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PROJECT REPORT ON
“MOTIVATIONAL TECHNIQUES USED BY THE TATA TELESERVICES LIMITED AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE EMPLOYEES”
PUNJAB TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY JALANDHAR In partial fulfillment of Requirement for the degree of Masters in Business Administration
Submitted by: Sukhjinder Singh Parmar Roll No. :
Submitted To: Mrs. Daljeet Kaur Project Guide
St. SOLDIER MANAGEMENT & TECHNICAL INSTITUTE JALANDHAR
CERTIFICATE ……………………………………..1. PREFACE…………………………………………...2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ………………………….3 COMPANY HISTORY…………………………..4-11 INTRODUCTION TO TOPIC …………………12-60 OBJECTIVES……………………………….………61 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………….…….62-65 DATA INTERPRETATION……………………66-86 FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS ………………..87 LIMITATIONS …………………………..………..88 CONCLUSION …………………………..……….90 BIBLIOGRAPHY ………………………….……..91 QUESTIONNAIRE ……………..……………..92-94
Dated: Mr. Jalandhar is an original work carried out successfully under my guidance and supervision and that no part of this project has been submitted for any other degree/diploma.CERTIFICATE It is hereby certified that the Project report on “Motivation Techniques used by the company and their impact on the behaviour of employees” being submitted by SUKHJINDER SINGH PARMAR (MBA IV Semester) in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Master of Business Administration of Punjab Technical University. Divakar Joshi HOD of Management Saint Soldier Management And Technical Institute Jalandhar. The sincerely of efforts put in during the course of investigation is hereby acknowledged. .
Dated: Mrs.CERTIFICATE It is hereby certified that the Project report on “Motivation Techniques used by the company and their impact on the behaviour of employees” being submitted by SUKHJINDER SINGH PARMAR (MBA IV Semester) in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Master of Business Administration of Punjab Technical University. The sincerely of efforts put in during the course of investigation is hereby acknowledged. 5 . Jalandhar is an original work carried out successfully under my guidance and supervision and that no part of this project has been submitted for any other degree/diploma. Daljit Kaur Lecturer of Management Saint Soldier Management And Technical Institute Jalandhar.
The subject of this project is to identify the interaction between the employees of the company. Besides. 7 . The investigation revealed that there are social and personal views regarding the company and its motivational techniques used by the company.PREFACE The final project –is an integral part of the course curriculum of Masters in Business Administer. the student is in a position to analyse the internal workings of a company with more mature eyes and can understand the dynamics in a much better manner. which students are required to undergo in an organization but in the final project. The first experience of this practical kind is provided by summer training. It is one those very courses that offer an opportunity to the students to get a ‘feel’ of the jobs that they would be doing once they pass out from their institute. the students gain a practical experiences and are exposed to the corporate world .
At the outset I express my thanks to Mrs. I take this opportunity to express my deep gratitude to all whom helped me in the compilation of this study. assistance. Daljeet Kaur and to all those who directly or indirectly helped me and have given me their insights and suggestions.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Any report or analysis cannot be completed without the guidance. inspiration and co-opreation from various quarters. This report also bears the inspiration of many persons. Sukhjinder singh Parmar .
Gujarat. Andhra Pradesh. Starting with the major acquisition of Hughes Tele.16 million shareholders. With an investment of over INR 9. Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal. Tata Teleservices was the first to launch CDMA mobile services in India with the Andhra Pradesh circle.350 Crore (US$14. Mumbai.3 billion) Tata Group.About Tata Teleservices Limited Tata Teleservices is part of the INR 64. Kolkata. Haryana.Crore (US$ 2 billion) in this sector in the next two years.e. Kerala. Delhi. Uttar Pradesh (W). Tata Teleservices has established a robust and reliable telecom infrastructure that .000 Crore (US$ 2 billion) in Telecom. Bihar. the company has swung into expansion mode. The Tata Group plans an additional investment of around INR 9000/. Punjab. The investment in the company as of March 2004 totals INR 5995 Crore (US$ 1200 million). Rajasthan. Chennai. Tata Teleservices spearheads the Group's presence in the telecom sector. Himachal Pradesh. Incorporated in 1996. Karnataka. Orissa. Having pioneered the CDMA 3G1x technology platform in India. The company has a customer base of over 3 million.com (India) Limited [now renamed Tata Teleservices (Maharashtra) Limited] in December 2002. Tamil Nadu. that has over 90 companies. Maharashtra. the Group has a formidable presence across the telecom value chain.000 employees and more than 2. Tata Teleservices operates in 20 circles i. over 210. Uttar Pradesh (E).
The company has launched prepaid FWP and public phone booths.ensures quality in its services. Tata Indicom has also launched a collection of 1000 mobile games . Lucent and ECI Telecom for the deployment of a reliable. Other services include value added services like voice portal. polyphonic ring tones. Public Booth Telephony. post-paid Internet services.8 million. Fixed Wireless Phones. The company will be shortly launching a new service for Corporates called PushTo-Talk™ (first across the world to partner with Qualcomm for BREWChat).one of the largest collections of mobile games in the world. new handsets. Ericsson. roaming. technologically advanced network. With the latest initiative. Tata Indicom has opened up new frontiers for the Indian prepaid customers by offering 1-second pulse and 100 % talktime on True Paid. This service will be available for the masses across the country. It has partnered with Motorola. and Wireline services. which heralded convergence technologies in the Indian telecom sector. marked its entry into the Prepaid segment by launching 100 % Sacchai True Paid. The company. Tata Teleservices has recently. picture messaging. 3-way conferencing. Wi-Fi Internet services and data services. Tata Teleservices' bouquet of telephony services includes Mobile services. group calling. interactive applications like 11 . is today the market leader in the fixed wireless telephony market with a customer base of 1. across all its existing 20 circles. expand Wi-Fi across public hotspots. new voice & data services such as BREW games.
the company serves more than 3 million customers in over 824 towns. etc. The company is in the process of recruiting personnel for its new circles and will create more than 20. Tata Teleservices has a strong workforce of 5500. which will include 10. With an ambitious rollout plan both within existing circles and across new circles. cricket.000 indirect jobs through outsourcing of its manpower needs. . Tata Teleservices will offer world-class technology and user-friendly services to over 1000 cities in 20 circles by March 2005. astrology.news.000 jobs by March 2005. Today.
13 . February 2004 Tata Indicom Subscribers can now send International SMS across across 174 countries and 533 operators. Tata Indicom launches roaming services across 5 circles. March 2004 QUALCOMM and Tata Teleservices Announce Plans to Offer Wireless Applications and Services Via BREW™ and BREWChat Solutions. With over half million Fixed Wireless retail customers and over 30. which offers up to 25% savings on monthly usage.000 Fixed Wireless payphones. January 2004 Tata Indicom crossed the half million-customer mark in the Fixed Wireless segment by registering over 300% growth in its Fixed Wireless customer base since January 2003.MILESTONES April 2004 Tata Teleservices launches Tata Indicom Prepay Service on Smart Wireless Service in New Delhi and Hyderabad. Tata Indicom launches SMS based entertainment and infotainment services with 8282 Service and Indiatimes 8887/8888 Service. Tata Indicom continues to be the leader in the Fixed Wireless segment.
You could be a franchisee/ distributor for Tata Indicom mobile. Tata Indicom Phone Booth Operator:Pay Telephony Business Unit (PTBU) is a strategic business unit of Tata Teleservices and is the only branded player in the payphone industry in the country. The Tata name has stood for trust and reliability for over a century. At the Tata Group our purpose is to improve the quality of life of the communities we serve. Landline connections and Post-paid Internet service. . You can partner Tata Indicom in several ways: Tata Indicom Franchisee/Distributor:You can be part of the Tata Indicom family in more ways than one.PARTNER WITH US You can be part of the Tata Indicom family in more ways than one. We also believe in developing areas of national significance. It provides its services under the brand name of Tata Indicom Public Phone Booth. Through Tata Indicom we invite you to be our partners in revolutionising telecom services in India.
MOTIVATION Motivation is an important factor which encourages persons to give their best performance and help in reaching enterprise goals. A strong positive motivation will enable the increased output of employee but a negative motivation will reduce their performance. it is core of the management which shows that every human being give him a sense of worth in face to face groups which are most important to him. A key element in personnel management is motivation. A supervisor should strive to treat individuals with dignity and a recognition of their personal worth." . According to Likert.
DEFINITIONS Motivation has been variously defined by the scholars." 17 . activates. or moves and directs or channels behaviour goals. including the degree of readiness. causing the individual to make in a goal-directed pattern towards restoring a state of equilibrium by satisfying the need." The Encyclopaedia of Management: "Motivation refers to degree of readiness of an organism to pursue some designated goal and implies the determination of the nature and locus of the forces.' Lillis: "It is the stimulation of any emotion or desire operating upon one's will and promoting or driving it to action." Vitiles: "Motivation represents an unsatisfied need which creates a state of tension or disequilibrium.” Vance: "Motivation implies any emotion or desire which so conditions one's will that the individual is properly lead into action. Some definitions are discussed as follows: Berelson and Steiner: "A motive is an inner state that energizes. Dubin: "Motivation is the complex of forces starting and keeping a person at work in an organisation.
to satisfy which he feels working more. There are dormant energies in a person which are activated by canalizing them into actions. 2.NATURE OF MOTIVATION Motivation is a psychological phenomena which generates within an individual. 4. A person feels the lack of certain needs. . 5. Motivation is an inner feeling which energizes a person to work more. A person moves to fulfill his unsatisfied needs by conditioning his energies. The need satisfying ego motivates a person to do better than he normally does. 3. From definitions given earlier the following inferences can be derived: 1. The emotions or desires of a person prompt him for doing a particular work. There are unsatisfied needs of the person which disturb his equilibrium.
They will either be offered incentive for more work. The employees do not willingly co-operate. Fear causes employees to act in a certain way. According to Peter Drucker. In case. high standard of performance information adequate for self-control and the participation of the worker as a responsible citizen in the plant community. The workers are offered incentives for achieving the desired goals. 2. The following are the types of motivation: 1. the real and positive motivators are responsible for placement. Though employees work up to a level where punishment is 19 .Negative or fear motivation is based on force or fear. Positive Motivation:. The fear acts as a push mechanism. better reports. Negative Motivation:. The incentives may be in the shape of more pay. promotion.Positive motivation or incentive motivation is based on reward. rather they want to avoid the punishment. or he may instill fear in them or use force for getting desired work. The employees are offered the incentives and try to improve their performance willingly. they do not act accordingly then they may be punished with demotions or lay-offs. recognition of work. or may be in the space of rewards. recognition etc. etc.. " Positive motivation is achieved by the co-operation of employees and they have a feeling of happiness.TYPES OF MOTIVATION When a manager wants to get more work from his subordinates then he will have to motivate them for improving their performance.
This type of motivation generally becomes a cause of industrial unrest. There may be hardly any management which has not used negative motivation at one or the other time. . In spite of the drawbacks of negative motivation.avoided but this type of motivation causes anger and frustration. this method is commonly used to achieve desired results.
on the other hand. Money needs go on' changing from time to time. financial and non-financial. leave with pay. For some persons money remains to be a motivator and for others it may never be. To attract good persons an organisation will have to offer better wages. Financial Motivators Financial motivators may be in the form of more wages and salaries. He may like to have a comfortable house later on. medical reimbursements.. Both the categories of motivators are discussed as under. tend to place them low. company paid insurance or any of the other things that may be given to employees for performance. Money is the most important to people' who are young and are raising their families then to those who have aligned at a stage when money needs are less.e. Neither view is probably right. According to Gellerman money is actually used to retain people in the organisation and not primarily to motivate them. A. Behavioural scientists. The economists and most managers consider money and financial incentives as important motivators. others may be useful in another concern and so on. profit-sharing. bonuses. 21 . Motivational techniques may be classified into two categories i.TECHNIQUES TO INCREASE MOTIVATION Every management tries to select certain motivational techniques which can be employed for improving performance of its employees. The techniques may be suitably employed in one concern.
2. Participation:. These types of recognitions will act as motivator. a word of praise. Some of these motivators are discussed here: 1.Generally. saving the time. participation. B. The recognition may be in the form of a word of praise. certificates plaque etc. When he knows that his performance is known to his boss then he will try to improve it more and more. improving quality of products. If the performance of persons is not recognised and everybody treated on the same footing then good persons will not like to put their best efforts.Participation has been considered a good technique for . Recognition: . recognition. entry in annual confidential report etc. Besides all this money can motivate people if their wages are related to their performance. a pat on the back. It is seen as a practice that persons on comparable levels get the same or usually the same compensation. Non financial Motivators These motivators are in the nature of better status. a latter of appreciation. suggestions for better ways of doing things etc. persons engaged in some type of work are offered equal wages. job security etc. There may also be awards. Under such circumstances money tends to be dulled as a motivator.Every person wants his work to be recognised by his superiors. The recognition may be for better output.
Managers should listen various view-points and then take decisions themselves. Competition:. They should encourage subordinates to participate in matters where they can help. carpets on the flood. To get these facilities a person will have to show a certain amount of performance. personal assistant etc. This can be done by way of giving various facilities to the persons. Various persons are given certain objectives and everybody tries to achieve them 23 .It refers to a social status of a person and it satisfies egoistic needs. Participation results in motivation and knowledge valuable for the enterprise success. When a person achieves certain facilities then he tries to get better status by working more. Participation gives a sense of affiliation and accomplishment. There is no doubt that most of the people know the problems they will face and their possible solutions. attachment of peons. It satisfies ego and self-esteem of persons. 4. It certainly acts as motivator. 3. These may be superior furniture. It implies physical and mental involvement of people in decisionmaking process.motivation. They feel important when asked to made suggestions in their field of activity. Status: . Participation should not mean that managers should abdicate their positions. A management may create some status symbols in the organisation. In this way status needs act as motivator.In some organisations competition is used as a motivator.
The job is made more important and challenging for the workers. It brings more job satisfaction and high morale. appreciation letters. Within a framework he is given a free-hand to decide and perform the work.Job enrichment has been recognised as an important motivator by various researches. Job Enrichment:. The competitions encourage persons to improve their performance. There may be praises. The employee is given the dealings and quality standards he must meet. may be given wide latitude in deciding about their work methods. job enrichment would provide an opportunity for the employees psychological growth. 5.head of others. So it is a recognised device of motivation. and financial incentives to those who reach the goals first. The employees will also perform the management functions of planning and control so far as the work is concerned. According to Heryberg. .
Thus. Thus. Frustration can be defined as the accumulation of tension because of non-fulfillment of needs. That particular behaviour may be caused by the incentives. which exist to satisfy tie need. the situation can be that he is not in a position to remove his frustration by satisfaction of needs. NEEDS CAUSE THE HUMAN BEHAVIOUR A human need creates tension in the mind of the individual and this need transforms itself into want depending. the person will try to modify his behaviour to eliminate factors responsible for non-fulfillment of his needs in one particular situation only. if the need is not satisfied because of some reasons.MOTIVATION AND BEHAVIOUR Motivation causes GOAL-DIRECTED BEHAVIOUR. upon the environment. If a person strongly feels the need of something he will behave in such a way that he tries to satisfy himself so that he does not feel the lack of that particular thing. Satisfaction of one need will lead to the feeling of another different need or the same need at a interval of time. this process is a continuous one. 25 . At this stage. However. there will be tension in the mind which will be satisfied by a particular behaviour of the individual which will release the tension. Again. There will be numerous such factors. the person may feel frustration. some of which will be beyond his control.
2. Aggression:. 3. As human beings are different from each other. Different forms of aggression may be displacement (attacking the source of frustration or towards some other object). this type of behaviour will not be uniform but some common forms of behaviour are: 1.Frustration is not an ideal situation for an individual. . Withdrawal: . Negativism (passive resistance operating consciously or unconsciously) and fixation (non-adjustive reaction). so he will try to change this situation by choosing some alternative behaviour. rationalization or reaction formation.The individual try to compromise the situation.A person who is denied the need satisfaction may become aggressive. Various forms of compromise may be identification. Compromise: . The different forms of withdrawal may be fantasy. regression or flight.Another way of overcoming frustration is withdrawing from the scene physically or psychologically. projection.
MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES The concept of management by objectives is a logical extension of Goal Setting theory. Dale D. "The system of management by objectives can be described as a process whereby the superior and subordinate managers of an organisation jointly identify its common goals. 27 . define each individual's major areas of responsibility in terms of results expected of him and use these measures as guides for operating the unit and assessing the contribution of each of its members. Ordiorne. Management by objectives is an extension of Goal theory as it involves systematic and programmatic goal getting throughout an organization. McConkey has preferred the term management by results to management by objectives. The Goal Setting theory proposed by Edwin Locke studies the processes by which people set goals for themselves and then put in efforts to achieve them. Evidence proves that 90% of the time performance improves with goal setting. Comparatively high achievers set comparatively more difficult goals and they are more satisfied with intrinsic rewards than extrinsic reward. According to George S.
Proper market surveys and research will be conducted and business forecasts will be made. Once the goals are established these should be made known to all the members of the organisation and will be clearly understood by them. The basic steps of MBO process are described as follows: 1.After setting the organisational objectives. Departmental and Individual Goal Setting: . Before setting the objectives a detailed assessment will be made of the resources available. This detailed analysis will highlight the desirable long run as well as short run objectives. These objectives are generally set by the central management and usually in consultation with the other managers. At attempt should be made to make the objectives specific and realistic.The first step in the process of MBO is to define and verify organizational objectives. Each department sets its long range and short range objectives with the approval of the top management.ELEMENTS IN THE MBO PROCESS There are some elements which are common to all the MBO processes. the next step is to set the departmental objectives. 2. The top management should discuss the objectives with the departmental heads so that objectives can be mutually agreed upon. After setting the departmental goals. the subordinates work with their . Central Goal Setting: .
the subordinates must be provided necessary tools and materials by the managements. responsibilities and authority. Matching Goals and Resource Allocation: . 4. 29 . resource requirements can be precisely measured which will make the resource allocation very easy. If goals are precisely set.respective managers to set their own goals relative to the organisational goals. so that they can achieve their goals effectively and efficiently. The relationship of one job with other jobs in the organisation should also be clearly established. The resource allocation should also be made in consultation with the subordinate. 3. The individual members who comprise the unit should also be consulted by the subordinate. Revision of Job Descriptions:.Setting of objectives does not mean anything in itself unless resources and means to achieve there objectives are also provided. will call for the revision of the whole organisational structure. The organisational charts and manuals will be amended to depict the changes brought in by the MBO. Such participative objectives are important because people become highly motivated in achieving the objectives set by them. resetting of the individual goals will call for a revision of the job descriptions of various positions which in turn. The job description of various jobs will now define their' objectives.Under MBO. Thus. The goals of the subordinates will be specific and short range and indicate what the subordinates unit is capable of achieving in a specified period of time. In this way each member of the organisation is involved in goal setting.
The manager subordinate task team should be given complete freedom in deciding how to utilise the resources and how to achieve the objectives. This practice should be followed by each manager with his subordinate and it should lead to key result analysis as targets or goals are represented in terms of results. Establishing Check Points: . .5. (ii) The key results he must achieve to fulfill his objectives. (v) The nature of information and reports he will receive to carry out self evaluation.MBO ensures periodic meetings between the manager and his subordinate to discuss the progress towards the accomplishment of the targets of the subordinates. For this the manager must establish check points or standards of performance for evaluating the progress of the subordinate. 6. It generally contains the following information: (i) The overall objectives of the job of the subordinate. There will be minimum or no interference by the superiors so long as the manager-subordinate team works within the overall framework of organisational policies. The key result analysis should be reduced to writing. Freedom of Implementation: . (iv) The scope' and extent of assistance he expects from his superior and related departmental managers and the assistance he must extend to other departments. The standards should be specified quantitatively as far as possible and the subordinate must understand them fully. (iii) The long term and short term priorities of tastes he must adhere to.
In MBO. since these goals are fixed according to the particular abilities of the subordinates. it is a system which helps in sychronising the objectives of the individuals with the objectives of the organization. it obtains maximum contribution from them and thus it leads to maximum utilisation of human resources. Both the managers and the subordinates know what they have to do and what is expected of them.There is no role ambiguity or confusion in the organisation. In addition. Maximum Utilization of Human Resources: . No Role Ambiguity: . Besides being a philosophy of management. the MBO has following advantages.Since the goals are set in consultation with the subordinates. because specific and clear goals are set for the organisation. these are more difficult to achieve and more challenging than if the superiors had imposed them. systematically and consciously.ADVANTAGES OF MBO The concept of MBO is very important in terms of its managerial implications. for the division for the departments and for the individual members. Improved Communication:. This continuous two way 31 . there is improved communication between the management and the subordinates. When implemented properly.
thus. Device of Organisational Control: . If there are any deviations discovered between the actual performance and the goals. Result Based Performance Evaluation: .MBO serves as a. As a result. the whole of organisational structure is redesigned because of the revision of job descriptions of various positions as a result of resetting of the individual goals. evaluated and corrected. device for organisational control and integration. All this helps in improving the organisational structure as a result of location of the problem and weak areas of the organisation. the appraisal tends to be more objectives specific and equitable. Career Development of the Employees: .MBO provides a realistic means of analysing training needs and opportunities for growth for the employees.The system of periodic performance evaluation lets the subordinates know how well they are doing.communication helps in clarifying any ambiguities.In MBO. The management takes keen interest in the development of skills and abilities of subordinates and provides an opportunity for strengthening those areas which need further referents. As these appraisal . In MBO. leading to career development of employees. Improved Organisational Structure: . refining and modifying any processes or any aspects of objectives. strong emphasis is put on measurable and quantifiable objectives. these can be regularly and systematically identified.
Secondly the appraisal system. being very objective and specific can be highly morale boosting. Stimulating the Motivation of the Employees: .methods are based on result and not on some intangible characteristics. they feel motivated because of their participation in goal setting.The system of MBO stimulates the employee’s motivation. They take keen interest in the implementation of the goals which they themselves have set. these are considered to be superior to the trait evaluation methods of appraisal. 33 . First of all.
3. while setting the goals. Some of these are inherent in the system while some arise when introducing and implementing it. In MBO.In traditional organizations. generally. it will not be possible to judge the performance of the employees.LIMITATIONS OF MBO A system of MBO has certain weaknesses and limitations. 2. Resentful Attitude of Subordinates: .The subordinates can also be resentful towards the system of MBO. the authority is vested in the top management and it flow from top to bottom. The subordinates. they may be under pressure to get along with the management and the objectives which are set may be unrealistically high or far too rigid. Some of the problems and limitations associated with MBO are as explained below: 1. Sometimes. Moreover.The MBO will be successful only if the goals can be set in quantifiable terms. Lack of Support of Top Management: . But if the areas are difficult to quantify and difficult to evaluate. feel suspicious of the management and believe that MBO is another play of the management to make them work harder and become more dedicated and involved. Difficulties in Quantifying the Goals and Objectives: . subordinates are given an equal opportunity of participation. which is resented by the top management. MBO does not have any subjectivity in . This system cannot succeed without the full support of top management.
4. In this type of environment. This is because of the reason that goals being quantitative in nature. Moreover. Lack of Adequate Skills and Training: . say for six months or one year. two way 35 . It rewards only productivity without giving any consideration to the creativity of the employees. knowledge and training required in interpersonal interaction which is required in the MBO. Costly and Time Consuming Process: . Whether the goals are realistic or not does not enter the picture. Emphasis on short Term Goals: . 5. There is a lot of paper work involved. This emphasis on short term goals goes against the organisational efficiency and effectiveness and is not a healthy sign.Most of managers lack adequate skills. they tend to concentrate on their immediate objectives without caring for the long range objectives of the enterprise. Because of these reasons managers generally resist the MBO. there are a lot of meetings and too many reports to be prepared.Under MBO. dictate the goals and targets with no input permitted from the subordinates and then demand that the goals be achieved in a specified time. which add to the responsibilities and burden of the managers. goals are set only for a short period. 6. Since the performance of the subordinate is to be reviewed after every six months or one year.MBO is quite costly and a time consuming process. it is difficult to do long range planning.performance appraisal. Many managers tend to sit down with the subordinate.
the Subordinate will inform the boss exactly what has been accomplished and how. Poor Integration: . Lack of Follow Up: .communications is not there and objectives are imposed on the subordinates. it will create hurdles in the successful implementation of MBO as the subordinate will also start taking the programme casually. 8. initiative and performance. This lack of integration makes the overall functioning of the system very poor.Under the system of MBO. the superior must get in touch with the subordinate at the appropriate time and at that time. 7. If the superior delays the meeting. This destroys their morale. the integration of the MBO with the other systems such as forecasting and budgeting is very poor. .Generally.
3. Top Management Support and Commitment: . MBO can never be a success. and for discussing the subordinates’ problems. The targets should neither be very high nor very low. The superiors must be willing to relinquish and share the authority with the subordinates. it is an efficient motivating technique used by the managers in practice. must be realistic and achievable. MBO works best when the goals are willingly accepted.It is essential that MBO should have the support and commitment of the top management without this support.The objectives should be clearly formulated. They should consider the subordinates as part of the team for decision making.MBO should be treated as an overall 37 .SUGGESTIONS FOR EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF MBO Despite various difficulties and limitations in the process of MBO. Overall Philosophy of Management: . 2. the following suggestions should be implemented: 1.The objectives and goals should be set with the active participation of the subordinates. Clear Goal Setting: . 4. Participative Goal Setting: . They should be clearly understood by all concerned. These objectives must be properly communicated and clearly understood and accepted by all. In order to achieve all the advantages of MBO. There should be effective two way communication between the superior and the subordinates for setting the goals.
. Decentralisation of Authority: .philosophy of management and the entire organisation. 5. It should not be simply performance appraisal technique or a divisional process. The subordinates who have been given challenging assignments through discussion with the superior must be given adequate authority to accomplish their goals otherwise they will not be willing to accept new assignments and they will resist the setting of clearly defined goals.MBO will not be effective if the manager is not willing to delegate sufficient authority to the subordinates. It should change and replace all the old systems rather than just being added to them.
Job satisfaction is another important technique used to motivate the employees to work harder. It had often been said that "A HAPPY EMPLOYEE IS A PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYEE." A happy employee is, generally, that employee who is satisfied with his job. Job satisfaction is very important because most of the people spend a major portion of their life at their working place. Moreover, job satisfaction has its impact on the general life of the employees also, because a satisfied employee is a contented and happy human being. A highly satisfied worker has better physical and mental well being. Though it is a debate able point as to which one is the cause and which is the effect, but these are correlated to each other. In simple words, job satisfaction can be defined as the extent of positive feelings or attitudes that individuals have towards their jobs. When a person says that he has high job satisfaction, it means that he really likes his job, feels good about it and values his job highly. A few definitions of job satisfaction are quoted as follows: According to E.A. Locke, "Job satisfaction is a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experience." According to Field man and Arnold, "Job satisfaction will be defined as the amount of overall positive affect or (feelings) that individuals have towards their
jobs." According to Andrew Erin, "Job satisfaction is the amount of pleasure or contentment associated with a job. If you like your job intensely, you will experience high job satisfaction. If you dislike your job intensely, you will experience job-dissatisfaction. " According to Keith Davis and Newstrom, "Job satisfaction is the set of favourable or unfavourable feelings with which employees view their work." We can say that job satisfaction is a result of employee's perception of how well their job provides those things which are viewed as important. In the field of organisational field, job satisfaction is considered the most important and frequently studied attitude.
FACTORS INFLUENCING JOB SATISFACTION
There are a number of factors that influence job satisfaction. A number of research studies have been conducted in order to establish some of the causes that result in job satisfaction. These studies have revealed consistent correlation of certain variables with the job satisfaction. Some of the organisational factors which affect job satisfaction are:
A. ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS
1. Salaries and Wages: - Wages and salaries playa significant role in influencing job satisfaction. This is basically because of a few basic reasons. Firstly, money is an important instrument in fulfilling one's needs. Money III also satisfies the first level needs of Maslow's model of satisfaction. Secondly, employees often see money as a reflection of the management's concern for them. Thirdly, it is considered a symbol of achievement since higher pay reflects higher degree of contribution towards organisational operations. Non monetary benefits are also important, but they are not as influential. One reason for that that is that most of the employees do not even know how much they are receiving in benefits. Moreover, a few tend to under value there benefits because they do not realise their monetary value. The employees, generally, want a pay system which is simple, fair and in line with their expectations.
This is particularly true in case of high level jobs. higher salary. Promotion indicates an employee's worth to the organisation which is highly morale boosting. Company Policies: . Thus. An autocratic and highly authoritative structure causes resentment among the employees as compared to a structure which is more open and democratic in nature. Liberal and fair policies usually result in more job satisfactions.Organisational structure and policies also play an important role in affecting the job satisfaction of employees. Secondly.2. Thirdly. more challenging work assignments. he feels extremely satisfied. Organisational policies also govern the human behaviour in the organisations. a democratic organisational structure with fair and liberal policies is associated with high job satisfaction. These policies can generate positive or negative feelings towards the organisation.g. Promotion involves posit' e changes e.Promotional chances considerably affect the job satisfaction because of the following reasons: Firstly. Promotion Chances: . status and like. Employee takes promotion as the ultimate achievement in his career and when it is realised. Strict policies will create dissatisfaction among the employees because they feel that they are not being treated fairly and may feel constrained. 3. more freedom. increased responsibilities. less supervision. .
It serves as a source of support. comfort. the supervisor takes personal interest in employee's welfare.The nature of the work group or team will have effect on job sati3faction in the following ways: (i) A friendly and co-operative group provides opportunities to the group members to interact with each other. Supervision: . 2. There are two dimensions of supervisory 'styles which affect the job satisfaction: First is Employee Centeredness. In such a group. (ii) The work group will be even a stronger source of satisfaction when members have similar attitudes and values. the people are difficult to get along with. Work Group: . Second is Participation. the work group will have a negative impact on job satisfaction. who allow their subordinates to participate in decisions that affect their own jobs. advice and assistance to the individual group members. Will less friction on day to day basis. In this style. 43 .Supervision is a moderately important source of job satisfaction. Whenever the supervisor is friendly and supportive of the workers there is job satisfaction. help in creating an environment which is highly conducive to job satisfaction. The superiors. If on the other hand.B. WORK ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The work environmental factors include the following important factors: 1. there.
cleanliness of the work place and adequate tools and equipment are the features which affect job satisfaction. The higher the level of these factors. Some of the aspects of the work which affect job satisfaction are: (i) Job Scope:-It provides the amount of responsibility. lighting and noise. as they lead to more physical comfort. People desire that there should be a clean and healthy working environment. Working Conditions: .Good working conditions are desirable by the employees. Thus. While the desirable working conditions are taken for granted and may not contribute heavily towards job satisfaction. work pace and feed back. WORK ITSELF The content of the work itself plays a major role in determining the job satisfaction. humidity. hours of work. poor working conditions do become a source of job dissatisfaction. C. ventilation. higher the job scope and higher the level of satisfaction. 3. the group size and quality of interpersonal relations within the group playa significant role in worker's satisfaction. Temperature. Simply because they lead to physical discomfort and physical danger. .(iii) Smaller groups provide greater opportunity for building mutual Trust and understanding as compared to larger groups.
Excessive variety produces confusion and stress and a too little variety causes monotony and fatigue which are dissatisfiers.(ii) Variety. (v) Interesting Work:.Lack of autonomy and freedom over work methods and work pace can create helplessness and dissatisfaction.Role ambiguity and role conflict also lead to confusion and job dissatisfaction because employees do not know exactly what their task is and what is expected of them. Employees do not like it when their every step and every action is determined by their supervisor. 45 .A work which is very interesting the challenging and provides status will be providing satisfaction to the employees as compared to work which is boring and monotonous. A moderate amount of variety is very effective. (iv) Role Ambiguity and Role Conflict: . (iii) Lack of Autonomy and Freedom: .
and decisiveness.With age. people become more mature and realistic and less idealistic so that they are willing to accept available resources and rewards and be satisfied about the situation. With the passage of time. the higher is the job satisfaction. 2. This type of satisfaction comes from within the person and is a function of his personality.Some of the personality traits which are directly related to job satisfaction are self assurance.PERSONAL FACTORS Personal attributes of the individuals also playa very important role as to whether they are satisfied at the job or not.Employees with longer tenure are expected to be highly satisfied with their jobs. Age and Seniority: . They will always find something wrong in every job to complain about. which is highly satisfactory to employees. Tenure: . challenge and responsibility. Some of the important personal factors are: 1. self esteem. Higher the person is on Maslow's needs hierarchy. . They can easily plan for their future without any fear of losing their jobs. people move into more challenging and responsible positions. People who do not move up at all with time are more likely to be dissatisfied with their jobs. Tenure assures job security. sense of autonomy. maturity. Pessimists and people with negative attitudes will complain about everything including the job. Personality: . 3.
the median correlation between satisfaction and performance is only 0.CONSEQUNCIES OF JOB SATISFACTION Job dissatisfaction produces low morale among workers and low morale at work is highly undesirable. According to the research findings of VROOM conducted in 1964. decreased turnover.14. Although.Is there any positive relationship between satisfaction and productivity? This controversy has been there over a number of years. LAWLER and PORTER found that there is more evidence to suggest that job performance leads to job satisfaction and not the other way round the following figure 47 . absenteeism. Research has concluded that there is a relationship between job satisfaction and performance of the employees. it is important to break down the analysis into a series of specific subtopics. Job Satisfaction and Productivity: . In examining the outcomes of job satisfaction. High job satisfaction may lead to improved productivity. majority of people believe that there is a positive relationship. The following subtopics explain the outcomes of job satisfaction: 1. job satisfaction or job dissatisfaction is an important concern of the management. Job dissatisfaction produces low morale among workers and low morale at work is highly undesirable. but research evidence concludes that there is not strong relationship between these two. less job stress and less unionisation. improved attendances. reduced accidents. employee turnover. union activities and safety. Thus. Job satisfaction affects productivity.
high job satisfaction in itself cannot keep the turnover low. cannot imagine . 2. High employee turnover is a matter of concern for the management as it disrupts the normal operations and continuous replacement of employees who leave the organisation is costly and technically undesirable. Commitment to the organisation is one such factor. in addition to job satisfaction. The employees. Moreover. Though. research has concluded a moderate relationship between job satisfaction and turnover. but considerable job dissatisfaction will definitely increase the employee turnover. Some employees. tries to keep the employees satisfied on their jobs to minimise the turnover. Managerial concern is mostly for the turnover which arises because of job dissatisfaction. research also indicates that job satisfaction may not necessarily lead to improvement of individual performance but it does lead to departmental and organisational level improvement. thus. however dissatisfied they are with their jobs.developed by these two explains this point. Job Satisfaction and Employee Turnover: . the saying that "A happy worker is a productive worker" is not always wrong. The employee turnover is affected by certain other factors also. If people receive rewards which have both intrinsic and extrinsic value and they feel that these rewards are equitable.Unlike the relationship between satisfaction and performance. they will be satisfied and this will lead to greater job performance. However.
we can say that there is an important role played by job satisfaction in employee turnover. Absenteeism can be modified by certain factors. On the overall basis. Less satisfied employees are more likely to be absent from work due. When satisfaction is high.themselves working anywhere else. Another important factor is the better opportunities of employment.It has been conclusively proved that their is an inverse relationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism. 3. but low job satisfaction will definitely bring about high absenteeism. they are willing to leave if there are better opportunities available anywhere else. it is important to remember that while high job satisfaction will not necessarily result in low absenteeism (because of unavoidable absenteeism). to avoidable reasons. 49 . Moreover. Management must be concerned with voluntary absenteeism. because it is related to job satisfaction. the employees will stay where they are. If no other opportunities are available. This is known as voluntary absenteeism as against unavoidable absenteeism which is due to illness or other emergency reasons. irrespective of dissatisfaction. Even if the people are highly satisfied with their jobs. absenteeism is high. Job Satisfaction and Absenteeism: . absenteeism is low and when satisfaction is low. Research has found that people who believe that their work is important have lower absenteeism as compared to those who do not feel that way.
and the chances of accidents will be less. company and supervisors. have less job stress and unrest. 5. Here. A satisfied worker will always be careful and attentive towards his job. Job Satisfaction and Safety: .It has been proved that satisfied employees are generally not interested in unions and they do not perceive them as necessary. we are discussing about the avoidable accidents and not the unavoidable ones. An underlying reason for this is that dissatisfaction takes one's attention away from the task at hand and leads directly to accidents. . they are more prone to experience accidents. Such employees will become more cooperative such as helping coworkers. The level of union activities is related to the level of job dissatisfaction. helping customers etc.In addition. learn the new job related tasks easily. 6. Job Satisfaction and Union Activities:. Highly satisfied employees tend to have better physical and mental health. Job satisfaction has proved to be the major cause of unionisation. there are a number of other effects brought about by high job satisfaction.When people are dissatisfied with their jobs. Other effects of Job Satisfaction:. Such behaviour will improve unit performance and organisational effectiveness. The employees join the unions because they feel that individually they are unable to influence changes which would eliminate the causes of job dissatisfaction.4. Low level of dissatisfaction results in only grievances while higher levels of dissatisfaction will result in employee strikes.
we can say that job satisfaction results from the employee's perception that the job content and context actually provide what an employee values in the work. high level of job satisfaction reflects a highly favourable organisational climate resulting in attracting and retaining better workers. 51 . situation. Organizationally speaking.To conclude.
it leads to a vertically enhanced job by adding functions from other organisational levels. the job must be designed to provide opportunities for achievement. " Job' enrichment is thus. . planning of and controlling powers. advancement and growth.JOB ENRICHMENT Fredrick Herzberg gave greater emphasis on job enrichment in his two factor theory. It applies to improvement of job in such a way that it has more motivators than before and at the same time maintaining the degree of maintenance factors. It suggests that jobs be redesigned so that intrinsic satisfaction is derived from doing the job. recognition. responsibility. In its best applications. According to Beatty and Schneider. He assumed that in order to motivate personnel. adding a few more motivators to a job to make it more a rewarding. an important practice in meeting "whole man" needs. "Job enrichment is a motivational technique which emphasises the need for challenging and interesting and interesting work. making it contain more variety and challenge and offer autonomy and pride to the employee. It represents a new and popular non-monetary motivational technique. It simply means. challenging and creative or gives the job holder more decision making. This technique entails enriching the job so that these factors are included. A job is enriched when the nature of the job is made more exciting.
According to Herzberg. 4. He should feel that he is growing 'mentally. Employees who perform creative work have more opportunity to schedule their assignments as compared to employees performing routine jobs. 3. Unique Experience: .An enriched job has some unique qualities or features as compared to the other jobs. Deciding when to tackle which assignment is an example of self scheduling. New Learning: . an enriched job has eight characteristics. 7. An employee.One approach to job enrichment is that each employee should have. 6. Client Relationships: . he has an enriched job.An enriched job allows the employee to learn more. The job evaluation can be inbuilt in the job or provided by a supervisor. Employees should be able to get immediate knowledge of the results they are achieving.Freedom to schedule one's own work contributes to enrichment. Direct Feed Back: . Control Over Resources: .When an employee serves a client or customer directly.There should be a direct feed back of the employees B performance. 5. 2. Scheduling Own Work: . Direct Communication Authority: . 53 . These characteristics are as explained below: 1. is having an enriched job. The client can be outside the organisation or inside. control over his own resources and expenses. who is doing some intellectual work.An employee holding the enriched job will be allowed to communicate directly with people who use his output.
From the above features of job enrichment we conclude that the management should take the following measures to enrich the job: (i) Give sufficient freedom to the employees in deciding about work methods. He receives praise for good work and blame for poor work.8. Management should provide extrinsic and intrinsic rewards to the employees depending upon their motivational patterns. pace. Personal Accountability: .An enriched job holds the incumbent responsible for the results. . sequence etc. (iv) Provide feedback to the employees. (vii) Management should provide adequate welfare measures to the employees. (ii) Increase responsibility. (iii) Encourage participation. (vi) Give adequate benefits to the employees. People should perceive that management is sincere and caring about them. (v) Make the personnel understand how tasks contribute to a finished product of the enterprise.
(iv) Task enforcement is made easy with the help of job enrichment and the skills of workers are increased. The number of such employees is generally considerable. The advantages of job enrichment are as follows: (i) In the routine jobs. (vi) Job enrichment is advantageous to the organization as there is qualitative as well as quantitative improvement in output and there is higher satisfaction of the workers. The frustration of these employees can be removed by making the job interesting with the job enrichment. the employees find their jobs very boring and monotonous.ADVANTAGES OF JOB ENRICHMENT Job enrichment is a very useful technique to motivate employees. (iii) Job enrichment motivates the employees intrinsically by giving them opportunities for growth advancement and self realisation. (vii) Employees tend to be more creative when they work in an enriching context of complex and challenging jobs. (v) The enriched jobs give more job satisfaction to the employees. 55 . (ii) Job enrichment helps in reducing the rates of employee turnover and absenteeism.
the cost involved is more than the gains in productivity. job enrichment may have negative effects. Job enrichment is basically limited to the unskilled and semiskilled jobs. As such there is no scope of applying job enrichment in their cases. Job enrichment is a highly costly affair. Jobs of highly skilled professionals already contain many challenging elements.LIMITATIONS OF JOB ENRICHMENT As job enrichment is based on the two factor theory given by Herzberg. 3. The limitations of job enrichment are as follows: 1. Moreover. as the basic human tendency is to shirk responsibility. The first basic problem is that majority of workers do not want the type of changes which are introduced by job enrichment. it does not offer the results as anticipated. 6. They do not really want challenging jobs. After an increase in . the same criticism of the two factor theory applies to it also. tasks and processes. Sometimes. In the short run. With specialised machinery. Technology may not permit the enrichment of all the jobs. Some problems arise when job enrichment is actually applied in practice. 2. Workers put wages and job security above all. In most of the cases. 5. the employees may prefer to have job enrichment but may not have the necessary capabilities and qualifications to meet the new challenges. it may not be possible to make the jobs very meaningful. 4.
People being bored in their jobs.job responsibility. 8. The top managers and personnel. this evokes more resistance from workers. Though. it will have a negative impact on the employees. job enrichment. it is likely. Ford. and many others have gone on to generalise that job enrichment is the solution to all behavioural problems facing modem management. 57 . There is. In the long run. but still the importance of job enrichment as an effective motivational technique cannot be ruled out. it is not unusual for organisations to experience a drop in productivity. a tendency on the part of the management to impose job enrichment on workers rather than applying it with their consent. Robert N. Thus. 7. that after a period of time they will become bored in their enriched jobs also. however. is a valuable motivational technique. therefore. this type of generalisation does not seem entirely justified. but management must use it selectively and give proper recognition to the complex human and situational variables. 9. enrichment may become static after some time and additional enrichment will be required. Despite these limitations. there will be increased productivity . their own scale of values of challenge and accomplishment to other people's personalities. generally. as workers become accustomed to the new systems. generally apply.
. Thus it involves horizontal job loading as compared to vertical one in job enrichment. "Job enlargement refers to adding a few more task elements horizontally." "Job enlargement focuses on enlarging jobs by increasing tasks and responsibilities.JOB ENLARGEMENI' Another motivational technique closely related to job enrichment is the job enlargement. his job is enlarged. Another way of job enlargement is that the clerk who is doing the typing work may also be assigned the tasks of drafting letters." "Job enlargement involves performing a variety of jobs or operations at the same time. sorting of incoming mail and filing the letters. It involves expansion of the scope and width of the job by means of a horizontal loading of certain closely related operations. This will reduce his monotony and make him satisfied with the job." For example if a clerk in an office who is doing the typing work is asked to type 20 letters a day instead of 10 letters. This efficiency will also improve.
Enlarged: . Since a person performs a veriety of jobs. Increasing the number of tasks can reduce the level of boredom of the employees. if he can vary the rhythm and work at his own pace. This will increase the satisfaction of the worker as he can see his contribution to the entire project. Enlarged jobs. Variety of tasks: .In job enlargement. 3. Worker Paced Control: . Enlarged and Meaningful Work Modules: .Sometimes. with optimal levels of complexity can create tasks. 4. the jobs are enlarged so that one worker completes a whole unit of work or a major portion of it. horizontal loading of the tasks is in there. 2. Meaningful Feed Back: . workers move from a machine paced production line to a job which is paced by themselves." An enlarged job can motivate the worker in the following ways. he remains interested in this variety. Optimum Utilisation of Abilities. He will also fell less tied in this way. which are challenging but attainable.Enlarged jobs allow for more meaningful 59 . The workers will enjoy his work more.ADVANTAGES OF JOB ENLARGEMENT Argyris feels that "job enlargement avoids monotony which is the result of high degree of specialisation and division of labour. 5.Jobs tend to better utilise the physical and mental skills abilities of the workers.In job enlargement. 1.
(iv) Some jobs may still be routine and boring even after enlargement. the following disadvantages can be found in job enlargement: (i) Job enlargement tends to be a costly affair. due to the introduction of the new system. . Moreover. (ii) Productivity may fall in the short run. In view of Herzberg's opinion. It will be even more motivating if it is tied to evaluations and organisational rewards. (iii) Employee-unions often argue for increased pay because of the increased work load. if job enlargement involves breaking up of existing production line of work system and redesigning a new system and training employees for it. According to Herzber merely giving a worker different kind of jobs is not enough because the basic nature of the job remains the same. there should be up gradation of authority and responsibility. Workers may require additional training for their enlarged jobs. the costs will be very substantial. Rather. As such it does not work as a motivating factor.performance feedback.
61 . It has the same effect as the job enlargement. In such a case. in job rotation. ADVNATGES OF JOB ROTATION (i) Job rotation reduces the boredom and monotony through diversifying the employees activities. with the same skill requirements. When an activity is no longer challenging. adapting to changes and filling vacancies. Thus. at the same level. the employees may be shifted from one job to another in order to provide some variety so as to minimise monotony and boredom. (iii) It broadens the range of experience of employees and is an effective training technique. the employee could be rotated to another job. a person is required to perform on job at a time but he is rotated at different jobs after certain period of time.JOB ROTATION Job rotation will be used in a situation where an organisation has a series of routine jobs that cannot be combined or enriched. (ii) Employees with a wider range of skills give management more flexibility in scheduling work.
. (ii) Training costs are increased. (v) There is no appreciable change in employee satisfaction. (iii) It can demotivate intelligent and ambitious trail1ees who seek specific responsibilities in their chosen specialty. (iv) Few people have the technical knowledge and skills to mvoe from one job to another. Thus.DRAWBACKS OF JOB ROTATION (i) Work is disrupted as rotated employees take time to adjust to a new set up. unless the jobs are such that the person is really interested in them. the role of job rotation in motivating people is limited.
• To find out their involvement level in their job. • To know what one the motivational techniques used by company. • . 63 .OBJECTIVE • To know the satisfaction level of employees. To know their attitude towards their work.
Making deductions and reaching conclusions. The function of the research design is to ensure that the required data is collected accurately and economically. Collecting. The purpose of the research is to discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures. organizing and evaluating data. There are three basic types of research design i. Exploratory Descriptive Casual But I have used Exploratory Research Design in my report. One can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. Research Design A research design is the plan structure and strategy of investigation conceived. It is the blueprint for the collection. so to obtain answer to research question and to control variance. Formulating hypothesis or suggesting the solutions. Research refers to: Defining and redefining the problems. The main aim of the research is to find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet.e. 65 . At last carefully testing the conclusion to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. It is a common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. Research is an academic activity as such the term should be used in a technical sense.RESEARCH METHOLOGY Research always starts with a question or a problem. It is purely and simply the framework or plan for a study that guide the collection and analysis of data. measurement and analysis the data.
The major emphasis is on the discovery of ideas and insights. We can say that exploratory studies help in formulating hypothesis for this further research. Exploratory study is used to increase the analyst familiarity with the problem under investigation. In direct personal investigation to the interview has to collect the information personally from the sources concerned he has to be on the sport and has meet people from whom data have to be collected. In this study the source of data is primary data. This is a preliminary phase and is absolutely essential in order to obtain a proper definition of problem at hand. Journals. particularly in developed regions. but plays an important part in industrial survey. . schedules etc. which is collected from firms and books and web site. This method can be used in two ways: Personal Interview Personal interview requires a person known as interviewer asking questions generally in a face to face contact to other person. We get secondary data from published sources. Method of Collecting Primary Data The interview method involves presentation of oral verbal stimuli and reply in terms of oral verbal responses. The exploratory is particularly in breaking broad and vague problem into smaller. It is not widely used method. Exploratory study is characterized by flexibility and informality.Exploratory Research All marketing research project must starts with exploratory design. Telephonic Interview This method of collecting information consists in contacting respondents on telephone itself. Secondary Data Secondary data are those data which have already been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical process. In this study I have used Direct Personal Interview Method for data collection.
In sampling we take sample from part of population that represents universe as a whole. 67 . where population size is large and scattered. The information gathered from that sample is analyzed and results are drawn on those behalf. I have used “Simple Random Sampling Technique”. Sample Size The sample size of my research is 100.Sample Design A research design is the arrangement of condition for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with the economy in procedure. Random sampling technique is commonly used method to get information. This type of sampling is also known as Chance sampling where each and every item in the population has an equal chance of inclusion in the sample and each probability of being selected. Sampling method ensures less time and money. It is widely used in those areas.
69 .1. How long you are working on this job ? Less than one year Less than ten year Less than five year 60% 30% 10% 10% Less than one year 30% Less than ten year 60% Less than five year Interpretation : .In the above analysis 60 % of the people are working from one year whereas 30 % of employees are working less than 10 year and rest of the 10 % a working less than 5 years.
2.5% say no . Does motivational techniques are used in your organisation ? Yes No 95% 5% 5% Yes No 95% Interpretation: in the above analysis 95% of the people say yes and said different techniques are used by their company to motivate them .
According to above analysis 70 % of employees declare them self as Extrovert and rest 30 % thinks that they are introvert. What your basic personality ? Introvert Extrovert 30% 70% 30% Introvert Extrovert 70% Interpretation: .3. 71 .
Do you find your job challenging ? . 5.4.as per above analysis 75 % of employees at satisfied with their job only 5 % highly satisfied . 15 % are dissatisfied and only 5 % are highly dissatisfied that shows that company has good employee retention policies. To what extent you are satisfied with your job ? Highly Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 5% 75% 15% 5% 15% 5% 5% Highly Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 75% Interpretation : .
Yes No 60% 40% 40% Yes No 60% Interpretation: in the above analysis 60 % of the people say yes. they find their job challenging and 40 % of the people say no. 73 .
6. . How involved are you in your job ? High Medium Low 80% 15% 5% 15% 5% High Medium Low 80% Interpretation: According to the responses 80 % of the employees says that they are highly involved in their jobs whereas 15 % are of view that they are to an average working their jobs and 5 % admits that their involvement are low.
8. What results you use to produce ? Extraordinary As per objectives Average 80% 15% 5% 15% 5% Extraordinary As per objectives Average 80% Interpretation:. How adaptable you are for changes ? 75 .7.As per the analysis 80 % of employees declares themselves to produce extraordinary results 15 % says they produced results as per objectives and 5 % admits that they produced average results.
Q9.Very Much Not Adaptable Average 70% 0% 30% 30% Very Much Not Adaptable 0% 70% Ave rage Interpretation: 70 % of the employees says that they are adaptable to changes and always welcome them whereas 30 % declares that changes are imposed upon them. What do you value most ? Money Precognition 40% 40% .
Job Security Self Respect 10% 10% 10% 10% 40% Money Precognition Job Security Self Respect 40% Interpretation: . and recognition. No.as we know everybody works to be financial and social security responses to this question proves this statement as true because 40 % of employees rank money. 1 respectively and jobs security and self respect 10 % respectively 77 .
27% say promotion. 13% say extra workload and 20% are interested increased span of control. 7% say recognition. .Q10. What are the motivational factors for you (Rank them in ascending order)? Money Promotion Recognition Extra Workload Increased span of control 33% 27% 7% 13% 20% 27% 13% 20% Money Prom otion Recognition Extra Workload 33% 7% Increase d span of control Interpretation: 33% of the people saying money is the motivation factor.
Are you satisfied with the family environment ? Yes 80% No 20% 20% Yes No 80% Interpretation: 80 % of the employees are satisfied with their family environment and only 20 % are not satisfied due to their high satisfaction they are working with high environment.Q11. 79 .
How do you find your organisatonal culture ? Epitole Good Average 5% 90% 5% 5% 5% Epitole Good Average 90% Interpretation: 90 % of the employees advocates their organizational culture as good 5 % feels it as epitome and only 5 % takes it as average that shows no one is annoyed with organization culture .Q12.
100% Q13. Have you ever gone through official training ? 90% 80% 70% Yes (How many 60% Yes (How many times) 95 % times) 50% No 5No % 40% 30% 20% 10% Interpretation: 95 % of employees have undergone official training an average of twice a year and only 0% 5 % are those who have not yet attended any official training many times) Yes (How No 81 .
Q14. . How much have you gained from your training ? Gained a lot Average Wastage of time 20% 70% 10% 10% 20% Gained a lot Average Wastage of time 70% Interpretation: 70 % of employees thinks that they have gained average experience from training 20 % thinks that they have gained a lot and 10 % of employees are of view that is was mere wastage of time.
Q15. What is your leadership style ? Autocratic Participative Parental Style 5% 90% 5% 5% 5% Autocratic Participative Parental Style 90% Interpretation: 90 % of the people are participated 5 % are autocratic and 5 % people are of parental styles 83 .
According to you how others see you ? Co-operative Successful Reliable Honest 60% 10% 10% 10% 11% 11% Co-operative Successful Reliable 11% 67% Honest Interpretation: In the above analysis 70 % of the people are co-operative 10 % are successful people. 10 % are reliable and 10 % are honest in their job work.Q16. .
If given good opportunity will you switch over to another job ? Yes No 95% 5% 5% Yes No 95% Interpretation: As in above analysis we can see that 95 % of the people can switch to another job if they got an good opportunity and 5 % of the people don’t want to go 85 .Q17.
Q18. 20 % are medium and 10 % are lowest . How invited you are towards opportunities ? High Medium Low 70% 20% 10% 10% 20% High Medium 70% Low Interpretation: 70% of the people are more responsible towards their jobs.
Do you want an enriched job ? Yes No 100% 0% 0% Yes No 100% Interpretation: In this analysis 100 % of the people want an enriched job and say yes.Q19. 0 % say no 87 .
Q20. How committed one you to your organisation ? High Medium Low 65% 15% 20% 20% High 15% 65% Medium Low Interpretation: 65 % of the people are highly committed 20 % are low and 15 % are at medium level .
89 . Training must be economical. The duration of the training must be expanded.FINDINGS & SUGGESTIONS Company should motivate the employees according to their needs. Company should give training to the employees.
I find out the following limitation or barriers: Lack of time:The time prescribed for training was not enough to have an overview of the firm. but yet he/she faces certain difficulties. . Lack of employee’s co-operation:During the training. During the research. Unable to win confidence of workers:In such a short span of time. They did not respond to my questions willfully rather they showed no interest. They were unable to respond to the question in the way desired. it was very difficult for me to win confidence of the workers and get their exact views regarding the management plans and policies. some of the employees were not very co-operative. The time should be at least three months.LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY Every person tries to do the work in the best possible way. Language barrier:One of the problems while doing the training was that there was a language barrier between me and the workers.
CONCLUSION Now a days each and every running organization use the techniques of motivation. So at the end I must say that each and every organization must use the technique of motivation to motivate their employers . My project will contribute a little in this field because after the analysis I have made the results and responses shows that the most of the companies uses these techniques that is why more then 75% of the employees are satisfied with their jobs and are contributing their bests towards the organization. as these technique effect the working of the employees.
H.BIBLIOGRAPHY ROSY JOSHI. GUPTA ORGANISATONAL BEHAVIOURROBISSONS PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT – WANKAT RATTAN 93 .R.M. ORGANISATONAL BEHAVIOUR – KOONTZ ORGANISATONAL BEHAVIOUR – SHASHI K.
1. How long you are working on this job ? Less than one year Less than ten year Less than five year 2. Does motivational techniques are used in your organisation ? Yes No 3. What your basic personality ? Introvert Extrovert 4. To what extent you are satisfied with your job ? Highly Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 5. Do you find your job challenging ? Yes No
6. How involved are you in your job ? High Medium Low 7. What results you use to produce ? Extraordinary As per objectives Average 8. How adaptable you are for changes ? Very Much Not Adaptable Average Q9. What do you value most ? Money Precognition Job Security Self Respect Q10. What are the motivational factors for you (Rank them in ascending order)? Money Promotion Recognition Extra Workload Increased span of control Q11. Are you satisfied with the family environment
Yes No Q12. How do you find your organisatonal culture ? Epitole Good Average Q13. Have you ever gone through official training ? Yes (How many times) No Q14. How much have you gained from your training ? Gained a lot Average Wastage of time Q15. What is your leadership style? Autocratic Participative Parental Style Q16. According to you how others see you ? Co-operative Successful Reliable Honest
If given good opportunity will you switch over to another job ? Yes No Q18.Q17. Do you want an enriched job ? Yes No Q20. How invited you are towards opportunities ? High Medium Low Q19. How committed one you to your organisation ? High Medium Low 97 .
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