removal of rock)

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Damage from seismic
survey shot adjacent to
pipe. Discovered by ILI.

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Lightning damage

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Dresser coupling construction

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Buckles caused during construction

Ripples
in field
bend

Onshore
line

Offshore line
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Buckles due to soil movement

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Girth welds affected by
soil movement

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Some Common
Welding Defects

Slag Inclusions

Hollow Bead (Porosity)

Incomplete
Penetration (IP)

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Some Common Welding Defects

Hydrogen-Induced Cracking
(HIC), High-Low, and
Excess Penetration

External Undercut, Slag


Inclusions, and High-Low
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REPAIRS

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Selection factors
• Codes, standards, regulations
• Company policies
• Effectiveness in situation
• Impact on service
• Feasibility and availability
• Cost and convenience
• Training, quality, NDE

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Types of Repair
• Pipe replacement
• Surface grinding
• Steel sleeves
• Reinforcement
• Pressure containment
• Compression type
• Grout-filled
• Expanded
• Nonmetallic
• Mechanical
• Hot tap and fitting
• Welding
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WELDED SLEEVE REPAIR*

❖ The ‘welded sleeve’ is a very popular repair method.


❖ It is used as a permanent repair method for many types of
damage.
❖ It involves welding* together two ‘half shells’ around the damaged
pipeline, to form a ‘sleeve’.

Two Half shells

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*We will not consider ‘pumpkin’ sleeves – these were used to reinforce old compression couplings. Because they were very
big, they have been used to repair buckles, leaking clamps, etc.. They are considered ‘temporary’.
Type A and Type B Sleeves
• Defect filled with hardenable
material
• Steel half shells closely fitted
around the defect area
• Joined by longitudinal welds
• Ends not welded (Type A) or
welded (Type B)
• Type B sleeves designed to be
pressure containing

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WELDED SLEEVE REPAIR
❖ The welded sleeve involves welding* together two ‘half shells’
around the damaged pipeline, to form a ‘sleeve’.
❖ See API RP 1107 and API STD 1104 for guidance on their
application.
Sleeve Half shell

Half shell
Half shell

Pipeline
(damage under sleeve)

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Non-pressure containing sleeves:
• side seams groove or fillet welds
• end gaps sealed to keep out water

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Pressure-containing:
• side seam must use groove butt welds
• welding procedures for end fillets must be
suitable for pipe metallurgy and cooling rates

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How reinforcing sleeves work

▪ Reinforcing sleeves take up negligible hoop stress (15%). They


restore strength of pipe by restraining bulging at defect.

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WELDED SLEEVE: Effectiveness
Research at AGA showed these sleeves (‘Type B’ – see later)
can strengthen damaged pipe up to a failure stress of 100% SMYS.

Test on 200mm long, 80% wall thickness defect

Welded sleeve did not fail at >30MPa.


Welded sleeve on 762mm diameter, Note bulging of line pipe
17.5mm, X65 pipe, before test
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*Figures from: Jong-hyun Baek , Woo-sik Kim, Young-pyo Kim, ‘Comparative Study For Various Repair Methods Of In-service Pipeline Using Full Scale Burst Test’, 23rd World Gas Conference,
Amsterdam 2006
WELDED SLEEVE: Principles of
operation
Most welded sleeves increase the failure pressure of a damaged
pipe by:
‘stress sharing’ between the sleeve and the damage pipe;
and,
restraint of pipe ‘bulging’.
The next slides explain these benefits in more detail.

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WELDED SLEEVE: Principles of
operation (1)
STRESS SHARING: If the welded sleeve fits around the pipeline perfectly, there
is ‘stress sharing’ – the stress in the carrier pipe is reduced.
If this sleeve is of a similar thickness to the carrier pipe, and applied at a
pressure of Pr, and the pipeline pressure is then increased to Po, the
sleeve shares the increases in stress from Po to Pr.
Thicker sleeves take higher stresses. Any carelessness in fitting will result
in poor stress sharing. 2. DEFECT IS
1. LOAD IS RESTRAINED
TRANSFERRED

REPAIR
DEFECT SHELL

PIPELINE
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WELDED SLEEVE: Principles of
operation (2)
RESTRAINT OF BULGING :The sleeves stop a defect from ‘bulging’ in
the ductile line pipe.
Defects in pressurised pipe bulge outwards prior to failure.
If this bulging is prevented or restricted, the failure is prevented.

2. DEFECT IS
1. LOAD IS RESTRAINED
TRANSFERRED

REPAIR
DEFECT SHELL

PIPELINE

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Methods for
achieving tight fit-
up between
sleeve and pipe

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Use of filler materials

▪ Effectiveness of repair is improved by close fit-


up, fill of annular spaces, and pressure
reduction during installation.

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Use of filler materials

Hardenable filler materials


• Polyester epoxy (e.g. auto body filler or
purpose made resins)
• Work time affected by mix, temperatures
• Apply sleeve prior to cure and squeeze out
excess filler, or
• Allow to harden first then shape the contour
by grinding

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TYPE B SLEEVE*: Close fit and fill
• A Type B sleeve needs to be a ‘close fit’, so grind off weld
reinforcements at DSAW welds and girth welds.

• Filling the annulus with hardenable materials is good


practice (removes any corrosive environment, helps
‘close fit’, and prevents internal pressure within the
annulus)***.

Fill
***’Repair of Pressure Equipment and Piping’, ASME PCC-2-2006. January, 2007, and ASME B31.8 Section 851.42.

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Comments About Sleeves

▪ For Type A, sleeve wall and grade need not match


carrier pipe or meet Barlow equation to be effective.
▪ For Type B, sleeve integrity relies on seam weld quality.
▪ Type B sleeves thicker than the pipe should be edge
tapered to the wall thickness
▪ Tapping thru sleeve and pipe removes hoop stress from
pipe. Not recommended where not absolutely
necessary (taps vulnerable to damage, sleeve becomes
pressure component).

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Edge treatment on sleeves
▪ Unlike the fillet welds on socket welding fittings or
flange hubs, the fillet weld on the end of a repair
sleeve is not structural, even if it is intended to
contain pressure.
▪ In order to avoid excessive stress concentration,
the fillet weld should be no larger than 1.0t, rather
than 1.4t.
▪ If the sleeve is heavier than the pipe, it should be
tapered to nominally 1.0t.
▪ Any gap on fit-up should be added to the fillet leg
dimension.
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Poor fit-up and lack of penetration in
seam weld adversely affects reliability
of pressure-containing sleeves.

Repair sleeve seam consisting of


cap welded over bar stock

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Other sleeve configurations

Dresser 110 – For Dresser 220 – For


repair of girth welds repair of couplings

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Sleeves on pipeline bends

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Epoxy grout-
filled shell
repair sleeve

•No in-service welding


•Annular space accommodates
deformations

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Compression repair sleeve
▪ Concept involves heating the sleeve at the
time of installation
▪ Clamp in place and weld side bar
▪ Involves no welding to the pipeline
▪ Thermal contraction upon cooling creates an
interference fit with the pipeline
▪ This relieves hoop stress in the pipe due to
internal pressure

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Compression repair sleeve

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Compression repair sleeve
Installation quality verified by
measuring amount of shrinkage
after cooling

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Mechanical clamps

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Special enclosures for
leaking flanges

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Mechanical clamps
• Versatile
• Involves no welding (though some can be
welded to make permanent seal)
• Can accommodate out-of-round pipe
• Usually considered “temporary”
• Large sizes are expensive
• Large sizes are very heavy

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Grinding out mechanical damage in
dents
▪ Metal loss caused by gouging is worse than
metal loss caused by corrosion due to surface
damage, cracks, indentation
▪ Mechanical damage can be converted to
ordinary metal loss by removing the
damaged metal
▪ Demonstrated by testing and service
experience

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Effectiveness of grind
repair -- test data

Restoration of
pressure capacity

Improvement of
fatigue life
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Grinding out mechanical damage in
dents
Grind out gouge to smooth contour, to max depth of
40% of wall over limited to length as follows:

1/ 2
  g / t   2

L  (1.25Dt)    1
   1.1g / t  1  
 
Ref: CSA Z662 and “Repair of Pipeline Dents Containing Minor Scratches”
J.F. Kiefner and C.R. Alexander, PRCI L51788, 3/18/99
Damage repaired
by grinding

Inspection by PT and UT
verified removal of any
cracks and adequate
remaining wall.
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Nonmetallic composite wrap repair

▪ Polymer matrix reinforced by oriented


strand or woven fabric
▪ May be preformed to shape or hand laid-
up wet
▪ Chemically bonded to pipe and between
layers, cured in place

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Composite Repairs
• Wide range of products now
available
• Composite sleeves are typically
cured offsite, then attached to
the pipe with adhesives; other
composite repairs are cured on
site.
• Most work by keeping a defect
from bulging. So, the defect
needs to be filled with
hardenable material.
• Can carry some (not a lot) hoop
stresses depending on
installation procedure.
• Generally does NOT carry axial
loads

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Composite wrap repairs
Clockspring®
1. Apply Filler 2. Apply composite wrap
Adhesive repair

5. Coat and
Backfill

3. Wrap

4. Tighten
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COMPOSITE REINFORCEMENT
SLEEVES
• Fibreglass re-inforced composite
material wrapped around the pipe
can restore pipeline strength in the
hoop direction.
• Composites can have 10x the
strength of a steel, and 25% of the ‘ClockspringTM’
weight and can have wide-ranging
applications**.
• They follow the contour of the
pipe/damage.
• They are light and easy to handle.
• No pipeline ‘hot work’ is required. Usually defect is first filled with
high compressive strength filler
material
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COMPOSITE REINFORCEMENT
SLEEVES
• All composite repair systems on
pipelines employ*:
• some type of fibre system that
provides strength and stiffness
(typically glass or carbon fibres);
• a resin matrix used to transfer load
between fibres; and in the case of
‘layered’ systems;
• an adhesive that is used to bond
layers.

*C Alexander, ‘Repairing Damaged Pipelines’, Pipeline and Gas Technology, March 2008 88
COMPOSITE SLEEVES: Caution

• Composite strength tensile strength) and


stiffness (elastic modulus) can diminish
with time.
– The materials must be tested for long
term properties.
• No ‘hot’ work needed on line:
Image from Wrapmaster
– but adhesive used has a limited Literature
Video courtesy of Craig Hall, GE-
working time; PII

– and repair may need several hours of


curing, before the pipeline can be
backfilled.

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COMPOSITE SLEEVES: Caution

• There are now many types of composite


sleeve.
– Use recognised methods**:
• What is the effect of pressure at
time of installation?
Images from Clock Spring Literature
www.clocksprong.com
• Effect of cyclic pressures?
• Effect of surface preparation?
• Repair of mechanical damage?
• Etc.

Usually defect is first filled with high


compressive strength filler material
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**See ASME PCC-2 Article 4.1, Non-Metallic Composite Repair Systems for Pipelines and Pipework: High Risk Applications
COMPOSITE SLEEVES: Caution

• Care should be exercised:


– they are not specifically designed to resist bending or axial
stresses;
– some wraps do not alter MFL indications, so cannot be detected
by pigs;
– technicians need to be trained to apply the repairs.

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TD Williamson
Black-Diamond® CF
composite wrap
repair

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WrapMaster
PermaWrap®
composite wrap
repair

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Armor Plate® composite
wrap repair

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Permabond®
polyurethane sealant-
filled encapsulation
system for leaking
couplings

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The original composite wrap repair

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Composite wrap repairs
• Composite wrap concept extensively tested
• Lightweight and does not corrode
• In-service welding not required
• Requires marking to show up on ILI or
thorough records of installations

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Composite wrap repairs
▪ Effectiveness is a function of stiffness, not
strength. Most products are effective, but not
all demonstrate equal performance.
▪ Suitable for ordinary non-leaking corrosion or
other flaws that have been converted by
grinding to blunt metal loss free of cracks.

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Composite wrap repairs
▪ Low modulus of composite is incapable of
limiting strains in the steel pipe.
▪ Not suitable for:
▪ mechanical damage untreated by grinding
▪ LF-ERW seam defects
▪ selective corrosion
▪ strain-sensitive defects or any situation involving
brittle material behavior

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Hot tapping
• Hot tap may be used to remove a defect
smaller than the tap
• Full-size stopple may be used to isolate
pipeline section for replacing pipe without
interruption of service

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Hot tapping

(Shown: Standard Valve used when


3. A TDW Tapping Machine is
tapping to install lateral lines. 4. The valve is closed,
SANDWICH® Valve installed on the fitting, and and the tapping
Option allows the valve is opened. After machine is removed. A
temporary plugging pilot drill penetrates, the branch connection is
operation.) tapping machine fills with added, and the valve is
product, and air is purged opened. The new
1. A fitting is from the housing. The tap is connection is ready to
permanently secured make through the line and the put into service. This
to the line. coupon is retained. field-proven TDW
2. A permanent Procedure is quick and
valve is installed on precise. Plugging /
the fitting. Completion Plug
Systems

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Hot tapping
The four fittings are
1. permanently secured to
the line.

Temporary SANDWICH®
2. Valves are installed on the
fittings, and taps are made
through the valves.

Two STOPPLE® Plugging


3. Machines are installed.
Product is diverted through
the temporary bypass. The
isolated section is purged.
Modifi cations are made to
the isolated pipe section.
The new section is purged
and equalized, and the
plugging heads are
retracted.

The temporary bypass is


4. removed. LOCK -O-RING®
Plugs are installed in the
STOPPLE® Fittings with a
tapping machine. All
equipment is then removed
and blind flanges are
installed on the fittings to
complete the job.

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Tapping Machine
Tapping Operation
PIPE SECTION REPLACEMENT
• Severe damage may need to be cut out the pipe and replaced by ‘pre-tested’ sections.
• This will require:
• Isolation of flow and pressure, depressurisation and purging of section to be
replaced.
• Hot-tap, Stopple and Bypass to bypass flow if the pipeline must continue to be in
operation, perhaps at a reduced pressure.

Remove

Replace

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Cut out
• If line can be shut down, depressurized, and evacuated, a relatively simple
repair
• If the line cannot be shut down, depressurized, and evacuated, a much
more complicated repair:
– Requires stopple fittings (a way to stop the flow in the pipe) on both
sides of the section to be replaced
– After stopples are activated, section with defect
is depressed, removed, and replaced
• Bypass piping can be connected to stopple
and used to maintain flow.
• Stoppling and by-passing is really expensive

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We can bypass damaged pipe, and maintain flow by constructing a ‘hot tap,
stopple, and bypass’.
HOT TAP: cutting into a live pipeline using a special tee, welded or clamped to the pipe
STOPPLE*: insertion of a temporary plug into the line, through a hot-tap tee, to isolate
BYPASS: attachment of bypass pipe to a pair of hot-tap tees to provide a flow
bypass aroundthe isolated section.
TDW now have a One piece bypass fitting
Freeze plugging
▪ Freeze plugging is used to isolate
a pipe segment containing a
liquid without draining down
entire line
▪ LN2 is circulated within a jacket
around the pipe
▪ Temperatures are monitored to
assure freezing of liquid
▪ Plug is locked in place by thermal
contraction of the pipe
▪ Pipe to be frozen should be
subjected to NDE
▪ If plugged section is on test, plug
should be clear of personnel
In-Service Welding
Production welding procedures are
inappropriate for welding on a line in service
if the line contains a flowing gas or a flowing
or quiescent liquid. Such conditions cause
high weld cooling rates, which, when
combined with susceptible base metal
chemistry and the presence of hydrogen in
the welding environment, may lead to
underbead or hydrogen-induced cracking
(HIC) in the heat-affected zone.

Alan Murray 2017 113


In-Service Welding
Weld cracking is avoided by one or more of the
following:
▪ minimizing hydrogen in the welding
atmosphere by use of low-H electrodes
(E7018) or process (FCAW or GMAW)
▪ welding procedures that provide sufficient
heat input for the pipe material chemistry
and effective cooling rate
▪ temper-bead sequence welding procedures

Alan Murray 2017 114


In-Service Welding
• Maintenance welding procedures are
developed by weld procedure testing,
computer thermal analysis, or measurement
of heat-sink capacity and cooling rates.
• Maintenance welding procedures and
welders are qualified in accordance with
Appendix B in the 19th Edition of API 1104
(supercedes API RP-1107).

Alan Murray 2017 115


WELD METAL DEPOSITION*

We can grind smooth part wall defects in a pipe


wall, and fill the area with weld metal.

116
*This is not ‘puddle welding’, although similar. Puddle welding was often done under poor quality control, and has caused operational failures
WELD METAL DEPOSITION*

It is a simple and direct application of additional wall thickness,


but always use an approved procedure that is applicable to your
line/product/defect.We also need to reduce pressure prior to this
type of repair.

Photograph from: R Gordon et al, ‘Internal Repair of Pipelines Review & Evaluation of 117
Internal Pipeline
Repair Trials Report’, Edison Welding Institute, EWI Project No. 46211GTH. Sept 2004
WELD METAL DEPOSITION:
Advantages
• Gas Research Institute (USA) say weld deposition is feasible to 900 psi
for minimum 0.125” wall thickness pipe. API 1160 limits this to >0.181”
(4.5mm).
• Can be useful where sleeves are not possible - at fittings and bends - or
where access is difficult.
• Fatigue and fracture tests at Edison Welding Institute (USA) have shown
good properties.
• Recognised in ASME B31.8.

118
WELD METAL DEPOSITION:
Concerns
• Defect assessment can usually show it is not needed.
• Possible blow-out or penetration of pipe:
– penetration depends on wall thickness, weld heat input and
removal of heat by flow of fluid inside pipe.
• The pipe’s static and fatigue strength must be restored, and
significant defects must not be introduced (including hydrogen
cracking in the heat affected zone).
• The repair can be difficult to QA, and can show as small pits in an
MFL pig run, due to material change, and may lead to excavation.

119
In-Service Welding
Recommended maintenance procedure
qualification test arrangement
Pipe coupon
inclined at 45
degrees with
fresh water flow.
Simulated repair
sleeve clamped
in place prior to
welding.

Alan Murray 2017 120


In-Service Welding
▪ Welding on a line containing quiescent gas may not
require a special welding procedure. However, if
there is flow or if the sections are thick (e.g., a large
hot-tap), use of low-H is strongly encouraged,
particularly if CE is high.
▪ Preheat is unlikely to be effective where cooling
rates are controlled by product in the line.
▪ If line is under pressure and t < 0.25 inch, use of
low-H electrodes and limits on heat input to avoid
burn-through are strongly encouraged.

Alan Murray 2017 121


In-Service Welding
▪ Assurance that cracking has been avoided is
strengthened by NDE using UT and/or MPT of
the weld, allowing 48 to 72 hours for delayed
cracking effects.
▪ Alternatively, set aside procedure test
coupon for 48 hours and check for cracking
before destructive tests to establish a crack-
proof welding procedure – no delay in field
needed.

Alan Murray 2017 122


Weld metal deposition repair
▪ Codes allow repair of corroded areas by
filling them with weld metal.
▪ Refer to “Guidelines for Weld
Deposition Repair on Pipelines” by Bill
Bruce, EWI, February 24, 1998, A.G.A.
Cat. No. L51782 for further information.
▪ Useful for small areas that cannot be
sleeved, such as bends, elbows, tees.

Alan Murray 2017 123


Weld metal deposition repair
Direct deposition repair
welding procedure
qualification test
arrangement

Direct deposition weld


repair cross section
Alan Murray 2017 124
Pop Quiz
True or false?
• A reinforcement sleeve is ineffective for internal
corrosion_____
• Composite wrap repair is not permanent_____
• Composite wrap repairs cannot be detected by ILI____
• Steel sleeves must match the pipe grade_____
• In-service welds should be made using low-hydrogen
welding____
• The reason for using low-H welding is to avoid cracking____
• Steel sleeves should be tapered to the pipe thickness at their
edges____

Alan Murray 2017 125


CODES, STANDARDS &
REGULATIONS

Alan Murray 2017 126


Applicable documents
Gas Pipelines Liquid Pipelines
▪ 49 CFR 192 ▪ 49 CFR 195
▪ ASME B31.8 ▪ ASME B31.4
▪ ASME B31.8-S ▪ API 1160
▪ CSA Z662 ▪ CSA Z662
▪ PRCI Pipeline Repair ▪ PRCI Pipeline Repair
Manual Manual
▪ Company SOPs ▪ Company SOPs

Alan Murray 2017 127


Repair of Corrosion
Repair Method ASME B31.4 ASME B31.8 CSA Z662
Cut out Yes, as complete cylinder
Grind out No
Yes, if not leaking and
Reinforcement sleeve
not selective on Yes, if not leaking
(Type A)
ERW seam
Pressure-containing
Yes
sleeve (Type B)

Compression sleeve Included as A or B See as A or B Yes

Yes, if not leaking and


d/t<0.80 and not Yes, if not leaking and
Composite wrap No
selective on ERW d/t<0.80
seam
Mechanical clamp Yes Yes No
Yes,
Hot tap or fitting Yes
fitting size < NPS 3

Weld deposition Yes External corrosion only


Repair of cracks
Repair Method ASME B31.4 ASME B31.8 CSA Z662
Cut out Yes, as complete cylinder
Grind out Yes, g/t<0.40 Yes, per corrosion limit
Reinforcement Yes, after grind out
Yes Yes, after grind out
sleeve (Type A) and g/t<0.40
Pressure-containing
Yes
sleeve (Type B)

Compression sleeve Included as A or B See A or B Yes, after grind out

Yes, after grind out


Composite wrap No Yes, after grind out
and g/t<0.40
Mechanical clamp Yes No
Hot tap or fitting Yes No Yes
Weld deposition No
Repair of Mechanical Damage
Repair Method ASME B31.4 ASME B31.8 CSA Z662
Cut out Yes, as complete cylinder
g/t<0.10 any L
Yes, g/t<0.125,
Grind out g/t<0.40 limited L Yes
d/D<0.06
d/D<0.04
Only after removal by
Reinforcement sleeve Only after removal by
grinding and with Only with filler
(Type A) grinding
filler
Pressure-containing
Yes
sleeve (Type B)

Compression sleeve Included as A or B See A or B Yes

Only after removal by Only after removal by


Only if of proven
Composite wrap grinding and with grinding and not in
design
filler a dent
Mechanical clamp Yes No No
Hot tap or fitting No
Weld deposition No
Acceptable repair Methods: API Standard 1160
Anomalies PRIMARY REPAIR STRATEGIES (1)
Weld Metal Type ‘A’ Type ‘B’ Composite Hot Tap
Deposition (2) Sleeve Sleeve Reinforcement
External Pipe Seam Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Metal Loss
Girth Weld Yes Yes Yes Yes No
<80% w.t.
Pipe Body Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Bend Yes Yes (3) Yes (3) Yes (4) Yes
Internal Pipe Seam No No Yes No No
Metal Loss
Girth Weld No No Yes No No
<80% w.t.
Pipe Body No No Yes No Yes
Bend No No (3) Yes (3) No Yes
External Pipe Seam Yes No(8) Yes No(8) No
Metal Loss
Girth Weld Yes No(8) Yes No(8) No
>80% w.t.
Pipe Body Yes No(8) Yes No(8) Yes
Bend Yes No (8) Yes (3) No(8) Yes
Internal Pipe Seam No No Yes No No
Metal Loss
Girth Weld No No Yes No No
>80% w.t.
Pipe Body No No Yes No Yes
Bend No No (3) Yes (3) No Yes

Foot notes to Follow Manana Alan Murray 2017 131


Look at the defect type and size and the operator’s use of appropriate repair
methods.

Defect types can include external and internal defects with greater than 80%
metal loss or less than 80% metal loss.

Repair methods can include repair or replacement.

Compare the operators selected repair methods with industry codes and
standards for acceptable repairs for particular types of defects, including
§195 Subparts C and D,
ASME B31.4 Code, Section 451.6.2
API Standard 1160, and
API Standard 1107

Also, ASME B31.4 Section 451.6.3 addresses testing of repairs to high-pressure


pipelines. It addresses:
pressure testing of replacement pipe sections, and
examination of repair welds

Alan Murray 2017 132