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CHAPTER

EQU ENT FOR


GENERAL USE
INTRODUCTION TO CHAPTER 4—EQUIPMENT FOR GENERAL USE
With the first three chapters behind you, the final chapter in the NEC for building a soiid foundation in general work is Chapter 4.
This chapter helps you apply the first three chapters to installations involving general equipment. These first four chapters fottow a
natural sequential progression. Each of the next four NEC Chapters—5, 6, 7, and 8—build upon the first four, but in no particular
orden You need to understand all of the first four chapters to properly apply any of the next four.

As in the preceding chapters, Chapter 4 is also arranged logically. Here are the groupings:

• Flexible cords and cables, fixture wires, switches, and receptacles.


• Switchboards and panelboards. .;
• Lamps, luminaires, appliances, and space heaters. . . .
• Motors, refrigeration equipment, generators, and transformers.
• Capacitors and other components.

Tfiese groupings make sense. For example, motors, refrigeration equipment, generators, and transformers are all inductive
equipment.

This logical arrangement of the NEC is something to keep in mind when you're searching for a particular Item. You know, for
example, that transformers are general equipment. So you'll find the Code requirements for them in Chapter 4. You know they're
wound devices, so you'll find transformer requirements Iocated somewhere near motor requirements.

• Article 400—Flexible Cords and Flexible Cables. Article 400 covers the general requirements, applications, and
construction specifications for flexible cords and flexible cables.

• Article 402—Fixture Wires. This article covers the general requirements and construction specifications for fixture
wires.

• Article 404—Switches. The requirements of Article 404 apply to switches of all types. These include snap (toggle)
switches, dimmer switches, fan switches, knife switches, circuit breakers used as switches, and automatic switches
such as time docks, timers, and switches and circuit breakers used for disconnecting means.

• Article 406—Receptacles, Cord Connectors, and Attachment Plugs (Caps). This article covers the rating, type,
and installation of receptacles, cord connectors, and attachment plugs (cord caps). It also covers flanged surface
inlets.

• Article 408—Switchboards and Panelboards. Article 408 covers specific requirements for switchboards, panel-
boards, and distribution boards that supply lighting and power circuits.

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Chapter 4 Equipment for General Use

• Article 410—Luminaires, Lampholders, and Lamps. • Article 430—Motors, Motor Circuits, and Controllers.
This articte contains the requirements for luminaires, This article contains the specific requirements for con-
lampholders, and lamps. Because of the many types and ductor sizing, overcurrent protection, control circuit con-
applications of luminaires, manufacturer's instructions ductors, motor controllers, and disconnecting means. The
are very important and helpful for proper installation. installation requirements for motor control centers are
Underwriters Laboratories produces a pamphtet callad covered in Article 430, Part VIH.
the Luminaire l\/larking Guide, which provides information
• Article 440—Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration
for properly installing common types of incandescent, flu-
Equipment. Article 440 applies to electrically driven air-
orescent, and high-intensity discharge (HID) luminaires.
conditioning and refrigeration equipment with a motor-
• Article 411—Lighting Systems Operating at 30V or ized hermetic refrigerant compressor. The requirements
Less. Article 411 covers lighting systems, and their asso- in this article are in addition to, or amend, the require-
ciated components, that opérate at 30V or less. ments in Article 430 and other artictes.

• Article 422—Appliances. This article covers electric • Article 445—Generators. Article 445 contains the elec-
appliances used in any occupancy. trical installation requirements for generators and other
requirements, such as where they can be installed,
• Article 424—Fixed Electric Space-Heating Equipment.
nameplate markings, conductor ampacity, and discon-
Article 424 covers fixed electric equipment used for space
necting means.
heating. For the purpose of this article, heating equipment
includes heating cable, unit heaters, boilers, central sys- • Article 450—Transformers. This article covers the
tems, and other fixed electric space-heating equipment. installation of transformers.
Article 424 doesn't apply to process heating and room
• Article 480—Batteries. Article 480 covers stationary
air-conditioning.
installations of storage batteries.

424 Mike Holt's lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Volume 1
^ T i T i ^ Flexible Cords and
1 ^ i ' j l J Flexible Cables
INTRODUCTION TO ARTICLE 400—FLEXIBLE CORDS AND FLEXIBLE CABLES
This article covers the general requirements, applications, and construction specifications for flexible cords and flexible cables. The NEC
doesn't consider flexible cords to be wiring methods like those defined in Chapter 3.

Always use a cord (and fittings) identified for the application. Table 400.4 will help you in that regard. For example, use cords listed for a wet
location if you're using them outdoors. The jacket material of any cord is tested to maintain its insulation properties and other characteris-
tics in the environments for which its been listed. Tables 400.5(A)(1) and 400.5(A)(2) are also important tables to turn to when looking for the
ampacity of flexible cords and cables.

400.1 Scope. Article 400 covers the general requirements, appli- 400.4 lypes of Flexible Cords and Flexible Cables.
cations, and construction specifications for flexible cords and flexible The use of flexible cords and flexible cables must conform to the
cables as contained in Table 400.4. descriptions contained in Table 400.4.

Author's Comment: Extensión cords must not be used as a Author's Comment: The suffix "W" at the end of a cord type
substituto for fixed wiring [400.8(1)], but they can be used for desígnales that the cord is water and sunlight resistant ¡Table
temporary wiring if approved by the autliority having jurisdiction 400.4, Note 15].
in accordance with 590.2(B).

400.5 Ampacity of Flexible Cords and Flexible


400.3 Suítability. Flexible cords and flexible cables, as well as Cables.
their fittings must be suitable for the use and location. Figure 400-1
(A) Ampacity Tables. Table 400.5(A)(1) lists the allowable ampac-
ity for copper conductors in flexible cords and flexible cables and
400.5(A)(2) lists the allowable ampacity for copper conductors in flex-
Flexible Cords and Flexible Cables - Suitability
400.3 ible cords and flexible cables with not more than three current-carry-
ing conductors at an ambient temperature of 86°F.
Connectors Listed for

Í Wet Locations Where the number of current-carrying conductors in a cable or race-


way exceeds three, the allowable ampacity of each conductor must
be adjusted in accordance with the following multipliers: Figure
400-2

Table 400.5 Adjustment Factor

Current Carrying Ampacity Multíplíer

I I
4 - 6 Conductors 0.80
Flexible cords and flexible cables, as well as their
7-9 Conductors 0.70
frttings must be suitable for the use and location.
10-20 Conductors 0.50
Figure 400-1

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400.7 Flexible Cords and Flexible Cables

A m p a c i t y of Flexible Cords (3) Connection of portable luminaires, portable and mobile signs, or
400.5(A) appliances [422.16].
z
(4) Elevator cables.

(5) Wiring of cranes and hoists.


Where the ambient temperature is other than
(6) Connection of utilization equipment to facilitate frequent inter-
860F, the flexible cord ampacity must be
adjusted using the ambient temperature change [422.16]. Figure 400-3
correction factors from Table 310.15(B)(2)(a).

Flexible C o r d s - Uses Permitted


400.7(A)(6)

VIOLATION
Where more than three current-carrying conductors A flexible cord can be used to [400.7(8)]
are in a flexible cord, the conductor ampacity must connect utilization equipment to
be adjusted in accordance with Table 400.5fA)(3). facilitate frequent interchange. . Pendant . ,
[400.7(A)(1)]

Figure 400-2

If the ambient temperature is other than 86°F, the flexible cord or


flexible cable ampacity, as listed in Tabie 400.5(A)(1) or 400.5(A)(2),
must be adjusted by using the ambient temperature correction factors Utilization e q u i p m e n t supplied by a flexible cord
listed in Table 310.15(B)(2)(a). must h a v e an attachment plug [400.7(8)].

There's no m á x i m u m length requirement for cords.


Author's Comments:
Figure 400-3
• Temperature ratings for flexible cords and flexible cables
aren't contained in the NEC, but UL listing standards state that
flexible cords and flexible cables are rated for 60°C unless (7) Prevention of the transmission of noise or vibration [422.16].
marked otherwise.
(8) Appliances where the fastening means and mechanical connec-
• See 400.13 for overcurrent protection requirements for flexi-
tions are specifically designed to permit ready removal for main-
ble cords and flexible cables.
tenance and repair, and the appliance is intended or identified for
flexible cord connections [422.16].
400.7 Uses Permitted.
(9) Connection of moving parts.
(A) Uses Permitted. Flexible cords and flexible cables within the
scope of this article can be used for the following applications: (10) If specifically permitted elsewhere in this Code.

(1) Pendants [210.50(A) and 314.23(H)]. Author's Comment: Flexible cords and flexible cables are per-
mitted for fixed permanent wiring by 501.10(A)(2) and (B)(2),
Author's Comment: Only cords identified for use as pendants 501.140, 502.4(A)(1)(e), 502.4(B)(2), 503.3(A)(2), 550.10(8),
in Table 400.4 may be used for pendants. 553.7(8), and 555.13(A)(2).

(2) Wiring of luminaires [410.24(A) and 410.62(6)].

426 Mike HoiVs lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Volume 1
Flexible Cords and Flexible Cables

(B) Attachment Plugs. Attachment plugs are required for flexible Flexible Cords - Not T h r o u g h Ceiüngs
400.8(2;
cords used in any of the following applications: Figure 400-4

' Portable luminaires, portable and mobile signs, or appli-


ances [400.7(A)(3)].
• Stationary equipment to facilitate its frequent interchange
[400.7(A)(6) and 422.16]. S u s p e n d e d Ceiling

* Appliances specifically designed to permit ready removal VIOLATION


for maintenance and repair, and identified for flexible cord
connection [400.7(A)(8)].

Flexible Cord - A t t a c h m e n t Plug


400.7(B)

Attachment Plugs ; Cords aren't permitted to be run through walls, structural


ceilings, s u s p e n d e d ceilings, d r o p p e d ceilings, or floors.

Portable Figure 400-5

Appliance Luminaire
Identified for
Cord Use Flexible Cord - T h r o u g h Cabinets
400.8(2)

Flexible cords must have an attachment plug for:


• Portable luminaires or appliances [400.7(A)(3)]
• Equipment to facilitate frequent interchange [400.7(A)(6)]
•Appliances identified for flexible cord usage [400.7(A)(8)]

Figure 400-4

Author's Comment: An attachment plug can serve as the dis-


connecting means for stationary appliances [422.33] and room
air conditioners [440.63].

400.8 Uses Not Permitted. Unless specifically permitted in Rgure40O-€


400.7, flexible cords must not be:

(1) Used as a substituto for the fixed wiring of a structure. (3) Run through doonways, Windows, or similar openings.

(2) Run through holes in walls, structural ceilings, suspended or (4) Attached to building surfaces.
dropped ceilings, or floors. Figure 400-5
(5) Concealed by walls, floors, or ceilings, or iocated above sus-
pended or dropped ceilings. Figure 400-7
Author's Comment: According to an article in the International
Associaíion of Electrical Inspectors magazine {lAEl New^. a
flexible cord installed through a cabinet for an appliance isn't
considered as being installed through a wall. Figure 400-6

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400.10 Flexible Cords and Flexible Cables

Flexible Cords - A b o v e S u s p e n d e d Ceilings Flexible Cords - A b o v e S u s p e n d e d Ceilings


400.8(5) 400.8(5)

^ , , 7^ . " Receptacles
^ A receptacle above a s u s p e n d e d ^ ^.
Suspended ceiling might be desirable for the
Ceiling ^ ^ } use of portable e q u i p m e n t or tools.

VIOLATION
Flexible cords can't be concealed by
walls, floors, or ceilings or Iocated Suspended
above suspended or dropped ceilings. Ceiling
\

n r f exible Cords O k a y
^ Under Raised Floor VIOLATION
Flexible cords used as a wiring
method aren't permitted above V C«pyn9N2011
a s u s p e n d e d ceiling.

Figure 400-7
Figure 400-8

Author's Comments:

• Flexible cords are permitted under a raised floor (with remov-


Cord - No Tensión at Termináis
able paneis) used for environmental air, because this área 400.10
isn't considered a concealed space. See the definition of
"Exposed" in Article 100.

• Receptacles are permitted above a suspended ceiling, but a


flexible cord isn't. Why install a receptacle above a ceiling if
the flexible cord isn't permitted in this space? Because the
receptacle can be used for portable tools; it just can't be used
for cord-and-plug-connected equipment fastened in place,
such as a projector. Figure 400-8

(6) Installed in raceways, except as permitted elsewhere in the Code.


Flexible cords must be installed so that tensión
(7) If subject to physical damage.
JUlJjJlJl^on't be transmitted to the conductor termináis.

Author's Comment: Even cords listed as "extra-hard usage"


Figure 400-9
must not be used where subject to physical damage.

Author's Comment: When critical health and economic activi-


400.10 Pulí at Joints and Termináis. Flexible cords must
ties are dependent on flexible cord-supplied equipment, the best
be installed so tensión won't be transmitted to the conductor termi-
method is a factory-made, stress-relieving, listed device, not an
náis.
oid-timer's knot.

Note: This can be accomplished by knotting the cord, winding the


cord with tape, or by using fittings designed for the purpose, such as
strain-relief fittings. Figure 400-9

428 Mike HolVs lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Volume 1
Flexible Cords and Flexible Cables 400.23

400.14 Protection from Damage. Flexible cords must be 400.23 Equipment Grounding Conductor Identifica-
protected by bushings or fittings where passing through holes in tion. A conductor intended to be used as an equipment grounding
covers, outlet boxes, or similar enclosures. conductor must have a continuous green color or a continuous identi-
fying marker distinguishing it from the other conductor(s). Conductors
In industrial estabiishments where the conditions of maintenance and
with green insulation, or green with one or more yellow stripes must
supervisión ensure that only qualified persons will service the instal-
not be used for an ungrounded or neutral conductor [250.119].
lation, flexible cords or flexible cables not exceeding 50 ft can be
installed in aboveground raceways.

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Fixture Wires 402.12

402.8 Neutral Conductor. Fixture wire used as a neutral con- Author's Comment: Fixture wires can also be used for
ductor must be identified by continuous white stripes. elevators and escalators [620.11 (C)], Class 1 control and power-
limited circuits [725.49(B)], and nonpower-limited fire alarm
Author's Comment: To prevent electric sliocl<, the screw shell circuits [760.49(B)].
of a luminaire or lampholder must be connected to the neutral
conductor [200.10(C) and 410.50], Figure 402-2
402.11 Uses Not Permitted. Fixture wires must not be used
for branch-circuit wiring, except as permitted elsewhere in the Code.
Figure 402-4
Screw-Shell Terminal Identification
200.10(C)

; The neutral conductor must VIOLATION Fixture W i r e - Uses Not Permitted


I be connected to the screw shell. Reverse Polarity 402.11

Fixture wires can't be


Correct polarity of a screw shell used for branch-circuit wiring.
keeps the screw shell threads
from being energized. This
reduces the chance of getting a

1
shock w h e n replacing a lamp.
See 2 0 0 . 1 1 . Control
Device Fixture wires can be used for
Class 1 circuits [725.49(B)].
Copyngtit 2011, www MHieHolt com Á
Rgure 402-2

ñ ^ r e 402-4

402.10 Uses Permitted.


(2) Fixture wires are permitted for the connection of luminaires.
402.12 Overcurrent Protection. ñ x t u r e wires must be pro-
Rgure 402-3
tected against overcurrent according to the requirements contained
in 240.5.

Fixture Wires - Uses Permitted Author's Comment: Fixture wires used for motor control cir-
402.10(2) cuit taps must have overcurrent protection in accordance with
430.72(A), and Class 1 remote-control circuits must have over-
current protection in accordance with 725.43.

Fixture wires are permitted for the connection of a


single luminaire to the branch-circuit conductors.

Copyright 2011, www M*eHon.oom

Figure 402-3

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Switches
INTRODUCTION TO ARTICLE 4 0 4 ^ W I 1 C H E S
The requirements of Article 404 apply to switches of all types, including snap (toggle) switches, dimmer switches, fan switches, knife
switches, circuit breakers used as switches, and automatic switches, such as time docks and timers.

404.1 Scope. The requirements of Articie 404 apply to all types of Switch C o n n e c t i o n s - 3- and 4 - W a y
404.2(A)
switches, switching devices, and circuit breakers used as switches.
Figure 404-1

Switches - Scope
404.1

1
A

J White Conductor
1 U s e d a s Traveler f

All 3-way a n d 4 - w a y switching must


be d o n e with the u n g r o u n d e d conductor.
Copyright 2011

Rgure 404-2
The requirements of Article 4 0 4 apply to all types
of switches, such as snap (toggle) switches, knife
switches, circuit breakers used as switches, a n d Author's Comment: In other words, the neutral conductor must
automatic switches such as time d o c k s . not be switched, The white insulated conductor within a cable
assembly can be used for single-pole, 3-way, or 4-way switch
Figure 404-1 loops if it's permanently reidentified to indícate its use as an
ungrounded conductor at each location where the conductor is
visible and accessible [200.7(C)(2)].
404.2 Switch Connections.
If a metal raceway or metal-ciad cable contains the ungrounded con-
(A) Three-Way and Four-Way Switches. Wiring for 3-way and
ductors for switches, the wiring must be arranged to avoid heating
4-way switching must be done so that only the ungrounded conduc-
the surrounding metal by induction. This is accomplished by install-
tors are switched. Figure 404-2
ing all circuit conductors in the same raceway in accordance with
300.3(B) and 300.20(A), or ensuring that they're al! within the same
cable.

432 Mike Hoit's lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Volume 1
Switches 404.2
ik--

Ex: A neutral conductor isn't required in the same raceway or cable Ex: A switch or circuit breaker is permitted to disconnect a grounded
mth travelers and switch leg (switch loop) conductors. Figure 404-3 circuit conductor where it disconnects all circuit conductors
simultaneousiy.

(C) Switches Controlling Lighting Loads. Switches controlling line-


Neutral Conductor - Travelers a n d Switch Loops
404.2(A) Ex to-neutral lighting loads must have a neutral provided at the switch
location.

Ex: The neutral conductor isn't required at the switch location if:

I
(1) The conductors for switches enter the device box through a race-
way that has sufficient cross-sectional área to accommodate a
neutral conductor Figure 404-5

A neutral conductor isn*t


required to a switch box.
Neutral at Switch Outlets - R a c e w a y s
404.2(C) Ex (1)
A neutral conductor isn't required
to be in the s a m e raceway or cable
with travelers and switch legs.
Copyfif^ 2011. wwwMkeHoLoom

l
Rgure 404^3

(B) Switching Neutral Conductors. Only the ungrounded conduc-


A neutral conductor isn't required at the
tor is permitted to be used for switching, and the grounded conduc- sv^tch device box if the raceway has
tor must not be disconnected by switches or circuit breakers. Figure s u f ñ c i e n t área to add a neutral conductor.
404-4

CopyngM 2011. www.MkeHoH com

Switch Connections - Single Pole


Figure 404-5
404.2(B)

W h i t e Colored C o n d u c t o r (2) Cable assemblies for switches enter the box through a framing
(not neutral) Supply to S w i t c h cavity that's open at the top or bottom on the same floor level,
or switches enter the box through a wall, floor, or ceiling that's
unfinished on one side. Figures 404-6 and 404-7
All switching must be d o n e with
the ungrounded conductor. Note: The purpose of the neutral conductor is to complete a
circuit path for electronic lighting control devices.

Switch L e g

A permanently reidentified w h i t e conductor within a


cable can be used as an u n g r o u n d e d conductor for
switching purposes [200.7(C)(1)].

Figure 4 0 4 ^

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404.3 Switches

n Neutral at Switch Outlets - Cable Switch Enclosures Used as


404.2(C) Ex (2) R a c e w a y or Spiices
404.3(B)
A neutral isn't required at a switch device box
wired with cable if the framing cavity is through a
wall. floor. or ceiling that's unfinished on one side.

A switch or circuit breaker enclosure


can be used as a raceway if the
conductor fill doesn't exceed 4 0 % ,
Illllllllll a n d spiices are permitted if the fill
doesn't e x c e e d 7 5 % [312.8].

. . . . . . . . .7^

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» * f » » * f ». - .. »

Figure 404-6 Rgure 404-8

Neutral at Switch Outlets - Cable


404.4 Damp or Wet Locations.
404.2(0 Ex (2)
(A) Surface-Mounted Switches or Circuit Breakers. Surface-

f
Suspended,
ouspenoea _ *—*—«
Ceiling | mounted switches and circuit breakers in a damp or wet location
must be installed in a weatherproof enclosure. The enclosure must
be installed so not less than VA in. of airspace is provided between
A neutral isn't required at a switch device box wired
the enclosure and the wall or other supporting surface [312.2]. Rgure
with cable if the framing cavity is open at the top or
bottom on the s a m e floor level. 404-9

u
Switches - Damp or Wet Locations,
Surface Mounted

r
a
404.4(M
Copyn^201I

Rgure 404^7 Weatherproof


Enclosure Weatherproof
n Box a n d Cover
404.3 Switch Enclosures.
(A) General. Switches and circuit breakers used as switches must be
of the externally operable type mounted in an enclosure listed for the
ÉiÚÉÉÉÚ
A surface-mounted switch or circuit breaker Iocated
intended use. in a d a m p or wet location must be enclosed in a
weatherproof enclosure or cabinet.
(B) Used for Raceways or Spiices. Switch or circuit-breaker enclo-
sures can contain spiices and taps if the spiices and/or taps don't fill Rgure 404-^
the wiring space at any cross section to more than 75 percent. Switch
or circuit-breaker enclosures can have conductors feed through them
if the wiring doesn't fill the wiring space at any cross section to more (B) Flush-Mounted Switches or Circuit Breakers. A flush-mounted
than 40 percent in accordance with 312.8. Rgure 404-8 switch or circuit breaker in a damp or wet location must have a
weatherproof cover. Rgure 404-10

434 Mike HolVs lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Volume 1
Switches 404.7

Switches - Damp or Wet Locations Exception: The blades and termináis suppiying the load can be ener-
Flush-Mounted
gized when the switch is in the open position. For such installations,
~404.4{B¡
a permanent sign must on the switch enclosure or immediateiy adja-
cent to open switch is required to read:

• WARNING — LOAD SIDE TERMINALS MAY BE


ENERGIZED BY BACKFEED.
A flush-mounted switch or
circuit breaker in a damp
or wet location must have 404.7 Indicating. Switches, motor circuit switches, and cir-
cuit breakers used as switches must be marked to indícate whether
they're in the "on" or "off" position. When the switch is operated ver-
tically, it must be installed so the "up" position is the "on" position
[240.81]. Figure 404-12

Figure 404-10
Switches - Indicating
404.7
(C) Switches in Bathtub or Shower Spaces. Switches can be
Iocated next to but not within a bathtub, hydromassage bathtub,
or shower space unless installed as part of a listed tub or shower On
assembly. Figure 404-11 Indicating Off
(Up) V Indicating

Switches in Bathtub or Shower Spaces


404.4(0}
For devices operated vertically, the
O N position must be the U P position.

On Off
Indicating Indicating
Tub or
Shower
Figure 404-12
CopyngW ?011, « w i . M*eHoH com

Switches can't be installed within wet locations


in tub or shower spaces unless installed as part Ex 1: Double-throw switches, such as 3-way and 4-way switches,
of a listed tub or shower assembly.
aren't required to be marked "on" or "off."
Figure 404-11
Ex 2: On busway installations, tap switches employing a center-piv-
oting handie can he open or closed with either end of the handie in

404.6 Position of Knife Switches. the up or down position. The switch position must be clearly indicated
and must be visible from the floor or from the usual point of operation.
(A) Single-Throw Knife Switch. Single-throw knife switches must
be installed so gravity won't tend to cióse them.

(C) Connection of Switches. Single-throw knife switches, molded


case switches, and circuit breakers used as switches must have the
termináis suppiying the load deenergize when the switch is in the
open position.

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404.8 Switches

404.8 Accessibility and Grouping. Height of Mobile Home


Outside Disconnecting Means
(A) Location. Switches and circuit breakers used as switches must 550.32(F)
be capable of being operated from a readily accessible location. They
The center of the operating
must also be installed so the center of the grip of the operating handie
handie must not be more
of the switch or circuit breaker, when in its highest position, isn't than 6 ft 7 in. high.
more than 6 ft 7 in. above the floor or working platform [240.24(A)].
Figure 404-13

Switch - Mounting Height


404.8(A) Bottom of Enclosure
Not Less T h a n 2 ft
i A b o v e Finished G r a d e
1
Copyrtl^ 201t. wwwMkaHolLoDni
n . • i
1
1 : Figure 404-14

• 6ft7in.
The m á x i m u m height of
switches/circuit breakers
is 6 ft 7 in. measured from
Switch - Adjacent to Equipment
404.8(A) Ex 2

Máximum the center of the handie


in the " o n " position.

There's no minimum height for switches.


Copy(>alit2ai1. www.MikeHolLaxn A switch, or a circuit breaker
used as a switch, can be mounted
Figure 404-13
higher than 6 ft 7 in. if Iocated next
to the e q u i p m e n t it supplies.

Author's Comment: The disconnecting means for a mobile


home must be installed so the bottom of the enclosure isn't
Copyright 3011, wwwMlaHoN.oom
less than 2 ft above the finished grade or working platform
[550.32{F)]. Figure 404-14
Figure 404-15
Ex 1: On busways, fusible switches and circuit breakers can be
Iocated at the same level as the busway where suitable means is pro-
404.9 Switch Faceplates.
vided to opérate the handie of the device from the floor
(A) Mounting. Faceplates for switches must be installed so they
Ex 2: Switches and circuit breakers used as switches can be mounted
completely cover the outlet box opening and, where flush mounted,
above 6 ñ 7 in. if they're next to the equipment they supply and are
the faceplate must seat against the wall surtace.
accessible by portable means [240.24{A)(4)]. Figure 404-15
(B) Grounding. The metal mounting yokes for switches, dimmers,
(B) Voltage Between Devices. Snap switches must not be grouped
and similar control switches must be connected to an equipment
or ganged in enclosures with other snap switches, receptacles, or
grounding conductor o í a type recognized in 250.118, whether or not
similar devices if the voltage between devices exceeds 300V, unless
a metal faceplate is installed. The meta! mounting yoke is considered
the devices are separated by barriers. Figures 404-16 and 404-17
part of the effective ground-fault current path [250.2] by the use of
one of the following means:

Mike Hoifs Iilustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Volume 1
Switches 404.9

T h e switch is c o n n e c t e d to an effective ground-fault


I current path w h e n the yoke (strap) is mounted with
! metal screws to a metal box.
The m á x i m u m voltage b e t w e e n S n a p switches, d i m m e r s , a n d similar control switches
adjacent devices can't exceed 300V. must be connected to an equipment grounding conductor
Copyoghl 2011. •ww.MJkeHolLcom whether or not a metal faceplate is installed [404.9(B)].

Figure 404-16 Figure 404-18

Voltage Between Adjacent Devices Switches - E G C - Nonmetallic Boxes

T h e metal mounting yoke of a switch must be


c o n n e c t e d to an e q u i p m e n t grounding conductor
The m á x i m u m voltage between adjacent devices can or an e q u i p m e n t bonding jumper.
exceed 300V if identified barriers are securely installed.

Figure 404-17 Figure 404-19

the existing switch doesn't contain an equipment grounding conduc-


(1) Mounting Screw. The switch is mounted with metal screws to a
tor, and the switch faceplate is nonmetallic with nonmetallic screws,
metal box or a metal cover that's connected to an equipment ground-
or the replacement switch is GFCI protected.
ing conductor of a type recognized in 250.118. Figure 404-18
Ex 2: Listed assemblies aren't required to be connected to an equip-
Author's Comment: Direct metal-to-metal contact between the
ment grounding conductor if all of the following conditions are met:
device yoke of a switch and the box isn't required.
(1) The device ís provided with a nonmetallic faceplate that can't be
(2) Equipment Grounding Conductor. An equipment grounding con- installed on any other type of device,
ductor or equipment bonding jumper is connected to the grounding
(2) The device doesn't have mounting means to accept other config-
terminal of the metal mounting yoke. Figure 404-19
urations of faceplates,
Ex 1: The metal mounting yoke of a replacement switch isn't required
(3) The device is equipped with a nonmetallic yoke, and
to be connected to an equipment grounding conductor If the wiring at

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 437


404.10 Switches

Circuit Breakers Used as Switches


(4) All parts of the device that are accessible after installation of the 240.d3(D)
faceplate are manufactured of nonmetallic material.

Ex 3: A snap switch with an integral nonmetallic enclosure compiying


with 300.15(E).

404.10 Mounting Snap Switches.

(B) Mounting of Snap Switches. Snap switches installed in recessed Circuit breakers used to switch 120V or 277V fluorescent
lighting circuits must be listed a n d marked " S W D " or "HID.
boxes must have the ears of the switch yoke seated firmiy against the Circuit breakers used to switch high-intensity discharge
finished wall surface. lighting circuits must be listed and marked "HID."

Author's Comment: tn walls or ceilings of noncombustible


material, such as drywail, boxes must not be set back more than
VA in. from the finished surface. In combustible walls or ceilings,
boxes must be flush with, or project slightiy from, the finished
Figure 404-21
surface [314.20]. There must not be any gaps more than Vs in.
at the edge oí the box [314.21].
404.12 Grounding of Enclosures, Metal enclosures for

404.11 Circuit Breakers Used as Switches. a manuaiiy switches and circuit breakers used as switches must be connected

operable circuit breaker used as a switch must show when it's in the to an equipment grounding conductor of a type recognized in 250.118

"on" (closed) or "off" (open) position [404.7]. Figure 404-20 [250.4(A)(3)]. Nonmetallic boxes for switches must be installed using
a wiring method that includes an equipment grounding conductor.

Circuit Breakers Used as Switches 404.14 Rating and Use of Snap Switches.
404.11
(A) Alternating-Current General-Use Snap Switches. Altemating-
current general-use snap switches can control:

(1) Resistivo and inductive loads, including electric-discharge lamps


that don't exceed the ampere rating of the switch, at the voltage
i n volved.

(2) Tungsten-filament lamp loads not exceeding the ampere rating of


Amanually operable
circuit breaker used the switch at120V.

as a switch must show (3) Motor loads rated 2 hp or less that don't exceed 80 percent of the
when it's on the "On"
ampere rating of the switch. See 430.109(C).
or " O r position.
(B) Alternating-Current or Direct-Current General-Use Snap
CopyngM 2010, * w w M k e H o « com
Switch. A form of general-use snap switch suitable for use on either
Figure 404-20 alternating-current or direct-current circuits for controlling:

(1) Resistivo loads not exceeding the ampere rating of the switch at

Author's Comment: Circuit breakers used to switch fluo- the voltage applied.
rescent lighting must be listed and marked "SWD" or "HID."
(2) Inductive loads not exceeding 50 percent of the ampere rating of
Circuit breakers used to switch high-intensity discharge lighting
the switch at the applied voltage or rated in horsepower for motor
must be listed and must be marked "HID" [240.83(D)], Figure
loads.
404-21
(3) Tungsten-filament lamp loads not exceeding the ampere rating of
the switch at the applied voltage if T-rated.

438 Mike HoiVs Iilustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National El0ctrical Code, Volume 1
Switches 404.15

CO/ALR Snap Switches. Snap switches rated 20A or less con- 404.15 Switch Marking.
ted to aluminum wire must be marked CO/ALR. See 406.3(C).
(A) Maricings. Switches must be marked with the current, volt-
age, and if horsepower rated, the máximum rating for which they're
Author's Comment: According to UL listing requirements, alu-
minum conductors must not termínate in screwless (push-in) designed.

termináis of a snap switch (UL White Book, Guide Information for (B) Off Indication. If in the off position, a switching device with a
Electrical Equipment, www.ul.com/regulators/2008_WhiteBook.
marked "off" position must completely disconnect all ungrounded
Pdf).
conductors of the load it controls.

(E) Dimmers. GeneraLuse dimmer switches are only permitted to


Author's Comment: If an electronic occupancy sensor is used
control permanently installed incandescent luminaires. Figure 404-22 for switching, voltage will be present and a small current of 0.05
mA can flow through the circuit when the switch is in the "off"
position. This small amount of current can startie a person, per-
Dimmer haps causing a fall. To solve this probiem, manufacturers have
404.14(E) simply removed the word "off" from the switch. Figure 404-23
VIOLATION
A d i m m e r isn't listed
to control a receptacle.
S w i t c h - Markings
404.15(B)

. Motion Detector
Switch
S n a p Switch with
Automatic and
Manual "ON"
®

I General-use dimmer switches can only be used


to control permanently installed incandescent
luminaires, unless listed for control of other loads.

Figure 404-22
I
A motion detector switch has load-side current even w h e n
it's not o n . It can't have a m a r k e d O F F position because it
doesn't completely disconnect the load it controls.

Figure 404-23

mke Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 439


Receptacles, Cord
ARTICLE
Connectors, and
406 Attachment Plugs (Caps)
INTRODUCTION TO ARTICLE 406—RECEPTACLES, CORD CONNECTORS, AND AHACHMENT
PLUGS (CAPS)
This article covers the rating, type, and installation of receptacles, cord connectors, and attachment plugs (cord caps). It also addresses their
grounding requirements. Some key points to remember include:

• Follow the grounding requirements of the specific type of device you're using.
• Próvido GFCI protection where specified by 406.4(D)(3).
• Mount receptacles according to the requirements of 406.5, which are highiy detailed.

406.1 Scope. Article 406 covers the rating, type, and installation Isolated Ground Receptacle (IGR)
of receptacles, cord connectors, and attachment plugs (cord caps). 406.3(D)

406.2 Definitions,

Child Care Facility. A building/structure or portions thereof used for


educational, supervisión, or personal care services for five or more Face of IGR Can
be A n y Color
children seven years in age or less.

406.3 Receptacle Rating and TVpe.


A n IGR is identified by an
(C) Receptacles for Aluminum Conductors. Receptacles rated 20A orange triangle (a.) Iocated
or less for use with aluminum conductors must be marked CO/ALR. on the face of the receptacle.

Author's Comment: According to UL listing requirements, alu- C c f v r i l ^ 2011. www MkeHoacnTi

minum conductors must not termínate in screwless (push-in)


Figure 406-1
termináis of a receptacle (UL White Book, Guide Information for
Electrical Equipment, www,ul.com/regulators/2008_WhiteBook.
pdf). (2) Receptacles having insulated grounding termináis (isolated
ground receptacles) installed in nonmetallic boxes must be cov-
(D) Isolated Ground Receptacles. Receptacles of the isolated
ered with a nonmetallic faceplate, because a metal faceplate
grounding conductor type must be identified by an orange triangle
secured to an isolated ground receptacle isn't connected to an
marking on the face of the receptacle. Figure 406-1
equipment grounding conductor This connection is usually made
(1) Receptacles having insulated grounding termináis (isolated through the yoke of the receptacle, but with isolated ground
ground receptacles) must have the grounding contact connected receptacles the yoke isn't connected to the isolated equipment
to an insulated equipment grounding conductor installed with the grounding conductor [250.4(A)(3)]. Figure 406-3
circuit conductors, in accordance with 250.146(0). Figure 406-2

440 Mike HolVs lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Volume 1
Receptacles, Cord Connectors, and Attachment Plugs (Caps) 406.4

Single Receptacle Rating


Isolated G r o u n d Receptacle (IGR)
210.21(B)(1)
406.3(D)(1)
3 0 A Overcurrent Device
3 0 A Single Receptacle

30A
Individual
T h e nnetal yoke is Branch Circuit
Isolated from the
ground terminal. 20A Overcurrent Device
2 0 A Single Receptacle

2 0 A Individual
Branch Circuit
I An isolated ground receptacle must be connected
A single receptacle on an individual branch circuit
i to an insulated equipment grounding conductor. must have an a m p e r e rating of not less than the
Copyright 2011, www.MiKeHolt-com rating of the circuit overcurrent device.

Figure 406-2 Figure 406-4

IGR - Metal Faceplates


406.3(D)(2)

: A metal faceplate can't be installed on an IG receptacle


; in a nonmetallic box because the faceplate can't be on 20A multioutlet circuits.
i connected to an equipment grounding conductor ( E G C ) . Copyright 2Q)1
www MitieHofl.com

Figure 406-3 Figure 406-5

406.4 General Installatlon Requirements.


Table 210.21(B)(3) Receptacle Ratings
(A) Grounding Type. Receptacles installed on 15A and 20A branch
Circuit Rating Receptacle Rating
circuits must be of the grounding type. Single receptacles must
15A 15A
have an ampere rating not less than the rating of the branch circuit
[210.21(B)(1)], and multioutlet receptacles (dúplex receptacles) must 20A 15A or 20A

have a rating in accordance with Table 210.21(B)(3). Figures 406-4 30A 30A
and 406-5 40A 40A or 50A
50A 50A

Ex: Nongrounding-type receptacles are permitted for replacement in


an existing outlet box if no equipment grounding conductor exists in
the outlet box, in accordance with 406.5(0).

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) •


441
406.4 Receptacles, Cord Connectors, and Attachment Plugs (Caps)

(B) To be Grounded. Receptacles of the grounding type must have an Replacing a N o n g r o u n d i n g - T y p e Receptacle
No Equipment Grounding Conductor at Outlet Box
equipment grounding conductor contact, and must have that contact
406.4(D}(2)
connected to an equipment grounding conductor

Must be marked
Ex 2: Replacement receptacles aren't required to have their grounding
"No Equipment
contacts connected to an equipment grounding conductor if the recep- I •;
Ground."
tacles are GFCI protected and installed in accordance with 406A(D).
No E q u i p m e n t Grounding Conductor Connected
(C) Methods of Equipment Grounding. The grounding termináis for
receptacles must be connected to an equipment grounding conductor Must be m a r k e d
• I. Must be marked
'No Equipment
supplied with the branch-circuit wiring.
Ground." "GFCI-Protected.
Author's Comment: See 250.146 for the specific requirements No Equipment
on connecting the grounding termináis of receptacles to the cir- Ground."
Existing Wiring
cuit equipment grounding conductor. Figure 406-6 Copynghl 2011

: I^ 1 Must be marked
iI I) "GFCI-Protected.
Receptacle Grounding Terminal I • No Equipment
7i I r
250.146 Ground."
r r

N o E q u i p m e n t Grounding Conductor Connected

Figure 406-7
Receptacle
Grounding (c) A grounding-type receptacle, if GFCI protected and marked "GFCi
Contacts
Protected" and "No Equipment Ground."

Grounding
Author's Comment: GFCi protection functions properly on
Terminal
a 2-wire circuit without an equipment grounding conductor
because the circuit equipment grounding conductor serves no
An equipment bonding jumper, sized in accordance
with 250.122, must connect the grounding terminal role in the operation of the GFCi-protection device. See the defi-
of the receptacle to the metal box. nition of "Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupter" for more information.
Figure 406-8
Figure 406-6

/ \: The permission to replace nongrounding-


' * type receptacles with GFCI-protected grounding-type
(D) Receptacle Replacement. receptacles doesn't apply to new receptacle outlets

(1) Grounding-Type Receptacles. If an equipment grounding con- that extend from an existing outlet box that's not connected to
an equipment grounding conductor Once you add a recepta-
ductor exists, grounding-type receptacles must replace nonground-
cle outlet (branch-circuit extensión), the receptacle must be
ing-type receptacles, and the receptacle's grounding terminal must be
of the grounding type and it must have its grounding terminal
connected to an equipment grounding conductor in accordance with
connected to an equipment grounding conductor of a type
406.4(C).
recognized in 250.118, in accordance with 250.130(0).
(2) Nongrounding-Type Receptacles. If no equipment ground- Figure 406-9
ing conductor exists in the outlet box for the receptacle, such as oíd
2-wire Type NM cable without an equipment grounding conductor, (3) GFCI Protection Required. When existing receptacles are

existing nongrounding-type receptacles can be replaced in accor- replaced in locations where GFCI protection is currently required,

dance with (a), (b), or (c): Figure 406-7 the replacement receptacles must be GFCI protected. This includes
the replacement of receptacles in dwetting unit bathrooms, garages,
(a) Another nongrounding-type receptacle. outdoors, crawl spaces, unfinished basements, kitchen countertops,

(b) A GFCI-type receptacle marked "No Equipment Ground." rooftops, or within 6 ft of laundry, utility, and wet bar sinks.

442 Mike Holt's lllustrated Guide to Understanding tlie 2011 National Electrical Code, Volume 1
Receptacles, Cord Connectors, and Attachment Plugs (Caps)

Equipment Grounding Conductor Not


(2) A receptacle protected by a listed (receptacle) outlet branch-cir-
Necessary for Proper GFCI Protection
GFCI I , cuit type arc-fault circuit-interrupter type receptacle.
Device r t r —• Existing 2-wire N M cable
(no ground) branch circuit (3) A receptacle protected by a listed combination type arc-fault cir-
cuit interrupter type circuit breaker.
•Line

9,994A (5) Tamper-Resistant Receptacles. listed tamper-resistant recep-


ji
GFCI protection device ; tacles must be provided where replacements are made at recepta-
opens the circuit at 6 mA.
cle outlets that are required to be tamper resistant in accordance with
No equipment grounding [ 406.12 for dweiling units, 406.13 for guest rooms and guest suites,
conductor okay. r^^^
and 406.14 for child care facilities.

6 mA (6) Weather-Resistant Receptacles. Weather-resistant receptacles


L Ground y '/^
(0.006AX must be provided where replacements are made at receptacle out-
1 Case temporarily lets that are required to be so protected in accordance with 406.9(A)
¡ energized until GFCI and (B).
¡ opens the circuit.

406.5 Receptacle Mounting. Receptados must be installed


Figure 406-8 in outlet boxes designed for the purpose.

Author's Comment: The position of the ground terminal of a


receptacle isn't specified in the NEC. The ground terminal can
Branch-Circuit Extensión from
Existing Nongrounding Receptacle be up, down, or to the side. Proposals to specify the mount-
Section 250.130(C) ing position of the ground terminal have been rejected through
many Code cycles, For more information on this subject, visit
Existing 2-wire viww.MikeHolt.com. Figure 406-10
N M Cable
without ground

Receptacle G r o u n d Terminal
Orientation
VIOLATION i

A branch-circuit extensión is not permitted from an


existing circuit that does not contain an equipment Ground Sideways
grounding conductor. -] OKAY
Copyngni ?01). wvnvUteMotlcom

Ground Down
Figure 406-9 OKAY

The position of the ground


Author's Comment: See 210.8 in this textbook for specific terminal of a receptacle isn't
GFCI-protection requirements. specified in the NEC.

(4) Arc-Fault Circuit Interrupters. Effective January 1, 2014, where


a receptacle outlet is supplied by a branch circuit that requires arc- Figure 406-10
fault circuit-ínterrupter protection [210.12(A)], a replacement recepta-
cle at this outlet must be one of the following:

(1) A listed (receptacle) outlet branch-circuit type arc-fault circuit- (A) Boxes Set Back. Receptacles in outlet boxes that are set back

interrupter receptacle. from the finished surface, as permitted by 314.20, must be installed
so the mounting yoke of the receptacle is held rigidly to the finished
surface or outlet box. Figure 406-11

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 443


406.6 Receptacles, Cord Connectors, and Attachment Plugs (Caps)

Receptacle M o u n t i n g - Boxes Set Back Receptacles M o u n t e d on Covers


406.5(A) 406.5(C)

Receptacles in outlet boxes must be installed so that


the mounting yoke (strap) of the receptacle is held Receptacles supported by a cover must be held
rigidly to the finished surface or to the outlet box. rigidly to the cover with more than one screw.
CopyngM 2011, www KMaHalLoom

Rgure 406-11 Rgure 406-12

Author's Comment: In walls or ceilings of noncombustible


Receptacle M o u n t i n ^ m Countertops - Dweiling
material, such as drywail, outlet boxes musí not be set back
more than in. from the finished surface. In walls or ceilings
of combustible material, outlet boxes must be flush with the fin-
ished surtace [314.20]. There must not be any gaps more than
1/8 in. at the edge of the outlet box [314.21].

(B) Boxes Flush with the Surface. Receptacles mounted in outlet


boxes that are flush with the finished surface must be installed so the
mounting yoke of the receptacle is held rigidly against the outlet box
or raised box cover.

(C) Receptacles Mounted on Covers. Receptacles supported by


a cover must be held rigidly to the cover with at least two screws. Receptacles in a dweiling unit can't be installed in the
Rgure 406-12 face-up position in a countertop or similar w o r k surface.

(D) Position of Receptacle Faces. Receptacles must be flush with, or Rgure 406-13
project from, the faceplates.

(E) Receptacles in Countertops and Similar Work Surfaces in equipped with barriers identified for the purpose, that are securely
Dweiling Units. Receptacles must not be installed in a face-up posi- installed between adjacent devices. Rgure 406-14
tion in countertops or similar work surface áreas in a dweiling unit.
Rgure 406-13 406.6 Receptada Faceplates. Faceplates for receptacles
must completely cover the outlet openings.
Author's Comment: Receptacle outlet assemblies listed for the
application can be installed in dweiling unit kitchen and bath- (B) Grounding. Metal faceplates for receptacles must be connected

room countertops [210.52(0(5) and 210.52(D)]. to the circuit equipment grounding conductor

(G) Voltage Between Devices. Receptacles must not be in enclo-


sures with other switches or receptacles if the voltage between the
devices exceeds 300V, unless the devices are installed in enclosures

444 Mike HolVs lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Volume 1
Receptacles, Cord Connectors, and Attachment Plugs (Caps) 406.9

Voltage Between Adjacent Devices (A) Exposed Live Parts. Attachment plugs, cord connectors, and
flanged surface devices must have no exposed current-carrying parts,
except the prongs, blades, or pins.

(B) No Energized Parts. Attachment plugs must be installed so their


prongs, btades, or pins aren't energized unless inserted into an ener-
gized receptacle or cord connector. Figure 406-16

Energized Attachment Plugs


406.7(B)
Receptacles must not be in enclosures with other
devices if the voltage between devices exceeds 300V,
unless the devices are separated by a barrier.
Cooynght 2011. www MikeHofl com

Figure 406-14

Author's Comment: The NEC doesn't specify how this is


accomplished, but 517.13{B) Ex 1 for health care facilities per-
mits the metal mounting screw(s) securing the faceplate to a
metal outlet box or wiring device to be suitable for this purpose. C o p y n ^ 2011. www.PiMieHot.com

Figure 406-15 A t t a c h m e n t plug prongs, blades, or pins must not be


energized unless inserted into an energized receptacle
or cord connector.

Figure 406-16
Grounding - Metal Faceplates
406.6(B)
Grounded Grounded Nonmetallic
Metal Box Metal Box Box (D) Flanged Surface Inlet. A flanged surface inlet must be installed
so the prongs, blades, or pins aren't energized unless an energized
cord connector is inserted into it.

Author's Comment: The use of flanged "inlets," such as those


on computers, transfer switches, and so forth. for detachable
power cords is increasing.
Self-Grounding ! Equipment ! Groundfn"J
Screw ! Bonding Jumper ! Conductor
Coo/nght 2011. www MikBHollcom 406.9 Receptacles in Damp or Wet Locations.
Metal faceplates must be g r o u n d e d . A metal faceplate
screw connects the metal faceplate to the receptacle's (A) Damp Locatíons. Receptacles installed in a damp location must
grounding terminal. be installed in an enclosure that's weatherproof when an attach-
ment plug cap isn't inserted, and the receptacle cover is closed, or an
ñgure 406-15
enclosure that's weatherproof when an attachment plug is inserted.
All nonlocking 15A and 20A, 125V and 250V receptacles in a damp
406.7 Attachment Plugs, Cord Connectors, and location must be listed as weather resistant. Rgure 406-17
ñanged Surface Devices. Attachment plugs and cord con-
nectors must be listed for the purpose and marked with the manufac-
turer's ñ a m e or identification and voltage and ampere ratings.

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 445


406.9 Receptacles, Cord Connectors, and Attachment Plugs (Caps)

Receptacles in D a m p Locations For other than one- or two-family dweilings, the outlet box hood
406.9(A) must be listed for "extra-duty" use if supported from grade.

Receptacles in d a m p locations can use a cover that's Figure 406-19


weatherproof w h e n the attachment plug isn't inserted.
Nonlocking 1 5 A a n d 20A, 125V and 250V receptacles
must be a listed weather-resistant type.
Receptacles - Wet Location
Extra-Duty Box Hood
406,9(B)(1)

For other than o n e - or two-family


dweilings. an outlet box hood in a
wet location on a box supported
from grade must be identified as
"Extra Duty."

A n extra duty box hood is


Rgure 406-17 not required unless the box
is grade supported.

Author's Comment: Damp iocations include iocations pro-


tected from weather and not subject to saturation with water or
other liquids, as weil as iocations partially protected under can-
opies, marquees, roofed open porches, and interior locations Figure 406-19
that are subject to modérate degrees of moisture, such as some
basements, barns, and cold-storage warehouses [Articie 100].
All nonlocking type 15A and 20A, 125V and 250V receptacles in a wet

(B) Wet Locations. location must be listed as weather resistant. Rgure 406-20

(1) 15A and 20A Receptacles. All 15A and 20A receptacles installed
in a wet location must be within an enclosure that's weatherproof
when an attachment plug is inserted. Figure 406-18
Receptacles - W e t Locations
Rated 15A and 20A, 125V and 250V
406.9(B)(1)

Nonlocking type 15A and 20A,


125V a n d 250V receptacles must
be a listed weather-resistant type.

ICE
C o o y ^ 2011, wwwMíieHolt cotí

A 1 5 A and 20A. 125V and 2 5 0 V receptacle Rgure 406-20


installed in a wet location must be within an
enclosure that's weatherproof w h e n an
attachment plug is inserted.

Figure 406-18

Mike HoiVs liiustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Volume 1
Receptacles, Cord Connectors, and Attachment Plugs (Caps) 406.14

Author's Comment: Exposed plástic surface material of Receptacles in D a m p or Wet Locations


Bathtub or Shower Space
weather-resistant receptacies must have UV resistance to
406.9(C)
ensure that deterioration from sunlight doesn't take place, or
ttiat it's minimal. in testing, receptacles are subjected to tem-
-rature cycling from very coid to very warm conditions, and
then subjected to additional dielectric testing. The rapid transi-
tion from the coId to warm temperatures will chango the relative
humidity and moisture contení on the device, and the dielectric
test ensures that this won't créate a breakdown of the insula-
tion properties.

•Receptacles rated 15A and20A ttiatare subjected to routine high-


pfessure washing spray may tiave an enclosure that's weatherproof
when the attachment plug is removed.
Copyngnt 2011, www.UkeHolLconi

Author's Comment: A wet location is an área subject to sat- Figure 406-21


uration with water, as well as unprotected locations that are
exposed to weather [Article 100].
• Wall Space—210.52(A)
• Small-Appliance Circuit—210.52(B)
(2) Other Receptacles. Receptacles rated 30A or more installed in a
• Countertop Space—-210.52{C)
wet location must comply with (a) or (b).
• Bathroom Area—210.52(D)
(a) Wet Location Covers. A receptacle that's in a wet location, where • Outdoors—210.52(E)
the load isn't attended while in use, must be installed in an enclosure • Laundry Area—210.52(F)
that's weatherproof when an attachment plug is inserted. • Garage and Outbuildings—210.52(G)

(b) Damp Location Covers. A receptacle installed in a wet location • Haliways—210.52(H)

that will only be used while someone is in cióse proximity to it, such Ex: Receptacles in the following locations aren't required to be
as one used with portable tools, can have an enclosure that's weath- tamper-resistant:
erproof when the attachment plug is removed and the cover is closed.
(1) Receptacles Iocated more than SV? ñ above the floor
(C) Bathtub and Shower Space. Receptacles must not be installed (2) Receptacles that are part of a luminaire or appliance.
within or directly over a bathtub or shower stall. Figure 40&-21 (3) A receptacle Iocated within dedicated space for an appli-

(E) Flush Mounting with Faceplate. The enclosure for a recepta- ance that in normal use isn 't easily moved from one place

cle installed in an outlet box that's flush-mounted on a finished sur- to another

face must be made weatherproof by a weatherproof faceplate that (4) Nongrounding receptacles used for replacements as per-

provides a watertight connection between the piate and the finished mitted in 406.4(D)(2}(a).

surface.
406.13 Tamper-Resistant Receptacles in Guest
406.11 Connecting Receptacle Grounding Terminal Rooms and Guest Suites. Nonlocking type 15A and 20A,
to Equipment Grounding Conductor. The grounding ter- 125\ receptacles in guest rooms and guest suites must be listed as

minal of receptacles must be connected to an equipment grounding tamper resistant

conductor in accordance with 250.146.


406.14 Tamper-Resistant Receptacles in Child Care
406.12 Tamper-Resistant Receptacles in Dweiling Facilities. Nonlocking type 15A and 20A, 125V receptacles in child
Units. All nonlocking type 15A and 20A, 125V receptacles in the care facilities must be listed as tamper resistant.

following áreas of a dweiling unit [210.52] must be listed as tamper


resistant.

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 447


ARTICLE
Switchboards and
408 ^anelboards
INTRODUCTION TO ARTICLE 408—SWITCHBOARDS AND PANELBOARDS
Article 408 covers the specific requirements for switchboards and panelboards that control power and lighting circuits. Some key points to
remember:

• One objective of Article 408 is that the installation prevents contact between current-carrying conductors and people or
equipment.
• The circuit directory of a panelboard must clearly identify the purpose or use of each circuit that originates in the panelboard.
• You must understand the detailed grounding and overcurrent protection requirements for panelboards.

PART I. GENERAL 408.3 Arrangement of Busbars and Conductors.

408.1 Scope. Article 408 covers the specific requirements for (D) Termináis. In switchboards and panelboards, termináis for neu-
switchboards, and panelboards that control power and lighting cir- tral and equipment grounding conductors must be Iocated so it's not
cuits. Figure 408-1 necessary to reach beyond uninsulated live parts in order to make
connections.

(E) Panelboard Phase Arrangement. Panelboards supplied by a


Switchboards and Panelboards
408.1 4-wire, delta-connected, three-phase (high-leg) system must have
the high-leg conductor (which operates at 208V to ground) termínate
to the "B" phase of the panelboard. Figure 408-2

High-Leg Termination
in Panelboard
408.3(E)

The high-leg conductor terminales


Panelboard to the B (center) phase on a 4-wire,
Switchboard delta-connected system.
Ck>pyT.ght 20 n , www MikBHolI com

Article 4 0 8 contains the requirements for


switchboards and panelboards for light and power.
T h e high-leg must be identified
^ with the color orange [110.15].
Figure 408-1

Author's Comment: For the purposes of this textbook, we'l


only cover the requirements for panelboards.

Figure 408-2

448 Mike Holt's lllustrated Guide to Understanding tiie 2011 National Electrical Code, Volume 1
Switchboards and Panelboards 408.3

The high-leg conductor can termínate to the "C" phase when the
meter is Iocated in the same section ofa switchboard or panelboard. A WARNING: When replacing equipment in existing
facilities that contain a high-leg conductor, use care
to ensure that the high-leg conductor is replaced in
Note: Orange identification, or some other effective means, is the original k)cation. Prior to 1975. the high-leg conductor
required for the high-leg conductor [110.15 and 230.56]. Figure was required lo termínate on the "C phase of panelboards
408-3
and switchboards. Failure to re-tenminate the high leg in
accordance with the existing installation can resutt in 120V
circuits being inadvertentiy connected to the 208V high leg.
High-Leg Conductor Identification
110.15 with disastrous resutts.

High-leg o f a 4-wire, (F) Switchboard or Panelboard Identification.


delta-connected systenn
(1) High-Leg Identification. A switchboard or panelboard containing
a 4-wire, delta-connected system where the midpoint of one phase
winding is grounded shall be iegibly and permanently field-marked as
follows: Figure 408-5

Ct>pynght2011, -«w.MiteHolt.cora

Switchboard or Panelboard
The high-leg conductor must be identified by an o r a n g e High-Leg Identification
color at each point in the system where a connection is 408.3(F)(1}
made and the neutral conductor is p r e s e n t

Rgure 408-3

Switchboards or panelboards
containing a delta 4-wire
WARNING: The ANSI standard for meter equipment
system where the midpoint of
requires the high-leg conductor (208V to neutral) to one phase is grounded must
termínate on the "C (right) phase of the meter be marked with the following:
socket enclosure. This is because the demand meter needs
120V and itgetsft from the "B"phase. Figure 408-4
: "Caution B Phase Has 208 Volts to G r o u n d '
Copyright 2011. www.M>fceHc4tcom

High-Leg Conductor Termination Figure 408-5

Delta High-Leg
3-Phase, 4-Wire S y s t e m
«CAimON PHASE HAS VOLTS TO
GROUND"
The high leg must
termínate on the (2) Ungrounded Systems. A switchboard or panelboard containing
"B" phase.
an ungrounded electrical system as permitted in 250.21 shall be Iegi-
bly and permanently field-marked as follows:

| \N UNGROUNDED SYSTEM OPERATING


AT VOLTS BETWEEN CONDUCTORS"
C A U T I O N ; Utilities require the high-leg
conductor in meters be Iocated on the "C" phase.

Figure 408-^

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408.4 Switchboards and Panelboards

408.4 Fleid Identification. Field Identification Required


Circuit Identification Panel
(A) Circuit Directory or Circuit Identification. All circuits, and cir- 408.4(Ai Directory

cuit modifications, must be Iegibly identified as to their clear, evident,


Dryer Range
and specific purpose. Spare positions that contain unused overcurrent
Dshwasbw
devices must also be identified. Identification must include sufficient Disposai
Oven

detall to altow each circuit to be distinguished from all others, and R e c Room Recp./A I Q e n t t n e / s R-i. •

the identification must be on a circuit directory tocated on the face or Violation . . c c K o o m Recp./B 1 2 R o e R o o m Lighl'

i
13 Kitchen R e q ) ÍE 14 Garage

inside of the door of the panelboard. See 110.22. Figure 40fr-6 1 5 Kitchen R o c p . n v 16 Kitchen R e c p V R e f

17 Living R o o m 18 Wasíier

19 Kitcnen Lights 20 Launtíiy

21 Powder R m R e c p 22 WelBarLataffíecp.

23 24
Fieid Identification Required
Circuit Identification Circuit identification can't be based
408.4ÍA} on transient conditions of occupancy.

Figure 408-7

Switchboard or Panelboard
Field Identification
• Source of Supply
; All circuits and circuit modificafions must be 408.4(8}
Iegibly marked with sufficient detall to allow
! each circuit to be distinguished from all others. ¡

Spare positions that contain unused overcurrent All switchboards and panelboards
devices must be described accordingly. supplied by a feeder in other than
one- or two-family dweilings must
Figure 408-6 be marked to indícate the device
or equipment w h e r e the power
supply originates.

Author's Comment: Circuit identification must not be based on


transient conditions of occupancy, such as Steven's, or Brittney's
m
bedroom. Figure 408-7
Figure 408-8
(B) Source of Supply. All switchboards and panelboards supplied by
a feeder in other than one- or two-family dweilings must be marked
408.7 Unused Openings. Unused openings for circuit breal<-
as to the device or equipment where the power supply originates.
ers and switches must be closed using identified closures, or other
Figure 408-8
means approved by the authority having jurisdiction, that provide pro-

408.5 Clearance for Conductors Entering Bus Enclo- tection substantially equivalent to the wall of the enclosure. Figure

sures. If raceways enter a switchboard, floor-standing panelboard, 408-9

or similar enclosure, the raceways, including end fittings, must not


rise more than 3 in. above the bottom of the enclosure.

450 Mike Holt's lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National EieQtrical Code, Volume 1
Switchboards and Panelboards 408.36

Unused O p e n i n g s (B) Panelboards Supplied Through a Transformer. When a panel-


408.7 board is supplied from a transformer, as permitted in 240.21 (C), the
overcurrent protection for the panelboard must be on the secondary
VIOLATION side of the transformer. The required overcurrent protection can be in
(Not Identified) o a sepárate enclosure ahead of the panelboard, or it can be in the pan-
elboard. Figure 408-11
Panel
Filler

Panelboards Supplied Through a Transformer


CopyngM 2011, www M*oHo« com 408.36(B)

A panelboard supplied by a transformer


Unused openings for circuit breakers a n d
must have overcurrent protection tocated
switches must be closed using identified
o n the secondary side.
closures or other a p p r o v e d m e a n s .

Rgure

PART III. PANELBOARDS


408.36 Overcurrent Protection of Panelboards.

Each panelboard must be provided with overcurrent protection


Iocated within, or at any point on the supply side of, the panelboard.
The overcurrent device must have a rating not greater than that of the
Figure 408-11
panelboard, and it can be Iocated within or on the supply side of the
panelboard. Figure 408-10

(D) Back-Fed Devices. Plug-in circuit breakers that are back-fed


from field-installed conductors must be secured in place by an addi-
Feeder Protected Panelboard
408.36 tional fastener that requires other than a pulí to reléase the breaker
from the panelboard. Figure 408-12

A panelboard must be
provided with overcurrent
protection having a rating

r
B a c k - F e d Devices
not greater than that of
408.36(D)
the panelboard.

200A C o p y r i * ! 2011. www MiieHol com 225A Additional


Protection Panelboard Fastener
Device
Back-fed
The overcurrent device can be Iocated within or Device
at any point on the supply side of the panelboard.

Rgure 408-10
Plug-in type overcurrent devices that
are back-fed must be secured in place
by an additional fastener.
Ex 1: Individual overcurrent protection isn't required for panelboards
used as service equipment in accordance with 230.71.
Rgure 408-12

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 451


408.37 Switchboards and Panelboards

Author's Comments: Line/Load Marking o n Circuit Breaker


Listing Instructions
• The purpose of the breaker fastener is to prevent the circuit 110.3(B)
breaker from being accidentally removed from the panelboard
while energized, thereby exposing someone to dangerous
voltage.
If marked "LINE."
• For photovoltaic systems, conductors from the PV ac inverter line conductors
is permitted to backfed dedicated circuit breakers that aren't must termínate on
marked "Une" and "Load" [705.12{D)(5)]. Figure 408-13 line termináis.

If marked "LOAD,"
load conductors
must termínate on
Suitable for Backfeed the load termináis.
705.12(D)(5) Line In
(Supply)
Copyright 2011, vnwr.MfceHon.coni

Figure 408-14

If the panelboard cabinet is used with nonmetallic raceways or cables,


or where sepárate equipment grounding conductors are provided, a
terminal bar for the circuit equipment grounding conductors must be
bonded to the metal cabinet Figure 408-15

Conductors from the alternating-cun-ent inverter


can backfeed dedicated circuit breakers that aren't Grounding of Panelboards
marked "Line" and "Load." 408.40

Figure 4 0 8 - 1 3

/ \: Circuit breakers marked "Line" and "Load"


» J must be installed in accordance with listing or label-
ing instructions [110.3(B}]; therefore, these types of
devices must not be back-fed. Figure 4 0 8 - 1 4

408.37 Panelboards in Damp or Wet Locations. The


W h e r e e q u i p m e n t grounding conductors are provided
enclosures (cabinets) for panelboards must prevent moisture or water in panelboards, a terminal bar for equipment grounding
from entering or accumuiating within the enclosure, and they must be conductors must be bonded to the metal cabinet.
weatherproof when Iocated in a wet location. When the enclosure is
surface mounted in a wet location, the enclosure must be mounted Figure 408-15

with not less than VA in. air space between it and the mounting sur-
face [312.2].
Ex: Insulated equipment grounding conductors for receptacles

408.40 Equipment Grounding Conductor. Meta! pan having insulated grounding termináis (isolated ground receptacles)

elboard cabinets and trames must be connected to an equipment [250.146(0)] can pass through the panelboard without terminating

gmunding conductor of a type recognized in 250.118 [215.6 and onto the equipment grounding terminal of the panelboard cabinet

250.4(A){3)]. Rgure 408-16

Mike Holt's lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Volume 1
Switchboards and Panelboards 408.41

Isolated Equipment G r o u n d i n g C o n d u c t o r 1 ^ CAUTION: Most panelboards are rated as suitable


408.40 Ex
for use as service equipment, which means they're
Isolated Equipment supplied with a main bonding jumper [250.28]. This
Grounding Conductor screw or strap must not be installed except when the panel-
board is used for service equipment [250.24(A)(5)] or sepa-
rately derived system [250.30(A}(1)]. In addition, a panelboard
marked "suitable only for use as service equipment" means
the neutral bar or terminal of the panelboard has been bonded
to the case at the factory, and this panelboard is restricted to
being used only for service equipment or on separately
derived systems according to 250.142(B).

408.41 Neutral Conductor Terminatlons. Each neutral


conductor within a panelboard must termínate to an individual termi-
An isolated equipment grounding conductor c a n pass
through a metal enclosure, but it must termínate to the nal. Rgure 408-18
system neutral.

Figure 408-16
Neutral Conductor Termináis
408.41

Equipment grounding conductors must not termínate on the neutral


terminal bar, and neutral conductors must not termínate on the equip-
ment grounding terminal bar, except as permitted by 250.142 for ser-
vices and separately derived systems. Figure 408-17

Panelboard Termination
Equipment Grounding Conductors
408.40
JUO
Grounding Terminal Bar B o n d e d Each neutral conductor must termínate
to the Panelboard Cabinet to an individual terminal in the panelboard.

Figure 408-18

Author's Comment: If two neutral conductors are connected


to the same terminal, and someone removes one of them, the
Equipment grounding conductors must not termínate o n other neutral conductor might unintentionally be removed as
the s a m e terminal bar with the neutral conductor, except well. If that happens to the neutral conductor of a multiwire cir-
as permitted by 250.142 for services and separately
cuit, it can result in excessive line-to-neutral voltage for one of
derived systems.
the circuits, as well as unden/oltage for the other circuit. See
Figure 408-17 300.13(B) of this textbook for details. Figure 408-19

This requirement doesn't apply to equipment grounding conductors,


Author's Comment: See the definition of "Separately Derived because the vottage of a circuit isn't affected if an equipment ground-
System" in Article 100. ing conductor is accidentally removed. Figure 408-20

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 453


408.54 Switchboards and Panelboards

12 o h m s Multiwire Circuit PART IV, CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS


L1 1 D a n g e r of O p e n Neutral
1,200W 408.54 Máximum Number of Overcurrent Devices, a
120V Hair Dryer Multiwire circuit with panelboard must prevent the installation of more overcurrent devices
240V a proper connection.
than the number for which the panelboard was designed, rated, and
120V 600W Operating Voltage: listed. When appiying this rule, a 2-pole circuit breaker is considered
TV Hair Dryer = 120V
L2 to be two overcurrent devices, and a 3-pole circuit breaker is consid-
Televisión = 120V
24 ohms ered to be three overcurrent devices.

L1
Hair Dryer Multiwire circuit with
80V an o p e n neutral.
240V
Seríes Operating Vottage:
Hair Dryer = 8 0 V
TV 160V Televisión = 160V
L2- /WV
S e e 300.13{B)

Rgure 408-19

Neutral Conductor Termináis


408.41

Manufacturer's Instructions
BRANCH NEUT & EQUIP. GND. BAR
WIRE RANGE J O R Q U E IN.-LBS.
14-10 cu. 12-10 AL 20
8 CU-AL 25
6-4 CU-AL 35
EQUIPMENT GROUNDING BAR ^
TWO 14 OR 12 CU 25
TWO 12 OR 10 AL

See 110.14(A) for additional terminal requirements.


Cooyn9lM2aU wwwMMHolLcom

Rgure 408-20

454 Mike Holt's lllustrated Guide to Understanding tiie 2011 National Electrical Code, Volume 1
Luminaires, Lampíiolders,
and Lamps
INTRODUCTION TO ARTICLE 410—LUMINAIRES, LAMPHOLDERS, AND LAMPS
This article covers luminaires, lampholders, lamps, decorative lighting products, lighting accessories for temporary seasonal and holiday use,
including portable flexible lighting products, and the wiring and equipment of such products and lighting installations. Even though Article 410
is highiy detailed, it's broken down into 16 parts. The first five are sequential, and apply to all luminaires, lampholders, and lamps:

• General, Part I
• Location, Part II
• Boxes and Covers, Part III
• Supports, Part IV
• Equipment Grounding Conductors, Part V

This is mostiy mechanical information, and it's not hard to follow or absorb. Part VI, Wiring, ends the sequence. The seventh, ninth, and
tenth parts provide requirements for manufacturers to follow—use only equipment that conforms to these requirements. Part VIII provides
requirements for installing lampholders. The rest of Articie 410 addresses specific types of lighting.

Author's Comment: Article 411 addresses "Lighting Systems Operating at 30 Volts or Less."

PART I. GENERAL Luminaires, Lampholders, a n d L a m p s


410.1
410.1 Scope. This article covers luminaires, lampholders, lamps,
decorative lighting products, lighting accessories for temporary sea-
sonal and holiday use, portable flexible lighting products, and the
wiring and equipment of such products and lighting installations.
Figure 410-1

Author's Comment: Because of the many types and appli-


cations of luminaires, manufacturers' instructions are very
important and helpful for proper installation. UL produces a
pamphiet called the Luminaire Marking Guide, which provides
information for properly installing common types of incandes- Article 4 1 0 covers the wiring a n d equipment for
luminaires, lampholders, and lamps for permanent,
cent, fluorescent, and high-intensity discharge (HID) luminaires.
decorative, temporary, and flexible lighting products.

Figure 410-1
410.2 Definitions.

Closet Storage Space. Storage space is defined as a volume bounded


Storage space continúes vertically to the closet ceiling for a distance
by the sides and back closet walls, extending from the closet floor
of 1 ft or the width of the shelf, whichever is greater Figure 410-2
vertically to a height of 6 ft or the highest clothes-hanging rod at a
horizontal distance of 2 ft from the sides and back of the closet walls.

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 455


410.6 Luminaires, Lampiiolders, and Lamps

Closet Storage Space PART II. LUMINAIRE LOCATIONS


410.2 Definition
410.10 Luminaires in Specific Locations.
(A) Wet or Damp Locations. Luminaires in wet or damp locations
Closet Storage Space
must be installed in a manner that prevents water from accumuiat-
ing in any part of the luminaire. Luminaires marked "Suitable for Dry
Locations Only" must be installed only in a dry location; luminaires
The volume bounded by the sides and
back closet walls, extending from the marked "Suitable for Damp Locations" can be installed in either
closet floor vertically to a height of 6 ft
or the highest clothes-hanging rod at a a damp or dry location; and luminaires marked "Suitable for Wet
horizontal distance of 2 ft from the sides Locations" can be installed in a dry, damp, or wet location. Figure
and back of the closet walls. Storage
space continúes vertically to the closet 410-^
ceiling for a distance of 1 ft or the width
of the shelf, whichever is greater.

Luminaires - W e t or D a m p Locations
Figure 410-2 410.10(A}

Luminaires in a d a m p
Author's Comment: This definition consists of approximately location must be m a r k e d :
"Suitable for D a m p Locations,"
125 words in one sentence, perhaps the longest sentence in the or "Suitable for Wet Locations."
Code. Take a breath and don't get lost when reading it!

iigfiting Track. This is a manufactured assembly, designed to sup-


port and energize luminaires that can be readily repositioned on the
track, and whose length may be altered by the addition or subtraction
of sections of track. Figure 410-3

Lighting Track
410.2 Definition Figure 410-4

Author's Comment: A dry location can be subjected to occa-


sional dampness or wetness. See the definition of "Location,
Dry" in Article 100.

(B) Corrosivo Locations. Luminaires installed in corrosivo locations


A manufactured assembly designed to support must be suitable for the location.
and energize luminaires that are capable of being
repositioned on the track. (C) In Ducts or Hoods. Luminaires can be installed in commercial
cooking hoods if all of the following conditions are met: Figure 410-5

CopyngW 20tV -rtim MikeHoB.com (1) The luminaire is identified for use within commercial cooking
hoods.
Figure 410-3
(2) The luminaire is constructed so that all exhaust vapors, grease,
oil, or cooking vapors are excluded from the lamp and wiring
compartment.
410.6 Listing Required. Luminaires and lampholders must be
listed.

456 Mike HoiVs lllustrated Guide to Understanding tiie 2011 National Electrical Code, Volume 1
Luminaires, Lampholders, and Lamps 410.10

Luminaire - Commercial Cooking Hoods Luminaires - Bathtub/Shower Luminaire Z o n e


410.10(C) 410.10(D) _ _ _ _

Wiring M e t h o d
Outside H o o d

Luminaire
Located
CogynBhtMll > MikeHoil com
Inside Hood
3ft
Luminaire must be:
• Identified for use in commercial cooking hoods
• Constructed so grease/oil doesn't get on the lamp
or in the wiring compartment CopyffohIMIl.www

• Resistant to or protected against corrosión No part of chain-, cable-, or cord-suspended luminaires,


• Wiring methods must not be e x p o s e d within lighting track, pendants, or ceiling-suspended paddie
the cooking hood fans are permitted within the bathtub/shower zone.

Figure 410-5 Figure 410-6

(3) Ttie luminaire is corrosión resistant, or protected against corro-


Location of Luminaires Within
sión, and ttie surface must be smooth so as not to collect deposits Actual Dimensions of a Bathtub and Shower
410,10(D)
and to facilitate cleaning.

(4) Wiring methods and materiats suppiying the luminaire must not
H a , '
be exposed within the cooking hood. ' Bathtub . R e c e s s e d a n d Surface-
^ Shower t] M o u n t e d Luminaires O k a y
Dimensión
Author's Comment: Standard gasketed luminaires must not be up to 8 ft.
installed In a commercial cooking hood because accumulations ^ Switch a n d
Receptacle O k a y
of grease and oil can result in a fire caused by high tempera-
ID
tures on the glass globe.

(D) Bathtub and Shower Areas. No part of chain-, cable-, or cord- Luminaires within or directly a b o v e the actual outside
ended luminaires, track luminaires, or ceiling paddie fans can be dimensions of a bathtub or shower up to 8 ft must be
marked for d a m p locations. Luminaires subject to shower
ted within 3 ft horizontally and 8 ft vertically from the top of the spray must be marked for w e t locations.
tub rim or shower stall threshold. Figure 410-6
Figure 410-7

Author's Comment: See 404.4 for switch requirements and


406.9(0 for receptacle requirements within or near bathtubs or
(E) Luminaires in Indoor Sports, Mixed-Use, and All-Purpose
shower stalis.
Facilities. Luminaires using a mercury vapor or metal halide lamp
that are subject to physical damage and are installed in playing and
inaires located within the actual outside dimensions of a bathtub
spectator seating áreas of indoor sports, mixed-use, or all-purpose
shower to a height of 8 ft from the top of the bathtub rim or shower
facilities must be of the type that has a glass or plástic lamp shield.
d must be marked for damp locations. If subject to shower
Such luminaires can have an additional guard. Figure 410-8
,the luminaires must be marked for wet locations. Figure 410-7

Mike Holt Enterprises, inc. • www.MikeHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 457


410.11 Luminaires, Lampiiolders, and Lamps

Luminaires in Indoor Sports, (B) Luminaire Types Not Permitted. Incandescent luminaires with
Mixed-Use, and All-Purpose Facilities
open or partially open lamps and pendant-type luminaires must not
410.10(E)
be installed in a clothes closet. Figure 410-9

Clothes Closets - Luminaires Not Permitted


410.16(B)

Luminaires with mercury vapor or


metal halide lamps subject to physical
d a m a g e must be protected by a glass
or plástic lens.

Copyrigni 2011, www MikeHon com

Figure 410-8
Incandescent luminaires that have open
lamps, and pendant-type luminaires can't
WARNING: Metal halide lamps can cause serious be installed in a clothes closeL
sl<in bums and eye inflammation from shortwave
ultraviolet radiation if the outer envelope of the lamp
is broken or punctured. They shouldn 't be used where people
will remain more than a few minutes unless adequate shield-
ing or other safety precautions are used. Lamps that will Figure 410-9
automatically extinguish when the outer envelope is broken
are commercially a vailable. If a metal halide or mercury vapor
lamp is broken during use: (C) Installation of Luminaires. Luminaires must maintain a mini-
mum clearance from the closet storage space as follows:
• Turn off the light immediateiy,
• Move people out of the área as quickiy a possible, and ( 1 ) 1 2 in. for surface-mounted incandescent or LED luminaires with

• Advise people exposed to the damaged lamp to see a an enclosed light source. Figure 410-10
doctor if symptoms of skin bums or eye irritation occur

Clothes Closets - Surface-Mounted Luminaires


410.11 Luminaires Near Combustible Material. Lumi- 410.16(C)(1) and (2)
naires must be installed or be equipped with shades or guards so that
TTT
combustible material isn't subjected to temperatures in excess of
%X (194°F). Closet 12 in. 6 in. Closet
Storage Minimum Minimum Storage
Space Space
410.16 Luminaires in Clotlies Gloséis.

(A) Luminaire Types Permitted. Only the following types of lumi-


naires are permitted to be installed in a clothes closet:

(1) Surface or recessed incandescent or LED luminaires with an


Clearance from Storage S p a c e :
enclosed light source. • (C)(1)Totally Enclosed Incandescent
or L E D Luminaires, M i n i m u m 1 ft.
(2) Surface or recessed fluorescent luminaires. • (C)(2) Fluorescent Luminaires,
M i n i m u m 6 in.
(3) Surface-mounted or recessed LED luminaires identified for use
within the closet storage space.

Figure 410-10

458 Mike Holt's lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Volume 1
Luminaires, Lampholders, and Lamps 410.24

6 in. for surface-mounted fluorescent luminaires. Clothes Closets - Surface-Mounted Luminaires


410.16(C)(5)
|3) 6 in. for recessed incandescent or LED luminaires with an
enclosed light source. Figure 410-11

Closet
Storage
Clothes Closets - Recessed Luminaires Space

ti
410.16(C)(3)and(4)

6 in. 6 in.
Closet Closet S u r f a c e - m o u n t e d fluorescent or L E D luminaires
Minimum Minimum
Storage Storage are permitted within the closet storage space
Space Space w h e r e they're identified for this use.

Copyn^MII.

Figure 410-12
Clearance from Storage S p a c e :
• (C){3) Totally enclosed incandescent
or LED Luminaires, M i n i m u m 6 in.
• (C)(4) Fluorescent Luminaires. Outlet Boxes to be C o v e r e d
Minimum 6 in. 410.22 fCS^.
CopyffgN 2011. *ww.M*eHo«.eom

Figure 410-11
Blank cover plates can
cover an outlet box.

(4) 6 in. for recessed fluorescent luminaires.


A luminaire or c a n o p y
(5) Surface-mounted fluorescent or LED luminaires are permitted can cover an outlet box.
within the closet storage space if identified for this use. Figure
W h e n an installation is complete, e a c h outlet box
410-12
must be provided with a cover, faceplate, luminaire
canopy, lampholder, or similar device.
410.18 Space for Cove Lighting, Coves must have ade- Copynghl 2011, www MikoHot c o n

quate space so that lamps and equipment can be properly installed


and maintained. Figure 410-13

(A) Luminaires Supported Independently of the Outlet Box.


PART III. LUMINAIRE OUTLET Electric-discharge and LED luminaires supported independently of the

BOXES AND COVERS outlet box must be connected to the branch circuit with a raceway, or
with Types MC, AC, or NM cable. Figure 410-14
410.22 Outlet Boxes to be Covered. Outiet boxes for lumi-
naires must be covered with a luminaire, lampholder, or blank face- Electric-discharge luminaires can be cord-connected if the luminaires

plate. See 314.25. Figure 410-13 are provided with infernal adjustments to position the lamp
[410.62{B)].
410.24 Connection of Electric-Discharge and LED
Ijiminaires.

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.IVIikeHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 459


410.30 Luminaires, Lampholders, and Lamps

PART IV. LUMINAIRE SUPPORTS


410.30 Supports.
(A) General Support Requirements. Luminaires and lampholders
must be securely supported.

(B) Poles. A poles can be used to support luminaires, and can be


used as a raceway.

L C t e ^ Author's Comment: With security being a high priority, many


owners want to install security cameras on existing parking loí
Permitted wiring mettiods:
poles. However, 820.133(A)(1)(b) prohibits the mixing of power
• Metal or Nonmetallic Raceway
• Type M C . A C , or N M Cable and Communications conductors in the same raceway. Figure
• F l e x i b l e Cord [410.62(C)] 410-16

Figure 410-14

Poles Supporting Luminaires


Used as a Raceway
Electric-discharge luminaires can be cord-connected if the cord is 410.30(B)
visible for its entire length and is plugged into a receptacle, and the
installation complies with 410.62(C).

(B) Access to Outlet Box. When an electric-discharge luminaire or


LED luminaire is surface mounted over a concealed outlet box, and
not supported by the outlet box, the luminaire must be provided with
suitable openings that permit access to the branch-circuit wiring
within the outlet box. Figure 410-15

Electric-Discharge aridjLED Luminaire Over Outlet Box


410.24(B)

I I Figure 410-16

Bottom View of A b o v e Fixture


In addition, they must comply with the requirements of (1) through (6).

(1) The pole must have an accessible 2 in. x 4 in. handhole with a
cover suitable for use in wet locations that provides access to the

When an electric-discharge luminaire or LED is mounted supply conductors within the pole.
over an outlet box, the luminaire must permit access to the
branch-circuit wiring within the outlet box. Ex 1: The handhole isn 't required for a pole that's 8 ñor less in height
if the supply conductors for the luminaire are accessible by removing
Figure 410-15 the luminaire. Figure 410-17

Ex 2: The handhole can be omitted on poles that are 20 ft or less in


height, if the pole is provided with a hinged base.

460 Mike HolVs lllustrated Guide to Understanding tiie 2011 National Elecjrical Code, Volume 1
Luminaires, Lampholders, and Lamps 410.36

Luminaire Supported by a Pole DANGER: Because the contact resistance of an electrodo


410.30(B)(1) Ex 1 to the earth is so high, very littie fault current returns to the
power supply if the earth is the only fault current return path.
Result—the circuit overcurrent device won't open and clear
the ground fault, and the metal pole will become and remain
A handhole isn't required
if the pole is 8 ft or less, energized by the circuit voltage. Figure 410-19
and the supply conductors
are accessible by removing
the luminaire.
D a n g e r o u s Touch Voltage I d

Metal or Nonmetallic Pole


DANGER
Permitted [410.30(B)] Grounding doesn't reduce
d a n g e r o u s touch potential. 120V Ground Fault
mirtiiiÉíÉ

Figure 410-17

2-wire circuit without


(2) Wtien the supply raceway or cable doesn't enter the pole, a an equipment
grounding conductor.
threaded fitting or nipple must be welded, brazed, or attached to
the pole opposite the handhole opening for the supply conductors.

I
(3) A metal pole must have an equipment grounding terminal acces- Shell 3: 5 ft Shell 2: 3 ft Shell 1: 1 ft
103V 90V 82V
sible from the handhole.
Figure 410-19
Ex: A grounding terminal isn't required in a pole that's 8 ft or less
in height above grade if the spiices are accessible by removing the
luminaire
(6) Conductors in vertical metal poles must be supported when the
(5) Metal poles used for the support of luminaires must be connected vertical rise exceeds 100 ft [Table 300.19(A)].
to an equipment grounding conductor of a type recognized in
Author's Comment: When provided by the manufacturer of
250.118 [250.4(A)(5)]. Figure 410-18
roadway lighting poles, so-called J-hooks must be used to
support conductors, as they're parí of the listing instructions
[110.3(6)1.
Grounding Metal Poles
Supporting Luminaires
410.30(B)(5) 410.36 Means of Support.
(A) Outlet Boxes. Outlet boxes designed for the support of luminaires
The metal pole must be connected
to an equipment grounding must be supported by one of the following methods:
conductor of a type found in
250.118, and sized in accordance • Fastened to any surface that provides adequate support
with 250.122 if of the wire type. [314.23(A)].
• Supported from a structural member of a building or from
grade by a metal, plástic, or wood brace [314.23(B)].
• Secured to a finished surface (drywail or plaster walls or
ceilings) by clamps, anchors, or fittings identified for the
application [314.23(C)].
• Secured to the structural or supporting elements of a
suspended ceiling [314.23(0)].
Figure 410-18

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.IVIikeHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 461


410.44 Luminaires, Lampholders, and Lamps

• Supported by two intermedíate metal conduits or rigid Luminaire - Independent Support


metal conduits threaded wrenchtight [314.23(E) and (F)]. 410.36(B)
• Embedded in concrete or masonry [314.23(G)]. The NEC doesn't require fluorescent
• Outlet boxes for luminaires can support a luminaire that lay-in luminaires to be independently
weighs up to 50 Ib, unless the box is listed for the lumi- supported by the building structure.

naries' actual weight [314.27(A)(2)].

(B) Suspended-Ceiling Framing Members. If framing members


of suspended-ceiling systems are used to support luminaires, they
must be securely fastened to each other and they must be securely
attached to the building structure at appropriate intervals. Luminaires
must be attached to the suspended-ceiling framing members with
screws, bolts, rivets, or clips that are listed and identified for such C h e c k with the building inspector to see if this
use. Figure 410-20 requirement is contained in the local building code.

Figure 410-21

Luminaire - Secured to S u s p e n d e d Ceiling


410.36(8}
(G) Luminaires Supported by Trees. Trees can be used to support
luminaires, but they must not be used to support overhead conductor
spans [225.26]. Figure 410-22

Building codes, not the


NEC, determine if a
suspended ceiling can Luminaire
support luminaires. Luminaire Supports Support to Trees
410.36(G}

Luminaires must be securely fastened


to the ceiling framing m e m b e r by screws,
bolts, rivets, or clips listed a n d identified
for the purpose.

Figure 410-20

I
Author's Comment: Trees can be used for the support of luminaires,
but they can't be used for the support of overhead
• The NEC doesn't require independent support wires for sus- conductor spans [225.26].
pended-ceiling luminaires that aren't installed in a fire-rated
ceiling; however, building codes often do. Figure 410-21
Figure 410-22
• Raceways and cables within a suspended ceiling must be
supported in accordance with 300.11 (A). Outlet boxes can
be secured to the ceiling-framing members by bolts, screws,
rivets, clips, or independent support wires that are taut and PART V. GROUNDING (BONDING)
secured at both ends [314.23(0)].
410.44 Methods of Grounding. Luminaires must be con-
nected to an equipment grounding conductor of a type recognized in
250.118. If of the wire type, the circuit equipment grounding conduc-
tor must be sized in accordance with 250.122, based on the rating of
the overcurrent device.

462 Mike HolVs lllustrated Guide to Understanding tiie 2011 National Electrical Code, Volume 1
Luminaires, Lampholders, and Lamps 410.62

Ex 1: If an equipment grounding conductor isn 't present in ttie outlet Luminaire - Adjustable or Aiming
box for a luminaire, the luminaire must be made of insulating material 410.62(B)
and must not have any exposed conductivo parts.

Ex 2: Replacement luminaires can be installed in an outlet box that


Luminaires requiring aiming can be
úoesn't contain an equipment grounding conductor if the luminaire is cord c o n n e c t e d , provided the cord
connected to one of the following: isn't longer than necessary and
not subject to physical d a m a g e .
(1) Grounding electrodo system [250.50].

(2) Grounding electrode conductor

(3) Panelboard equipment grounding terminal

(4) Sen/ice neutral conductor within the service equipment Copyright 2011, www M*eHo<Lcom

enclosure.

Ex 3: GFCI-protected replacement luminaires aren't required to be


Figure 410-23
connected to an equipment grounding conductor ofa type recognized
in 250.118 if no equipment grounding conductor exists at the outlet
tX}X.
Cord-Connected Electric
Discharge and LED Luminaires
Author's Comment: This is similar to the rule for receptacle 410.62(0}
replacements in locations where an equipment grounding con-
ductor isn't present in the outlet box [406.^

Electric-discharge and LED


PART VI. WIRING OF LUMINAIRES luminaires can be cord connected
ifthe:
410.50 Polarization of Luminaires. Luminaires must have • Luminaire is located below box
the neutral conductor connected to the screw shell of the lampholder • Cord is continuously visible
• Cord isn't subject to d a m a g e
[200,10{C)], and the neutral conductor must be properly identified in
• Cord terminates in an attachment
accordance with 200.6. plug or c a n o p y with strain relief. Copyrtghl 2011, www PAkeMoB cow

410.62 Gord-Connected Luminaires. Figure 410-24

(B) Adjustable Luminaires. Luminaires that require adjusting or


aiming after installation can be cord connected, with or without an b. Isn't subject to strain or physical damage [400.10], and
attachment plug, provided the exposed cord is of the hard usage or
c. Terminates in an attachment plug, canopy with strain
extra-hard usage type. The cord must not be longer than necessary
relief, or manufactured wiring system connector in
fo^ luminaire adjustment, and it must not be subject to strain or physi-
accordance with 604.6(C).
cal damage [400.10]. Figure 410-23

(C) Electric-Discharge and LED Luminaires. A luminaire can be Author's Comment: The Code doesn't require twist-lock
cc:d connected if: Figure 410-24 receptacles for this application.

1^1 The luminaire is mounted directly below the outlet box, and

(2/ The flexible cord:

a. Is visible for its entire length.

11(8 Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 463


410.64 Luminaires, Lampiiolders, and Lamps

410.64 Luminaires as Raceways. n Luminaires C o n n e c t e d Together


™ 410.64(0
(A) Listed. Luminaires aren't permitted to be used as a raceway for
Luminaires designed for end-to-end connection.
circuit conductors unless listed and marked for use as a raceway.
Figure 410-25
11

Luminaires connected with wiring methods.


Luminaire Used as Raceway - Listed
410.64(Al

Luminaires designed for end-to-end connection, or


connected together by wiring methods, can contain a
2-wire branch circuit or one multiwire branch circuit
to supply the luminaires. One additional 2-wire circuit
is permitted.
Copyriglit 2011, wwwMikeHon.com

VIOLATION
Figure 410-26
Luminaires can't be used as a raceway for
circuit conductors unless the luminaire is listed
and marked for use as a raceway.
Lampholder - Screw-Shell Type
410.90
Copynght 2011. www.MiKeHoll.coni

Figure 410-25

(B) Through-Wiring. Luminaires with an outlet box that's an integral


part of a luminaire can be used as a conductor raceway.

íO Luminaires Connected Together. Luminaires designed for end-


to-end assembly, or luminaires connected together by recognized
wiring methods, can contain a 2-wire branch circuit, or one multi- L a m p h o l d e r s of the screw-shell type are designed for
wire branch circuit, suppiying the connected luminaires. One addi- lamps only a n d receptacle adapters aren't permitted.
tional 2-wire branch circuit suppiying a night light is permitted. Figure CopyngW 2011. www.PAkeHolt com

410-26
Figure 410-27

410.68 Conductors and BallastS. Conductors within 3 in. of


ballast, LED driver, power supply, or transformer must have an insula- 410.96 Lampholders in Wet or Damp Locations. Lam
tion temperature rating not lower than 90°C. pholders installed in wet locations must be listed for use in wet loca-
tions and lampholders installed in damp locations must be listed for
damp or wet locations.

PART VIII. INSTALLATION OF LAMPHOLDERS 410.97 Lampholders Near Combustible IVIaterial.


410.90 Screw-Shell Lampiiolders. Lampholders of the Lampholders must be constructed, installed, or equipped with shades

screw-shell type must be installed for use as lampholders only. or guards so that combustible material isn't subjected to tempera-
tures in excess of 90°C (194°F).
Author's Comment: A receptacle adapter that screws into a
lampholder is a violation of this section. Figure 410-27

464 Mike HolVs lllustrated Guide to Understanding tiíe 2011 National Electrical Code, Volume 1
Luminaires, Lampholders, and Lamps 410.130

PARTX. RECESSED LUMINAIRES (2) Type IC Luminaires. A Type IC luminaire (identified for contact
with insulation) can be in contact with combustible materials. Figure
410.110 General. Luminaires installed in recessed cavities in
410-29
walls or ceilings, including suspended ceilings, must comply with this
Part(X. Recessed Luminaires).
Recessed Luminaires Clearance from
410.115 Thermally Protected. Combustible Materials - Type IC Luminaire
410.116(A)(2)
(C) Recessed Incandescent Luminaires. Recessed incandescent
linaires must be identified as thermally protected. "hermal Insulation

Author's Comment: When higher-wattage lamps or improper


trims are installed, the lampholder contained in a recessed lumi-
W o o d Ceiling
naire can overheat, activating the thermal overcurrent device
and causing the luminaire to cycle on and off.

Ex 2: Thermal protection isn 't required for recessed Type IC luminaires


whose desígn, construction, and thermal performance characteristics
are equivalent to a thermally protected luminaire A Type IC luminaire (identified for contact with insulation)
can be in contact with combustible materials.
10.116 Recessed Luminaire Clearances.
410-29
(A)Clearances From Combustible Materials.

(1) Non-Type IC Luminaires. A recessed luminaire that isn't identi-


(B) Installation. Thermal insulation must not be installed above a
fied for contact with insulation must have all recessed parts, except
recessed luminaire or within 3 in. of the luminarias' enclosure, wiring
points of supports, spaced not less than Vi in. from combustible
compartment, or ballast, transformer, LED driver, or power supply
erials. Figure 410-28
unless identified for contact with insulation, Type IC.

Recessed Luminaires Clearance from 410.117 Wiring.


Combustible fVlaterials - Non-Type IC Luminaire
410.116(A)(1) (C) Tap Conductors. Fixture wires installed in accordance with Article
402 and protected against overcurrent in accordance with 240.5(B)
A recessed luminaire that Isn't identified for (2), are permitted to run from the luminaire to an outlet box located
contact with insulation must have all recessed at least 1 ft away from the luminaire, as long as the conductors aren't
parts, except the points of supports, spaced not
less than 1/4 in. from combustible materials. over 6 ft long. Figure 410-30

PART XII. ELECTRIC-DISCHARGE LIGHTING

Copynght 2011. ww» WikeHolIcom


(1 410.130 General.
(F) High-intensity Discharge Luminaires.

(5) Metal Halide Lamp Containment. Luminaires containing a metal


Figure 410-28 halide lamp, other than a thick-glass parabolic reflector lamp (PAR),
must be provided with a containment barrier that endoses the lamp,
or the luminaire must only allow the use of a Type "O" lamp that has
an infernal arc-tube shield. Figure 410-31

Me HoW Enterprises, Inc. • www.Mil(eHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 465


410.130 Luminaires, Lampiiolders, and Lamps

Recessed Luminaires - Tap Conductors (G) Disconnecting Means.


410.117(C)
(1) General. In indoor locations, other than dweilings and associated
Tap Conductors in a Suitable
Raceway, or Types A C or M C Cable accessory structures, fluorescent luminaires that utilizo double-ended
lamps (typical fluorescent lamps) and contain baliasts that can be
serviced in place must have a disconnecting means.

For existing installed luminaires, a disconnecting means must be


added at the time a ballast is replaced.

Author's Comment: Changing the ballast while the circuit


Copytigm 2011. www.MikeHtíl com
feeding the luminaire is energized has become a regular prac-
Tap conductors can be n j n from the luminaire termination
to an outlet box located at least 1 ft from the fixture. Tap tico because a local disconnect isn't available.
conductors must be at least 18 in. long but not m o r e than
6 f t i n length. Ex 2: A disconnecting means isn't required for ttie emergency iliumi-
nation required in 700.16.
Figure 410-30
Ex 3: For cord-and-plug-connected luminaires, an accessible sepa-
rable connector, or an accessible plug and receptacle, is permitted to
Metal Halide L a m p Containment serve as the disconnecting means.
410.130(F)(5)
Ex 4: A disconnecting means isn't required in industrial estabiish-
ments with restricted public access where written procedures ana
conditions of maintenance and supervisión ensure that only qualified
Open persons will service the installation.
Luminaires
Ex 5: If more than one luminaire is installed and is supplied by a
Enclosed
branch circuit that isn't of the multiwire type, a disconnecting means
Luminaires
isn't required for every luminaire; but, only when the light switch for
the space ensures that some of the luminaires in the space will still
Luminaires with a metal halide
Luminaires with PAR provide illumination.
lamp must have a containment
type metal halide lamps
barrier such as a lens unless
don't require a lens. (2) Multiwire Branch Circuits. When connected to multiwire branch
the fixture only accepts Type
O lamps. circuits, the fluorescent luminaire disconnect must simultane-
ousiy break all circuit conductors of the ballast, including the neutral
Figure 410-31
conductor.

Author's Comments: Author's Comment: This rule requires the disconnecting


means to open "all circuit conductors of a multiwire branch cir-
• Fires have resulted from are lamps exploding on start-up,
cuit," including the neutral conductor. If the neutral conductor in
shattering the lamp globe and showering glass and hot quartz
a multiwire circuit isn't disconnected at the same time as the
fragments from metal halide lamp failures. The possibility of
ungrounded conductors, a false sense of security can result in
failure increases significantly as the lamp approaches and
an unexpected shock from the neutral conductor.
exceeds its rated Ufe. It's projected that one violent rupture
occurs in every 100,000 failures.
(3) Location. The fluorescent luminaire disconnecting means must

• "0-rated" lamps, which have an intemal arc-tube shield, have be accessible to qualified persons, and if the disconnecting means

been designed to meet ANSI containment standards for the is external to the luminaire, it must be a single device and must be
installation of a metal halide lamp In an open fixture. located in sight from the luminaire.

466 Mike Hoit's lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Eleetricai Code, Volume 1
Luminaires, Lampiiolders, and Lamps 410.154

PART XIV. TRACK LIGHTING Track Lighting - Circuit Rating


410.151(B) Note
410.151 Installation.

(A) Track Lighting. Track lighting must be permanently installed and


permanently connected to the branch-circuit wiring. Lampholders for
traclí lighting are designed for lamps only, so a receptacle adapter
isn't permitted [410.90].

(B) Circuit Rating. The connected load on a lighting track must not
exceed the rating of the track, and an overcurrent device whose
rating exceeds the rating of the track must not supply the track.
T h e feeder or service load calculations, based on
Figure 410-32 220.43(B), don't limit the n u m b e r of feet of track
or the n u m b e r of luminaires on a n individual track.
Copyogm 2011, WMrt^lAkeHoN com

Track Lighting - Circuit Rating


Figure 410-33
410.151(B)

(C) Locations Not Permitted. Track lighting must not be installed:

(1) If it's likely to be subjected to physical damage.

(2) In wet or damp locations.

(3) If subject to corrosivo vapors.


A 1 5 A lighting track can't be
connected to a 20A circuit.
(4) In storage battery rooms.
The connected load on lighting track must not e x c e e d the (5) In any hazardous location.
rating of the track, and the track must not be supplied by
a circuit whose rating exceeds that of the track. (6) If concealed.
CopyrlBht 2 0 H . www.MIheHoticom

(7) If extended through walls, partitions, or floors.


Figure 410-32
(8) Less than 5 ft above the finished floor, except where protected
from physical damage or where the track operates below 30V
Note: The feeder or senrice load calculations of 220.43(8) don't limit
open-circuit voltage.
the number of feet of track on a circuit, ñor do they limit the number
of luminaires mounted on an individual track. Figure 410-33 (9) Within 3 ft horizontally and 8 ft vertically from the top of a bathtub
rim or shower space [410.4(D)].

410.154 Fastening. Track lighting must be securely mounted


to support the weight of the luminaires. A single track section 4 ft or
shorter in length must have two supports, and, where installed in a
continuous row, each individual track section of not more than 4 ft in
length must have one additional support.

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.IVIikeHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633)


ARTICLE
Lighting Systems
411 Operating at 30V or Less
INTRODUCTION TO ARTICLE 411—LIGHTING SYSTEMS OPERATING AT 30V OR LESS
Article 411 provides the requirements for lighting systems operating at 30V or less, which are often found in such applications as landscap-
ing, kitchen over-the-counter tighting, commercial display lighting, and museums. Don't letthe half-page size of Article 411 give you the
impression that 30V lighting isn't something you need to be concerned about. These systems are limited in their voltage, but the current
rating can be as high as 25A, which means they're stii! a potential source of fire. Installation of these systems is widespread and becoming
more so.

Many of these systems now use LEDs, and 30V halogen lamps are also fairly common. All 30V lighting systems have an ungrounded sec-
ondary circuit supplied by an isolating transformer. These systems have restrictions that effect where they can be located, and they can
have a máximum supply breaker size of 25A.

411.1 Scope. Article 411 covers the installation of lighting sys- 411.3 Listing Required. Low-voltage lighting systems operat-
tems that opérate at 30V or less, as well as their associated compo- ing at 30V or less must comply with (A) or (B).
nents.
(A) Listed System. Be listed as a complete system, including the
power supply and luminaires.
411.2 Definition.
(B) Assembly of Listed Parts. A lighting system assembled from the
Lighting Systems Operating at 30V or Less. A lighting system con-
following listed parts is permitted:
sisting of an isolating power supply, luminaires, and associated equip-
ment identified for the use. The lighting system power supply must be (1) Low-voltage luminaires.
rated not more than 25A and not more than 30V. Figure 411-1
(2) Low-voltage luminaire power supply.

(3) Class 2 power supply.


Lighting Systems - 30V or Less
411.2 Definition (4) Low-voltage luminaire fitting.

(5) Cords that the luminaires and power supply are listed for use
! A lighting system consisting of an isolated power supply,
with.
' the low-voltage luminaires, a n d associated equipment, f
operating at 30V or less, suppiying circuits having a (6) Cable, conductors in a raceway, or other fixed wiring method for
m á x i m u m rating of 25A.
the secondary circuiL
T w r T.
The luminaires, power supply, and luminaire fittings of an exposed
bare conductor lighting system must be listed for use as part of the
same identified lighting system.

411.4 Specific Location Requirements.

(A) Walls, Floors, and Ceilings. Conductors concealed or installed


through a wall, floor, or ceiling must comply with (1) or (2):
Figure 411-1

468 Mike HoiVs iilustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Volume 1
Lighting Systems Operating at 30V or Less 411.5

(1) Lighting system conductors must be installed within a Chapter 3 411.5 Secondary Circuits.
wiring method.
(A) Grounding. Secondary circuits aren't permitted to be grounded.
(2) Lighting system conductors supplied by a listed Class 2 power
(B) Isolation. The secondary circuit must be insulated from the
supply can use Class 2 cables, installed in accordance with
branch circuit by an isolating transformer
725.130.
(C) Bare Conductors. Exposed bare conductors and current-carry-
(B) Pools, Spas, Fountains, and Similar Locations. Low-voltage
ing parts must not be installed less than 7 ft above the finished floor,
lighting systems must not be installed less than 10 ft from the edge of
unless listed for a lower height.
the water. Figure 411-2
(D) Insulated Conductors. Exposed insulated secondary circuit con-
ductors must be:
Low-Voltage Lighting Near
(1) Supplied by a Class 2 power source with Class 2 cable in accor-
Pools, Spas, and Fountains
411.4(B) dance with Article 725.

(2) Installed at least 7 ft above the finished floor unless listed for a
lower installation height.

(3) Installed in a Chapter 3 wiring method.

Lighting systems operating at 30V or


less can't be located within 10 ft of water.

Figure 411-2

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 469


ARTICLE

422 Appliances
INTRODUCTION TO ARTICLE 422—APPLIANCES
Article 422 covers electric appliances used in any occupancy. The meat of this article is contained in Parts I! and III. Parts IV and V are pri-
marily for manufacturers, but you should examine appliances for compliance before installing them. If the appliance has a label from a rec-
ognized labeling authority (for example, UL), it complies [90.7].

PART 1. GENERAL Author's Comment: Appliances are eléctrica! equipment, other


than industrial equipment, built in standardized sizes, such as
422.1 Scope. The scope of Article 422 includes appliances in ranges, ovens, cooktops, refrigerators, drinking water coolers, or
any occupancy that are fastened in place, permanently connected, or beverage dispensers [Article 100].
cord-and-plug-connected. Figure 422-1

Y
422-2 Definitions.
Appliances Vending Machine. A self-service device that dispenses products or
422.1
merchandise, designed to require insertion of coin, paper currency,
• • «o* token, card, kev, or receipt of payment by other means. Figure 422-2
Paddie Fans .^^^.'ss^

Water
Ovens Heaters
Ranges
Waste
Disposer
Refrigerators Cooktops
and Freezers

Dishwashers
Trash
Compactors #6.
Dryers
: Washers

í^_., . Drinking
• . Fountains Room
Air Vending Machine: A self-serve device that dispenses
and Coolers products or merchandise without replenishing the device
Conditioners
between each vending operation and is designed to require
insertion of monev. tokens. or other means of pavment.
Article 422 covers appliances in any occupancy.
Figure 422-2
Figure 422-1

470 Mike HoiVs liiustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National EiGctrical Code, Volume 1
Appliances 422.11

422.3 Other Articles. Motor-operated appliances must comply Equipment fastened in place must not be rated more than
with Article 430, and appliances containing hermetic refrigerant motor 50 percent of the branch-circuit ampere rating, if the cir-
compressors must comply with Article 440. cuit supplies both luminaires and receptacles [210.23{A)
(2)]. Figure 4 2 2 - 4
Author's Comment: Room air-conditioning equipment must be
installed in accordance with Part VII of Article 440.

15A and 20A Branch Circuit - M á x i m u m Load


210.23(A)(2}

PART II. BRANCH-CIRCUIT REQUIREMENTS


Equipment
422.10 Brancti-Circuit Rating. Fastened in Place
(not a luminaire)
(A) Individual Circuits. The branch-circuit ampere rating for an
individual appliance must not be less than the branch-circuit rating
Central V a c u u m 13A
marked on the appliance [110.3(B)].
VIOLATION
The branch-circuit rating for motor-operated appliances must be in if on a 20A
Multioutlet Circuit
accordance with 430.6(A) and 430.22.
www M*eHcyi com

A branch-circuit for an appliance that's a continuous load must be Equipment fastened in place must not be rated more
. rated not less than 125 percent of the marked ampere rating of the than 50 percent of the branch-circuit rating if this circuit
[appliance [210.19(A)(1)]. supplies luminaires, other receptacles. or both.

iBranch circuits for househoid ranges and cooking appliances can be Figure 422-4

sized in accordance with Table 220.55, and 210.19(A)(3).

I(B) Circuits Suppiying Two or More Loads. Branch circuits suppiy- 422.11 Overcurrent Protection.
ing appliances and other loads must be sized in accordance with the
^iollowing: (A) Branch-Circuits. Branch-circuit conductors must have overcur-
rent protection in accordance with 240.4, and the overcurrent device
• Cord-and-plug-connected equipment must not be rated rating must not exceed the rating marked on the appliance.
more than 80 percent of the branch-circuit ampere rating
(E) Nonmotor Appliances. The appliance overcurrent device must:
[210.23(A)(1)]. Figure 422-3
(1) Not exceed the rating marked on the appliance.

Permissible Loads for Cord-and-Plug-Connected (2) Not exceed 20A if the overcurrent device rating isn't marked, and
Equipment Not Fastened in Place the appliance is rated 13.30A or less, or
210.23(AH1)
(3) Not exceed 150 percent of the appliance rated current if the over-
current device rating isn't marked, and the appliance is rated over
13.30A. Where 150 percent of the appliance rating doesn't cor-
respond to a standard overcurrent device ampere rating listed in
20A Circuit, M á x i m u m 240.6(A), the next higher standard rating is permitted.
Rating for Equipment is
2 0 A x 0 . 8 0 = 16A

Cord-and-plug equipment not fastened


in place can't be rated more than180 I
percent of the branch-circuit rating.

jre 422-3

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.Mil(eHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633)


422.12 Appliances

Question: What is the máximum size overcurrent protection for 422.13 Storage Water Heaters. An electric water heater

a 4,500W, 240V water heater? Figure 422-5 having a capacity of 120 gallóos or less is considered a continuous
load, for the purpose of sizing branch circuits.Author's Comment:
(a)20A (b)30A (C)40A (d)50A Branch-circuit conductors and overcurrent devices must have a rating

Answer: (b) 30A of at least 125 percent of the ampere rating of a continuous load
[210.19(A)(1) and 210.20(A)]. Figure 422-6
Conductor/Protection Size = 4,500W/240V
Conductor/Protection Size = 18.75Ax 1.50
Conductor/Protection Size = 28A, next size up, 30A [240.6(A)]
W a t e r Heater
Branch Circuit Conductor Sizing
422.13
Nonmotor Appliance - Overcurrent Device
422.11 (E)(3)

Water Heater
Overcurrent Device [210.19(A)(1)] - 1 5 0 % - w 4.50 kW, 240V
18.75AX 1.50 = 28A, Use 30A
^ ..ví^ 4,500/240V = 18.75A
^ 1 8 . 7 5 A x l . 2 5 = 23.40A[210.19(A)]
Water Heater ' 10 A W G rated 3 5 A a t 7 5 ° C
4.5 kW, 2 4 0 V [Table 310.15(B)(16)]

A water heater with a capacity of


120 gallons or less is considered a
Conductors [422.13] - 1 2 5 %
continuous load for the purpose of
18.75AX 1.25 = 23.40A, sizing branch circuits.
10 A W G . Table 310.15(B)(16)
Figure 422-6
Copyright 2 0 n . www MliehMt com

Figure 422-5 Question: What's the calculated load for conductor sizing and
overcurrent protection fora4,500W, 240V water heater?

422.12 Central Heating Equipment (Furnaces). An (a) 15A (b)20A (c)25A (d) 30A
individual branch circuit must supply central heating equipment, such
Answer: (c) 25A
as gas, oit, or coal furnaces.
l = P/E

Autlior's Comment: This rule isn't intended to apply to a listed P = 4,500W


wood-buming fireplace with a fan, since the fireplace isn't cen- E^240V
tral heating equipment. I = 4,500W/240V
1= 18.75A
Ex 1: Auxiliary equipment to the central heating equipment, such as
Calculated Continuous Load for Conductor Sizing
pumps, valves, humidifiers, and electrostatic air cleaners, can be con-
and Protection = 18.75Ax1.25
nected to the central heater circuit
Calculated Continuous Load for Conductor Sizing
and Protection = 23.44A
Author's Comment: Electric space-heating equipment must
be installed in accordance with Article 424—Electric Space-
Heating Equipment.
422.15 Central Vacuums.
Ex 2: Permanently connected air-conditioning equipment can be con-
(A) Circuit Loading. Central vacuum systems must be on a sepá-
nected to the individual branch circuit that supplies central heating
rate circuit if the rating of the equipment exceeds 50 percent of the
equipment
ampere rating of the circuit [210.23(A)(2)].

472 Mike HolVs lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Eleptrical Code, Volume 1
Appliances 422.16

Auttior*s Comment: 210.23(A){2) specifies that equipment Appliance - Flexible Cord Connection
fastened in place, other than luminaires, must not be rated more 422.16(A)
than 50 percent of the branch-circuit ampere rating if this circuit
VIOLATION
supplies both luminaires and receptacles. Due to this require- J The water heater isn't identified
ment, a sepárate 15A circuit is required for a central vacuum to be used with a flexible c o r d .
receptacle outlet if the rating of the central vacuum exceeds
7.50A. A sepárate 20A circuit is required for a central vacuum
receptacle outlet if the rating of the central vacuum exceeds
lOA, but not 16A [210.23(A)(2)], Figure 4 2 2 - 7

Appliance - Central Vacuum Outlet


422.15(A} A flexible cord can't be used for the connection of
appliances fastened in place unless the appliance is
specifically identified to be used with a flexible cord.

Figure 422-8

(2) The cord length is at least 18 in. and not longer than 3 ft.

(3) The waste disposai receptacle is located to avoid damage to the


cord.

A sepárate circuit isn't required for a central vacuum (4) The waste disposai receptacle is accessible.
outlet if the rating of the equipment doesn't exceed 5 0 %
of the ampere rating of the circuit. See 210.23(A). (2) Dishwashers and Trash Compactors. A cord is permitted for a
dishwasher or trash compactor if:

Figure 422-7 (1) The cord has a grounding-type attachment plug.

(2) The cord length is at least 3 ft and not longer than 4 ft, measured

422.16 Flexible Cords. from the rear plañe of the appliance. Figure 422-9

(A) General. Flexible cords are permitted to:


Dishwasher or Compactor Cord
(1) Facilitate frequent interchange, or to prevent the transmission of
noise and vibration [400.7(A)(6) and 400.7(A)(7)].

(2) Facilitate the removal of appliances fastened in place, where the


fastening means and mechanical connections are specifically
designed to permit ready removal [400.8(A)(8)].

Author's Comment: Flexible cords must not be used for the


connection of water heaters, furnaces, and other appliances fas-
tened in place, unless the appliances are specifically identified to
be used with a flexible cord. Figure 422-8
opyrighl 20:1. wwv MihaHoN com

(B) Specific Appliances. A dishwasher or trash compactor cord must be at


~Z least 3 ft long but not longer than 4 ft, measured
(1) Waste (Garbage) Disposats. A flexible cord is permitted for a from the back of the appliance.
waste disposai if:
Figure 422-9
(1) The cord has a grounding-type attachment plug.

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 473


422.18 Appliances

(3) The appliance receptacle is located to avoid damage to the cord. Author's Comment: An above the range microwave that con-
tains a fan listed as a range hood musí comply with this section,
(4) The receptacle is located in the space occupied by the appliance
ií it's cord-and-plug-connected.
or in the space adjacent to the appliance.

(5) The receptacle is accessible. 422.18 Support of Ceiling Paddie Fans. Ceiiing paddie
fans must be supported by a listed fan outlet box, or outlet box
Author's Comment: According to an article in the International
system, in accordance with 314.27(0). Figure 422-11
Association oí Electrical Inspectors magazine (lAEl News), a cord
installed through a cabinet for an appliance isn't considered as
being installed through a wall.
Outlet Box - Ceiling Paddie Fan
314.27(01
(3) Watl-Mounted Ovens and Counter-Mounted Cooking Units.
Wall-mounted ovens and counter-mounted cooking units can be cord-
and-plug-connected for ease in servicing for installation.
70 Ib Over
(4) Range Hoods. Range hoods can be cord-and-plug-connected if or Less 70 Ib
all of the following conditions are met: Figure 422-10

Fan outlet boxes must be listed,


Range Hood marked as suitable for the
Cord-and-Plug-Connected purpose, and can't support a
A cord-and-plug-connected 422.16(B)(4) fan that w e i g h s more than 70 Ib.
range hood is permitted if:
• Cord terminates to an Paddie fans over 70 Ib must be
attachment plug C o p y r ^ l 2011, www MikeHott com supported independently of the box.
• Cord is 18 to 36 in. long
• Cord is protected against
Figure 422-11
physical d a m a g e
• Receptacle is accessible
• Individual branch circuit
PART III. DISCONNECT
r 1 422.30 General. Each appliance must have a means that discon-
nects simultaneousiy atl ungrounded circuit conductors.

422.31 Permanently Connected Appliance Discon-


nects.
Figure 422-10
(A) Appliances Rated at Not Over 300 VA or % Horsepower. The
branch-circuit overcurrent device, such as a plug tuse or circuit
(1) The flexible cord terminates with a grounding-type attachment
breaker, can serve as the appliance disconnect.
plug.
(B) Appliances Rated Over 300 VA. A switch or circuit breaker can
(2) The length of the cord must not be less than 18 in. or longer than
serve as the disconnect means if it's located within sight of the appli-
36 in.
ance, or the switch or circuit breaker is capable of being locked in the
(3) The range hood receptacle must be located to avoid physical open position. The provisión for locking or adding a lock to the discon-
damage to the flexible cord. necting means must be on the switch or circuit breaker and remain in
place with or without the lock installed. Figure 422-12
(4) The range hood receptacle must be accessible.

(5) The range hood receptacle must be supplied by an individual Author's Comment: According to Article 100, within sight
branch circuit. means that it's visible and not more than 50 ft from one to the
other.

474 Mike HoiVs liiustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Volume 1
¡anees 422.34

Appliance Over 300 VA - Disconnect (B) Cord-and-Plug-Connected Ranges. The plug and receptacle of
422.31(B)
a cord-and-plug-connected househoid electhc range can serve as the
range disconnecting means, if the plug is accessible from the front of
Circuit the range by the removal of a drawer. Figure 422-14
Breaker with
Lockout

Appliance - Disconnect for Household Ranges


422.33(B)

Within T h e attachment plug The receptacle must


Sight serves as the be accessible w h e n
disconnecting m e a n s . the drawer is removed.

The disconnect must be within sight of the appliance,


or it must be capable of being locked in the open
position with the provisión for locking must remain in
place whether locked or unlocked.

Figure 422-12
Side

(C) Motor-Operated Appliances Rated Over 3/8 Horsepower. A


switch or circuit breaker located within sight from the motor-operated
appliance can serve as the appliance disconnect. Figure 422-14

Ex:An appliance containing a unit switcti tiiat complies with 422.34.


422.34 Unit Switches as Disconnects. A unit switch with
422.33 Cord-and-Plug-Connected Appliance Dis- a marked "off" position that's a part of the appliance can serve as
connects. the appliance disconnect, if it disconnects all ungrounded conductors.

(A) Attachment Plugs and Receptacles. An accessible plug and Figure 422-15

receptado can serve as the disconnecting means for a cord-and-


plug-connected appliance. Figure 422-13
Disconnect - Appliance Unit Switch
422.34

Appliance - Cord and Attachment Plug Disconnect


422.33{A}

Appliance Switch

—,—y—^
An attachment plug and receptacle can serve as the
disconnect for a cord-and-plug-connected appliance.
CopyrigN 2011. w*w MkeHoB com
A n appliance switch with a marked "ofT

Figure 422-13 y position can serve as the appliance disconnect. ^~z^

Figure 422-15

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 475


422.51 Appliances

422.51 Cord-and-Plug-Connected Vending Machines. 422.52 Electric Drinking Fountains. Electric drinking
Cord-and-plug-connected vending machines must include a GFCI as fountains must be GFCI protected. Figure 422-17
an integral part of the attachment plug, or within 12 in. of the attach-
ment plug. OIder machines that aren't so equipped must be con-
Eiectric Drinking Fountains
nected to a GFCI-protected outlet. Figure 422-16
422.52

Electric drinking fountains


Cord-and-Plug-Connected Vending Machines must be G F C I protected.
422.51

A bottied water cooler isn't listed as an


electric drinking fountain by the UL product
standard. G F C I protection isn't required.

Figure 422-17
Cord-and-plug-connected vending machines must
have an attachment cord with integral G F C I protection. ^

Figure 422-16

Author's Comment: Because electric vending machines are


often located in damp or wet locations in public places, and are
used by people standing on the ground, reliance on an equip-
ment grounding conductor for protection against electrocution is
insufficient.

476 Mike Hoit's iliustrated Guide to Understanding tiie 2011 National Eleetricai Code, Volume 1
ARTICLE
Fixed Electric Space
424 Heating Equipment
INTRODUCTION TO ARTICLE 424—FIXED ELECTRIC SPACE-HEATING EQUIPMENT
Many people are surprised to see how many pages Article 424 has. This is a nine-part article on fixed electric space heaters. Why so much
text for what seems to be a simple application? The answer is that Article 424 covers a variety of applications—heaters come in various
configurations for various uses. Not all of these parts are for the electrician in the field~the requirements in Part IV are for manufacturers.

Fixed space heaters (wall-mounted, ceiling-mounted, or free-standing) are common in many utility buildings and other small structures, as
well as in some larger structures. When used to heat floors, space-heating cables address the thermal layering probiem typical of forced-air
systems—so it's likely you'll encounterthem. Duct heaters are very common in large office and educational buildings. These provide a dis-
tributed heating scheme. Locating the heater in the ductwork, but cióse to the occupied space, eliminates the waste of transporting heated
air through sheet metal routed in unheated spaces, so it's likely you'll encounter those as well.

PART I. GENERAL Question: What size conductor and overcurrent device are

424.1 Scope. Articie 424 contains the installation requirements required for a 9.60 t<W. 240V fixed electric space heater that

for fixed electrical equipment used for space heating, such as heating has a 3A blower motor with 75X termináis? Figure 424-1

cables, unit heaters, boilers, or central systems. (a) 10AWG, 30A (b) 8AWG, 40A
(c) 6AWG, 60A (d) 4 AWG, 80A
Author's Comment: Wiring for fossil-fuel heating equipment,
such as gas, oil, or coa! centra! furnaces, must be installed in Answer: (c) 6AWG, 60A
accordance with Article 422, specifically 422.12.
Step 1: Determine the total load:

l = VA/E
424.3 Branch Circuits.
1 = 9,6000 VA/240V
(B) Branch-circuit Sizing. For the purpose of sizing branch-circuit i = 40A + 3A = 43A
conductors, fixed electric space-heating equipment and motorís) are
Step 2: Size the conductors at 125 percent of the total current
to be considered a continuous load.
load [110.14(0(1), 21019(A)(1), and Table 310.15(B)
(16)]:
Author's Comment: The branch-circuit conductors and over-
current devices for fixed electric space-heating equipment must Conductor = 43Ax 1.25
have an ampacity not less than 125 percent of the total heating Conductor = 53.75A, 6AWG, rated65A at 75X
load [210.19(A)(1)and210.20(A)].
Step 3: Size the overcurrent device at 125 percent of the total
current load [210.20(A), 240.4(B). and 240.6(A)]:

Overcurrent Protection = 43A x1.25


Overcurrent Protection = 53.75A, next size up is 60A

mke Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.Míl(eHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 477


424.9 Fixed Electric Space-Heating Equipment

Branch-Circuit Sizing for Electric Heat - Disconnect


Fixed Electric Space-Heating Equipment and Motors 424.19
424.3(B)

6 A W G Rated
65A at 75°C,
Tbl310.15(B)(16)p

Heat 9.6 kW,


I 60A Protection Copyrli^ 2011. oMA* MMHolL con
Blower 3A,
240V W h e n the disconnect isn't within
40A + 3A = 43A X 1.25 = 53.75A sight from equipment, it must
be capable of being locked in the
Fixed electric space heating is a continuous load. The open position. The locking m e a n s
branch-circuit conductors and overcurrent device must be must remain in place with or
Co(i>Tigwmit
sized no smaller than 125% of the total load {heat & motor). without the lock installed.

Figure 424-1 Figure 424-2

424.9 Permanently Installed Electric Baseboard (B) Heating Equipment Without Supplementary Overcurrent
Heaters with Receptacles. If a permanently installed electric Protection. For fixed electric space-heating equipment, the brancti-
baseboard heater has factory-installed receptacle outlets, the recepta- circuit circuit breaker is permitted to serve as the disconnecting
cles must not be connected to the heater circuits. means if the circuit breaker is within sight from the heater or it's
capable of being locked in the open position.
Note: Listed baseboard heaters include instructions that prohibit
their installation below receptacle outlets. (C) Unit Switch as Disconnect. A unit switch with a marí<ed "off"
position that's an integral part of the equipment can serve as the
heater disconnecting means, if it disconnects all ungrounded conduc-
tors of the circuit. Figure 424-3
PART III. ELECTRIC SPACE-
HEATING EQUIPMENT
Electric Heat
424.19 Disconnecting IVIeans. Means must be provided to
Disconnect - Unit Switch
simultaneousiy disconnect the heater, motor controller, and supple- 424.19(C)
mentary overcurrent devices of all fixed electric space-heating equip-
ment from atl ungrounded conductors.

The disconnecting means must be capable of being locked in the


open position. The provisión for locking or adding a tock to the discon-
necting means must be on the switch or circuit breaker, and it must
remain in place with or without the lock installed. Figure 424-2

(A) Heating Equipment with Supplementary Overcurrent Unit switches that have a m a r k e d
"Off' position can serve as the
Protection. The disconnecting means for fixed electric space-heating
e q u i p m e n t disconnecting m e a n s .
equipment with supplementary overcurrent protection must be within
sight from the supplementary overcurrent devices. CopyngM 2011. wwwl

Author's Comment: According to Article 100, within sight Figure 424-3

means that it's visible and not more than 50 ft from one to the
other.

478 Mike HolVs lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Volume 1
Fixed Electric Space-Heating Equipment 424.65

PARTV. ELECTRIC SPACE-HEATING CABLES Electric Space-Heating Cables


9 Concrete or Poured Masonry Floors
424.36 Clearances of Wiring in Ceilings. Wiring located
above heated ceilings must be spaced not less than 2 in. above the
tieated ceiling and is considered as operating at an ambient temper-
ature of 50X.

424.38 Area Restrictions.


(A) Must Not Extend Beyond the Room or Area. Heating cables
must not extend beyond the room or área in which they origínate.

(B) Uses Prohibited. Heating cables must not be installed:

(1) In closets.

(2} Over walls.

(3) Over partitions that extend to the ceiling.


GFCI protection is required for space-heating
424.39 Clearance from Other Objects and Openings. cables e m b e d d e d in concrete floors of bathrooms,
kitchens. and hydromassage bathtub locations.
Heating elements of cables must be separated at least 8 in. from the
edge of outiet boxes and junction boxes used for mounting surface Figure 424-4
luminaires and 2 in. from recessed luminaires and their trims.

424.44 Installation of Cables in Concrete or Poured Duct Heater - Disconnect


Masonry Floors. 424.65

(G) GFCI Protection. GFCI protection is required for electric space-


Duct i
fieating cables that are embedded in concrete or poured masonry Heater j
floors of bathrooms, kitchens, and hydromassage bathtub locations.
Figure 424-4 Drop Ceiling

Author's Comment: See 680.28{C)(3) for restrictions on the Disconnect


T h e disconnect must be within
installation of radiant-heating cables for spas and hot tubs sight from equipment, or it must be
installed outdoors. capable of being locked in the open
position. The locking m e a n s must
4.
remain in place with or without the
lock installed [424.19{A)].
PARTVL DUCT HEATERS Cocyrignt 2011, www.MiKeHoa.com

424.65 Disconnect for Electric Duct Heater Control-


Figure 424-5
lers. Means must be provided to disconnect the heater, motor con-
troller, and supplementary overcurrent devices from all ungrounded
conductors of the circuit. The disconnecting means must be within Author's Comment: The disconnecting means for a duct
sight from the equipment, or it must be capable of being locked in the heater isn't required to be readily accessible. Therefore, it can

open position [424.19(A)]. The provisión for locking or adding a lock be located within a suspended ceiling área adjacent to the duct
heater as long as it's accessible by portable means [240.24{A)
to the disconnecting means must be on the switch or circuit breaker,
(4) and 404.8(A) Ex 2].
and must remain in place with or without the lock installed. A por-
table locking means doesn't meet the "locked in the open position"
requirement. Figure 424-5

mke Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MilceHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 479


ARTICLE
Motors, Motor Circuits,
430 and Controllers
INTRODUCTION TO ARTICLE 430—MOTORS, MOTOR CIRCUITS, AND CONTROLLERS
Article 430 contains the specific rules for conductor sizing, overcurrent protection, control circuit conductors, controllers, and disconnecting
means for electric motors. The installation requirements for motor control centers are covered in Part VIII, and air-conditioning and
refrigeration equipment are covered in Article 440.

Article 430 is one of the longest articles in the NEC. It's also one of the most complex, but motors are also complex equipment. They're
electrical and mechanical devices, but what makes motor applications complex is the fact that they're inductive loads with a high-current
demand at start-up that's typically six, or more, times the running current. This makes overcurrent protection for motor applications
necessarily different from the protection employed for other types of equipment. So don't confuse general overcurrent protection with motor
protection—you must calcúlate and apply them differently using the rules in Article 430.

You might be uncomfortable with the allowances for overcurrent protection found in this article, such as protecting a 10 AWG conductor with
a 60A overcurrent protection device, but as you learn to understand how motor protection works, you'll understand why these allowances
aren't only safe, but necessary.

PARTL GENERAL S c o p e of Article 4 3 0

430.1 Scope. Article 430 covers motors, motor branch-circuit


and feeder conductors and their protection, motor overload protec-
tion, motor control circuits, motor controllers, and motor control cen-
ters. This article is divided into many parts, the most important being:
Figure 430-1

• General-Part I
• Conductor Size—Part II
• Overload Protection—Part III
• Branch Circuit Short-Circuit and Ground-Fault
Protection—Part IV
• Feeder Short-Circuit and Ground-Fault Protection—Part V
• Motor Control Circuits—Part VI
• Motor Controllers—Part VII
• Motor Control Centers—Part VIII Figure 430-1
• Disconnecting Means—Part IX

Note 1: Article 440 contains the installation requirements for elec- 430.2 Definitions.
trically driven air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment [440.1].
Adjustable-Speed Orive. A combination of the power converter,
Also see 110.26(E) for dedicated space requirements for motor con-
trol centers. motor, and motor mounted auxiliary devices such as encoders,
tachometers, thermal switches and detectors, air biowers, heaters,
and vibration sensors.

480 Mike HoiVs Iilustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Volume 1
Motors, Motor Circuits, and Controllers 430.6

Author's Comment: Adjustable-speed drives are often referred Control Devices - Not Motor Controllers
to as "variable-speed drives" or "variable-frequency drives." Start-Stop Station Limit Temperature
with Pilot Light Switch Switch
Controller. A switch or device used to start and stop a motor by O
mal<ing and breal^ing the motor circuit current. Figure 430-2

9
Controller
430.2 Definition
Fused or Unfused Snap Switch Horsepower-
Safety Switch M á x i m u m 30A Raíed Switch

Flow Switch Pressure Switch Float Switch


T h e s e devices often control the coil of a motor starter
but they usually don't carry all of the current of the
motor branch circuit.

Cord & Plug


Figure 430-3
Circuit Breaker Drum Switch Starter (limited use)

A switch or device that is used to start a n d stop a


motor by making and breaking the motor circuit current.
Motor Control Circuit
Figure 430-2 430.2 Definition
Controller
T h e branch circuit carries
the m a i n p o w e r current.
L1

Author's Comments:
start
• A controller can be a horsepower-rated switch, snap switch, 1—2
or circuit breaker. A pushbutton that operates an electrome-
chanicai relay isn't a controller because it doesn't meet the 1 Stop Motor
controller rating requirements of 430.83. Devices such as Control
Circuit
start-stop stations and pressure switches are control devices,
noí motor controllers. Figure 430-3 T h e control circuit is u s e d to
• Controllers discussed in Article 430 are those that meet this energize a n d de-energize
the motor starter coil.
definition, not the definition of "Controller" in Article 100.

T h e circuit of a control a p p a r a t u s or s y s t e m that carries


Motor Control Circuit. The circuit that carries the electric signáis that the electric signáis directing the p e r f o r m a n c e of the
direct the performance of the controller. Figure 430-4 controller, but d o e s n ' t carry the m a i n p o w e r current.

430.6 Table FLC versus Motor Nameplate Current Figure 430-4


Rating.

(A) General Requirements. Figure 430-5 Author's Comment: The actual current rating on the motor
nameplate fulMoad amperes (FLA) [430.6{A)(2)] isn't permitted
(1) Table Full-Load Current (FLC). The motor full-load current rat- to be used to determine the conductor ampacity, the branch-cir-
ings listed in Tables 430.247, 430.248, and 430.250 are used to cuit short-circuit and ground-fauit overcurrent device size, nor
determine the conductor ampacity [430.22], the branch-circuit short- the ampere rating of disconnecting switches.
circuit and ground-fault overcurrent device size [430.52 and 430.62],
and the ampere rating of disconnecting switches [430.110].

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.Mil(eHolt.com • 888.I\IEC.C0DE (632.2633)


430.8 Motors, Motor Circuits, and Controllers

FLC versus Nameplate A m p e r e s Motor Full-Load A m p e r e s (FLA)


430.6(A)
es SERIAL NO. AB1234 F R A M E l O P E N
otors
Ecc [7ñv2SERVICE
FLA =
Full-Load Current (FLC) Nameplate (FLA) FACT OR _
E F F [70%, F A C T O R
i r Full-Load A m p s =
430.6(A)(1) 430.6(A)(2) PHASE 1 1 VOLTS [TlS^M F L A ^B.St9. Nameplate A m p s
CYCLE _60; RPM | 1725 -C RISE

DUTY I CONT] HPIVÍ"


FLC =
LETTERI
Mike's ^ ^ » i N o ^ ^
THERMAL - iMPEDANCE r r r i Full-Load Current =
Motors SE-MCt MciU [__MS_ PROTECTtON !
Table A m p s
PROTECTION
•**str7] VOLTS Q i ^ j F L A ^ M ^
OCLE [ MJ W>M LJIV» ]
National Electrical ourr I COWT ¡ HP I ivi I

Code THVmtL mm- N a m e p l a t e (NP) = ^ ' ^ ¡ ^ ^


The table FLC is used to size: 746 = watts per hp
The motor nameplate
• Conductors hp = 1.50 hp
is used to size
• Disconnects E =115V
overioad protection.
• Short-circuit and ground-fault Eff = 0.70 efficiency factor
protection devices Cooyngfil 2011, www MikeHon com PF = 0.75 power factor
7 4 6 x 1.50 hp
Figure 430-5
1 1 5 V X 0.70 EfFx 0.75 PF
N a m e p l a t e = 18.50A
Motors built to opérate at less than 1,200 RPM or that have high
torques may have higher full-load currents, and multispeed motors Figure 430-6

have full-load current varying with speed, in which case the name-
plate current ratings must be used. 430.8 Marking on Controllers. A controller must be marked

Ex 3: For a listed motor-operated appliance, the actual current marked with the manufacturer's ñ a m e or identification, the voltage, the current

on the nameplate of the appliance must be used instead of the horse- or horsepower rating, the short-circuit current rating, and other neces-

power rating on the appliance nameplate to determine the ampacity sary data to properly indícate the applications for which it's suitable.

or rating of the disconnecting means, the branch-circuit conductors, Ex 1: The short-circuit current rating isn't required for controllers
the controller, and the branch-circuit short-circuit and ground-fault applied in accordance with 430.81(A), 430.81(8), or 430.83(0).
protection.
Ex 2: The short-circuit rating isn't required on the controller when the
(2) Motor Nameplate Current Rating (FLA). Overload devices must short-circuit current rating of the controller is marked elsewhere on
be sized based on the motor nameplate current rating in accordance the assembly
with 430.31.
Ex 3: The short-circuit rating isn't required on the controller when the

Author's Comment: The motor nameplate full-load ampere assembly into which it's installed has a marked short-circuit current
rating is identified as full-load amperes (FLA). The FLA rating rating.
is the current in amperes the motor draws while producing its
Ex 4: A short-circuit rating isn't required on controllers rated less
rated horsepower load at its rated voltage, based on its rated
than 2 hp at 300V or less, if they're listed for use on general-purpose
efficiency and power factor. Figure 430-6
branch circuits.

The actual current drawn by the motor depends upon the load on
430.9 Motor Controller Terminal Requirements.
the motor and on the actual operating voltage at the motor termi-
náis. That is, if the toad increases, the current also increases, or if the (B) Copper Conductors. Motor controllers and termináis of control
motor operates at a voltage below its nameplate rating, the operating circuit devices must be connected with copper conductors.
current will increase.
(C) Jorque Requirements. Motor control conductors 14 AWG and
smaller must be torqued at a minimum of 7 Ib-in. for screw-type pres-
/ | \: To prevent damage to motor windings
sure termináis, unless identified otherwise. See 110.3(B) and 110.14
from excessive heat (caused by excessive current),
never load a motor above its horsepower rating, and Note.

be sure the voltage source matches the motor's voltage rating.

Mike HolVs lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electfical Code, Volume 1
Motors, Motor Circuits, and Controllers 430.24

430.14 Location of Motors. Sizing Conductors to a Single Motor


Continuous Duty Application
(A) Ventilation and Maintenance. Motors must be located so ade- 430.22
quate ventilation is provided and maintenance can be readily
Conductors for a single motor are sized
accomplished.
no less than 1 2 5 % of the table full-load
current, not the nameplate a m p e r e s .
430.17 The Highest Rated Motor. When sizing motor cir
cuít conductors, the highest rated motor is the motor with the highest Table F L C :
rated fuil-load current rating (FLC). Table 4 3 0 . 2 4 7 , D C NEC
Table 4 3 0 . 2 4 8 , 1-Phase
Table 430.250, 3-Phase

Question: Which of the following motors has the highest FLC


ll^epla^
r a % ? Figure 430-7
Copynghl 2011. www MikeHoK.com
(ajWhpJhree-phase, 208V (b) 5 hp single-phase, 208V
(cj 3 hp, single-phase, 120V (d) none of these
Figure 430-8
Answer: (c) 3 hp, single-phase, 120V

10 hp = 30.80A [Table 430.250]


5 hp = 30.80A [Table 430.248] Question: What size branch-circuit conductor is required for a

3hp = 34.00A [Table 430.248] 7/2 hp, 230V, three-phase motor? Figure 430-9

(a) 14 AWG (b) 12 AWG (c) 10 AWG (d) 8 AWG

Answer: (c) 10 AWG


Highest Rated Motor
430.17 Motor FLC = 22A [Table 430.250]

L3-' Conductor's Size - 22A x 1.25


L2- Conductors Size = 27.50A, 10AWG, rated 30A at 75X [Table
L1
310.15(B)(16)]
N "

The highest rated \t Note: The branch-circuit short-circuit and ground-fault protec-
motor in a group is l'r : Rated | I tion device using an inverso time breaker is sized at 60A accord-
determined by the >> \r I >
ing to 430.52(C)(1) Ex 1:
highest FLC.
Circuit Protection = 22A x 2.50
o: Circuit Protection = 55A, next size up 60A [240.6(A)]
10 hp, 5hp, 3hp,
208V, 3-Ph 208V, 1-Ph 115V, 1-Ph
30.80 FLC 30.80 FLC 34 FLC
Copyright 2011, www UkeHon.com 430.24 Several Motors—Conductor Size. circuit con-
ductors that supply several motors must not be sized smaller than the
Figure 430-7
sum of the following:

Í D 125 percent of the full-load current of the highest rated motor

Í2) The full-load current ratings of other motors


PART II. CONDUCTOR SIZE
430.22 Single Motor Conductor Size. Conductors to a
single motor must be sized not less than 125 percent of the motor
FLC rating as listed in Table 430.247 Direct-Current Motors, Table
430.248 Single-Phase Motors, or Table 430.250 Three-Phase Motors.
Figure 430-8

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 483


430.28 Motors, Motor Circuits, and Controllers

Motor - Feeder Conductor Size


Sizing Conductors to a Single Motor
430.24
Continuous Duty Application
430.22

10 A W G Rated 35A at 750C


r a b i e 310.15(B)(16)]
22A FLC X 1.25 = 27.50A

Conductors for a single motor must I 7V2hp.


8 A W G Rated 50A at 75oC
have an ampacity of not less than
• 230V.

/
125 percent of the motor full-load [Table 310.15(B)(16)]
( 2 2 A x 1.25) + 22A = 49.5A 3-phase
current rating.
7V2 hp, / FLC 22A
230V. 3-phase
FLC 2 2 A

Conductors must be sized not less than 1 2 5 % of the largest


CúOyrioN 2011. www.MkaHol.cnn
FLC [430.24(1)] plus the sum of the other FLCs [430.24(2)].

Figure 430-9 Figure 430-10

Question: What size feeder conductor is required for two 7>é hp, 430.28 Motor Feeder Taps. Motor circuit conductors tapped
230V, three-phase motors, if the termináis are rated for 75°C? from a feeder must have an ampacity in accordance with 430.22, and
Figure 430-10 the tap conductors must termínate in a branch-circuit short-circuit
and ground-fault protection device sized in accordance with 430.52.
(a) 14 AWG (b) 12 AWG (c) 10 AWG (d) 8 AWG
In addition, one of the following requirements must be met:
Answer: (d) 8 AWG
(1) 10 ft Tap. Tap conductors not over 10 ft long must have an
Motor FLC - 22A ¡Table 430.250}
ampacity not less than one-tenth the rating of the feeder protection
Motor Feeder Conductor = (22A x 1.25) + 22A device.
Motor Feeder Conductor = 49.50A, 8 AWG rated 50A at 75X
(2) 25 ft Tap. Tap conductors over 10 ft, but not over 25 ft, must
ITable310.15(B)(16}]
have an ampacity not less than one-third the ampacity of the feeder
conductor.

Author's Comment: Ttie feeder overcurrent device (inverse (3) Ampacity. Tap conductors must have an ampacity not less than
time circuit breaker) must comply with 430.62 as follows: the feeder conductors.

Step 1: Determine the largest branch-circuit overcurrent device


rating [240.6(A) and 430.52(C){1) Ex 1]:

22A X 2.50 = 55A, next size up 60A PART III. OVERLOAD PROTECTION
Step 2: Size the feeder overcurrent device in accordance with l Part III contains the requirements for overload devices. Overioad
240.6(A) and 430.62: devices are intended to protect motors, motor control equipment, and

Feeder Inverse Time Breaker: 60A + 22A = 82A, next motor branch-circuit conductors against excessive heating due to

size down, 80A i motor overloads and failure to start.

Overload is the operation of equipment in excess of the normal, full-


Author's Comment: The "next size up protection" rule for load current rating, which, if it persists for a sufficient amount of time,
branch circuits [430.52(C)(1) Ex 1] doesn't apply to motor feeder will cause damage or dangerous overheating of the equipmenL
short-circuit and ground-fault protection device sizing.

484 Mike HolVs lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Volume 1
Motors, Motor Circuits, and Controllers 430.32

Author's Comment: Article 100 defines overcurrent as "current Overload Types


in excess of the raíed current oí equipment or the ampacity of a 430.31
conductor from an overload, a short circuit, or a ground fault."
fyiagnetic I
Because of the difference between starting and running current, Contactor
the overcurrent protection for motors is generally accomplished (Starter)
by having the overload device sepárate from the motor's short-
circuit and ground-fault protection device (Article 430 Part IV).
Figure 430-11 Overload
Relay
Fuses can
provide
Heaters
overload
• protection.
Branch-Circuit Overcurrent Protection
Article 430 Parts III and IV Overloads protect the motor, conductors, and associated
e q u i p m e n t from excessive heat due to motor overloads.
Part IV They're not intended to protect against short circuits and
Short-Circuit ground faults.
Ground-Fault
Protection Figure 430-12
Overcurrent*
PLUS Protection
Part Itl
• The intended level of protection required in Article 430 Part III
Overload
Protection is for overload and faiiure-to-start protection only, in order to
protect against the motor becoming a fire hazard.
*Overcurrent is any current in excess of the
equipment rating. It can be caused by overload,
Overload protection isn't required if it might introduce additional or
short circuit, or ground fautt [Art 100].
increased hazards, as in the case of fire pumps.

Note: See 695.7 for the protection requirements for fire pump
www.MikeKott.com suppiy conductors.

430.32 Overload Sizing for Continuous-Duty Motors.


figure 430-11
(A) Motors Rated More Than One Horsepower. Motors rated more
than 1 hp, used in a continuous-duty application without integral ther-
430.31 Overload. Overload devices (sometimos called "heat- mal protection, must have an overload device sized as follows:
i") are intended to provide overload protection, and come in a
(1) Sepárate Overload Device. A sepárate overload device must be
variety of configurations; they can be conventional or electronic. In
selected to open at no more than the following percent of the motor
aadition, a fuse sized in accordance with 430.32 can be used for cir-
nameplate fuil-load current rating: Figure 430-13
cuit overload protection [430.55]. Figure 430-12
Service Factor Motors with a marked service factor (SF) of 1.15 or
Note: An overload is a condition where equipment is operated above more on the nameplate must have the overload device sized no more
its current rating, or where current is in excess of the conductor
than 125 percent of the motor nameplate current rating.
ampacity. When an overload condition persists for a sufficient length
of time, it could result in equipment failure or a fire from damaging
or dangerous overheating. A fault, such as a short circuit or ground Author's Comment A service factor of 1.15 means the motor
fault, isn't an overload [Article 100]. is designed to opérate periodically at 115 percent of its rated
horsepower.
Author's Comments:
Temperature Rise. Motors with a nameplate temperature rise of 40°C
• Motor overload protection sizing is usually accomplished by
or less must have the overload device sized no more than 125 per-
installing the correct "heater" or setting the overload device
cent of the motor nameplate current rating.
in accordance with the controller's instructions, based on the
motor nameplate current rating.

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.Mil(eHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633)


430.36 Motors, Motor Circuits, and Controllers

Overload Sizing - Service Factor and Temperature Rise N u m b e r of O v e r l o a d Devices


430. 32(A)(1) 430.37
© Service Factor

Mikes stniAi no 1 * 8 - ; M ] owtW SPEN ;


Motors
SCRWCE FACTOR LL15J
VOLTÍ 1 r S Í J O 1 FIA 1

CrOE I » ! >w 1 -cost 1 « 1


2 Ungrounded 3 Ungrounded
Conductors, Conductors,
wjrr ¡ c o m ]
ií^Cü
2 Heaters 3 Heaters

A service factor of 1.15 A temperature rise of 4 0 ^ 0


means that the motor is means that the motor is
designed to opérate at designed to opérate so
115 percent of its rated that it won't heat up more
horsepower continuously. than 4 0 ^ 0 above its rating. A n overload device must be installed
Copynghl 2011. w w « M.li8Mo« rom
in e a c h ungrounded conductor.

Figure 430-13 Figure 430-14

Author's Comment: A motor with a nameplate temperature PART IV. BRANCH-CIRCUIT SHORT-CIRCUIT
rise oí 40°C means the motor is designed to opérate so that
AND GROUND-FAULT PROTECTION
it won't heat up more than 40°C above its rated ambient tem-
perature when operated at its rated load and voltage. Studies 430.51 General. A branch-circuit short-circuit and ground-fault
have shown that when the operating temperature of a motor is protective device protects the motor, the motor control equipment,
increased 10°C, the motor winding insulating material's antici- and the conductors against short circuits or ground faults, but not
pated life is reduced by 50 percent. against overload. Figure 430-15

All Other l\ñotors. No more than 115 percent of the motor "nameplate
current rating." Circuit a n d Ground-Fault Protection
430.51
430.36 Use of Fuses for Overload Protection. if tuses Short-circuit a n d g r o u n d -
are used for overload protection, one must be provided for each fault protection is sized
between 150% and 3 0 0 %
ungrounded conductor of the circuit. of the motor FLC [430.52].

Short-circuit or ground-fault
Author's Comment: If remote control isn't required for a motor,
protection is d e s i g n e d for:
considerable savings can be achieved by using dual-element • Fast current rise
fuses (elimínate a motor controller) sized in accordance with • Short duration
430.32 to protect the motor and the circuit conductors against • Fast responso time
overcurrent, which includes overload, short circuit, and ground
faults. See 430.55 for more information. O v e r l o a d protection
(OL) is d e s i g n e d for:
• Slow current rise
430.37 Number of Overload Devices. An overioad device • Long duration
• Slow response time
must be installed in each ungrounded conductor. Figure 430-14
CapyrtoM2an.nww

Figure 430-15

Author's Comment: Overload protection must comply with the


requirements contained in 430.32.

486 Mike HolVs Iliustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Vo
Motors, Motor Circuits, and Controllers 430.52

Motor-Starting Current When voltage is first applied to the field (B) All Motors. A motor branch-circuit short-circuit and ground-fault
winding of an induction motor, only the conductor resistance opposes protective device must be capable of carrying the motor's starting
tlie flow of current through the motor winding. Because the conduc- current.
tor resistance is so low, the motor will have a very large inrush cur-
(C) Rating or Setting.
rent. Figure 430-16
(1) Table 430.52. Each motor branch circuit must be protected
against short circuit and ground faults by a protective device sized no
Starting versus Running Current greater than the following percentages listed in Table 430.52.

600%
Table 430.52
Starting Current |
Dual-Element Inverse Time
J50%
Motor Type Nontime Delay Fuse Breaker

Wound Rotor 150% 150% 150%

Direct Current 150% 150% 150%

All Other Motors 300% 175% 250%

Short-circuit and ground- Overload protection is


fault protection is sized sized between 115% and
between 150% and 125% of the nameplate Question: What size conductor and inverse time circuit breaker
300% of the motor FLC. running current rating. are required for a 2 hp, 230V, single-phase motor? Figure
430-17
Figure 430-16
(a) 14 AWG, 30A breaker (b) 14 AWG, 35A breaker
(c) 14 AWG, 40A breaker (d) 14 AWG, 45A breaker
Motor-Running Current Once the rotor begins turning, there's an
Answer: (a) 14AWG, 30A breaker
increase in counter-electromotive forcé which reduces the starting
current to running current. See Figure 430-16. Step 1: Determine the branch-circuit conductor ¡Table
310.15{B)(16), 430.22, and Table 430.248]:
Motor Locked-Rotor Current (LRC). If the rotating part of the motor
winding (armature) becomes jammed so it can't rotate, no coun- 12A X 1.25 = 15A, 14 AWG, rated 20A at 75X [Table

ter-electromotive forcé {CEMF) will be produced in the motor wind- 310.15(B){16)]

ing. This results in a decrease in conductor impedance to the point Step 2: Determine the branch-circuit protection [240.6(A),
that it's effectively a short circuit. Result—the motor operates at 430.52(0(1), and Table 430.248]:
loci(ed-rotor current (LRC), often six times the full-load ampere rating,
12Ax2.50 = 30A
depending on the motor code letter rating [430.7(B)], and this will
cause the motor winding to overheat and be destroyed if the current
isn't quicl<ly reduced or removed.
Author's Comment: I know it bothers many in the electri-
cal industry to see a 14 AWG conductor protected by a 30A
Author's Comment: The National Electrical Code requires that
circuit breaker, but branch-circuit conductors are protected
most motors be provided with overcurrent protection to prevent
against overloads by the overload device, which is sized between
damage to the motor winding because of iocked-rotor current.
115 and 125 percent of the motor nameplate current rating
[430.32]. The small conductor rule contained in 240.4(D) which
430.52 Branch-Circuít Short-Circuit and Ground- limits 15A protection for 14 AWG doesn't apply to motor circuit
Fault Protection. protection. See 240.4(0) and 240.4(G).

(A) General. The motor branch-circuit short-circuit and ground-fault


protective device must comply with 430.52(B) and 430.52(C).

mke Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.Mil(eHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 487


430.55 Motors, Motor Circuits, and Controllers

Motor Branch-Circuit
Short-Circuit and Ground-Fault Protection Question: What size conductor and inverse time circuit breaker
430.52(C)(1)
are required for a 71á hp, 230V, three-phase motor? Figure

30A Circuit Breaker Protection 430-19


Table 430.52
FLC X 2 5 0 % (a) 10AWG, 50A breaker (b) 10 AWG, 60A breaker
• ! 2 F L C x 2 . 5 0 = 30A
(c) aorb (d) none of these

14 A W G Conductor Size Answer: (b) 10AWG, 60A breaker


Rated 2 0 A a t 750C 430.22(A)
FLC X 1 2 5 %
Step 1: Determine the branch-circuit conductor [Table
12FLCx1.25=15A
310.15(B)(16), 430.22, and Table 430.250]:
2hp, 22A X 1.25 = 27.50A, 10AWG, rated 30A at 75X
2 3 0 V Motor
11AFLA [Table310.15(B)(16)]
12AFLC
Step 2: Determine the branch-circuit protection [240.6(A),

Figure 430-17 430.52(C)(1) Ex 1, and Table 430.250]:

22A X 2.50 = 55A, next size up = 60A

Ex 1: If the motor short-circuit and ground-fault protective device


valúes derived from Table 430.52 don't correspond with the standard
Motor Branch-Circuit Short-Circuit Ground-Fault Protection
overcurrent device ratings listed in 240.6{A}, the next higher overcur- 430.52(C)(1)Ex 1
rent device rating can be used. Rgure 430-18
6 0 A Inverse Time Breaker

i Sizing Motor Short-Circuit Ground-Fault Protection


1 "Next Size Up"
430.52(C)(1) Ex 1 10 A W G Rated :
35Aat 750c
Protection Size:
The next size up fuse or circuit breaker is FLC X 2 5 0 %
permitted w h e n the protection device valué 2 2 A x 2 . 5 0 = 55A 7/2 hp.
determined from Table 430.52 doesn't Next size up, 6 0 A 230V, 3-Phase
correspond with the standard device rating [240.6(A)] 2 2 A FLC
listed in 240.6(A).

W h e r e the valué determined from Table 430.52


doesn't correspond with a standard device rating,
the next size up overcurrent device can be used.
NECoóe
Nameplate
Rgure 430-19

2 hp, 2 3 0 V
12AFLC 430.55 Single Overcurrent Device. a motor can be pro
tected against overload, short circuit, and ground fault by a single
Figure 430-18 overcurrent device sized to the overload requirements contained in
430.32.

488 Mike HoiVs iliustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Vo
Motors, Motor Circuits, and Controllers 430.62

Question: Wtiat size dual-eiement fuse is permitted to protect a Question: What size feeder protection (inverse time breal<ers
5 hp, 230V, single-phase motor with a service factor of 1.15 and with 75°C termináis) and conductors are required for the follow-
a nameplate current rating 0^254? Figure 430-20 ing two motors? Rgure 430-21

(a) 20A (b)25A (c) 30A 35A Motor 1—20 hp 460V, three-phase = 27A FLC ¡Table 430.250]
Motor 2—10 hp. 460V, three-phase = 14A FLC
Answer: (d) 35A
(a) 8 AWG, 70Abreal<er (b) 8AWG, 80A breaker
Overload Protection [430.32(A)(1)]
(c) 8AWG, 90A breaker (d) 10AWG, 90A breaker
28Ax1.25 = 35A
Answer: (b) 8 AWG, 80A breaker

Step 1: Determine the feeder conductor size [430.24]:


Single Protective Device (27Ax1.25)-h14A = 48A
430.55 8AWG rated 50A at 75°C [110.14(C)(1) and Table
SFllJ5J 3iai5(B)(16)]

35A Fuse * [ r i ¿s^B "«[^ Step 2: Feeder protection [430.62(A)] isn 't greater than the
largest branch-circuit ground-fault and short-circuit
Overioad Protection Size [430.32] protective device plus the other motor FLC.
Nameplate A m p e r e s x 1 2 5 %
2 8 A x 1.25 = 3 5 A Step 3: Determine the largest branch-circuit ground-fault and
short-circuit protective device [430.52(C)(1) Ex]:
5 h p . 230V. S F 1 . 1 5 .
28A Nameplate 20 hp Motor = 27A x 2.50 = 68, next size up = 70A
10 hp Motor = 14A x 2.50 = 35A
'•. A motor can be protected against overload, short circuit,
:• and ground fault by a single overcurrent device sized in Step 4: Determine the size feeder protection:
accordance with the overioad rules of 4 3 0 . 3 2 .
Not more than 70A -h 14A, = 84A, next size down =

Rgure 430-20 80A [240.6(A)]

Motor Feeder
PART V. FEEDER SHORT-CiRCUIT AND Short-Circuit and Ground-Fault Protection

GROUND-FAULT PROTECTION 430.62(A)


8 0 A Feeder Protection Device
430.62 Feeder Protection.

(A) Motors Only. Feeder conductors must be protected against short


circuits and ground faults by a protective device sized not more than
the largest rating of the branch-circuit short-circuit and ground-fault
protective device for any motor, plus the sum of the full-load currents 8 A W G Rated - • i
of the other motors in the group. 50Aat 75'<: 70A B r a n c h
Protecüon

35A Branch
Protection
2 0 h p , 460V, l O h p . 460V,
3-phase 3-phase
FLC 2 7 A FLC 14A
Copyi-ght 2011. www M*eHoB com

Feeder Protection D e v i c e N o t t o b e Larger T h a n 70A + 14A

Rgure 430-21

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.Mil(eHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 489


430.72 Motors, Motor Circuits, and Controllers

Author's Comment: The "next size up protection" rule for


Conductor Size Overcurrent Protection
branch circuits [430.52(C)(1) Ex 1] doesn't apply to a motor
feeder protection device rating. 18AWG 7A

16AWG lOA

14AWG 45A

12AWG 60A
PART VI. MOTOR CONTROL CIRCUITS
10AWG 90A
430.72 Overcurrent Protection for Control Circuits.

(A) Ctass 1 Control Conductors. Motor control conductors that aren't Author's Comment: The above limitations don't apply to the
tapped from the branch-circuit protective device are classified as a infernal wiring of industrial control paneis listed in UL 508
Class 1 remote-control circuit, and they must have overcurrent pro- Standard for Practical Application Guidelines.

tection in accordance with 725.43.


(C) Control Circuit Transformer Protection. Transformers for motor
Author's Comment: Section 725.43 states that overcurrent control circuit conductors must have overcurrent protection on the
protection for conductors 14 AWG and larger must comply with primary side in accordance with 430.72(C)(1) through (6).
the conductor ampacity from Table 310.15(B)(16). Overcurrent
protection for 18 AWG must not exceed 7A, and a 10A device Author's Comment: Many control transformers have small
must protect 16 AWG conductors. Figure 430-22 iron cores, which result in very high inrush (excitation) current
when the coil is energized. This high inrush current can cause
standard fuses to blow, so you should only use the fuses recom-
Class 1 Circuit Overcurrent Protection mended by the control transformer manufacturer.
725.43
L1 L2
Overcurrent Protection for Class 1 Circuit 430.73 Protection of Conductors from Physical
Damage. If physical damage would result in a hazard, the con-
PRI
ductors of a remote motor control circuit installed outside the control
device must be protected by installing the conductors in a raceway or
be protected from physical damage.

430.75 Disconnect for Control Circuits.

(A) Control Circuit Disconnect. Motor control circuit conductors


Overcurrent protection for 14 A W G and larger is must have a disconnecting means that simultaneousiy opens all
according to conductor ampacity without appiying
derating factors. The m á x i m u m for 18 A W G is 7A sources of supply when the disconnecting means is in the open posi-
and the m á x i m u m for 16 A W G is lOA. tion. If the control circuit conductors are tapped from the controller
disconnect, the controller disconnecting means can serve as the dis-
Figure 430-22
connecting means for the control circuit conductors [430.102(A)].

If the control circuit conductors aren't tapped from the controller dis-

(B) Motor Control Conductors. connect, a sepárate disconnecting means is required for the control
circuit conductors, and it must be located adjacent to the controller
(2) Branch-Circuit Overcurrent Device. Motor control circuit con-
disconnect. Figure 430-23
ductors tapped from the motor branch-circuit protection device that
extends beyond the tap enclosure must have overcurrent protection
as follows:

Mike Holt's lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Vo
Motors, Motor Circuits, and Controllers 430.102

Disconnect for Control Circuits Motor Controller


430.75(A) General-Use Snap Switch
430.83(C)(2)
Controller Disconnect ; A general-use ac snap switch, where
^ the motor FLC rating isn't more than
Control Circuit Disconnect I 8 0 % of the a m p e r e rating of the switch.

A disconnect for tfie motor control


circuit is required w h e n the control Sump
circuit isn't t a p p e d from the Pump

1
controller disconnect.
Control
Device Controller

The control circuit disconnect


a n d controller disconnect must
be adjacent to e a c h other.

Figure 430-23 Figure 430-24

PART VII. MOTOR CONTROLLERS Author's Comment: A general-use snap switch is a general-
use switch constructed for installation in device boxes or on box
430.83 Controller Rating. covers, or otherwise used in conjunction with wiring systems
recognized by this Code.
(A) General. The controller must have one of the following ratings:

(1) Horsepower Rating. Controllers, other than circuit breakers and


430.84 Need Not Open All Conductors of the Circuit.
molded case switches, must have a horsepower rating not less than
The motor controller can open only as many conductors of the circuit
that of the motor.
as necessary to start and stop the motor.
(2) Circuit Breakers. A circuit breaker can serve as a motor control-
ler [430.111]. Author's Comment: The controller Is only required to start and
stop the motor; it isn't a disconnecting means. See the discon-
Author's Comment: Circuit breakers aren't required to be necting means requirement in 430.103 for more information.
iiorsepower rated.

430.87 Controller for Each Motor. Each motor must have


(3) Molded Case Switch. A molded case switch, rated in amperes,
its own individual controller.
can serve as a motor controller.

Author's Comment A moided case switch isn't required to be


horsepower rated.
PART IX. DISCONNECTING MEANS
(C) Stationary Motors of Two Horsepower or Less. For stationary 430.102 Disconnect Requirement.
motors rated at 2 hp or less, the controller can be:
(A) Controller Disconnect. A disconnecting means is required for
(2) General-Use Snap Switch. A general-use alternating-current each motor controller, and it must be located within sight from the
snap switch, where the motor full-load current rating isn't more than controller. Figures 430-25 and 430-26
80 percent of the ampere rating of the switch. Figure 430-24
Author's Comment: According to Article 100, within sight
means that it's visible and not more than 50 ft from one to the
other

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633)


430.102 Motors, Motor Circuits, and Controllers

Motor Controller - Disconnect Motor Disconnect A motor disconnecting


430.102(A) 430.102(B) m e a n s must be within sight
Motor of the motor [430.102(B)(1)].
Disconnect
Motor
^ 1 Controller
Controller

T h e controller disconnecting
A disconnect is required for e a c h motor m e a n s can serve as the motor
controller and it must be located within disconnecting m e a n s if it's <
sight from the controller. located in sight from the motor
[430.102(B)(2)].

Copyright 2011.

Figure 430-25 Figure 430-27

Ex to (1) and (2): A motor disconnecting means isn't required under


Motor Controller - Disconnect
eittier condition (a) or (b), if the controller disconnecting means
430.102(A)
[430.102(A)] is capable of being locked in the open position. The pro-
VIOLATION visión for locking or adding a lock to the disconnecting means must
The controller disconnect must be installed on or at the switch or circuit breaker, and it must remain
be within sight of the controller.
in place with or without the lock installed. Figure 430-28

Motor Disconnect
W h e n Not Required
430.102(3) Ex

A motor disconnect isn't required:


Motor (a) If impracticable or it introduces a
The controller disconnect must disconnect all circuit Controller hazard to persons or property, or
conductors of the controller simultaneousiy [430.103], (b) In industrial installations where
safety requirements are followed
Figure 430-26

(B) Motor Disconnect. A motor disconnect must be provided in ...but only if the controller disconnect is
accordance with (B)(1) or (B)(2). Figure 430-27 capable of being locked in the open position,
and the provisión for locking remains in place
(1) Sepárate Motor Disconnect. A disconnecting means is required whether locked or unlocked.
for each motor, and it must be located in sight from the motor location
and the driven machinery location.
Figure 430-28
(2) Controller Disconnect The controller disconnecting means
[430.102(A)] can serve as the disconnecting means for the motor, if
the disconnect is located in sight from the motor location.
(a) If locating the disconnecting means is impracticable or
introduces additional or increased hazards to persons or
property.

492 Mike Hoit's Iliustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Vo
Motors, Motor Circuits, and Controllers 430.111

ib) In industrial installations, with written safety procedures, Motor/Controller Disconnect Must be Readily Accessible
430.107
where conditions of maintenance and supervisión ensure
only qualified persons will service the equipment
r \ r — V V V

Note 2: For information on locl^out/tagout procedures, see NFPA Motor Disconnect


70E, Standard for Electrical Safety in the Wori<piace. 430.102(8)

430.103 Operation of Disconnect. The disconnect-


Either the controller disconnect, or
ing means for the motor controller and the motor must open all the motor disconnect required by
ungrounded supply conductors simultaneousiy, and it must be 4 3 0 . 1 0 2 , must be readily accessible.
designed so that it won't cióse automatically. Figure 430-29
Controller
^Ul ILI Lili' Disconnect
430.102(A)

Copynghl 2011, *viw.MikeHollcom

Operation of Motor and Controller Disconnect


Figure 430-30
430.103 HH

The disconnect for the motor controller a n d


the motor must open all ungrounded supply 430.109 Disconnecting Means Rating.
conductors simultaneousiy and be designed
so that it won't cióse automatically. (A) General. The disconnecting means for the motor controller and/or
the motor must be a:

(1) Motor-Circuit Switch. A listed horsepower-rated motor-circuit


switch.

(2) Molded Case Circuit Breaker. A listed molded case circuit


breaker.

(3) Molded Case Switch. A listed molded case switch.

(6) Manual Motor Controller. A listed manual motor controller


Rgure 430-29 marked "Suitable as Motor Disconnect."

(B) Stationary Motors of % Horsepower or Less. For stationary


motors of VB hp or less, the branch-circuit overcurrent device is per-
430.104 Marking and Mounting. The contmiler and motor mitted to serve as the disconnecting means. .
disconnecting means must indícate whether they're in the "on" or
"ofí" position. (C) Stationary Motors of Two Horsepower or Less.

(2) General-Use Snap Switch. A general-use alternating-current


Author's Comment: The disconnecting means musí be Iegi-
snap switch, where the motor full-load current rating isn't more than
bly marked to identify its intended purpose [110.22 and 408.4],
80 percent of the ampere rating of the switch. Figure 430-31
and when operated vertically, the "up" position must be the "on"
position [240.81 and 404.6(C)]. (F) Cord-and-Plug-Connected Motors. A horsepower-rated attach-
ment plug and receptacle, flanged surface inlet and cord connector, or
attachment plug cord connector having a horsepower rating not less
430.107 Readily Accessible. Either the controller dis-
than the motor rating can be used as the motor disconnecting means.
connecting means or the motor disconnecting means required by
430.102 must be readily accessible. Figure 430-30
430.111 Combination Controller and Disconnect. A
horsepower-rated switch or circuit breaker can serve as both a con-
troller and disconnecting means if it opens all ungrounded conductors
tothe motor as required by 430.103.

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633)

I
430.248 Motors, Motor Circuits, and Controllers
-asi. *. . B ^ ^

Switch as Motor Disconnecting Means Table 430.250 Full-Load Current, Three-Phase


430.109(C)(2) Motors. Table 430.250 lists the full-load current for three-phase
j A n ac snap switch is permitted alternating-current motors. The valúes are used to determine motor
as the disconnecting m e a n s . conductor sizing, ampere ratings of disconnects, controller rating,
and branch-circuit and feeder protection, but not overload protection
[430.6{A)(1)and 430.6(A)t2)].
2 hp
Sump Table 430.250 FLC Three-Phase AC Motors
Pump
200V 208V 230V 460V

1/2 hp 2.50 2.40 2.20 1.10


3/4 hp 3.70 3.50 3.20 1,60
1 hp 4.80 4.60 4.20 2,10
1 1/2 hp 6.90 6.60 6.00 3.00
A general-use ac snap switch is permitted as the motor
disconnecting means for ac motors rated 2 hp or less 2hp 7.80 7.50 6.80 3.40
and 300V or less [430.83{C)].
3hp 11.00 10.60 9.60 4.00

Figure 430-31 5hp 17.50 16.70 15,20 7,60


7 1 / 2 hp 25.30 24.20 22.00 11,00

10.00 32.20 30.80 28.00 14.00


PART XIV. TABLES
15.00 48.30 46.20 42,00 21.00
Table 430.248 Full-Load Current, Single-Phase 20.00 62.10 59.40 54,00 27,00
Motors. Table 430.248 lists the fuil-load current for single-phase 25.00 78.20 74.80 68.00 34.00
alternating-current motors. These valúes are used to determine motor
conductor sizing, ampere ratings of disconnects, controller rating, Table 430.251 Locked-Rotor Currents. Table 430.251 (A) lists the
and branch-circuit and feeder protection, but not overload protection Iocked-rotor current for single-phase motors, and Table 430.251 (B)
[430.6(A)(1)and 430.6(A)(2)]. contains the Iocked-rotor current for three-phase motors. These
valúes are used in the selection of controllers and disconnect-
Table 430.248 FLC Single-Phase AC Motors ing means when the horsepower rating isn't marked on the motor

115V 2Q0V 208V 230V nameplate.

1/2 hp 9.80 5.60 5.40 4.90


3/4 hp 13.80 7.90 7.60 6,90
1 hp 16.00 9.20 8.80 8,00
1 1/2 hp 20.00 11.50 11,00 11.00
2hp 24.00 13.90 13.20 12,00
3hp 34.00 19.60 18.70 17.00
5hp 56.00 32.20 30.80 28.00
7 1/2 hp 80.00 46.00 44.00 40,00
lOhp 100.00 57.50 55.00 50.00

Mike Holt's lllustrated Guide to Understanding tiie 2011 National Electrical Code, Vo
Air-Conditioning and
Refrigeration Equipment
INTRODUCTION TO ARTICLE 440—AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT
This article applies to electrically driven air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The rules in this article add to, or amend, the rules in
Article 430 and other articles.

Each equipment manufacturer has the motor for a given air-conditioning unit built to its own specifications. Cooling and other characteris-
tics are different from those of nonhermetic motors. For each motor, the manufacturer has worked out all of the details and supplied the cor-
rect protection, conductor sizing, and other information on the nameplate. So when wiring an air conditioner, trust the information on the
nameplate and don't try to over-compiicate the situation. The math for sizing the overcurrent protection and conductor minimum ampacity
has already been done for you.

PART I. GENERAL Air-Conditioning a n d Refrigeration


440.3(C)
440.1 Scope. Article 440 applies to electrically driven air-condi-
tioning and refrigeration equipment.

440.2 Definitions. H o u s e h o l d refrigerators


and freezers, drinking water
Hermetic Refrigerant f^otor-Compressor A compressor and motor
coolers, and beverage
enclosed in the same housing, operating in the refrigerant. dispensing machines are
appliances a n d must also
Rated'Load Current The current resutting when the motor-compres- comply with Article 422.
sor operates at rated load and rated voltage.

440.3 Other Articles. Copynghl 2011. www M*eH<«.com

(B) Equipment with No Hermetic Motor-Compressors. Air-


« * • * • «
conditioning and refrigeration equipment that don't have hermetic
Figure 440-1
refrigerant motor-compressors, such as furnaces with evapora-
tor coils, must comply with Article 422 for appliances, Article 424 for
electric space heating, and Article 430 for motors. 440.4 Marking on Hermetic Refrigerant Motor-
Compressors and Equipment.
(C) Household Refrigerant Motor-Compressor Appliances. House-
hold refrigerators and freezers, drinking water coolers, and beverage (B) Multimotor and Combinatíon-Load Equipment. Multimotor and

dispensing machines are listed as appliances, and their installation combination-load equipment must have a visible nameplate marked

must also compiy with Article 422 for appliances. Figure 440-1 with the maker's ñ a m e , rating in volts, number of phases, minimum
conductor ampacity, and the máximum rating of the branch-circuit
short-circuit and ground-fault protective device.

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHoltcom • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 495


440.6 Air-Conditíoning and Refrigeration Equipment

Author's Comment: The minimum conductor ampacity is cal- Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Equipment
culated in accordance with 440.33 and the branch circuit Disconnecting M e a n s
440.14
short-circuit and ground-fault protective device rating is sized
T h e disconnect must i
with 440.22(B){1).
be within sight and
readily accessible
from equipment.
440.6 Ampacity and Rating.
(A) Hermetic Refrigerant Motor-Compressor. For a hermetic refrig-
erant motor-compressor, the rated-load current marked on the name-
plate of the equipment is to be used in determining the rating of the
disconnecting means, the branch-circuit conductors, the controller,
and the branch-circuit short-circuit and ground-fault protection.

Figure 440-2
PART II. DISCONNECTING MEANS
440.12 Rating and Interrupting Capacity.
Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Equipment
(A) Hermetic Refrigerant Motor-Compressor.
Disconnecting M e a n s
(1) Ampere Rating. The ampere rating must be at least 115 percent 440.14

of the nameplate rated-load current or branch-circuit selection cur-


rent, whichever is greater.

440.13 Cord-Connected Equipment. An attachment piug


and receptacle can serve as the disconnecting means for cord-con-
nected room air conditioners, househoid refrigerators and freezers,
drinking water coolers and beverage dispensers.

440.14 Location. a disconnecting means for air-conditioning or


refrigeration equipment must be located within sight from and readily
accessible from the equipment. Figures 440-2 and 440-3

Author's Comment: According to Article 100, within sight


means that it's visible and not more than 50 ft from one to the
other. Figure 4 4 0 - 3

The disconnecting means can be mounted on or within the air-con-


Ex 1:A disconnecting means isn't required to be within sight from the
ditioning equipment, but it must not be tocated on paneis designed
equipment, if the disconnecting means is capable of being individu-
to atlow access to the equipment, or where it will obscure the equip-
ally locked in the open position, and if the equipment is essentiai to
ment nameplate. Figure 440-4
an industrial process in a facility that has written safety procedures,
and where the conditions of maintenance and supervisión ensure only
qualified persons service the equipment The provisión for locking or
adding a lock to the disconnecting means must be on the switch or
circuit breaker, and it must remain in place with or without the lock
installed.

496 Mike HolVs lllustrated Guide to Understanding tiie 2011 National Electrical Code, V
Aír-Conditioning and Refrigeration Equipment 440.22

A/C Disconnecting M e a n s
Question: What size conductor and protection are required for
440.14
a 24A motor-compressor connected to a 240V circuit? Figure
440-5

(a) 10AWG,40A (b) 10AWG,60A


VIOLATION (cjaorb (d)10AWG,90A
The disconnect can be installed on or within the
equipment, but not over paneis designed to allow Answer: (a) 10AWG,40A
access to internal wiring or over the nameplate.
Step 1: Determine the branch-circuit conductor ¡Tabie
3iai5(B)(16) and 440.32]:

24A X 1.25 = 30A, 10AWG, rated 30A at 75X [Table


31015(B)(16)]

Step 2: Determine the branch-circuit protection [240.6(A) and


440.22(A)]:
Rgure 440-4
24A x1.75 = 42A, next size down = 40A

If the 40A short-circuit and ground-fault protective


Ex2:An accessible attachment plug and receptacle can serve as the
device isn't capable of carrying the starting current,
disconnecting means.
then the protective device can be sized up to 225 per-
cent of the equipment load current rating. 24A x2.25 =
Author's Comment: The receptacle for the attachment plug
54A, next size down 50A
isn't required to be readily accessible.

Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Equipment


Short-Circuit and Ground-Fault Protection
PART III. OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 440.22(A)
440.21 General. The branch-circuit conductors, control equip-
ment, and circuits suppiying hermetic refrigerant motor-compressors
must be protected against short circuits and ground faults in accor-
dance with 440.22. 4 0 A Protection
2 4 A x 1.75 = 4 2 A

Author's Comment If the equipment nameplate specifies


"Ivlaximum Fuse Size," then a one-time or dual-element fuse 10 A W G
must be used, Rated 35A at 750C
[440.32]

440.22 Short-Circuit and Ground-Fault Overcurrent


Device Size.
A short-circuit and ground-fault protection device must not
(A) Single Motor-Compressors. The short-circuit and ground-fault be greater than 1 7 5 % of the equipment load current rating.
protective device must not be more than 175 percent of the motor-
Figure 440-5
pressor current rating. If the protective device sized at 175
isn't capable of carrying the starting current of the motor-
)r, the next size larger protective device can be used, but
no case can it exceed 225 percent of the motor-compressor cur-
rating.

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.Mil(eHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633)


440.32 Aír-Condítioníng and Refrigeration Equipment

Conductor Size for One Motor-Compressor


(B) Multimotor and Combination-Load Equipment. If the equip-
440.32
ment incorporates more than one hermetic refrigerant motor-
18A,230V
compressor, or a hermetic refrigerant motor-compressor and other Motor-Compressor
motors or other loads, the equipment must have a visible nameplate
containing the máximum rating of the branch-circuit short-circuit and
ground-fault protective device.

Author's Comment: The branch-circuit conductors are sized


at 125 percent of the largest motor-compressor current, plus
the sum of the rated-load currents of the other compressors
Conductor Sized at 125% of Compressor Current Rating:
[440.33].
18Ax 1.25 = 22.5A, [Table 310.15(B)(16)]
12 AWG Rated 25Aat 750C
Branch-Circuit Protection [440.22{A)] at 175%:
18Ax 1.75 = 31.5A, next size down [240.6(A)], 30Adevice
PART IV. CONDUCTOR SIZING
Figure 440-6
440.32 Conductor Size for Single Motor-Compres-
sors. Branch-circuit conductors to a single motor-compressor must
Author's Comment: A 30A or 40A overcurrent device is per-
have an ampacity not less than 125 percent of the motor-compres-
mitted to protect a 12 AWG conductor for an air-conditioning
sor rated-load current or the branch-circuit selection current, which-
circuit. See 240.4(G) for details.
ever is greater.

Author's Comment: Branch-circuit conductors for a single


motor-compressor must have short-circuit and ground-fault
protection sized between 175 percent and 225 percent of the PART VIL ROOM AIR CONDITIONERS
rated-load current [440.22(A)1.
The requirements in this Part apply to a cord-and-plug-connected
room air conditioner of the window or in-wail type that incorporates a
hermetic refrigerant motor-compressor rated not over 40A, 250V, sin-
Question: What size conductor and overcurrent device are
gle-phase [440.60].
required for an 18A motor compressor? Figure 440-6

(a) 12AWG, 30A (b) 10AWG, 50A 440.62 Branch-Circuit Requirements.


(cjaorb (d) 10AWG,60A
(A) Sizing Conductors and Protection. Branch-circuit conductors
Answer: (a) 12AWG,30A for a cord-and-plug-connected room air conditioner must have an
ampacity not less than 125 percent of the rated-load current [440.32].
Step 1: Determine the branch-circuit conductor [Table
310.15(B)(16j and 440.32]: (B) Sepárate Circuit. If the room air conditioner is the only load on a
18A X 1.25 = 22.50A, 12AWG, rated25A at 75X circuit, the marked rating of the air conditioner must not exceed 80
[Table 310.15(B}(16)1 percent of the rating of the circuit overcurrent device.

Step 2: Determine the branch-circuit protection [240.6(A) and (C) Other Loads on Circuit. The total rating of a cord-and-plug-con-
440.22(A)]: nected room air conditioner must not exceed 50 percent of the rating
of a branch circuit where lighting outlets, other appliances, or gen-
18A x1.75 = 31.50A, next size down = 30A
eral-use receptacles are also supplied. Figure 440-7
if the 30A short-circuit and ground-fault protection
device isn't capable of carrying the starting current,
440.63 Disconnecting Means. An attachment piug and
then the protective device can be sized up to 225 per-
receptacle or cord connector can serve as the disconnecting means
cent of the equipment load current rating. 18Ax2.25^
for a room air conditioner, provided: Figure 440-8
40.50A, next size down 40A

498 Mike HoiVs Iliustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, V
Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Equipment 440.65

R o o m Air Conditioner (1) The manual controls on the room air conditioner are readily
Load on Circuit accessible and within 6 ft of the floor, or
440.62(C)
(2) A readily accessible disconnecting means is within sight from the
room air conditioner.

T h e rating of a room air conditioner


can't exceed 5 0 % of the rating 440.64 Supply Cords. If a flexible cord is used to supply a
of a branch circuit if lighting outlets, room air conditioner, the cord must not exceed 10 ft for 120V units, or
other appliances, or general-use
6 t t f o r 208V or 240V units.
receptacles are also o n the circuit.

440.65 Leakage Current Detector-Interrupter and


15A Branch Circuit, Arc-Fault Circuit Interruptor. Slngle-phase cord-and-
.50A M á x i m u m Rating plug-connected room air conditioners must be provided with a
of Air Conditioner Copyright 2011, www MikBHoK.com
factory-installed leakage current detector, or with an arc-fault circuit-
interrupter (AFCI).
Figure 440-7

R o o m Air Conditioner - Disconnect


440.63

1 A n attachment plug a n d
receptacle or cord connector
can serve as the
disconnecting means if:
• The A/C manual controls
are readily accessible and
within 6 ft of the floor or,
• An approved, manualty
operated switch is readily
accessible and within sight
of the A/C unit.

Figure 440-8

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHolt.com • 888.NEC.CÜDE (632.2633)


ARTICLE

445 Generators
INTRODUCTION TO ARTICLE 445—GENERATORS
This article contains the electrical installation, and other requirements, for generators. These requirements include such things as where
generators can be installed, nameplate markings, conductor ampacity, and disconnecting means.

Generators are basically motors that opérate in reverse—they produce electricity when rotated, instead of rotating when supplied with elec-
tricity. Article 430, which covers motors, is the longest article in the NEC. Article 445, which covers generators, is one of the shortest. At first,
this might not seem to make sense. But you don't need to size and protect conductors to a generator. You do need to size and protect them
to a motor.

Generators need overload protection, and it's necessary to size the conductors that come from the generator. But these considerations are
much more straightforward than the equivalent considerations for motors. Before you study Article 445, take a moment to read the definition
of "Separately Derived System" in Article 100.

445.1 Scope. Article 445 contains the installation and other 445.13 Ampacity of Conductors. The ampacity of the con-
requirements for generators. ductors from the generator to distribution devices containing overcur-
rent protection must not be less than 115 percent of the nameplate
Author's Comment: Generators, associated wiring, and current rating of the generator. Figure 44&-1
equipment must be installed in accordance with the following
requirements depending on their use:

• Article 695, Fire Pumps Ampacity of Generator Conductors


445.13
• Article 700, Emergency Systems
• Article 701, Legally Required Standby Systems

• Article 702, Optional Standby Systems

445.11 Marking. Each generator must be provided with a name-


plate indicating the manufacturer's ñ a m e , rated frequency, power
factor, number of phases, rating in kilowatts or kilovolt amperes, volts
and amperes corresponding to the rating, RPM, insulation class and C o n d u c t o r ampacity can't be
raíed ambient temperature or rated temperature rise, and time rating. less than 115% of the generator ,
nameplate current rating.

445.12 Overcurrent Protection.

(A) Generators. Generators must be protected from overload by


inherent design, circuit breakers, fuses, or other identified overcurrent Figure 445-1
protective means.

500 Mike HolVs lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, V
Generators 445.13

Generators that aren't a separately derived system must have the Generator - Not a Separately Derived System
250.30 Note 1
neutral conductor sized to: Figure 445-2
Service Transfer Switch Generator
• Carry the máximum unbalanced current as determined by
220.61.
• Serve as the low-impedance fault current path.

Generator - Neutral Conductor Size


445.13
Generator Panellxjard
Service Transfer Switch Running

A generator isn't a separately derived system if the


neutral conductor isn't oponed by the transfer switch.

Figure 445-3

Generator - Neutral Conductor Size


Panelboard "^45.13 Generator
Service Transfer Switch Running

The neutral conductor must be sized to carry the


neutral and fault current [250.30(A)(1) a n d 220.61].

Figure 445-2

Fault Current
Returns to Source
Author's Comment: If the feeder conductors from the gener-
ator termínate in a transfer switch that doesn't open the neutral
conductor, the generator isn't considered a separately derived %^
system [250.30 Note 1]. Figure 445-3. A neutral-to-case bond Panelboard
isn't permitted at the generator. Under this condition, the neutral T h e neutral conductor must be sized to carry the
conductor from the normal power to the transfer switch, and the neutral a n d fault current [250.30(A){1) and 220.61].

neutral conductor from the generator to the transfer switch, are Figure 4 4 5 ^
required to provide the low-impedance fault current path baci< to
the power source. Figure 445-4
Author's Comment: If the feeder conductors from the gen-
erator terminate in a transfer switch that opens the neutral
Separately derived system generators must have the neutral conduc-
conductor, the generator is considered a separately derived
tor sized not less than required to carry the máximum unbalanced
system [ArticlelOO]. Figure 445-5. A neutral-to-case con-
cun-ent as determined by 220.61.
nection (system bonding jumper) is required at the generator
[250.30(A)(1)] to provide a low-impedance fault current path
back to the power source. Figure 445-6

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHoltcom • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 501


445.18 Generators

Separately Derived S y s t e m - Generator 445.18 Disconnecting IVIeans. Generators must have oneor
Aríicle 100 Definition more disconnecting means that disconnects all power, except where:
Service Transfer Switch Generator
Figure 445-7

Norma! Generator Disconnect{s)


Supply 445.18

A generator must have


disconnect(s), lockable in the
o p e n position that's capable
An on-site generator having transfer equipment with of opening all circuits supplied
a switched neutral conductor or no neutral at all is by the generator.
considered a "separately derived system."

Figure 445-5
Other Emergency
Loads Loads
S D S - System Bonding J u m p e r at Generator
250.30(A)(1)
Figure 445-7
Service Transfer Switcii Generator

(1) The driving means for the generator can be readily shut down,
and

(2) The generator isn't arranged to opérate in parallel with another


generator or other source of voltage.

CAUTION: If one generator is used to supply emer-


gency legally required, as well as optional standby
A system bonding j u m p e r must be installed b e t w e e n power, then there must be at least two transfer
the generator frame a n d the g r o u n d e d conductor. switches; one for emergency power and another for legally
required as well as optional stand-by power [700.6(D)].
Figure 445-6

445.19 Generators Suppiying Múltiple Loads. A single


generator is permitted to supply more than one load.

502 Mike Hoit's lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, V
ARTICLE

Transformers
INTRODUCTION TO ARTICLE 450—TRANSFORMERS
Article 450 opens by saying, "This article covers the installation of all transformers." Then it lists eight exceptions. So what does Article 450
really cover? Essentially, it covers power transformers and most kinds of lighting transformers.

A major concern with transformers is preventing overheating. The Code doesn't completely address this issue. Article 90 explains that the
NEC isn't a design manual, and it assumes that the person using the Code has a certain level of expertise. Proper transformer selection is an
important part of preventing transformer overheating.

Tlie NEC assumes you've atready selected a transformer suitable to the load characteristics. For the Code to tell you how to do that
would push it into the realm of a design manual. Article 450 then takes you to the next logical step—providing overcurrent protection
and the proper connections. But this article doesn't stop there; 450.9 provides ventilation requirements, and 450.13 contains accessibility
requirements.

Part I of Article 450 contains the general requirements such as guarding, marking, and accessibility, Part II contains the requirements for dif-
ferent types of transformers, and Part ill covers transformer vaults.

I. GENERAL 450.3 Overcurrent Protection.

0.1 Scope. Article 450 covers the installation requirements of Note 2: Nonlinear loads on 4-wire, wíye-connected secondary wiring
nsformers and transformer vaults. Figure 450-1 can increase heat in a transformer without operating the primary
overcurrent device. Figure 450-2

Transformer Overheating - Harmonio Current


450.3 Note 2

In 3-phase, 4-wire delta/wye transformers, o d d


triplen harmonio currents f r o m nonlinear loads can
c a u s e excessive heating of the primary w i n d i n g .
re 450-1
Figure 450-2

IMike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHoltcom • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633)


450.9 Transformers

(B) Overcurrent Protection for Transformers Not Over 600V. The Transformers - Overcun-ent Protection
Primary Current O v e r 9 A m p e r e s
primary winding of a transformer must be protected against overcur- 450.3(B)
rent in accordance with the percentages listed in Table 450.3(B) and W h e r e 125 percent doesn't correspond to
all applicable notes. a standard rating, the next higher a m p e r e
rating can be u s e d [Table 4 5 0 . 3 ( 8 ) Note 1

Table 450.3(B) Primary Protection Only 70A Protection


45kVA
5 4 A x 1.25 = 6 8 A 480V, 3-ph
Primary Current Rating Máximum Protection

9A or IVIore 125%, see Notel 4 A W G Rated


85A at 750c
Less Than 9A 167%

Less Than 2A 300% Primary


54A
Note Ut125 percent of the primary current doesn 't correspond to a standard
rating of a fuse or nonadjustable circuit breaker, the next higher rating is
permitted [240.6(A)]. ^"^"li^V'y < « T" 4 " *"'-TC * TT » 'K"-

Figure 450-3

Question: What's the primary overcurrent device rating and


conductor size required for a 45 kVA, three-phase, 480V trans- 450.9 Ventilation. Transformers must be installed in accordance

former that's fully loaded? The termináis are rated 75°C. Figure with the manufacturer's instructions, and their ventilating openings
450-3 must not be blocked [110.3{B)].

(a)8AWG,40A (b)6AWG,50A Note 2: Transformers can become excessively heated above their
(c)6AWG,60A (d)4AWG,70A rating because nonlinear loads can increase heat in a transformer
without operating its overcurrent protective device [450.3 Note].
Answer: (d) 4 AWG, 70A
Author's Comment: The heating from harmonic currents
Step 1: Determine the primary current:
is proportional to the square of the harmonic frequency. This
l=VA/(Ex 1.732)
means the 3rd order harmonic currents (180 Hz) will heat at
1 = 45,000 VA/(480Vx 1.732) nine times the rate of 60 Hz current. Figure 450-4
l = 54A

Step 2: Determine the primary overcurrent device rating


[240.6(A)]:
Transformer Overheating
54A X 1.25 - 68A, next size up 70A, Table 450.3(B), Harmonic Current 5th Harmonic
Notel 450.9 Note 2

Step 3: The primary conductor must be sized to carry 54A con-


Heat
tinuously (54A X 1.25 = 68A) [215.2(A)(1)J and be pro- :52=25x
tected by a 70A overcurrent device [240.4(8)1 A 4 AWG
3rd Harmonic
conductor rated 85A at 75°C meets all of the require-
ments [1W. 14(C)(1) and 31015(B)(16)]. Fundamental Heat
Current
32=9x
1 Amp Heat 1 Amp 1 Amp

60 Hertz 180 Hertz 300 Hertz


H a r m o n i c currents f r o m nonlinear loads can increase the
heating in a transformer. Ventilation m a y not be adequate.
Cooynght 2011, www.MikeHoH com

Figure 450-4

504 Mike HolVs lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, V
Transformers 450.14

450.11 Marking. Transformers must be provided with a name- Transformer - Hollow Space Installation
450.13(B)
plate identifying the manufacturer of the transformer and indicating
the transformer's rated kVA, primary and secondary voltage, imped- 3

ance if 25 kVA or larger, and required clearances for transformers


with ventilating openings.

450.13 Transformer Accessibility. Transformers must be


leadily accessible to qualified personnel for inspection and mainte-
nance except as permitted by (A) or (B). m0m ; S u s p e n d e d ' ••V'^^^'
Ceiiing

(A) Open Installations. Dry-type transformers can be located in the 1-''-'T-


open on walls, columns, or structures. Figure 450-5 Dry-type transformers 6 0 0 V or less a n d not over
50 kVA, can be installed a b o v e a s u s p e n d e d ceiling.

Copyright 2011. www.MiheHotLcom


Transformer - O p e n Space Installations
450.13(A) Figure 450-6

450.14 Disconnecting Means. A disconnect is required to


disconnect all transformer ungrounded primary conductors. The dis-
connect must be located within sight of the transformer, unless the
location of the disconnect is field-marked on the transformer and the
disconnect is lockable. Figure 450-7
Dry-type transformers 600V or less
installed in open spaces aren't
required to be readily accessible.
Transformer Disconnect
450.14

W h e r e a transformer disconnect is T h e transfonner


located in a remote location. it must disconnect is
be lockable a n d the location must be located within
field-marked on the transformer. sioht.
Copyrif^ 2011. wwMLUkaHotLcxmi

figure 450-5

(B) Suspended Ceilings. Dry-type transformers, rated not more than


50 i(VA, are permitted above suspended ceilings or in hollow spaces
of buildings, if not permanently closed in by the structure. Figure
450-6

Figure 450-7
Author's Comment: Dry-type transformers not exceeding 50
M with a metal enclosure can be installed above a suspended-
ceiling space used for environmental air-handiing purposes
Author's Comment: Within sight means that it's visible and not
(plenum) [300.22(C)(3)].
more than 50 ft from one to the other [Article 100].

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHoltcom • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 505


ARTICLE

Storage Batteries
INTRODUCTION TO ARTICLE 480—STORAGE BAHERIES
The stationary battery is the heart of any uninterruptible power supply. Article 480 addresses stationary batteries for commercial and indus-
trial grade power supplies, not the small, "point of use" UPS boxes.

Stationary batteries are also used in other applications, such as emergency power systems. Regardiess of the application, if it uses station-
ary batteries then Article 480 applies.

Lead-acid stationary batteries fall into two general categories: flooded, and valve regulated (VRLA). These differ markedly in such ways as
maintainability, tota! cost of ownership, and scalability. The NEC doesn't address these differences, as they're engineering issues and not
fire safety or electrical safety issues [90.1].

The Code doesn't address such design issues as optimum tier height, distance between tiers, determination of charging voltage, or string
configuration. Nor does it address battery testing, monitoring, or maintenance. All of these involve highiy specialized áreas of knowledge,
and are required for optimizing operational efficiency. Standards other than the /V5C address these issues.

What the Code does address, in Articte 480, are issues related to preventing electrocution and the ignition of the gases that all stationary
batteries (even "sealed" ones) emit.

480.1 Scope. The provisions of Article 480 apply to stationary • 1 ^ ^ ^ • Ñ o m i n a l Battery Voltage
storage battery installations.

480.2 Definitions.
Battery System. Storage batteries, battery chargers, inverters, con-
verters. and associated electrical equipment.

Nominal Battery Voltage. The voltage of a battery based on 2V per


cell for lead-acid type, 1.50V per cell for alkali type, and 4V per cell
for lithium-ion types. Figure 480-1

Sealed Cell or Battery. A cell or battery with no provisión for the rou-
tine addition of water or electrolyte.

Storage Battery Battery consisting of one or more rechargeable cells.

Figure 480-1
480.3 Wiring and Equipment Supplied from Batter-
ies. Wiring and equipment supplied from storage batteries must be
in accordance with Chapters 1 through 4.

506 Mike Hoit's lllustrated Guide to Understanding tiie 2011 National Eieotricai Code,
ge Batteries 480.9

480.4 Overcurrent Protection for Prime IVIovers. (1) Metal, treated to be resistant to deteriorating action by the elec-
Overcurrent protection for ungrounded battery conductors is required trolyte and provided with nonconducting or continuous insulating
the overcurrent protection device must be located as cióse as material members directly supporting the cells.
al to the storage battery termináis [240.21 (H)].
(2) Fibergiass or other suitable nonconductive materials.
requirement contained in 300.3 that single conductors be
(B) Trays. Trays (boxes of nonconductive material} must be con-
led where part of a recognized wiring method of Chapter 3 and
structed or treated so as to be resistant to deteriorating action by the
:ors of the circuit be contained within the same raceway or
electrolyte. Figure 480-3
doesn't apply.

.5 Disconnecting IVIeans. A readily accessible discon-


means is required within sight of the storage battery for all
unded battery system conductors operating at over 50V nominal.

Author's Comment: According to Article 100, within sight


" ?.ns that it's visible and not more than 50 ft from one to the
oiiier.

Note: Overcurrent protection for ungrounded battery conductors


must be located as cióse as practical to the storage battery temiinals
[240.21 (H)].

.8 Racks and Trays. Racks and trays must be:

Racks. Racks (rigid trames designed to support battery cells or


must be made of one of the following: Figure 480-2
Figure 480-3

Battery Racks
480.8(A) 480.9 Battery Locations.
(A) Ventilation. Provisions must permit sufficient diffusion and ven-
tilation of battery gases to prevent the accumulation of an explosivo
mixture. Figure 480-4

(B) Live Parts. Live parts of battery systems must be protected in


accordance with 110.27.

VIOLATION Author's Comment: According to 110.27, electrical equipment


Racks must be: must nol be installed where subject to physical damage, unless
(1) Treated metal, or en closures or guards are arranged and oí such strength as to
(2) Fibergiass or a prevent damage [110.27(B)]. In addition, entráñeos to rooms
suitable nonconductive
and other guarded locations containing exposed live parts must
^ material
be marked with conspicuous signs forbidding unqualified per-
sons to enter [110.27(0)].
Rgure 480-2

(C) Working Space. The required working space requirements of


110.26 are measured from the edge of the battery rack.

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHoltcom • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633)


480.9 Storage Batteries

508 Mike Holt's lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, V
CHAPTER

4 ractice Questions
These questions are based on the 2011 National 5. In industrial estabiishments where conditions of maintenance
Electrical Code. Please use the 2011 NEC Code book to and supervisión ensure that only qualified persons service

answer the following questions. the installation, flexible cords and cables can be installed in
aboveground raceways that are no longer than . to
protect the flexible cord or cable from physical damage.

CHAPTER 4. EQUIPMENT FOR GENERAL USE (a) 25 ft


(b) 50 ft
Article 400. Flexible Cords and Flexible Cables (c) lOOft
(d) no limit
1, The allowable ampacity of flexible cords and cables is found in

(a) Table310.15(B)(16) Article 402. Fixture Wire


(b) Tables 400.5(A)(1) and (2)
(c) Chapter 9, Table 1 1. The number of fixture wires in a single conduit or tubing shall
(d) Table 430.52 not exceed the percentage fill specified in .

(a) Chapter 9, Table 1

2. Conductors within flexible cords and cables shall not be associ- (b) Table 250.66
ated together in such a way that the temperature of the (c) Table310.15(B)(16)
conductors is exceeded. (d) 240.6

(a) operating
(b) governing
(c) ambient
Article 404. Switches
(d) limiting
1. Three-way and four-way switches shall be wired so that all
switching is done only in the circuit conductor

3. Flexible cords and cables can be used for . (a) ungrounded

(a) wiring of luminaires (b) grounded

(b) connection of portable luminaires or appliances (c) equipment ground

(c) connection of utilization equipment to facilitate frequent (d) neutral

interchange
(d) all of these
As a general rule, switches controlling line-to-neutral lighting
loads must have a neutral provided at the switch location.

Flexible cords and cables shall not be concealed behind (a) True
building , or run through doonways, Windows, or similar (b) False
openings.

(a) structural ceilings


(b) suspended or dropped ceilings
(c) floors or walls
(d) all of these

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 509


Article 406 Practice Questions

3. Switches shall not be installed within wet locations in tub or 8. Metal enclosures for switches or circuit breakers shall be
shower spaces unless installed as part of a listed tub or shower connected to the circuit .
assembly.
(a) grounded conductor
(a) True (b) grounding conductor
(b) False (c) equipment grounding conductor
(d) any of these

4. Switches and circuit breakers used as switches shall be


installed so that they may be operated from a readily acces- 9. AC or DC general-use snap switches may be used for control
sible place. of inductive loads not exceeding percent of the ampere
rating of the switch at the applied voltage.
(a) True
(b) False (a) 50
(b) 75
(c) 90
5. A multipole, general-use snap switch shall not be fed from
(d) 100
more than a single circuit unless it is listed and marked as a
2-circuit or 3-circuit switch, or unless its voltage rating is not
less than the nominal voltage of the system suppiying 10. Switches shall be marked with .
the circuits.
(a) current
(a) line-to-ground (b) voltage
(b) line-to-neutral (c) máximum horsepower, if horsepower rated
(c) line-to-line (d) all of these
(d) phase-to-phase

Article 406. Receptacles, Cord Connectors,


6. A snap switch that does not have means for connection to an
and Attachment Plugs (Caps)
equipment grounding conductor shall be permitted for replace-
ment purposes only where the wiring method does not include
1. Receptadas rated or iess directly connected to
an equipment grounding conductor and the switch is .
aluminum conductors shall be listed and marked CO/ALR.
(a) provided with a faceplate of nonconducting, noncombustible
(a) 15A
material with nonmetallic screws
(b) 20A
(b) GFCI protected
(c) 25A
(c) a or b
(d) 30A
(d) none of these

2. Receptacles and cord connectors having equipment grounding


7. A snap switch with integral nonmetallic enclosure compiying
conductor contacts shall have those contacts connected to a(n)
with 300.15(E} is required to be connected to an equipment
conductor.
grounding conductor
(a) grounded
(a) True
(b) ungrounded
(b) False
(c) equipment grounding
(d) neutral

510 Mike HolVs lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, V
Practice Questions Articie 406

3. When replacing receptacles in locations that would require 8. Nonlocking 15A and 20A, 125V and 250V receptacles installed
GFCI protection under the current NEC, receptacles shall in damp locations shall be listed as .
be installed.
(a) raintight
(a) dedicated (b) watertight
(b) isolated ground (c) weatherproof
(c) GFCI-protected (d) weather resistant
(d) grounding

9. Where installed in a wet location, all receptacle(s) shall


4. Weather-resistant receptacles where replacements are be listed as weather-resistant.
made at receptacle outlets that are required to be so protected
(a) 125V, 30A nonlocking
elsewhere in the Code.
(b) 250V,15A nonlocking
(a) shall be provided (c) 125V,30A locking
(b) are not required (d) 250V,15A locking
(c) are optional
(d) are not allowed
10. A receptacle shall not be installed within, or directly over, a
bathtub or shower space.
5. Receptacles mounted to and supported by a cover shall be
(a) True
secured by more than one screw unless listed and identified for
(b) False
secuhng by a single screw.

(a) True
(b) False 11. A receptacle installed in an outlet box flush-mounted in a
finished surface in a damp or wet location shall be made
weatherproof by means of a weatherproof faceplate assembly
6. Metal faceplates for receptacles shall be grounded. that provides a connection between the píate and the
finished surface.
(a) True
(b) False (a) sealed
(b) weathertight
(c) sealed and protected
7. An outdoor receptacle in a location protected from the weather,
(d) watertight
or in another damp location, shall be installed in an enclosure
that is weatherproof when the receptacle is .
12. Nonlocking type 15A and 20A, 125V receptacles in a dweiling
(a) covered
unit shall be listed as tamper resistant except .
(b) enclosed
(c) protected (a) Receptacles located more than 5 / 2 ft above the floor.
(d) none of these (b) Receptacles that are part of a luminaire or appliance.
(c) A receptacle located within dedicated space for an appli-
ance that in normal use is not easily moved from one place
to another
(d) allof these

mke Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.lVlil(eHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 511


Article 408 Practice Questions

13. Nonlocking type 15A and 20A, 125V receptacles in a dweiling 2. A switchboard or panelboard containing a 4-wire,
unit shall be listed as tamper resistant except nongrounding system where the midpoint of one phase winding is grounded,
receptacles used for replacements for existing nongrounding shall be Iegibly and permanently field-marked to caution that
receptacles as permitted in 406.4(D)(2)(a). one phase has a higher voltage-to-ground.

(a) True (a) wye-connected


(b) False (b) delta-connected
(c) solidly grounded
(d) ungrounded
14. Nonlocking type 15A and 20A, 125\ receptacles in must
be listed as tamper resistant.
3. The purpose or use of panelboard circuits and circuit ,
(a) restaurants
including spare positions, shall be Iegibly identified on a circuit
(b) guest rooms and guest suites
directory located on the face or inside of the door of a panel-
(c) office buildings
board, and at each switch or circuit breaker on a switchboard.
(d) b and c
(a) manufacturers
(b) conductors
15. Nonlocking type 15A and 20A, 125V receptacles in must (c) feeders
be listed as tamper resistant. (d) modifications

(a) theatres
(b) arcades
4. Conduits and raceways, including end fittings, shall not rise
(c) child care facilities
more than above the bottom of a switchboard enclo-
(d) major repair garages
sure.

(a) 3 in.

Article 408. Switchboards and Panelboards (b) 4 in.


(c) 5 in.
1. Each switchboard or panelboard used as service equipment (d) 6 in.
shall be provided with a main bonding jumper within the panel-
board, or within one of the sections of the switchboard, for
5. For switchboards that are not totally enclosed, a space of
connecting the grounded service-entrance conductor on its
or more shait be provided between the top of the
side to the switchboard or panelboard frame.
switchboard and any combustible ceiling.
(a) load
(a) 12in.
(b) supply
(b) 1 8 i n .
(c) phase
(c) 2 f t
(d) high-leg
(d) 3 f t

6. A panelboard shall be protected by an overcurrent device


within the panelboard, or at any point on the side of the
panelboard.

(a) load
(b) supply
(c) a or b
(d) none of these

512 Mike Hoit's lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, V
Practice Questions Article 410

7. When equipment grounding conductors are installed in panel- 4. Unless an individual switch is provided for each luminaire
boards, a shall be secured inside the cabinet. located over combustible material, lampholders shall be located
at least above the floor, or shall be located or guarded
(a) grounded conductor
so that the lamps cannot be readily removed or damaged.
(b) terminal lug
(c) terminal bar (a) 3 f t
(d) none of these (b) 6 f t
(c) 8 ft
(d) 10ft
8. A panelboard shali be provided with physical means to prevent
the installation of more devices than that number for
which the panelboard was designed, rated, and listed. 5. Surface-mounted fluorescent luminaires in clothes closets
shall be permitted on the wall above the door, or on the ceiling,
(a) overcurrent
provided there is a minimum clearance of between the
(b) equipment
luminaire and the nearest point of a storage space.
(c) circuit breaker
(d) all of these (a) 3 in.
(b) 6 in.
(c) 9 i n .

Article 410 Luminaires, Lampholders, and Lamps (d) 1 2 i n .

1. Lighting track is a manufactured assembly and its length may


6. The NECaWom a lighting outlet on the wall in a clothes closeí
not be altered by the addition or subtraction of sections of
when it is at least 6 in. away from storage space.
track.
(a) True
(a) True
(b) False
(b) False

Electric-discharge and LED luminaires supported indepen-


A luminaire marked Suitable for Wet Locations be
dently of the outlet box shall be connected to the branch circuit
permitted to be used in a damp location.
through .
(a) shall
(a) raceways
(b) shall not
(b) Type MC,AC,MI,orNM cable
(c) a or b
(c) flexible cords
(d) none of these
(d) any of these

Luminaires located within the actual outside dimensión of a


Handhoíds in poles supporting luminaires shall not be required
bathtub and shower shall be marked for damp locations, or
for poles „ _ _ „ or less in height above finished grade, if the
marked for wet locations where they are .
pole is provided with a hinged base.
(a) below 7 ft in. height
(a) 5 f t
(b) below 6 ft 7 in. in height
(b) 1 0 f t
(c) subject to shower spray
(c) 1 5 f t
(d) not GFCI-protected
(d) 20 ft

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHoltcom • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 513


Article 410 Practice Questions

9. Luminaires attached to the framing of a suspended ceiling shall 14. An electric-discharge or LED luminaire or listed assembly can
be secured to the framing member(s) by mechanical means be cord-connected if located the outlet, the cord is
such as . visible for its entire length outside the luminaire, and the cord is
not subject to strain or physical damage.
(a) bolts
(b) screws (a) within
(c) rivets (b) directly below
(d) any of these (c) directly above
(d) adjacent to

10. Exposed metal conductivo parts of luminaires shall be .


15. Luminaires designed for end-to-end assembly, or luminaires
(a) connected to an equipment grounding conductor
connected together by . can contain a 2-wÍre branch
(b) painted
circuit, or one multiwire branch circuit, suppiying the connected
(c) removed
luminaires. One additional 2-wire branch circuit suppiying one
(d) a and b
or more of the connected luminaires is permitted.

(a) rigid metal conduit


11. Replacement luminaires can be installed in an outlet box that
(b) recognized wiring methods
doesn't contain an equipment grounding conductor if an equip-
(c) flexible wiring methods
ment grounding conductor is added from the luminaire and is
(d) EMT
connected to .

(a) the grounding electrode system or grounding electrode


16. Portable luminaires shall be wired with recognized
conductor
by 400.4, and have an attachment plug of the polarized or
(b) the panelboard equipment grounding terminal
grounding type.
(c) the service neutral conductor within the service equipment
enclosure (a) flexible cable
(d) any of these (b) flexible cord
(c) nonmetallic flexible cable
(d) nonmetallic flexible cord
12. Luminaires shall be wired with conductors having insulation
suitable for the environmental conditions and to which
the conductors will be subjected. 17. Lampholders installed in damp locations shall be listed for use
in locations.
(a) temperature
(b) voltage (a) damp
(c) current (b) wet
(d) alt of these (c) dry
(d) a or b

13. No spiices or taps shall be made within or on a lumi-


naire. 18. A recessed luminaire shall be installed so that adjacent
combustible material will not be subjected to temperatures in
(a) unapproved
excess of °C.
(b) untested
(c) uninspected (a) 75
(d) unnecessary (b) 90
(c) 125
{d)150

514 Mike Holt's lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Vo
Practice Questions Article 411

19. Type IC recessed luminaires are permitted to make contact 24. Surface-mounted luminaires with a ballast shall have a
with combustible material at . minimum dearance of from combustible low-density
cellulose fiberboard, unless the luminaire is marked for surface
(a) recessed parts
mounting on combustible low-density cellulose fiberboard.
(b) points of support
(c) portions passing through or finishing off the opening in the (a) 1/2 in.
building structure (b) 1 in.
(d) all of these (c) VÁ'm.
(d) 2 in.

20. The raceway or cable for tap conductors to recessed luminaires


shall have a minimum length of . 25. The connected load on lighting track is permitted to exceed the
rating of the track under some conditions.
(a) 6 in.
(b) 12in. (a) True
(c) 18in. (b) False
(d) 24 in.

26. Lighting track shall not be installed less than above the
21. Luminaires containing a metal halide tamp {other than a thick finished floor except where protected from physical damage
glass PAR lamp) shall be provided with a containment barrier or where the track operates at less than 30V rms, open-circuit
that endoses the lamp, or shall be provided with a physical vottage.
means that only altows the use of a(n) .
(a) 4 f t
(a) Type O lamp (b) 5 f t
(b) Type CB lamp (c) 51/2 ft
(c) a or b (d) 6 f t
(d) inert gas

27. Lighting track shall have two supports for a single section of
22. In indoor locations other than dweilings and associated acces- or shorter in length and each individual section of not
sory buildings, fluorescent luminaires that utilizo double-ended more than 4 ft attached to it shali have one additional support,
lamps and contain ballast(s) and can be serviced in place shall unless the track is identified for supports at greater intervals.
have a disconnecting means either internal or external to each
(a) 2 f t
luminaire.
(b) 4 ft
(a) True (c) 6 ft
(b) False (d) 8 f t

23. If more than one luminaire is installed on a branch circuit that


Article 411. Lighting Systems
isn't of the multiwire type, a disconnecting means isn't required
Operating at 30 Volts or Less
for every luminaire when the light switch for the space ensures
that some of the luminaires in the space will still provide illumi-
1. Lighting systems operating at 30V or less shatl be listed or
nation.
assembled with listed components.
(a) True
(a) True -
(b) False
(b) False

«
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Article 422 Practice Questions

2. Lighting systems operating ai 30V or less shall not be installed 5. A waste disposai can be cord-and-plug-connected, but the
within ft of pools, spas, fountains, or similar locations. cord shall not be less than 18 in. or more than in length.

(a}5ft (a) 30 in.


(b) 6 f t (b) 36 in.
(c) 10 ft (c) 42 in.
(d) 20 ft (d) 48 in.

6. Wall-mounted ovens and counter-mounted cooking units shall


Alude 422. Appliances
be permitted to be .

1. Branch-circuit conductors to individual appliances shall not be (a) permanently connected


sized than required by the appliance markings. (b) cord-and-plug-connected
(c) a or b
(a) larger
(d) none of these
(b) smaller

7. For permanently connected appliances rated over the


2. If a protective device rating is marked on an appliance, the
branch-circuit circuit breaker can serve as the disconnecting
branch-circuit overcurrent device rating shall not exceed
means where the circuit breaker is within sight from the appli-
_ „ percent of the protective device rating marked on the
ance, or is capable of being locked in the open position with a
appliance.
permanently installed locking provisión that remains in place
(a) 50 with or without the lock installed.
(b) 80
(a) 200 VA
(c) 100
(b) 300 VA
(d) 115
(c) 400 VA
(d) 500 VA
3. If a branch circuit supplies a single nonmotor-operated appli-
ance, the rating of overcurrent protection shail not exceed
8. If an appliance of more than 1/8 hp is provided with a unit
if the overcurrent protection rating is not marked and
switch that complies with 422.34(A), (B), (C), or (D), the switch
the appliance is rated 13.30A or less.
or circuit breaker serving as the other disconnecting means
(a) 15A shall be permitted to be out of sight from the appliance.
(b) 20A
(a) True
(c) 25A
(b) False
(d) 30A

9. For cord-and-plug-connected househoid electric ranges, an


4. Central heating equipment, other than fixed electric space-
attachment plug and receptacle connection at the rear base of
heating equipment, shall be supplied by a(n) branch
the range can serve as the disconnecting means, if it is .
circuit.
(a) less than 40A
(a) multiwire
(b) a flush-mounted receptacle
(b) individual
(c) GFCI-protected
(c) muitipurpose
(d) accessible by the removal of a drawer
(d) smail-appliance

516 Mike Holt's Iilustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electru:al Code, Volu
Practice Questions Article 424

10. Cord-and-plug connected vending machines manufactured 3. A unit switch with a marked position that is part of a
or remanufactured on or after January 1, 2005 shall include fixed space heater, and disconnects all ungrounded conduc-
a ground-fauit circuit interrupter as an integral part of the tors, shall be permitted to serve as the required disconnecting
attachment plug or in the power-supply cord within 12 in. of means.
the attachment plug. OIder vending machines not incorporating
(a) on
integral GFCI protection shali .
(b) closed
(a) be remanufactured (c) off
(b) be disabled (d) none of these
(c) be connected to a GFCI-protected outlet
(d) be connected to an AFCI-protected circuit
4. Resistance-type heating elements in electric space-heating
equipment shatl be protected at not more than .
11. Each electric appliance shall be provided with a(n)
(a) 24A
giving the identifying ñ a m e and the rating in volts and amperes,
(b) 36A
or in volts and watts.
(c) 48A
(a) pamphiet (d) 60A
(b) nameplate
(c) auxiliary statement
5. On electric space-heating cables, blue leads indícate a cable
(d) owner's manual
rated for use on a nominal circuit voltage of .

(a) 120V
Article 424. Fixed Electric Space-Heating Equipment (b) 208V
(c) 240V
1. If a permanently installed electric baseboard heater has (d) 277V
factory-installed receptacle outlets, the receptacle is permitted
to be connected to the heater circuits.
6. Eiectric space-heating cables shall not extend beyond the room
(a) True
or área in which they .
(b) False
(a) provide heat
(b) origínate
2. Fixed electric space-heating equipment shall be installed to (c) terminate
provide the spacing between the equipment and adja- (d) are connected
cent combustible material, unless it is listed for direct contact
with combustible material.
7. The minimum clearance between an electric space-heating
(a) required
cable and an outlet box used for surface luminaires shall not be
(b) minimum
less than .
(c) máximum
(d) safest (a) 6 in.
(b) 8 i n .
(c) 14 in.
(d) 1 8 i n .

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Article 430 Practice Questions

8. Duct heater controller equipment shall have a disconnecting 3. Motors shall be located so that adequate is provided
means installed within the controller except as allowed and so that maintenance, such as lubrication of bearings and
by 424.19(A). replacing of brushes, can be readily accomplished.

(a) 2 5 f t o f (a) space


(b) sight from (b) ventilation
(c) the side of (c) protection
(d) none of these (d) allof these

9. A heating panel is a complete assembly provided with a junc- 4. Branch-circuit conductors suppiying a single continuous-duty
tion box or length of flexible conduit for connection to a(n) motor shall have an ampacity not less than _ _ _ _ _ rating.

(a) 125 percent of the motor's nameplate current


(a) wiring system (b) 125 percent of the motor's full-load current as determined
(b) service by430.6(A)(1)
(c) branch circuit (c) 125 percent of the motor's full Iocked-rotor
(d) approved conductor (d) 80 percent of the motor's full-load current

5. Overload devices are intended to protect motors, motor control


Article 430. Motors, Motor Circuits and Controllers
apparatus, and motor branch-circuit conductors against

1. The motor currents listed in Tables 430.247 through


430.250 shall be used to determine the ampacity of motor (a) excessive heating due to motor overloads
circuit conductors and short-circuit and ground-fault protection (b) excessive heating due to failure to start
devices. (c) short circuits and ground faults
(d) a and b
(a) nameplate
(b) full-load
(c) power factor
6. Motor overload protection shall not be shunted or cut out during
(d) service factor
the starting period if the motor is .

(a) not automatically started


2. Torque requirements for motor control circuit device termináis (b) automatically started
shail be a minimum of Ib-in. (unless otherwise identi- (c) manually started
fied) for screw-type pressure termináis used for 14 AWG and (d) none of these
smaller copper conductors.

(a) 7
7. A motor device that can restart a motor automati-
(b) 9
cally after overload tripping shall not be installed if automatic
(010
restarting of the motor can result in injury to persons.
íd)15
(a) short-circuit
(b) ground-fault
(c) overcurrent
(d) overload

518 Mike HolVs lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, V
Practice Questions Article 430

The motor branch-circuit short-circuit and ground-fault protec- 12. For stationary motors of 2 hp or less and 300V or less on ac
tive device shall be capable of carrying the current of circuits, the controller can be an ac-rated only general-use
the motor. snap switch where the motor full-load current rating is not
more than percent of the rating of the switch.
(a) varying
(b) starting (a) 50
(c) running (b) 60
(d) continuous (c) 70
(d) 80

9. A feeder suppiying fixed motor load(s) shall have a protective


device with a rating or setting branch-circuit short- 13. A shall be located in sight from the motor location and
circuit and ground-fault protective device for any motor in the driven machinery location.
the group, plus the sum of the full-load currents of the other
(a) controller
motors of the group.
(b) protection device
(a) not greater than the largest rating or setting of the (c) disconnecting means
(b) 125 percent of the largest rating of any (d) all of these
(c) equal to the largest rating of any
(d) none of these
14. The disconnecting means for a motor controller shall be
designed so that it does not automatically.
10. Motor control circuit transformers, with a primary current rating
(a) open
of iess than 2A, can have the primary protection device set
(b) cióse
at no more than percent of the rated primary current
(c) restart
rating.
(d) shut down
(a) 150
(b) 200
(c) 400 15. A motor disconnecting means can be a .

(d) 500 (a) listed molded case circuit breaker


(b) listed motor-circuit switch rated in horsepower
(c) listed molded case switch
11. The branch-circuit protective device can serve as the controller
(d) any of these
for a stationary motor rated at _ _ _ _ or less that is normally
left running and cannot be damaged by overload or failure to
start. 16. A horsepower-rated having a horsepower rating not

(a) 1/8 hp less than the motor rating shall be permitted to serve as the

(b) '74 hp disconnecting means.

(c) 3/8 hp (a) attachment plug and receptacle


(d) Vt hp (b) flanged surface inlet and cord connector
(c) automatic controller
(d) a or b

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Article 440 Practice Questions

17. A switch or circuit breaker can be used as both the controller 4. The disconnecting means for air-conditioning and refrigerating
and disconnecting means if it equipment shall be _ _ _ _ from the air-conditioning or refriger-
ating equipment.
(a) opens all ungrounded conductors
(b) is protected by an overcurrent device in each ungrounded (a) readily accessible
conductor (b) within sight
(c) is manually operable, or both power and manually operable (c) a or b
(d) all of these (d) a and b

5. Where the air conditioner disconnecting means is not within


Article 440. Air-Conditioning and
sight from the equipment, the provisión for locking or adding
Refrigerating Equipment
a lock to the disconnecting means shall be on the switch or
circuit breaker and remain in place the lock installed.
1. Article 440 applies to electric motor-driven air-conditioning and
refrigerating equipment that has a hermetic refrigerant motor- (a) with
compressor. (b) without
(c) with or without
(a) True
(d) none of these
(b) False

6. Branch-circuit conductors suppiying a single air-conditioner


2. The rules of shall apply to air-conditioning and refrig-
motor-compressor shall have an ampacity not less than
erating equipment that does not incorpórate a hermetic
percent of either the motor-compressor rated-load current or
refrigerant motor-compressor.
the branch-circuit selection current, whichever is greater.
(a) Article 422
(a) 100
(b) Article 424
(b) 125
(c) Article 430
(O 150
(d) allof these
(d) 200

3. A disconnecting means that serves a hermetic refrigerant


7. A hermetic motor-compressor controller shall have a
motor-compressor shall have an ampere rating of at least
current rating not less than the respective nameplate rating(s)
percent of the nameplate rated-load current or branch-
on the compressor
circuit selection current, whichever is greater
(a) continuous-duty full-load
(a) 80
(b) Iocked-rotor
(b) 100
(c) a or b
(0115
(d) a and b
(d)125

520 Mike Holt's lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, V
Practice Questions Article 450

8. The total rating of a cord-and-plug-connected room air condi- Article 450. Transformers and Transformer Vaults
tioner, connected to the same branch circuit which supplies
lighting units, other appliances, or general-use receptacles, 1. The primary overcurrent protection for a transformer rated
shall not exceed percent of the branch-circuit rating. 600V, nominal, or less, with no secondary protection and
having a primary current rating of over 9A must be set at not
(a) 40
more than percent.
(b) 50
(c) 70 (a) 125
(d) 80 (b) 167
(c) 200 -
(d) 300
9. When suppiying a room air conditioner rated 120V, the length
of a flexible supply cord shall not exceed .
2. Transformers with ventilating openings shall be installed so
(a) 4 f t
that the ventilating openings .
(b) 6 f t
(c) 8 ft (a) are a minimum 18 in. above the floor
(d) 10ft (b) are not blocked by walls or obstructions
(c) are aesthetically located
(d) are vented to the exterior of the building

Article 445. Generators

3. For transformers, other than Class 2 and Class 3, a means is


1. Article 445 contains installation and other requirements for
required to disconnect al! transformer ungrounded primary
generators.
conductors. The disconnecting means must be located within
(a) True sight of the transformer unless the .
(b) False
(a) disconnect location is field-marked on the transformer
(b) disconnect is lockable
2. Constant-voitage generators, except ac generator exciters, (c) disconnect is non-fusible
shail be protected from overcurrent by or other accept- (d) a and b
able overcurrent protective means suitable for the conditions of
use.
4. Dry-type transformers installed indoors rated over shatl
(a) inherent design be installed in a vault.
(b) circuit breakers
(a) 1,000V
(c) fuses
(b) 20,000V
(d) any of these
(c) 35,000V
(d) 50,000V
3. Separately derived system generators must have the
conductor sized not smaller than required to carry the
5. Transformer vaults shall be iocated where they can be venti-
máximum unbalanced current as determined by 220.61.
lated to the outside air without using flues or ducts, where
(a) neutral
(b) grounding
(a) permitted
(c) a and b
(b) practicable
(d) none of these
(c) required
(d) all of these

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.l\/likeHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 521


Article 480 Practice Questions

6. Each doorway leading into a transformer vault from the building 4. A _ _ _ _ disconnecting means is required within sight of the
interior shali be provided with a tight-fitting door having a storage battery for all ungrounded battery system conductors
minimum fire rating of hours. operating at over 50V nominal.

(a) 2 (a) accessible


(b) 3 (b) readily accessible
(c) 4 (c) safety
(d) 6 (d) allof these

7. Ventilation openings for transformer vauits must be as far as 5. Racks (rigid trames designed to support battery cells or trays)
possible from . must be made of one of the following:

(a) doors (a) Metal, treated to be resistant to deíeriorating action by the


(b) Windows electrolyte and provided with nonconducting or continuous
(c) combustible material insulating material members directly supporting the cells
(d) any of these (b) Fibergiass
(c) Other suitable nonconduclive materials
(d) Any of these

Article 480. Storage Batteries

6. The required working space requirements of 110.26 are


1. The provisions of Article apply to stationary storage
measured from the edge of the battery .
battery installations.
(a) termináis
(a) 450
(b) enclosure
(b) 460
(c) rack
(c) 470
(d) any of these
(d) 480

2. Nominal battery voltage, as it relates to storage batteries, is


defined as the voltage of a battery based on the of cells
in the battery.

(a) number
(b) type
(c) a and b
(d) a or b

3. Wiring and equipment supplied from storage batteries must


be in accordance with Chapters 1 through 4 of the A/fC unless
othen/vise permitted by 480.4.

(a) True
(b) False

522 Mike Holt's Iilustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Vo
FINAL EXAM

A Final Exam A Questions


These questions are based on the 2011 National A dweiling unit containing three 120V small-appliance branch
circuits has a calculated load of ^VA for the small appli-
Electrical Code, Please use the 2011 NEC Code book to
ance circuits.
answer the following questions.
(a) 1,500
(b) 3,000
(c) 4,500
Final Exam A (d) 6,000

means acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction.


A hermetic motor-compressor controller shall have a „ _
(a) Identified
current rating not less than the respective nameplate rating(s)
(b) Listed
on the compressor.
(c) Approved
(d) Labeled (a) continuous-duty full-load
(b) Iocked-rotor
(c) a or b
A bare 4 AWG copper conductor installed horizontally near the
(d) a and b
bottom or vertically, and within that portion of a concrete foun-
dation or footing that is in direct contact with the earth can be
used as a grounding electrode when the conductor is at least A main bonding jumper shall be a or similar suitable
in length. conductor.

(a) 10ft (a) wire

(b) 15ft (b) bus


(c) 20 ft (c) screw

(d) 25 ft (d) any of these

3. A building or structure shall be supplied by a máximum of A multipole, general-use snap switch shall not be fed from
service(s), unless specifically permitted otherwise. more than a single circuit unless it is usted and marked as a
2-circuit or 3-circuit switch, or unless its voltage rating is not
(a) one
less than the nominal voltage of the system suppiying
(b) two
the circuits.
(c) three
(d) as many as desired (a) line-to-ground
(b) line-to-neutral
(c) line-to-line
4. A Class A GFCI protection device is designed to trip when the
(d) phase-to-phase
ground-fault current to ground is or higher.

(a) 4 mA
A receptacle outlet shall be installed in dweiling units for ever^
(b) 5 mA
kitchen and dining área countertop space , and no poini
(c) 6 mA
along the wall line shall be more than 2 ft, measured horizon-
(d) none of these
tally, from a receptacle outlet in that space.

(a) widerthan 10 in.


(b) w i d e r t h a n 3 f l
(c) 18 in. or wider
(d) 12in. orwider

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHoltcom • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 523


Exam A Final Exam Questions

10. A switch or circuit breal<er can be used as both the controller 16. Branch-circuit conductors suppiying a single air-conditioner
and disconnecting means if it . motor-compressor shall have an ampacity not less than
(a) opens all ungrounded conductors percent of either the motor-compressor rated-load current or
(b) is protected by an overcurrent device in each ungrounded the branch-circuit selection current, whichever is greater
conductor (a) 100
(c) is manually operable, or both power and manually operable (b) 125
(d) all of these (c) 150
(d) 200

11. A wood brace used for supporting a box for structural mounting
shall have a cross-section not less than nominal . 17. Buildings or structures supplied by múltiple services or feeders
(a) 1 in. X 2 in. must use the same to ground enclosures and equip-
(b) 2 in. X 2 in. ment in or on that building.
(c) 2 in.x 3 in. (a) service
(d) 2 i n . x 4 i n . (b) disconnect
(c) grounding electrode system
(d) any of these
12. All 15A and 20A, 125V receptacles installed in garages, service
bays, and similar áreas where are to be used must be
GFCI protected. 18. Cable trays used to support service-entrance conductors shall
(a) electrical diagnostic equipment contain only service-entrance conductors .
(b) electrical hand toois (a) unless a solid fixed barrier separates the service-entrance
(c) portable lighting equipment conductors from other conductors
(d) all of these (b) under 300V
(c) in industrial locations
(d) over 600V
13. Aluminum fittings and enclosures can be used with
conduit where not subject to severe corrosivo influences.
(a) Steel rigid metal 19. Ceiling-support wires used for the support of electrical race-
(b) aluminum rigid metal ways and cables within nonfire-rated assemblies shall be
(c) PVC-coated rigid conduit only distinguishabte from the suspended-ceiling framing support

(d) a and b wires.

(a) True
(b) False
14. An unspliced that is sized based on the derived phase
conductors shall be used to connect the grounded conductor
and the supply-side bonding jumper, or the equipment 20. Concrete, brick, or tile walls are considered . as applied
grounding conductor, or both, at a separately derived system. to working space requirements.
(a) system bonding jumper (a) inconsequential
(b) equipment grounding conductor (b) in the way
(c) grounded conductor (c) grounded
(d) grounding elecü-ode conductor (d) none of these

15. Bends in LFNC shall between pulí points. 21. Conductors, spiices or terminatlons in a handhole enclosure
(a) not be made shall be listed as .
(b) not be limited in degrees (a) suitable for wet locations
(c) be limited to 360 degrees (b) suitable for damp locations
(d) be limited to180 degrees (c) suitable for direct burial in the earth
(d) none of these

524 Mike Holt's lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Vo
Final Exam Questions Exam A

22. Conduits or raceways througli whicli moisture may contact uve 28. Electrical installations in hollow spaces, vertical shafts, and
parts síiail be at either or both ends. ventilation or air-handIing ducts shait be made so that the
(a) sealed possible spread of fire or products of combustión is not .
(b) plugged ^ " (a) substantially increased
(c) bushed (b) allowed
(d) a or b (c) inherent
(d) possible

23. Cut ends of ENT shall be trimmed inside and to remove


rough edges. 29. EMT shall not be threaded.
(a) outside (a) True ^
(b) tapered (b) False
(c) filed
(d) beveled
30. ENT shall not be used where exposed to the direct rays of the
sun, unless identified as .
24. Dry-type transformers installed indoors rated over shall (a) high-temperature rated
be installed in a vault. (b) sunlight resistant
(a) 1,000V (c) Schedule 80
(b) 20,000V (d) never can be
(c) 35,000V
(d) 50,000V
31. Equipment or materials inctuded in a list published by a testing
laboratory acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction is said
25. Each direct-buried single conductor cable must be located to b e " ."
in the trench to the other single conductor cables in the (a) book
same parallel set of conductors, including equipment grounding (b) digest
conductors. (c) manifest
(a) perpendicular (d) listed
(b) bundied together
(c) in cióse proximity
32. Explanatory material, such as references to other standards,
(d) spaced apart
references to related sections of the NEC, or information related
to a Coúe rute, are inciuded in the form of Informationai Notes.
26. Each length of RMC shatl be clearly and durably identified in (a) True
every . (b) False
{a)3ft
(b) 5 f t
33. Fittings used for connecting Type MC cable to boxes, cabinets,
(c) 10ft
or other equipment shall .
(d) 20ft
,= (a) be nonmetallic only
(b) be listed and identified for such use
27. Each switchboard or panelboard used as service equipment (c) be listed and identified as weatherproof
shall be provided with a main bonding jumper within the panel- (d) include anti-shorting bushings
board, or within one of the sections of the switchboard, for
connecting the grounded service-entrance conductor on its
side to the switchboard or panelboard frame.

(a) load
(b) supply
(c) phase
(d) high-leg

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Exam A Final Exam Questions

34. Flexible cords and cables shall not be concealed behind 39. Galvanizad steel, stainless steel and red brass RMC can be
building , or run through doonways, Windows, or similar installed in concrete, in direct contact with the earth, or in
openings. áreas subject to severe corrosivo influences when protected by
(a) structural ceilings and judged suitable for the condition.
(b) suspended or dropped ceilings (a) ceramic
(c) floors or walls (b) corrosión protection
(d) all of these (c) backfill
(d) a natural barrier

35. For grounded systems, electrical equipment and electri-


cally conductivo material likely to become energized, shall be 40. Ground-fault protection of equipment shall be provided for
installed in a manner that creates a low-impedance circuit solidly grounded wye electrical systems of more than 150
capable of safety carrying the máximum ground-fault current volts-to-ground, but not exceeding 600V phase-to-phase for
likely to be imposed on it from where a ground fault may occur each individual device used as a building or structure main
to the • disconnecting means rated _ _ _ _ or more, unless specifically
(a) ground exempted.
(b) earth (a) 1,000A
(c) electrical suppiy source (b) 1,500A
(d) none of these (c) 2,000A
(d) 2,500A

36. For installations consisting of not more than two 2-wire branch
circuits, the service disconnecting means shall have a rating of 41. Grounding electrodos that are driven rods require a minimum
not less than . of in contact with the soil.
(a) 15A (a)6ft
(b) 20A
(c) 25A
(d) 30A (d)12ft

37. For stationary motors of 2 hp or less and 300V or less on ac 42. Handies or levers of circuit breakers, and similar parts that may
circuits, the controller can be an ac-rated only general-use move suddenly in such a way that persons in the vicinity are
snap switch where the motor full-load current rating is not likely to be injured by being struck by them, shall be .
more than percent of the rating of the switch. (a) guarded
(a) 50 (b) isolated
(b) 60 (c) a and b
(c) 70 (d) a or b
(d) 80

43. If a branch circuit supplies a single nonmotor-operated appli-


38. For transformers, other than Class 2 and Class 3, a means is ance, the rating of overcurrent protection shall not exceed
required to disconnect all transformer ungrounded primary if the overcurrent protection rating is not marked and
conductors. The disconnecting means must be located within the appliance is rated 13.30A or less.
sight of the transformer unless the . (a) 15A
(a) disconnect location is field-marked on the transformer (b) 20A
(b) disconnect is lockable (c) 25A
(c) disconnect is non-fusible (d) 30A
(d) a and b

526 Mike Hoifs iliustrated Guide to Understanding tiie 2011 National Electrical Code, Vo
Final Exam Questions Exam A

44. If an appliance of more than 1/8 hp is provided with a unit 50. In locations where electrical equipment is likely to be exposed
switch that complies with 422.34(A), (B), (C), or (D), the switch to , enclosures or guards shall be so arranged and of
or circuit breaker serving as the other disconnecting means such strength as to prevent such damage.
shall be permitted to be out of sight from the appliance. (a) corrosión
(a) True (b) physical damage
(b) False (c) magnetic fields
(d) weather

45. If the voltage between overhead service conductors does not


exceed 300V and the roof área is guarded or isolated, a reduc- 51. Installations of Communications equipment that are under
tion in clearance to 3 ft is permitted. the exclusive control of Communications Utilities, and located
(a) True outdoors or in building spaces used exclusively for such instal-
(b) False lations covered by the NEC.

(a) are
(b) are sometimos
46. in a dweiling unit, each wail space or wider requires a
(c) are not
receptacle.
(d) may be
(a) 2 f t
(b) 3 f t
(c) 4 ft 52. Lighting systems operating at 30V or less shall be listed or
(d) 5 f t assembled with listed components.
(a) True . ,
(b) False
47. In dweiling unit bathrooms, not less than one 15A or 20A, 125V
receptacle outlet must be installed within from the
outside edge of each bathroom basin. 53. Lighting track shall have two supports for a single section of
(a) 20 in. or shorter in length and each individual section of not
(b) 3 f t more than 4 ft attached to it shall have one additional support,
(c) 4 f t unless the track is identified for supports at greater intervals.
(d) 6 f t (a) 2 f t
(b) 4 f t
(c) 6 ft
48. In dweiling units, the voltage between conductors that supply
(d) 8 f t
the termináis of shall not exceed 120V, nominal.
(a) luminaires
(b) cord-and-plug-connected loads of 1,440 VA or less 54. Listed liquidtight flexible metal conduit (LFMC) is acceptable as
(c) cord-and-plug-connected loads of more than '/4 hp an equipment grounding conductor when it terminates in listed
(d) a and b fittings and is protected by an overcurrent device rated 60A or
less for sizes 3/8 in. through y2 in.

(a) True
49. In industrial estabiishments where conditions of maintenance
(b) False
and supervisión ensure that only qualified persons service
the installation, flexible cords and cables can be installed in
aboveground raceways that are no longer than . to 55. Luminaires containing a metal halide lamp (other than a thick
protect the flexible cord or cable from physical damage. glass PAR lamp) shall be provided with a containment barrier
(a) 25 ft that endoses the lamp, or shall be provided with a physical
(b) 50 ft means that only allows the use of a(n) .
{c)100ft (a) Type O lamp
(d) no limit (b) Type CB lamp
(c) a or b
(d) inert gas

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 527


Exam A Final Exam Questions

56. Luminaires shall be wired with conductors having insulation 62. Nonlocking type 15A and 20A, 125V receptacles in a dweiling
suitable for the environmental conditions and to which unit shali be listed as tamper resistant except .
the conductors will be subjected. (a) Receptacles located more than 51/2 ft above the floor
(a) temperature (b) Receptacles that are part of a luminaire or appliance.
(b) voltage (c) A receptacle located within dedicated space for an appli-
(c) current ance that in normal use is not easily moved from one place
(d) allof these to another.
(d) all of these

57. Metal faceplates for receptacles shall be grounded.


(a) True 63. One set of service-entrance conductors connected to t h e '
(b) False supply side of the normal service disconnecting means shall be
permitted to supply standby power systems, tire pump equip-
ment, and fire and sprinkier alarms covered by 230.82(5).
58. Metal wireways are sheet metal troughs with for
(a) True
housing and protecting electric conductors and cable.
(b) False
(a) removable covers
(b) hinged covers
(c) a or b 64. Overcurrent proíecíion for conductors and equipment is
(d) none oí these designed to the circuit if the current reaches a valué
that will cause an excessive or dangerous temperature in
conductors or conductor insulation.
59. Motors shall be located so that adequate is provided
(a) open
and so that maintenance, such as lubrication of bearings and
(b) cióse
replacing of brushes, can be readity accomplished.
(c) monitor
(a) space
(d) record
(b) ventilation
(c) protection
(d) allof these 65. Overload devices are intended to protect motors, motor control
apparatus, and motor branch-circuit conductors against

60. No spiices or taps shall be made within or on a lumi-


(a) excessive heating due to motor overloads
naire.
(b) excessive heating due to failure to start
(a) unapproved
(c) short circuits and ground faults
(b) untested
(d) a and b '
(c) uninspected
(d) unnecessary
66. Power distribution blocks installed in metal wireways shali

61. Nonlocking 15A and 20A, 125V and 250V receptacles installed
(a) allow for sufficient wire-bending space at termináis
in damp iocations shall be listed as .
(b) not have uninsulated exposed live parts
(a) raintight
(c) a or b
(b) watertight
(d) a and b
(c) weatherproof
(d) weather resistant

528 Mike HolVs lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Eieotricai Code, V
Final Exam Questions Exam A

67. PVC conduit shall not be used , unless specifically 73. Smooth-sheath Type MC cable with an external diameter not
permitted. greater than % in. shall have a bending radios not more than
(a) in hazardous (classified) locations times the cable external diameter.
(b) for the support of luminaires or other equipment (a) five
(c) where subject to physical damage unless identified for such (b) 10
use (c) 12
(d) allof these (d) 13

68. Racl<s (rigid trames designed to support battery cells or trays) 74. Surface metal raceways shall be secured and supported at
must be made of one of the following: intervals .
(a) Metal, treated to be resistant to deteriorating action by the (a) in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instruc-
electrolyte and provided with nonconducting or continuous tions
insulating material members directly supporting the cells. (b) appropriate for the building design
(b) Fibergiass. (c) not exceeding 4 ft
(c) Other suitable nonconductive materials. (d) not exceeding 8 ft
(d) Any of these

75. Switches shall be marked with .


69. Receptacles installed behind a bed in the guest rooms in hotels (a) current
and motéis shall be located to prevent the bed from contacting (b) voltage
an attachment plug, or the receptacle shall be provided with a (c) máximum horsepower, if horsepower rated
suitable guard. (d) all of these
I (a) True
(b) False
76. The is the necessary equipment, usually consisting of
a circuit breaker(s) or switch(es) and fuse(s) and their acces-
70. Recognized as suitable for the specific purpose, function, use, sories, connected to the load end of service conductors, and
environment, and application is the definition o f " ." intended to constitute the main control and cutoff of the supply.
(a) labeled (a) service equipment
(b) identified (as applied to equipment) (b) service
(c) listed (c) service disconnect
(d) approved (d) service overcurrent device

71. Separately derived system generators must have the 77. The authority having jurisdiction has the responsibility for
conductor sized not smaller than required to carry the
máximum unbalanced current as determined by 220.61. (a) making interpretations of rules
(a) neutral • (b) deciding upon the approval of equipment and materials
(b) grounding (cj waiving specific requirements ín the Code and permítting
(c) a and b altérnate methods and material if safety is maintained
(d) none of these (d) all of these

72. Service disconnecting means shall not be installed in bath- 78. The connected load on lighting track is permitted to exceed the
rooms. rating of the track under some conditions.
(a) True (a) True
(b) False (b) False

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 529


Exam A Final Exam Questions

79. The grounding electrode conductor for a single separately 84. The provisions of Article apply to stationary storage
derived system is used to connect the grounded conductor of battery installations.
the derived system to the grounding electrode. (a) 450
(a) True (b) 460
(b) False (c) 470
(d) 480

80. The load for electric clothes dryers in a dweiling unit shall be
watts or the nameplate rating, whichever is larger, per 85. The requirement for maintaining a 3 ft vertical clearance from
dryer. the edge of the roof shall not apply to the final feeder conductor
(a) 1,500 span where the conductors are attached to .

(b) 4,500 (a) a building pole


(c) 5,000 (b) the side of a building
(d) 8,000 (c) an antenna
(d) the base of a building

81. The minimum feeder conductor ampacity, before the applica-


tion of any adjustment or correction factors, must be no less 86. The sum of the cross-sectional áreas of all contained conduc-
than the noncontinuous load plus percent of the contin- tors at any cross-section of a metal wireway shall not exceed
uous load.

(a) 80 (a) 50 percent


(b) 100 (b) 20 percent
(0125 (O 25 percent
(d)150 (d) 80 percent

82. The motor currents listed in Tables 430.247 through 87. There shall be a minimum of one branch circuit for the
430.250 shall be used to determine the ampacity of motor laundry outlet(s) required by 210.52(F).
circuit conductors and short-circuit and ground-fault protection (a) 15A
devices. (b) 20A
(a) nameplate (c) 30A
(b) full-load (d) b and c
(c) power factor
(d) service factor
88. Threadless coupiings and connectors used with RMC buried in
masonry or concrete shali be the type.
83. The next higher standard rating overcurrent device above the (a) raintight
ampacity of the ungrounded conductors being protected shall (b) wet and damp location
be permitted to be used, provided all of the following conditions (c) nonabsorbent
are met: (d) concrete-tight
(a) The conductors are not part of a branch circuit suppiying
more than one receptacle for cord-and-plug-connected
89. Trade size 1 IMC shall be supported at intervals not exceeding
portable loads.
(b) The ampacity of the conductors doesn't correspond with the
(a)8ft
standard ampere rating of a fuse or circuit breaker.
{b)10ft
(c) The next higher standard rating selected doesn't exceed
(O 12 ft
800A.
(d)14ft
(d) all of these

530 Mike Hoit's lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Vo
Final Exam Questions Exam A

90. Type _ _ _ _ cable is a factory assembly of conductors with 96. When appiying the demand factors of Table 220.56, the feeder
an overail covering of nonmetallic material suitable for direct or service demand load shall not be less than the sum of
burial in the earth.
(a) NM (a) the total number of receptacles at 180 VA per receptacle
(b) UF outlet
(c) SE (b) the VA rating of all of the small-appliance branch circuits
(d) TC combinad
(c) the largest two kitchen equipment loads
(d) the kitchen heating and air-conditioning loads
91. Type IC recessed luminaires are permitted to make contact
with combustible material at .
(a) recessed parts 97. When EMT is installed in wet locations, all supports, bolts,
(b) points of support straps, and screws shall be .
(c) portions passing through or finishing off the opening in the (a) of corrosion-resistant materials
buiiding structure (b) protected against corrosión
(d) ail of these (c) a or b
(d) of nonmetallic materials only

92. Type NM cable shal! closely follow the surface of the building
finish or running boards when run exposed. 98. When suppiying a grounded system at a sepárate building or
(a) True structure, an equipment grounding conductor shall be run with
(b) False the supply conductors and connected to the building or struc-
ture disconnecting means.

(a) True
93. Unbroken lengths of surface metal raceways can be run
(b) False
through dry .

(a) walls
(b) partitions 99. When Type AC cable is run across the top of a floor joist in an
(c) floors attic without permanent ladders or stairs, substantial guard
(d) all of these strips within of the scuttle hole, or attic entrance, shall
protect the cable.
(a) 3 ft
94. Unused openings other than those intended for the operation
(b) 4 ft
of equipment, intended for mounting purposes, or permitted as
(c) 5 f t
part of the design for listed equipment shall be .
(d) 6 t t
(a) fiiled with cable clamps or connectors only
(b) taped over with electrical tape
(c) repaired only by welding or brazing in a metal slug 100. Where conductors in parallel are run in sepárate raceways, the
(d) effectively closed to afford protection substantially equiva- raceways shall have the same electrical characteristics.
lent to the wall of the equipment (a) True
(b) False

95. What is the minimum cover requirement for direct burial Type
UF cable installed outdoors that supplies a 120V, 30A circuit?
(a) 6 in.
(b) 12in.
{c)18in.
(d) 24 in.

mke Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.l\/likeHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 531


FINAL EXAM

Fina B Questions
These questions are based on the 2011 National 5. A disconnecting means that serves a hermetic refrigerant
motor-compressor shall have an ampere rating of at least
Electrical Code. Please use the 2011 NEC Code book to
percent of the nameplate rated-ioad current or branch-
answer the following questions.
circuit selection current, whichever is greater.

(a) 80
(b) 100
Final Exam B (c) 115
(d) 125
1. is a listed thin-waíl, metallic tubing of circular cross
section used for the installation and physical protection of elec-
6. A ground-fault current path is an electrically conductivo path
trical conductors when joined together with listed fittings.
from the point of a ground fault through normally noncurrent-
(a) LFNC carrying conductors, equipment, or the earth to the .
(b) EMT
(a) ground
(c) NUCC
(b) earth
(d) RTRC
(c) eléctrica! supply source
(d) none of these
2. 15A and 20A, 125V receptacles located in patient bed locations
of general care or critical care áreas of health care facilities
7. A load is considered to be continuous if the máximum current
aren't required to be GFCI protected.
is expected to continué for or more.
(a) True
(a) one-half hour
(b) False
(b) 1 hour
(c) 2 hours
3. A building or structure shall be supplied by a máximum (d) 3 hours
of feeder(s) or branch circuit(s), unless specifically
permitted otherwise.
8. A multioutlet assembly shal! not be installed .
(a) one
(a) in hoistways
(b) two
(b) where subject to severe physical damage
(c) three
(c) where subject to corrosivo vapors
(d) four
(d) all of these

4. A circuit breaker having an interrupting current rating of other 9. A receptacle connected to a dwelüng unit small-appliance
than shall have its interrupting rating marked on the circuit can supply gas-fired ranges, ovens, or counter-mounted
circuit breaker. cooking units.
(a) 5,00OA
(a) True
(b}10,000A
(b) False
(c) 22,000A
(d) 5O,00OA

532 Mike HolVs lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Vo
Final Exam Questions Exam B

10. A single receptacle is a single contact device with no other 16. At least one wall switch-controlled lighting outlet shall be
contact device on the same . installed in every habitable room and bathroom of a guest room
(a) circuit or guest suite of holeis, motéis, and similar occupancies. A
(b) yoke receptacle outlet controlled by a wall switch may be used to
(c) mn meet this requirement in other than .
(d) equipment (a) bathrooms
(b) kitchens
(c) sieeping áreas
11. A unit switch with a marked position that is part of a
(d) a and b
fixed space heater, and disconnects atl ungrounded conduc-
tors, shall be permitted to serve as the required disconnecting
means. 17. Bonding shall be provided where necessary to ensure
(a) on and the capacity to conduct safely any fault current likely to be
(b) closed imposed.
(c) off (a) electrical continuity
(d) none of these (b) fiduciary responsibility
(c) listing requirements
(d) electrical demand
12. All 15A and 20A, 125V receptacles of commercial occu-
pancies shall have GFCI protection.
(a) in bathrooms 18. Branch-circuit conductors to individual appliances shall not be
(b) on rooftops sized than required by the appliance markings.
(c) in kitchens (a) larger
(d) allof these (b) smaller

13. Alternating-current systems of 50V to 1,000V that supply 19. Cable trays shall .
premises wiring systems shall be grounded where supplied by (a) include fittings or other suitable means for changos in direc-
a three-phase, 4-wire, delta-connected system in which the tion and elevation
midpoint of one phase winding is used as a circuit conductor. (b) have side rails or equivalent struclural members
(a) True (c) be made of corrosion-resistant material or protected from
(b) False corrosión as required by 300.6
(d) allof these

14. An insulated grounded conductor oí or smaller shall be


identified by a continuous white or gray outer finish, or by three 20. Cartridge fuses and fusehotders shall be classified according to
continuous white stripes on other than green insulation along their ranges.
its entire length. (a) voltage
(a) 8 AWG (b) amperage
(b) 6AWG (c) a or b
(c) 4AWG (d) a and b
(d) 3AWG

21. Communications wiring such as telephone, antenna, and CATV


15. Any of the following wiring methods can be installed in a cable wiring within a building shal! not be required to comply with
tray: the installation requirements of Chapters 1 through 7, except
(a) Metal raceways. where specifically referenced in Chapter 8.
(b) Nonmetallic raceways. (a) True
(c) Cables. (b) False
(d) all oflhese

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHoltcom • 888.NEC.CÜDE (632.2633) 533


Exam B Final Exam Questions

22. Conductors shall be installed within a raceway, cable, or enclo- 28. Each run of cable tray shall be before the installation of
sure. cables.
(a) True (a) tested for 25 ohms resistance
(b) False (b) insulated
(c) completed
(d) allof these
23. Conduits and raceways, including end fittings, shall not rise
more than above the bottom of a switchboard enclo-
sure. 29. Electric space-heating cables shall not extend beyond the room
(a) 3 in. or área in which they .
(b) 4 in. (a) provide heat
(c) 5 in. (b) origínate
(d) 6 in. (c) terminate
(d) are connected

24. Cord-and-plug connected vending machines manufactured


or remanufactured on or after January 1, 2005 shali include 30. Electrically conductive materials that are likely to in
a ground-fault circuit interrupter as an integral part of the ungrounded systems shall be connected together and to the
attachment plug or in the power-supply cord within 12 in. of supply system grounded equipment in a manner that creates a
the attachment plug. OIder vending machines not incorporating low-impedance path for ground-fault current that is capable of
integral GFCI protection shall . carrying the máximum fault current likely to be imposed on it.

(a) be remanufactured (a) become energized


(b) be disabled (b) require service
(c) be connected to a GFCI-protected outlet (c) be removed
(d) be connected to an AFCI-protected circuit (d) be coated with paint or nonconductive materials

25. Direct-buried service conductors that are not encased in 31. ENT is composed of a material resistant to moisture and Chem-
concrete and that are buried 18 in. or more below grade shatl ical atmospheres, and is .
have their location identified by a warning ribbon placed in the (a) flexible
trench at least above the underground installation. (b) fíame retardant
(a) 6 in. (c) fireproof
(b) 10in. (d) flammable
(c) 12in.
(d) 18in.
32. Equipment and devices shall only be permitted within ducts or
plenum chambers specifically fabricated to transport environ-
26. Each cable entering a cutout box . mental air if necessary for their direct action upon, or sensing

(a) shall be secured to the cutout box of, the .

(b) can be sieeved through a chase (a) contained air


(c) shall have a máximum of two cables per connector (b) air quality
(d) allof these (c) air temperature
(d) none of these

27. Each doorway leading into a transformer vault from the building
interior shall be provided with a tight-fitting door having a
minimum fire rating of hours.

(a) 2
(b) 3
(0)4
((1)6

534 Mike Holt's Iilustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Vo
Final Exam Questions Exam B

33. Equipment or materials to which a symbol or other identifying 39. For switchboards that are not totally enclosed, a space of
mark of a product evaluation organization that is acceptable to or more shall be provided between the top of the
the authority having jurisdiction has been attached is known as switchboard and any combustible ceiling.
(a) 12in.
(a) listed (b) 1 8 i n .
(b) labeled (c) 2 f t
(c) approved (d) 3 f t
(d) identified

40. For Type NM and NMC cable, the conductor ampacity used for
34. Exposed metal conductive parts of luminaires shall be . ambient temperature correction [310.15(B)(2)(a)], conductor
(a) connected to an equipment grounding conductor bundiing adjustment [310.15(B)(3)(a)], or both, is based on
(b) painted the 9 0 X conductor insulation rating [310.15(B)(2)], provided
(c) removed the adjusted or corrected ampacity doesn't exceed that for a
(d) a and b rated conductor

(a) 60°C
35. Fixed electric space-heating equipment shall be installed to (b) 75°C
provide the spacing between the equipment and adja- (c) 90°C
cent combustible material, unless it is listed for direct contact (d) 120°C
with combustible material.

(a) required
41. Grounded conductors and larger can be identified by
(b) minimum
distinctive white or gray markings at their terminatlons.
(c) máximum
(d) safest (a) 10 AWG
(b) 8AWG
(c) 6AWG
36. FMC can be installed exposed or concealed where not subject
(d) 4AWG
to physical damage.
(a) True
(b) False M. Grounding electrode conductors smaller than shall be in
rigid metal conduit, IMC, PVC conduit, electrical metallic tubing,
or cable armor
37. For grounded systems, normally noncurrent-carrying conduc-
tive materials enctosing electrical conductors or equipment (a) 10AWG

shall be connected to earth so as to limit the voltage-to-ground (b) 8AWG


on these materials. (c) 6AWG
{d}4AWG
(a) True
(b) False
43. Handhoíds in poles supporting luminaires shall not be required

38. For liquidtight flexible metal conduit, if flexibility is necessary for poles or less in height above finished grade, if the

after installation, unsecured lengths from the last point the pole is provided with a hinged base.
raceway is securely fastened must not exceed . (a) 5 ft
(a) 3 ft for trade sizes through 1 VA (b) 1 0 f t
(b) 4 ft for trade sizes 1 ^2 through 2 (c) 1 5 f t
(c) 5 ft for trade sizes 2 !/2 and larger (d) 20 ft
(d) allof these

Mílce Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHoltcom • 888.NEC.CÜDE (632.2633) 535


Exam B Final Exam Questions

44. High-impedance grounded neutral systems shall be permitted 49. In dweiling units, the required bathroom receptacle outlet can
for three-phase ac systems of 480 volts to 1,000 volts v\/here be installed on the side or face of the basin cabinet if no lower
than below the countertop.

(a) the conditions of maintenance ensure that only qualified (a) 1 2 i n .

persons service the installation (b) 18 in.

(b) ground detectors are installed on the system (c) 24 in.


(d) 36 in.
(c) line-to-neutral loads are not served
(d) ali of these
50. In indoor locations other than dweilings and associated acces-
sory buildings, fluorescent luminaires that utilizo double-ended
45. If a protective device rating is marked on an appliance, the
lamps and contain ballast(s) and can be serviced in place shall
branch-circuit overcurrent device rating shall not exceed
have a disconnecting means either internal or external to each
percent of the protective device rating marked on the
luminaire.
appliance.
(a) True
(a) 50
(b) False
(b) 80
(0)100
(d)115 51. In judging equipment for approval, considerations such as the
following shall be evaluated:

46. If neutral conductors of different voltage systems are installed (a) Mechanical strength.
in the same raceway, cable, or enclosure, the means of iden- (b) Wire-bending space.
tification of the different neutrals shall be documented in (c) Arcing effects.
a manner that's or be permanently posted where the (d) all of these
conductors of different systems originate.

(a) available to theAHJ 52. In other than dweiling locations, GFCI protection is required in
(b) available through the engineer
(c) readily available (a) indoor wet locations
(d) inciuded in the as-buitt drawings (b) locker rooms adjacent to showering facilities
(c) garages, service bays, and similar áreas
47. IMC can be installed in or under cinder fill subject to permanent (d) allof these
moisture .

(a) where the conduit is not less than 18 in. under the fill 53. LFNC shall be permitted for .
(b) when protected on all sides by 2 in. of noncinder concrete (a) direct burial where listed and marked for the purpose
(c) where protected by corrosión protection judged suitable for (b) exposed work
the condition (c) outdoors where listed and marked for this purpose
(d) any of these (d) all of these

48. In completed installations, each outlet box shall have a . 54. Lighting track is a manufactured assembly and its length may
(a) cover not be altered by the addition or subtraction of sections of
(b) faceplate track.
(c) canopy (a) True
(d) any of these (b) False

536 Mike Holt's lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, V
Final Exam Questions Exam B

55. Liquidtight flexible metal conduit must be securely fastened by 61. No shall be attached to any terminal or lead so as to
a means approved by the authority having jurisdiction within reverse designated polanty.
of termination. (a) grounded conductor
(a) 6 in. (b) grounding conductor
(b) 10 in. (c) ungrounded conductor
(c) 1 f t (d) grounding connector
(d) 10ft

62. Noncombustible surfaces that are broken or incomplete around


56. Luminaires attached to the framing of a suspended ceiling shal! boxes employing a flush-type cover or faceplate shall be
be secured to the framing member(s) by mechanical means repaired so there will be no gaps or open spaces larger than
such as . at the edge of the box.
(a) bolts (a) 1/16 in.
(b) screws (b) 1/8 in.
(c) rivets (c) y4 in.
(d) any of these (d) 1/2 in.

57. Luminaires located within the actual outside dimensión of a 63. Nonlocking type 15A and 20A, 125V receptacles in must
bathtub and shower shall be marked for damp locations, or be listed as tamper resistant.
marked for wet locations where they are . (a) theatres
(a) beiow 7 ft in. height (b) arcades
(b) below 6 ft 7 in. in height (c) child care facilities
(c) subject to shower spray (d) major repair garages
(d) not GFCI-protected

64. On a three-phase, 4-wire, wye circuit, where the major portion


58. Metal enclosures for switches or circuit breakers shall be of the load consists of nonlinear loads, the neutral conductor
connected to the circuit . shall be counted when appiying 310.15(B)(3)(a) adjustment
(a) grounded conductor factors.
(b) grounding conductor (a) True
(c) equipment grounding conductor (b) False
(d) any of these

65. Overcurrent devices aren't permitted to be located in the bath-


59. Metal or nonmetallic raceways, cable armors, and cable rooms of .
sheaths between cabinets, boxes, fittings or other (a) dweiling units
enclosures or outlets. (b) dormitorios
(a) can be attached with eléctrica! tape (c) guest rooms or guest suites of hotels or motéis
(b) are allowed gaps for expansión (d) all of these
{c} shall be continuous
(d) none of these
66. Overhead service conductors shall have a horizontal clearance
of from a pool.
60. Motor overload protection shall not be shunted or cut out during (a) 8 ft
the starting period if the motor is . (b) 1 0 f t
(a) not automatically started (c) 1 2 f t
(b) automatically started (d) 1 4 f t
(c) manually started
(d) none of these

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MlkeHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633) 9 537


Exam B Final Exam Questions

67. Portable luminaires shall be wired with recognized 72. Replacement luminaires can be installed in an outlet box that
by 400.4, and have an attachment piug of the polarized or doesn't contain an equipment grounding conductor if an equip-
grounding type. ment grounding conductor is added from the luminaire and is
(a) flexible cable connected to .
(b) flexible cord (a) the grounding electrode system or grounding electrode
(c) nonmetallic flexible cable conductor
(d) nonmetallic flexible cord (b) the panelboard equipment grounding terminal
(c) the service neutral conductor within the service equipment
enclosure
68. PVC conduit and fittings for use above ground shali have the
(d) any of these
following characteristics .
(a) fíame retardant
(b) resistance to low temperatures and sunlight 73. Separately installed pressure connectors shall be used with
(c) resistance to distortion from heat conductors at the not exceeding the ampacity at the
(d) all of these listed and identified temperature rating of the connector.
(a) voltages
(b) temperatures
69. Raceways on exterior surfaces of buildings or other structures
(c) listings
shall be arranged to drain, and be suitable for use in
(d) ampacities
locations.
(a) damp
(b) wet 74. Service raceways for overhead service drops or overhead
(c) dry service conductors shall have a weatherhead listed for .
(d) all of these (a) wet locations
(b) damp locations
(c) Class 2 locations
70. Receptacles and cord connectors having equipment grounding
(d) NEMA 3R
conductor contacts shall have those contacts connected to a(n)
conductor.

(a) grounded 75. Special permission is the written consent from the .
(b) ungrounded (a) testing laboratory
(c) equipment grounding (b) manufacturer
(d) neutral (c) owner
(d) authority having jurisdiction

71. Receptacles mounted to and supported by a cover shall be


secured by more than one screw unless listed and identified for 76. Surface-mounted luminaires with a ballast shall have a
securing by a single screw. minimum clearance of from combustible low-density
(a) True cellulose fiberboard, unless the luminaire is marked for surface
(b) False mounting on combustible low-density cellulose fiberboard.
(a) Vi in.
(b) 1 in.
(c) iy2in.
. (d)2in.

77. Switches shall not be installed within wet locations in tub or


shower spaces unless installed as part of a listed tub or shower
assembly.

(a) True
(b) False

538 Mike Holt's iliustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, V
Final Exam Questions Exam B

78. The 3 VA per-square-foot general lighting load for dweiling 84. The A/fC defines a as all circuit conductors between
units does not include . the service equipment, the source of a separately derived
(a) open porches system, or other power-supply source and the final branch-
(b) garages circuit overcurrent device.

(c) unused or unfinished spaces not adaptable for future use (a) service
(d) allof these (b) feeder
(c) branch circuit
(d) allof these
79. The branch-circuit protective device can serve as the controller
for a stationary motor rated at or less that is normally
left running and cannot be damaged by overload or failure to 85. The primary overcurrent protection for a transformer rated
start. 600V, nominal, or less, with no secondary protection and
(a) y% hp having a primary current rating of over 9A must be set at not
(b) y^ hp more than percent.
(c) % hp (a) 125
(d) K2hp (b) 167
(c) 200
(d) 300
80. The feeder/service calculated load for a multifamily dweiling
containing nine 12 kW ranges is .
(a) 13,000W 86. The rating of a branch circuit shall be determined by the rating
(b) 14,700W ofthe .
{c) 16,000W (a) ampacity of the largest device connected to the circuit
(d) 24,0OOW (b) average of the ampacity of all devices
(c) branch-circuit overcurrent device
(d) ampacity of the branch-circuit conductors according to
81. The largest size grounding electrode conductor required is
Table 310.15(B)(16)
copper.
(a) 6 AWG
(b) 1/0 AWG 87. The standard ampere ratings for fuses includes
(c) 3/0 AWG (a) 1A
(d) 250 kcmil (b) 6A
(c) 601A
(d) allof these
82. The minimum clearance between an electric space-heating
cable and an outlet box used for surface luminaires shall not be
less than . The voltage between conductors in a surface metal raceway
(a) 6 in. shall not exceed unless the metal has a thickness of not
(b) 8 in. less than 0.040 in. nominal.
(c) 14 in. (a) 150V
(d) 18in. (b) 300V
(c) 600V
(d) 1,000V
83. The minimum size conductor permitted for branch circuits
under 600V is AWG.
(a) 14
(b) 12
(c) 10
(d) 8

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Exam B Final Exam Questions

89. This Code covers the installation of for public and 95. Underground service conductors that supply power to limited
prívate premises, including buildings, structures, mobile loads of a single branch circuit shall not be smaller than
homes, recreational vehicles, and floating buildings.
(a) optical fiber cables (a) 14 AWG copper
(b) electrical equipment (b) 14 AWG aluminum
(c) raceways (c) 12 AWG copper
(d) all of these (d) 12 AWG aluminum

90. THWN insulated conductors are rated . 96. Ventilation openings for transformer vaults must be as far as
(a) 7 5 X possible from .
(b) for wet locations (a) doors
(c) a and b (b) Windows
(d) not enough information (c) combustible material
(d) any of these

91. Type cable is a fabricated assembly of insulated


conductors in a flexible interlocked metallic armor. 97. What is the minimum cover requirement for Type UF cable
(a) AC suppiying power to a 120V, 15A GFCI-protected circuit outdoors

(b) MC under a driveway of a one-family dweiling?

(c) NM (a) 6 in.


(d) b and c {b)12in.
(c) 16 in.
(d) 24 in.
92. Type is a factory assembly of insulated circuit conduc-
tors within an armor of interlocking metal tape, or a smooth or
corrugated metallic sheath. 98. When breaks occur in dweiling unit kitchen countertop spaces

(a) AC for rangetops, refrigerators or sinks, each countertop surface

(b) MC shall be considered a sepárate counter space for determining

(c) NM receptacle placement.

(d) b and c (a) True


(b) False

93. Type NM cable protected from physical damage by a raceway


shall not be required to be within the raceway. 99. When equipment grounding conductors are installed in panel-
(a) covered boards, a shall be secured inside the cabinet.

(b) insulated (a) grounded conductor


(c) secured (b) terminal lug
(d) unspliced (c) terminal bar
(d) none of these

94. Type UF cable shall not be used where subject to physical


damage. 100. When the Code uses " ," it means the identified actions
(a) True are allowed but not required, and they may be options or alter-

(b) False nativa methods.

(a) shall
(b) shall not
(c) shall be permitted
(d) a or b

540 Mike Holt's Iilustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, V
naex
Descrjption Section Page Descriptjon Section Page

A i — Armored Cable (Type AC)

Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Equipment Bends 320.24 343

Conductor Sizing Boxes and Fittings 320.40 344

Conductor Size for Single Motor-Compressors 440.32 498 Conductor Ampacity. 320.80 345

Disconnecting Means Construction 320.100 345

Cord-Connected Equipment 440.13 496 Definition 320.2 341

Location 440.14 496 Equipment Grounding Conductor 320.108 345

Rating and Interrupting Capacity 440.12 496 Exposed Work 320.15 342

General In Accessible Attics or Roof Spaces 320.23 343

Ampacity and Rating 440.6 496 Scope 320.1 341

Definitions 440.2 495 Securing and Supporting 320.30 343

Marking on Hermetic Refrigerant Motor-Compressors Through or Parallel to Framing Members 320.17 342

and Equipment 440.4 495 Uses Not Permitted 320.12 342

Other Articles 440.3 495 Uses Permitted 320.10 341


Scope 440.1 495
Overcun-ent Protection
General 440.21 497 B
Short-Circuit and Ground-Fault Overcurrent
Branch Circuits
Device Size 440.22 497
Branch-Circuit Ratings
Room Air Conditioners
Branch Circuits ín Buildings with Múltiple
Branch-Circuit Requirements 440.62 498
Occupancies 210.25 93
Disconnecting Means 440.63 498
Conductor Sizing 210.19 88
Leakage Current Detector-Interrupter and Arc-Fault
Outlet Device Rating 210.21 91
Circuit Interrupter 440.65 499
Overcurrent Protection 210.20 90
Supply Cords 440.64 499
Permissible Loads 210.23 92
Appliances General
Branch-Circuit Rating 422.10 471 Arc-Fauit Circuit-interrupter Protection for
Central Heating Equipment (Furnaces) 422.12 472 Dweiling Units 210.12 87
Central Vacuums 422.15 472 Branch Circuits Required 210.11 85

Cord-and-Plug-Connected Appliance Disconnects 422.33 475 Branch-Circuit Rating 210.3 74

Cord-and-Plug-Connected Vending Machines 422.51 476 Branch-Circuit Voltage Limitations 210.6 78

Definitions 422.2 470 GFCI Protection 210.8 79

Electric Drinking Fountains 422.52 476 Guest Rooms and Guest Suites 210.18 88

Flexible Cords 422.16 473 Identification for Branch Circuits 210.5 78

General 422.30 474 Múltiple Branch Circuits 210.7 79

Other Articles 422.3 471 Multiwire Branch Circuits 210.4 74

Overcurrent Protection 422.11 471 Other Articles 210.2 74

Permanently Connected Appliance Disconnects 422.31 474 Scope 210.1 74

Scope 422.1 470


Storage Water Heaters 422.13 472
Support of Ceiling Paddie Fans 422.18 474
Unit Switches as Disconnects 422.34 475

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Descríptjon Section Page Description Section Page

Required Outlets Dweiling Unit—Electric Ranges and Cooking


Dweiling Unit Receptacle Outlet Requirements 210.52 93 Appliances 220.55 122
General 210.50 93 Dweiling Unit—Small-Appliance and Laundry Load 220.52 120
Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration Feeder/Service Neutral Unbalanced Load 220.61 124
(HACR) Equipment 210,63 102 Fixed Electric Space-Heating Load 220.51 120
Lighting Outlet Requirements 210.70 103 General 220.40 118
Receptacles in Guest Rooms, Guest Suites, General Lighting Demand Factors 220.42 118
Dormitories, and Similar Occupacies 210.60 101 Motor Load 220.50 120
Show Windows 210.62 101 Noncoincident Loads 220.60 124
Other than Dweiling Unit—Receptacle Load 220.44 119
General
Application of Other Articles 220.3 111
Calculations 220.5 111
Cabinets, Cutout Boxes, and Meter Socket Enclosures
Scope 220.1 111
Damp or Wet Locations 312.2 321
Deflection of Conductors 312.6 322 Optional Calculations for Computing Feeder and
Service Loads
Enclosures 312.5 321
Determining Existing Loads 220.87 130
Enclosures With Spiices, Taps. and Feed-Through
Dweiling Unit—Optional Load Calculation 220.82 127
Conductors 312.8 322
Existing Dweiling Unit Calculations 220.83 128
Installed in Walls 312.3 321
Multifamily—Optional Load Calculation 220.84 129
Repairing Gaps 312.4 321
312.1 Optional Calculation—Two Dweiling Units 220.85 130
Scope 320

Conductors
Cable Trays
Conductor Ampacity 310.15 309
Ampacity of Conductors 392.80 409
407 Conductor Construction and Application 310.104 316
Bushed Raceway 392.46
407 Conductor Identification 310.110 319
Cable and Conductor Installation 392.20
Cable Spiices 392.56 407 Conductors 310.106 318

406 Scope 310.1 306


Cable Tray Installations 392.18
Uses Permitted 310.10 306
Definition 392.2 405
Equipment Grounding Conductor 392.60 408
Number of Conductors or Cables 392.22 407
n
Scope 392.1 405
Securing and Supporting 392.30 407 Definitions
Uses Not Permitted 392.12 406 Definitions 100 13
Uses Permitted 392.10 405
Duct Heaters
Calculations Disconnect for Electric Duct Heater Controllers 424.65 479
Branch-Circuit Load Calculations
General Lighting 220.12 112 Electric Space-Heating Cables
Máximum Load on a Branch Circuit 220.18 116 Area Restrictions 424.38 479
Other Loads—All Occupancies 220.14 113 Clearance from Other Objects and Openings 424.39 479
Feeder and Service Calculations Clearances of Wiring in Ceilings 424.36 479
Commercial—Kitchen Equipment Load 220.56 124 Installation of Cables in Concrete or Poured
Commercial—Show Window and Track Masonry Floors 424.44 479

Lighting Load 220.43 118


Dweiling Unit—Appliance Load 220.53 120
Dweiling Unit—Electric Clothes Dryer Load 220.54 121

542 Mike Holt's lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, V
Index

Description Section Page Description Section Page

Fixed Electric Space-Heating Equipment


Branch Circuits 477
424.3
Electrical Metallic Tubing (Type EMT)
Disconnecting Means 424.19
478
Bends 358.24 390
Permanently Installed Electric Baseboard Heaters
Coupiings and Connectors 358.42 392
with Receptacles 478
424.9
Definition 358.2 389
Scope 424.1 477
Listing Requirement 358.6 389
Number of Bends (360°) 358.26 391 Fixture Wires
Number of Conductors 358.22 390 Allowable Ampacity of Fixture Wires 430
402.5
Reaming and Ttireading 358.28 391 Minimum Size 430
402.6
Scope 358.1 389 Neutral Conductor 431
402.8
Securing and Supporting 358.30 391 Overcurrent Protection 431
402.12
Trade Size 358.20 390 Raceway Size 430
402.7
Uses Not Permitted 358.12 390 Scope 402.1 430
Uses Permitted 358.10 389 Types 402.3 430
Uses Not Permitted 431
402.11
i\c Tubing (Type ENT)
Uses Permitted 431
402.10
Bends 362.24 396
Bushings 362.46 397 Flexible Cords and Flexible Cables
Definition 362.2 393 Ampacity of Flexible Cords and Flexible Cables 400.5
Equipment Grounding Conductor 362.60 397 Equipment Grounding Conductor Identification 400.23
Joints 362.48 397 Protection from Damage 400.14 429
Number of Bends (360**) 362.26 396 Pulí at Joints and Termináis 400.10 42
Number of Conductors 362.22 396 Scope 400.1 425
Scope 362.1 393 Suitability 400.3 425
Securing and Supporting 362.30 396 Types of Flexible Cords and Flexible Cables 400.4
Trade Sizes 362.20 396 Uses Not Permitted 400.8 427
Trimming 362.28 396 Uses Permitted 400.7 426
Uses Not Permitted 362.12 395
Uses Permitted 362.10 393 Flexible Metal Conduit (Type FMC)
Bends 348.24 374
Definition 348.2 373
F - Fittings 348.42 375
Grounding and Bonding 348.60 37
Feeders
Listing Requirements 348.6 373
Conductor Identification 215.12 110
Number of Bends (360°) 348.26 37
Equipment Grounding Conductor 215.6 109
Number of Conductors 348.22 37
Feeders with Common Neutral Conductor 215.4 109
Scope 348.1 373
Ground-Fault Protection of Equipment 215.10 110
Securing and Supporting 348.30 37
Minimum Rating 215.2 107
Trade Size 348.20 373
Overcurrent Protection Sizing 215.3 109
Trimming 348.28 374
Scope 215.1 107
Uses Not Permitted 348.12 373
Uses Permitted 348.10 373

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Index ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ H

Description Section Page Description Section Page

Grounding and Bonding

General Requirements Bonding

Approval of Conductors and Equipment 110.2 41 Bonding Conductors and Jumpers 250.102 230

Arc-Flasti Hazard Warning 110.16 52 Bonding Equipment for Services 250.92 224

Available Fault Current 110.24 52 Bonding Metal Parts Containing 277V and

Circuit Impedance, Short-Circuit Current Rating, 480V Circuits 250.97 229


and Other Characteristics 110.10 45 Bonding of Piping Systems and Exposed
Conductor Sizes 110.6 42 Structural Metal 250.104 232
Conductor Termination and Spiicing 110.14 46 Bonding Other Enclosures 250.96 229
Copper Conductors 110.5 42 General 250.90 224
• Deteriorating Agents 110.11 45 Intersystem Bonding Termination 250.94 227
Enclosure Types 110.28 59 üghtning Protection System 250.106 235
Examination, Identification, Installation, and Use Direct-Current Systems
of Equipment 110.3 41 Sizing Grounding Electrade Conductor 250.166 252
Guarding 110.27 59 Equipment Grounding and Equipment
High-Leg Conductor Identification 110.15 51 Grounding Conductors
Cord-and-Plug-Connected Equipment 250.114 237
identification of Disconnecting Means 110.22 52
Equipment Grounding Conductor Installation 250.120 242
Interrupting Protection Rating 110.9 43
Fixed Equipment Connected by Permanent
Manufacturer's Markings 110.21 52
Wiring Methods—General 250.110 236
Mechanical Execution of Work 110.12 46
Identification of Equipment Grounding Conductors 250.119 240
Mounting and Cooling of Equipment 110.13 46
Identification of Wiring Device Termináis 250.126 245
Scope 110.1 41
Sizing Equipment Grounding Conductor 250.122 242
Spaces About Electrical Equipment 110.26 53
Specific Equipment Fastened in Place or
Suitable Wiring Methods 110.8 43
Connectedby Permanent Wiring Methods 250.112 236
Voltages 110.4 42
Types of Equipment Grounding Conductors 250.118 237
Wiring Integrity 110.7 43
Use of Equipment Grounding Conductors 250.121 242
General
Generators
Clean Surfaces 250.12 189
Ampacity of Conductors 445.13 500
Definitions 250.2 177
Disconnecting Means 445.18 502
General Requirements for Grounding and Bonding 250.4 179
Generators Suppiying Múltiple Loads 445.19 502
Obiectionable Current 250.6 185
Marking 445.11 500
Protection of Fittings 250.10 189
Overcurrent Protection 445.12 500
Scope 250.1 177
Scope 445.1 500
Termination of Grounding and Bonding Conductors 250.8 189

Grounded Conductors Grounding Electrode System and Grounding


Electrode Conductor
General 200.2 68
Auxiliary Grounding Electrodes 250.54 215
Grounded Conductor Identification 200.6 68
Common Grounding Electrode 250.58 216
Grounded Conductors 200.4 68
Grounding Electrode Conductor 250.62 217
Identification of Termináis 200.10 71
Grounding Electrode Conductor Installation 250.64 218
Polarity 200.11 71
Grounding Etectrode Conductor Termination Fittings 250.70 223
Scope 200.1 68
Grounding Electrode Installation Requirements 250.53 210
Terminal identification 200.9 71
Grounding Electrode System 250.50 207
Use of White or Gray Color 200.7 70
Grounding Electrode Types 250.52 208
üghtning Protection Electrode 250.60 217
Sizing Grounding Electrode Conductor 250.66 220
Termination to the Grounding Electrode 250.68 222

Mike Holt's lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Vo
Index

Description Section Page Description

Grounding Enclosure, Raceway, and Service


Cable Connections
Lighting Systems Operaüng at 30V or Less
Other Enclosures 250.86 223
Definition
Service Raceways and Enclosures 250.80 223
Listing Required
Methods of Equipment Grounding
Scope
Connecting Receptacle Grounding Terminal to
Secondary Circuits
Metal Enclosure 250.146 248
Specific Location Requirements
Continuity and Attachment of Equipment
251
Grounding Conductors in Boxes 250.148 Liquidtight Flexible Metal Conduit (Type LFMC)
247
Cord-and-Plug-Connected Equipment 250.138 Bends 350.24
247
Equipment Considered Grounded 250.136 Definition 350.2
Equipment Fastened in Place or Connected by Fittings 350.42
246
Wiring Methods 250.134 Grounding and Bonding 350.60
247
Ranges, Ovens, and Clothes Dryers 250.140 Listing Requirements 350.6
245
Replacing Nongrounding Receptacles 250.130 Number of Bends (360°) 350.26
247
Use of Neutral Conductor for Equipment Grounding 250.142 Number of Conductors 350.22
System Grounding and Bonding Scope 350.1
Buildings or Structures Supplied by a Feeder
250.32 203 Securing and Supporting 350.30
or Branch Circuit
250.34 205 Trade Size 350.20
Generators—Portable and Vehicle-Mounted
High-!mpedance Grounded Systems 250.36 206 Uses Not Permitted 350.12
Main Bonding Jumper and System Bonding Jumper 250.28 195 Uses Permitted 350.10
Permanently Installed Generators 250.35 206
Liquidtight Flexible Nonmetallic Conduit (Type LFNC)
Separately Derived Systems—Grounding and
197 Bends 356.24
Bonding 250.30
190 Definition 356.2
Sen/ice Equipment—Grounding and Bonding 250.24
189 Equipment Grounding Conductor 356.60
Systems Required to be Grounded 250.20
190 Fittings 356.42
Ungrounded Systems—50V to Less Than 10OV 250.21
Listing Requirement 356.6
Number of Bends (360°) 356.26

/
Number of Conductors 356.22
Scope 356.1
Intermedíate Metal Conduit (Type IMC)
Securing and Supporting • . - 356.30
Bends 342.24 364
Trade Size 356.20
Bushings 342.46 367 Uses Not Permitted 356.12
Coupiings and Connectors 342.42 366
Uses Permitted 356.10
Definition 342.2 363
Dissimilar Metals 342.14 364 Luminaires, Lampholders, and Lamps
Listing Requirements 342.6 363 Electric-Discharge Lighting
Number of Bends (360°) 342.26 364 General 410.130
Number of Conductors 342.22 364 General
Reaming 342.28 364 Definitions 410.2
Scope 342.1 363 Listing Required 410.6
Securing and Supporting 342.30 365 Scope 410.1
Trade Size 342.20 364 Grounding (Bonding)
Uses Permitted 342.10 363 Methods of Grounding 410.44

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Index

Description Section Page Description Section Page

Installation of Lampholders Metal-Ciad Cable (Type MC)


Lampholders in Wet or Damp Locations 410.96 464 Bends 330.24 348
Lampholders Near Combustible IVIaterial 410.97 464 Conductor Ampacities 330.80 350
Screw-Shell Lampholders 410.90 464 Definition 330.2 346
Luminaire Locations Equipment Grounding Conductor 330.108 350
Luminaires in Clothes Closets 410.16 458 Fittings 330.40 349
Luminaires in Specific Locations 410.10 456 In Accessible Attics or Roof Spaces 330.23 348
Luminaires Near Combustible Material 410.11 458 Scope 330.1 346
Space for Cove Lighting 410.18 459 Securing and Supporting 330.30 348
Luminaire Outlet Boxes and Covers Through or Parallel to Framing Members 330.17 347
Connection of Electric-Discharge and LED Uses Not Permitted 330.12 347
Luminaires 410.24 459 Uses Permitted 330.10 346
Outlet Boxes to be Covered 410.22 459
Luminaire Supports Motors, Motor Circuits, and Controllers
Means of Support 410.36 461 Branch-Circuit Short-Circuit and Ground-Fault Protection
Supports 410.30 460 Branch-Circuit Short-Circuit and Ground-Fault
Recessed Luminaires Protection 430.52 487
General 410.110 465 General 430.51 486
Recessed Luminaire Clearances 410.116 465 Single Overcurrent Device 430.55 488
Thermally Protected 410.115 465 Conductor Size
Wiring 410.117 465 Motor Feeder Taps 430.28 484
Track Lighting Several Motors—Conductor Size 430.24 483
Fastening 410.154 467 Single Motor Conductor Size 430.22 483
Installation 410.151 467 Disconnecting Means
Wiring of Luminaires Combination Controller and Disconnect 430.111 493
Conductors and Baliasts 410.68 464 Disconnect Requirement 430.102 491
Cord-Connected Luminaires 410.62 463 Disconnecting Means Rating 430.109 493
Luminaires as Raceways 410.64 464 Marking and Mounting 430.104 493
Polarization of Luminaires 410.50 463 Operation of Disconnect 430.103 493
Readily Accessible 430.107 493
Feeder Short-Circuit and Ground-Fault Protection
Feeder Protection 430.62 489
General
Metal Wireways
Definitions 430.2 480
Conductors—Máximum Size 376.21 398 Location of Motors 430.14 483
Definition 376.2 398
Marking on Controllers 430.8 482
Number of Conductors and Ampacity 376.22 398
Motor Controller Terminal Requirements 430.9 482
Scope 376.1 398
Scope 430.1 480
Spiices, Taps, and Power Distribution Blocks 376.56 399
Table FLC versus Motor Nameplate Current Rating 430.6 481
Supports 376.30 399
The Highest Rated Motor 430.17 483
Uses Not Permitted 376.12 398 Motor Control Circuits
Uses Permitted 376.10 398
Disconnect for Control Circuits 430.75 490
Wireway Sizing 376.23 399
Overcurrent Protection for Control Circuits 430.72 490
Protection of Conductors from Physical Damage 430.73 490
Motor Controllers
Controller for Each Motor 430.87 491
Controller Rating 430.83 491
Need Not Open All Conductors oí the Circuit 430.84 491

Mike HolVs iliustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Vo
Index

Description Section Page Description Section Page

Overload Protection
Number of Overload Devices 430.37 486 Outlet, Device, Pulí and Junction Boxes; Conduit Bodies;
Overload 430.31 485 and Handhole Enclosures
Overload Sizing for Continuous-Duty Motors 430.32 485 Boxes and Conduit Bodies for Conductors 4 AWG
Use of Fuses for Overload Protection 430.36 486 and Larger 314.28 335
Tables 430.248 494 Boxes Recessed in Walls or Ceilings 314.20 330
Tables 430.250 494 Conductors That Enter Boxes or Conduit Bodies 314.17 329
Damp orWet Locations 314.15 324
Multioutlet Assemblies
Handhole Enclosures 314.30 339
Scope 380.1 401
Metal Boxes 314.4 324
Through Partitions 380.76 401
Nonmetallic Boxes 314.3 324
Uses Not Permitted 380.12 401
Number of 6 AWG and Smaller Conductors in Boxes
Uses Permitted 380.10 401 and Conduit Bodies 314.16 325
Outlet Box 314.27 334
Repairing Noncombustible Surfaces 314.21 330
N Scope 314.1 324
A/fCIntroduction Support of Boxes and Conduit Bodies 314.23 331
Code Arrangement 90.3 4 Surface Extensions 314.22 330
Enforcement 90.4 5 Wiring to be Accessible 314.29 339
Examination of Equipment for Product Safety 90.7 7
Outside Branch Circuits and Feeders
Formal Interpretations 90.6 7
Buildings or Other Structures Supplied by a Feeder(s)
Mandatory Requirements and Explanatory Material 90.5 6
or Branch Circuit(s)
Purpose of the NEC 90.1 1
Access to Occupants 225.35 138
Scope ofthe NEC 90.2 2
Disconnect Construction 225.38 138
Units of Measurement 90.9 7
Disconnect Location 225.32 136
Disconnecting Means 225.31 136
ailic-Sheathed Cable (Types NM and NMC)
Grouping of Disconnects 225.34 138
Attics and Roof Spaces 334.23 354
Identification of Múltiple Feeders 225.37 138
Bends 334.24 355
Identified as Suitable for Service Equipment 225.36 138
Conductor Ampacity 334.80 356
Máximum Number of Disconnects 225.33 138
Conductors 334.104 358
Number of Supplies 225.30 136
Construction 334.100 358
Rating of Disconnecting Means 225.39 138
Definition 334.2 351
General
Equipment Grounding Conductor 334.108 358
Attachment 225.16 133
Exposed 334.15 353
Clearance for Overhead Conductors 225.18 133
Insulation 334.112 358
Clearances from Buildings 225.19 134
Listed 334.6 351
Luminaires Installed Outdoors 225.7 133
Scope 334.1 351
Masts as Support 225.17 133
Securing and Supporting 334.30 355
Minimum Size of Conductors 225.6 132
Through or Parallel to Framing Members 334.17 354
Other Articles 225.2 132
Uses Not Permitted 334.12 353
Raceway Seal 225.27 136
Uses Permitted 334.10 352
Raceways on Exterior Surfaces of Buildings or
Other Structures 225.22 135
Scope 225.1 131
Supports Over Buildings 225.15 133
Trees for Conductor Support 225.26 136

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Index

Description Section Page Description Section Page

Overcurent Protection Tamper-Resistant Receptacles in Child Care


Cartridge Fuses and Fuseholders Facilities 406.14 447
Classification 240.61 174 Tamper-Resistant Receptacles in Dweiling Units 406.12 447
General 240.60 174 Tamper-Resistant Receptacles in Guest Rooms
Circuit Breakers and Guest Suites 406.13 447
Applications 240.85 176
Rigid Metal Conduit (Type RMC)
Indicating 240.81 175
Bends 344.24 369
Markings 240.83 175
Bushings 344.46 372
Method of Operation 240.80 175
Coupiings and Connectors 344.42 371
Nontamperable 240.82 175
Definition 344.2 368
Enclosures
Dissimilar Metals 344.14 369
Damp orWet Locations 240.32 172
Listing Requirements 344.6 368
Vertical Position 240.33 172
Number of Bends (360°) 344.26 369
General
Number of Conductors * 344.22 369
Definitions 240.2 159
Reaming ^ 344.28 370
Ground-Fault Protection of Equipment 240.13 164
Scope 344.1 368
Protection of Conductors 240.4 160
Securing and Supporting 344.30 370
Protection of Equipment 240.3 160
Standard Lengths 344.130 372
Protection of Flexible Cords and Fixture Wires 240.5 163
Trade Size 344.20 369
Scope 240.1 158
Uses Permitted 344.10 368
Standard Ampere Ratings 240.6 164
Supplementary Overcurrent Protection 240.10 164 Rigid Polyvinyl Chioride Conduit (TYPE PVC)
Ungrounded Conductors 240.15 165 Bends 352.24 382
Location
Bushings 352.46 384
Location of Overcun-ent Devices 240.24 170 Definition 352.2 380
Overcurrent Protection Location in Circuit 240.21 166 Equipment Grounding Conductor 352.60 384
Plug Fuses. Fuseholders, and Adapters Expansión Fittings 352.44 383
Edison-Base Fuseholders 240.52 173 Joints 352.48 384
Edison-Base Fuses 240.51 173 Number of Bends (360°) 352.26 382
General 240.50 173 Number of Conductors 352.22 382
Type S Fuses 240.53 173 Scope 352.1 380
Type S Fuses, Adapters, and Fuseholders 240.54 173 Securing and Supporting 352.30 382
Trade Size 352.20 382
Trimming 352.28 382
Uses Not Permitted 352.12 381
Receptacles. Cord Connectors. and Attachment Plugs (Caps) Uses Permitted 352.10 380
Attachment Plugs, Cord Connectors, and Flanged
Surface Devices 406.7 445
Connecting Receptacle Grounding Terminal to
406.11 447
Equipment Grounding Conductor Service-Entrance Cable (Types SE and-USE)
406.2 440
Definitions Bends 338.24 360
406.4 441
General Installation Requirements Definitions 338.2 359
406.6 444
Receptacle Faceplates Scope 338.1 359
406.5 443
Receptacle Mounting Uses Not Permitted 338.12 360
406.3 440
Receptacle Rating and Type Uses Permitted 338.10 359
406.9 445
Receptacles in Damp or Wet Locations
406.1 440
Scope

Mike HolVs lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code,
Index

Description Section Page Description Section Page

Services Storage Batteries


General Battery Locations 480.9 507
Clearance from Building Openings 230.9 143 Definitions 480.2 506
Conductors Considered Outside a Building 230.6 142 Disconnecting Means 480.5 507
Not to Pass Through a Building/Structure 230.3 142 Overcurrent Protection for Prime Movers 480.4 507
Number of Services 230.2 141 Racks and Trays 480.8 507
Raceway Seáis 230.8 143 Scope 480.1 506
Scope 230.1 141 Wiring and Equipment Supplied from Batteries 480.3 506
Service Conductors Sepárate from Other Conductors 230.7 142
Vegetation as Support 230.10 144 Surface Metal Raceways
Definition 386.2 402
Overcurrent Protection
Equipment Grounding Conductor 386.60 403
Ground-Fault Protection of Equipment 230.95 156
Listing Requirements 386.6 402
Overload Protection Required 230.90 156
Number of Conductors 386.22 403
Overhead Service Conductors
Scope 386.1 402
Means of Attachment 230.27 146
Securing and Supporting 386.30 403
Overhead Service Conductor Size and Rating 230.23 144
Sepárate Compartments 386.70 404
Point of Attachment 230.26 146
Size of Conductors 386.21 403
Service Masts Used as Supports 230.28 146
Spiices and Taps 386.56 403
Vertical Clearance for Overhead Service Conductors 230.24 145
Service Equipment Uses Not Permitted 386.12 403

Connected on Supply Side of the Service Disconnect 230.82 155 Uses Permitted 386.10 402

Connection to Termináis 230.81 155


rotective Devices (SPDs)
Disconnect Requirements 230.70 151
Listing 285.5 255
Grouping of Disconnects 230.72 153
Location 285.11 256
Indicating 230.77 154
Number Required 285.4 255
Listed as Suitable for Service Equipment 230.66 151
Routing of Conductors 285.12 256
Manual or Power Operated 230.76 154
Scope 285.1 255
Number of Disconnects 230.71 153
Short-Circuit Current Rating 285.6 255
Rating of Disconnect 230.79 154
Type 1 SPD—Line Side of Service Equipment 285.23 256
/ice-Entrance Conductors
Type 2 SPD—Feeder Circuits 285.24 256
Cable Supports 230.51 150
Type 3 SPDs—Branch Circuits 285.25 257
High-Leg Identification 230.56 150
Uses Not Permitted 285.3 255
Number of Service-Entrance Conductor Sets 230.40 148
Overhead Service Locations 230.54 150 Switchboards and Panelboards
Protection Against Physical Damage 230.50 149 Arrangement of Busbars and Conductors 408.3 448
Size and Rating 230.42 148 Clearance for Conductors Entering Bus Enclosures 408.5 450
Spiiced Conductors 230.46 149 Equipment Grounding Conductor 408.40 452
Wiring Methods 230.43 149 Field Identification 408.4 450
Underground Service Conductors Máximum Number of Overcurrent Devices 408.54 454
Protection Against Damage 230.32 147 Neutral Conductor Terminatlons 408.41 453
Underground Service Conductor Size and Rating 230.31 147 Overcurrent Protection of Panelboards 408.36 451
Panelboards in Damp or Wet Locations 408.37 452
Scope 408.1 448
Unused Openings 408.7 450

Mike Holt Enterprises, Inc. • www.MikeHolt.com • 888.NEC.C0DE (632.2633)


Description Section Page Description Section Page

Switches w
Accessibility and Grouping 404.8 436 Wiring Methods
Circuit Breakers Used as Switches 404.11 438 Boxes or Conduit Bodies 300.15 295
Damp or Wet Locations 404.4 434 300.3 278
Conductors
Grounding of Enclosures 404.12 438 289
Electrical Continuity 300.10
Indicating 404.7 435 Induced Currents in Ferrous Metal Enclosures and
Mounting Snap Switches 40410 438 Raceways 300.20 300
Position of Knife Switches 404.6 435 Inserting Conductors in Raceways 300.18 299
Rating and Use of Snap Switches 404.14 438 Length of Free Conductors 300.14 294
Scope 404.1 432 Mechanical Continuity 300.12 292
Switch Connections 404.2 432 Not Permitted in Raceways 300.8 289
Switch Enclosures 404.3 434 Panets Designed to Allow Access 300.23 304
Switch Faceplates 404.9 436 Protection Against Corrosión and Detenoration 300.6 287
Switch Marking 404.15 439 Protection Against Physical Damage 300.4 280
Raceway or Cable to Open or Concealed Wiring 300.16 297
Raceway Sizing 300.17 297
Raceways Exposed to Different Temperatures 300.7 288
Raceways in Wet Locations Above Grade 300.9 289
Transformers
Scope 300.1 277
Disconnecting Means 450.14 505
Securing and Supporting 300.11 290
Marking 450.11 505
Spiices and Pigtails 300.13 293
Overcurrent Protection 450.3 503
Spread of Fire or Products of Combustión 300.21 301
Scope 450.1 503
Supporting Conductors in Vertical Raceways 300.19 299
Transformer Accessibility 450.13 505
Ventilation 450.9 504 Underground Installations 300.5 283
Wiring in Ducts Not for Air Handling, Fabricated
Ducts for Environmental Air, and Other Spaces for
Environmental Air (Plenums) 300.22 302
u
Underground Feeder and Branch-Circuit Cable
(Type UF)
Ampacity 340.80 362
Bends 340.24 362
Definition 340.2 361
Insulation 340.112 362
Listing Requirements 340.6 361
Scope 340.1 361
Uses Not Permitted 340.12 362
Uses Permitted 340.10 361

550 Mike HolVs lllustrated Guide to Understanding the 2011 National Electrical Code, Vo
Commarcial and Industrial Wiring and Raceway Cliart
nnpperi'í
Overcurrent Wire Máximum'^'
Protection 75-C Continuous Equipment'*' Máximum Continuous
Size Terminal Ampere Load Raceway'^' Ground Wire Máximum Continuous Single-Phase VA Load>^ Three-Phase VA Load
12aV 2a8V 240V 277V 48av 2D8V 240V 480V
15 14 12 14 1,440 2,496 2,880 3,324 5,760 4,323 4,988 9,976
20 12 16 12 1,920 3.328 3,840 4,432 7.680 5,764 6,651 13,302
25 10 20 10 2,400 4,160 4,800 5,540 9,600 7,205 8,314 16,627
30 10 24 3/4" 10 2.880 4,992 5,760 6,648 11,520 8,646 9.976 19,953
35 8 28 r 10 3,360 5,824 6,720 7,756 13,440 10,087 11,639 23,278
40 8 32 V 10 3.840 6,656 7,680 8,864 15,360 11,528 13,302 26,604
45 8 36 r 10 4,320 7,488 8,640 9,972 17,280 12,969 14,964 29,929
50 8 40 1" 10 4,800 8,320 9.600 11,080 19,200 14,410 16,627 33,254
60 6 48 r 10 5,760 9,984 11,520 13,296 23,040 17,292 19,953 39,905
70 4 56 1V4" 8 6,720 11,648 13,440 15,512 26,880 20,174 23,278 46.556
80 4 64 VA" 8 7,680 13,312 15,360 17,728 30,720 23,056 26,604 53,207
90 3 72 V/A" 8 8,640 14.976 17,280 19.944 34,560 25,938 29,929 59,858
100 3 80 8 9.600 16,640 19,200 22,160 38,400 28,820 33,254 66,509
110 2 88 V/2 6 10,560 18,304 21,120 24,376 42.240 31,703 36,580 73,160
125 1 100 2" 6 12,000 20,800 24,000 27,700 48,000 36,026 41,568 83,136
150 1/0 120 r 6 14.400 24,960 28,800 33,240 57,600 43,231 49.882 99,763
175 2/0 140 2" 6 16,800 29,120 33,600 38,780 67,200 50,436 58,195 116,390
200 3/0 160 2'/2" 6 19,200 33,280 38,400 44,320 76,800 57,641 66,509 133.018
225 4/0 180 4 21,600 37,440 43,200 49,860 86,400 64,846 74,822 149,645
250 250 i^cmil 200 3" 4 24,000 41,600 48,000 55,400 96,000 72,051 83,136 166.272
300 350 kcmil 240 4 28,800 49,920 57,600 66,480 115,200 86,461 99,763 199,526
350 400 kcmil 26&-" y/i 3 32,160 55,744 64,320 74,236 128,640 96,549 111,402 222,804
400 500 kcmil 304*^' 4" 3 36,480 63,232 72,960 84,208 145,920 109,518 126,367 252.733
400 600 kcmil 320 4^' 3 38,400 66,560 76,800 88,640 153,600 115,282 133,108 266,035
Conductor size based on 75X terminal rating [110.14(C)(1}]. Ampacity based on (our current-carrying conductors To ensure ease of installation, raceways are sized to six THHN conductors in PVC conduit [Annex C.10],
[Table 310.15(B|(31(a} and Table 310.15(B)(16)|. Copper equipment grounding conductor is sized in accordance with Table 250.122.
• Máximum conlinuous nonlinear load in an ambient temperature of 30°C limited to 80 percent of tfie overcurrent device rating Máximum continuous load is limited to 80 percent of l^X conductor ampacity because ttie conductor ampacity is loweri
or ttie conductor ampacity, wtiicfi ever is less [210.19(A), 240.6(A¡, 215.2(A)(1)].
overcun^nl protection device rating.

^Jeutral Current (Wye) =


Afe3 0fCirde = nr- Secondary Amperes three-Phase = VA/(Vote x V3)
V[(L.^ + L/ + LM - [(L, X L,) + (L; X L^) + (L,X L3)]]
-• ••• • üvemeadCostS/GrossProfrt% Secondaiv Availabte Fautt singte-Pfiase =
Output = tnputx Efficiency n|P¡) = 3.142 (approximately)
Busbar AnpaciTy AL = 700A sq, In. and CU = 1,0OOAsq. in. VA/(Vote X %impedance)
Peak AC Volts - Effectve (RMSI AC Volts x V2 1/2 = 1.414 (approximately)
-.6^2.54
Peak Amperes = Effective (RMS) Amperes X1/2
--JCI254 Meters r Amperes (continued) 1/3 = 1.732 (approximately)
Power Factor iFi=WattsVA
Cefitimeters Secondary Available Fautt tfiree-Phase = f = frequency
VA (apparent power) ^ Vote X Ampere or WattaPower Factor
lncr = 2540Millimeters VA/(VotexV3x%lmpedance)
VA single-Pfiase - Vote x Amperes r ^ radius
Kilone:e' ^ o 62' 3 Miies Delta 4-Wire: Une Ampies =
VA ttiree-Ptiase - Ms X Amperes X V3 d = diameter
Length ofCdlediViiB ^ Phase (one víintíing) Amperes x V3
Watts (real poweri Single-Ptiase = Vote x Amperes x Power Factor
Diameter ot Coü (average) X Numt)er of Coils X n Delta 4-Wire: Une Vote = Phase (one Winding) Vote C = Capacitance (farads)
Watts (real power) Ttiree-Pfiase - Vote x Amperes x
ügíttning Distance in Miles = Deta 4-Wre: High-Leg Voltege (L-to-Gl = L = Inductance (fienrysl
Fbwer Factor xV3
Seconds between flasfi and tfiunder/4,68 Phase (one vinnding) Volts x 0.50 x v 3
Cmil = Circular Mils
Meter-39.37 kicíies Parallel Circuits Wye: Une Vote = Ptiase (one winding) Vote x V3
m . 5.280 ft, 1.760 yards, 1,609 metéis, 1.609 km Wye' Une Amperes = Phase (one winding) Amperes VD = Volts Orop
Note 1 Total resistance is always less than the smallest resistor
Milmeter = 0.03937 Inch FrT = 1/(1/111+1/R2+1.TO +,,] I = Amperes of load
Selling Pro ^ Estiinated Cost y(1 - GriKS Profit %) Note 2: Total cunent is equaltottK sum of the currents ot all parallel
Voltage Drop D - Distance one way
Speed of Sound (Sea Level) -1,128 fps or 769 mph VD (single-Phase) = 2KID/Cmil
VD(tJiree-Phasei.V'3 KJD/Cmil K75°C = (12.90 ohms CU)
TempF-32H.80 Note 3: Total power is equaltottw sum of power of all par^lel resistors
TempF-(TenipCx1.801 + 32 Cma(single-Phase) = 2KltWD (21.20 ofimsAL}
Note 4: Voltage is tíie same acTíBS eacti of the parallel resistors Cmil(lhree-Phase)^V3KIDAffi
•ara = 0.9144Weters
Series Circuits
Badrical FommUs Based on 60 Hz Note 1. Total lesetance is equal to ttie sum of all tíie resistors
Capacilive Reactance iX 1 m Ohms = 1/(2TT f C) Breaker/Fuse Ratings - 2mm
Note 2: Current in the circuit remains the same through all the
ffiedive (RMS) ac Amperes = Peak Amperes x 0.707 Conductor Ampacity - 310.15 and Table 310.15(B)16
resistors
Effective (RMS) ac Vote = Peak Volts x 0.707 Equipment Grounding Conductor - 250.122
Note 3: Vottage source is equal to the sum of vottage draps of all resistors
Effíisericv (percent)=Output/Irpjt X100 Grounding Electrode Conductor - 250.66
Note 4: Ftower o( the Circuit is equal to tíie sum of Bie power of all
Efficieiicy - Oirtputlnput Motor CorxJuctor Size - 430.22 (Single)
resistors
Horsepower = OulputVMs/746 430.24 (Miitiple)
Inductive Reactance iX) in Ohms = 2w f L Motor Short-Ciraiit Protection - 430.52
lnpul = Outputítficietry Secondary Amperes single-Phase -VA/Vote Transfomier Overcurrent Protection - 450 3

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